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CORPUS FONTI.UM

HISTORIAE BYZANTINAE

CONSILIO SOCIETATIS INTERNATIONALIS STT.IDIIS

BYZANTINIS PROVEHENDIS DESTINATAE EDITUM

VOLUMEN II A

SERIES BEROLINENSIS

H

..

G.

EDIDERI,JNT

BECK . A, KAMBYLIS . R. KEYDELL

AGATHIAS

THE HI STORIES

TRANSLA]ED §TITH AN INTRODUCTION AND SHORT EXPLANATORY NOTES BY

JOSEPH D. FRENDO

ÿYl, 8

r'r3r4

(

APUD §TAL]3,R DE GRTIYTER ET SOCIOS

BEROLINI ET NOVI EBORACI MCML)O§T

1975

§TALTER DE GRUYTER . BERLIN . NE§T YORK

ClP-Kurztitelaufnabne der Deatscbex Bibliotbek

fuathias

The histories / transl. with an inttod. and

short explanatory notes by JosephD.Flendo. (C.orpus fontium historiae Byzantinae; Vol.

2 A: Ser. Berolinensis)

Einheitssadrt.: Historiae (engl.).

ISBN 3-11-003357-7

@ Ec Co., vormals G. t. Gôsdren's&c.

1975 by I(altcr dc Gruyter

budrhandlung . Georg

Verlagshandlung ' J. Guttentag, Vetlags'

Rcimer Karl J. Trübncr . Veit Ec Comp., Bcrlin 30, Genthincr Stra8e 13'

Printcd in GermanY

Alle Redrte, insbesonderc das der ûbersetzung in fremde Spradren, vorbchalten. Ohnc ausdrü&lidre Gc' nehmigung des verlages ist cs audr nidrt gestattct, diescs Budr oder Tcilc deraus auf photomedranisdlem

lfcge (Photokopic, Mikrokopie' XcroLopie) zu venielfàltigen' Satz und Dru&: Valtcr Piepcr, Vürzburg

Einbmd: Lüderitz & Baucr, Berlin

ACKNO§üLEDGEMENTS

The present trânslation olves a very special debt to Professor Rudolf

Iftydell. In the first place, it could hardly have come into being in its present

form but for the prior existence of his critical'edition of the Greek texr on

yhicl my o'ü/n labours have been based. But more particularly I should lilce

to exptess my gratitude for the patience and kindness he has shown in rea-

*y §/ork through and suggesting many valuable improvements and cor-

dlng

ttctions, from whid: both it and I have benefited greatly. I should like also h take this opportunity of thanking Professor J. P. Fogarty of University

College, Cork for having kindly consented to read the proofs and for help

1lrd encouragement freely and generously given at all times. For such faults

aB remain f must, of course, take full responsibiliry. Cork, May, 1975

I.D.C.Frendo

5$6679

'*

{*;i;i;;

I

2

t3

4

5

CONTENTS

IX

3

9

32

68

101

1r5'

163

INTRODUCTION Most of the information we possess concerning the life of Agathias

derives from his own writings. The following is a bare outline of the main

facts which emerge from a consideration of the explicit and implicit auto- biographical data contained in these writings. I

Agathias was a native of Myrina in Asia Minor. His date of birth cannot

be determined exactly but may be placed somewhere around the year 532

A. D. His father, Memnonius, was a "rhetor" , a title whidr may imply, as

has been suggested,2 that he was a provincial lawyer in Myrina. His mother, Pericleia, died in Constantinople when he was only three years of age. It was probably in Constantinople too that Agathias'boyhood days were spenr.

He received an expensive education, studying rhetoric in Alexandria and law

in Constantinople. Once qualified he practised as a lawyer in the capital

where, from all accounts, he had to work hard in order to make a living. The

date of his death is as uncertain as that of his birth. trr musr have occutred

some time after the death of Chosroes in 579 (the last datable evenr menrio-

ned in the Histories) and before the accession of the Emperor Maurice in

582 in view of the apparent ignorance of this latrer evenr berayed by

Agathias when he refers to the future Emperor simply as "Maurice the son

of Paul" 3. On this red<oning, then, it will be seen thât he was 33 years

when Justinian died n 565 and that he lived through the reign of and a part of that of Tiberius I Constantine.

'

old

Justin II

Agathias' literary activity is marked in its first and youthful phase by the

production of " a number of short pieces in hexameters entitled u Daphniaca", adorned with certain amoroLrs motifs and replete with similary endranting topics". a The Daphniaca have.not come down to us. They were probably cornpleted before their author had reac}ed the age of thirty. s To an inter- me.liate period belongs his work of compiling a collection of epigrams by

êontemporary poets, generally known as the Cycle,6 to which Agathias him-

self contributed apptoximately one hundred poems. This anthology wâs

published early on in the reign of Justin II, probably in 567.7

I For a detailed and comprehensive reatment the readet must consult Averil Carneron

Agathias (Gxford 1970), pages 1-11.

  • 2 By N{rs. Cameron: op. cit. p.4.

  • 3 Histories IV,29,8.

  • 4 Ptef.ace,l.

s cf. lürs. Cameron: Op. cit. p. 9.

  • 6 Much of it has been preserved and is to be found in the Greek Anthology.

z d. Ivlrs. Cameron: ibid.

Introductlon

For the work of fiin mrrtttrlty, tfte Illrtorier, Agatlrlnr wnr cquippccl

t

llis life lrrrd, it

neither by noturrrt inclinntion nor by personnl exlrericncc,

seems, been an uneventful one nrrd the oppressive picttrre of routine dullncss

and unremitting toil conjured up by his portfaygl of the busy working lifc

of a lawyer in the capital e

m.-orrtl. occasions

is but slightly

relieved by the recollection of a few

the experience of mild eafth-tremors during his

student days in Alexandria, 10 a landing at Cos shortly after its destruction

-

by

a tidal wave and the awful scene of devastation that confronted him

there,11 a visit to Tralles. 12 Certainly his friend and fellorv poet Paul the

Silentiary

it seems

was a man of wealth and influence who moved in court circles, but

that the range of Agathias' acquaintance was confined to a narrow

coterie of poets and literati and there is nothing to suggest that he came into

direct coniact with any of the importânt political and military figures of his

day,

Moreover the lad< of ofiicial patronage of whi& he complains so bitterly

prôvides a further indication that he always remained something of an out-

iider.,, Agathias

after the

must have begun the writing of his Histories some time

accession of Justin II. He was still rÿriting in the reigrr of Tiberius

and it clear from IV,

22 ,9 and V ,25 ,

5 . that he did not live to finish them.

of seven years (4. D. 552-9)'

historian la and the stiffness

mar his style, ls the Histories ate a

The five books that he has left us cover a period

Despite their author's obvious failings

as a

and afiectation that not infrequently

detailed and important source and are not altogether devoid of literary merit.

Indeed the impassioned rhetoric of hiS.speedres and the by no means negli-

gible though sàmewhrt uneven quality of his narrative suggest that, had he

lived in " Jiff

..

historical

"nt

age, Agathias might have aclieved his tme fulfilment as a

novelist. In the way he handles a theme, for instance, of pfesents

a series of events he sometimes shows a sense of dramatic fitness and an

ezrgerness to impose

wàuld belong

histodcal

better

a pleasing pattern on the mind of the reader whidr to a work of romantic fiction than to a piece of sober

writing. The story of Chaeremon of Tralles is a case in point.16

s He himself

claims üat he turned to the

(Preface,

lL-|2)

writing of history partly in response to his

and confesses that he found the plo6pect

friends' encouragement

àa.-tirrg but

tàk

comfott in the

thought that history and poetry had mudr in

common.

e Histories III,

10

Histories

tl Histories

II,

I,4.

15, 5-8.

II , L6,4-6.

12

Histories

I1,L7,6.

lr cf. preface

LS-ZO. An unmistakeable note of personal bittemess is strud< in Histories

v 20,7.

1+ For â

recent and very full discussion of the subject cf. Mrs. Cameron: op. cit. pp.

30-58.

15

16

Cf. Ibid. pp.

57--{8.

1-8.

Histories II, 17,

Introduælon

XI

Inscrintional

eviclence would sppeer

*"rr,tr

on.t ro.irt

to indicote thnt charemon \r,as a mân

;il;;i.Ë;;irr.

comes

ttû

cert0in

disti'ction.t7 In Agathias' version he be'

rustic named chreremon, a tiller of the soil", an alteration

vhich ccrtninly produces Ê morc atffactive story' 18

The present iranslation has the advantage

io be based on the Greek text

the Àiri

;;; fu*

the further merit of being

the Histories ever to

g"rÀ h"u.

been

carefuliy

^pryat.

over all previogs ones of being

It

o[ Professor Keydell's edition' 1e

the first complete English translation of

Though earlier translations into other langua-

consulted, this.version was, in the first_instance,

;fur;;à1id"p"nd.ntly'of them and with reference solely to the Greek

original. -In

ffanslating an ancient author âccuracy is in the main adrieved by

means

attention to detail and diligent and dis-

.o*.io,r, and oËjective

."*-*

,pptication

of

;hi.hïË:rmpleted r

or*.r"

which

;ïti"f

;;;i;ti,""

irfiil

i;

;.

,

..

";t

that

"uy

steef a middle

is largely

"f

h""w

,iJ-,fr*

lation

the apparatus of sdrolarship' But the final form in

-

..

deriïg

is cast is determined by a more intangible

instinciive and idiosyncratic' I now propose to give

I have'tried to tad<le

the

more obvious obstacles to

9fi-er no apology'

I

have sought

..

to

and colloquialism

own styls I

_idiom

Agathias presents. For mv

ti^t i., -att"r,

course

between

of vocabulary and

the extremes of ardraism

I have not hesitated to allow myself whatever freedom in trans-

seemed necessafy in order to meet ihe fundamental requirements of

clarity and intelligibilitY.

§7ith

r" g"glfrh

regard

to

,.JuËÀio"

fr*fy

proper names,2l wherev-er there was an acceptable form

;iid, wâs nàt simply an unmodified transliteration of the Helleni-

of the word given by Agathias,

ii

such an alternative form has been

represented a closer approximation to the

,a.p,ed particulaîy if

some Non-cotonial coloni of Augustus (in-Transactions and

are cofrect,

,, "fjRs,Broughton:

ii*"iùæ

"f

lhe

Ametican Philological Association66,l9)5 Pp'20-22)'

18 Of course one cânnot be absolutely slue thât Broughton's identifications.

nor is there âny wây

ær-;;

,ir*çrr.rr

îrrr."Ë*t

àô,t""-il;dil

of knowing how garbled Agathias'original

of his .approadr.

to'pro.ria. a good"illustàtion

of

hi,

-rt

q""t" or

..

iri

Agâthias

to

ï/as, but-the treatmeEt

As regards-the gengral

it is interesting

to note thât, accotding to DI. R_'C. McCail' Birth-date of Agathias. G-reek, Roman and

À. ». 551 and the

uolà. no. ) 1967 pages 246-7), aesthetic considerations have led

take certain liberties with his chronology'

rs Alathiae Mvrinaei Historiarum Libri Quinque. Recensuit Rudolfus Keydell' Pub-

titrea bv \0alter De Gmyter

& Co. Berlin 1967'

  • 20 From this point onwrrd, i.f*ii"g

pii".ipally to

ti*rf"tlori of ù.

"r"-"i

all mention of earlier ffanslations must be understood as ihe Latin vetsion of Vulcanius and the 17th century Ftendr

C-ousin. Ignorance of Russian has prevented. me from making any

trà'nslation

(Moscow-LeningraÀ

19ÿ) and none of my re-

l,f.V.Levcenko's

marks must be

construed as having any reference to it'

  • 21 Othet than Greek, that is.

XII

Inçoductlon

original name or made possible some useful distinctionl

not "Uligangus", "Ahuramazda" fot the god and

,,wilgang"

thus

,,I{ormizd,, foi thi man

ancl

rather than "Hormisdates" used

indiscriminately for both, et cetera.22

A more complicated issue is raised by Agathias' frequent recourse to

cumbersome and unnatural paraphrases in order to

avoid using the normal

of hisltyre by the

everyday word and thus sullying the arclaizing purity

adoption of a barbarous neologism. 23 §(/herever iudr a circumlocution can

le-replaced by a single
I

have done so. Thus I

English word without loss of meaning or emphasis,

have had no qualms

about translatiirg "dome', in

v,9,30 rather than employing the absurd paraphrase "the ciicle or hemi-

sphere, or what have you, which projects in the middle". on the other

hand,

even though it is partly love of archaism which leads Agathias to call the

inhabitants of Lazica by their ancient name of "colchians", the word does

seem to have emotive overtones and so has generally been retained.

Despite the invaluable help afiorded b], professor

Graecitatis the would-be translator of Agathias does still

Keydell,s Index.

oicasionally run

into the odd unsolved linguistic difiiculty and will turn in vain ro earlier

translations for enlightenment. rn suc.h cases I have done my best, but I do

not claim to have always found the right answer. The

type of difiiculty I

have in mind is well illustrated by the following quotationi

"toürouç ôè ünovruç È.x,

rdtv flgoxonlor À6yrov ügroro

Koplqô6v, tfir, n6i,rv xoi

ôv ôr.oyvo[r1;,

r{v

[üptnooov

feÀtuepâ re rôv BqvôlÀov zol

1d:pu,

tô' "Aqgror, àrô Bovrqorlou re z,oi le(eql1ou zoi tflç êv tôp 16.rÊ

'rouorlvLsv6

ôou?,<rl8eToov

noi

nd,Àrv

&noorrïosur( noÀ}"oîç {lorepor, ypôvotç

diç_'Pcopolrrrv Ënrzgareloç péQoç

Vulcanius translates as follows:

^TeyevqpÉvqv" (: Preface, 24,2_5) vhich

"Haec omnia e Procopii scriptis optime cognoveris et Gelimer vandalum,

carthaginemque urbem atque universam Afrorum regionem Justiniano subiu-

gatum, rursumque Romani imperii partem factam, post multos annos quam,

Bonifacii Gesericique aetate, inde avulsa fuerat".

Now the words "inde avulsa fuerat" are nowhere to be found in the

original and have been produced with the same improbable

sleight-of-hand

with rvhich one might expecr a coniuror to produce a rabbit from a hat.

Everything falls into place, horvever, the moment one realizes that ônô and

tloregov go together ancl that 6orepor,

*

&16 means the same thing as the

Modern Greek tîoreos &n6 i. e. n aftef . Finallv, it is hard rvhen translating a work as long as the Histories, ne,er

to.be misled through momentrarv inattention into omitting, distorting or

simplv misunderstancling even s,hat is perfectlv obvious an.l straishifor-

22 on the other hand r have retained the well-know name *Mermeroes" in preference

to the mote cortect but less familiar form ."Mihr-Mihroe". 2r cf. Mrs. Cameron; op. cit. C. VIII "Classicisrn and Affectation" pages 77-BB.

Introductlon

XIII

ward, la I hnve enclenvourecl

involuntnry ulips on the port

ony new ones of my own.

at all timcs, therefore, to correct all sudr

of my predecessors and to avoid introducing

2a e,g. in connection with the phrase "ürèp axo?,onôç

trvoç"

(IV,23,3) we find the

words "scopulo' in the Latin and 'rocher" in the Frendr translation! Numbers seem especially liable to mistranslation, which is unfottunate in view of the notorius un-

reliability even of some of the actaal figures given by ancient authorities. I have made

a special e{ort, therefore, to get my figures right doing so.

and hope that I have succeeded in

#,

L62

Agatlrlll Thc l.lhtorler

5 The scattered rernnanr of these l:Iunnic tribes han in foct bccn rcducecl to

servitude in the lands of other peoples whose nnmes thcy have assumedl so

severe has been the penalty which they have paid for their earlier misdceeh.

But the complete annihilation of these two peoples occurred at a later

dore,

so that I shall do my best to preserve a sffict drronological order and prcvitle a detailed account of this evenr in its proper place.

6 §7hen the dissension between the cotrigurs and the utigurs wâs still

at its height the news of what had happened reached constantinople and thc

wisdom and foresight of the Emperor was clearly and

ampiy demonstratccl

to all. The barbarians ui"ere destroying one another whilst he withotrr

resorting to ârms was, thanks to his brilliant

diplomacy, the ultimate victor

and was bound to protit wharever rhe outcome of the fighting. And s«r

since they were continually embroiled in internal troubles they no longcl

had any idea of attacking the domain of the Romans, indeed they sank into

an almost total obscurity.

ÏNDEX OF PROPER NAMES

The following Index is based on Keydell's Index Nominum. Reference

*

is to the book, paragraph and section numbers of the Greek text though only approximate at times, is never more t-han a few words out.

and.

Abasgi: I1I,2,7.

Abydus: Y,12,4.

Adriatic:

II,l,5.

Aeetes:

1. Mythical king of

2. Prominent

Colchis III,5, 4.

III, 11;

Lazian III,8,7;

III,11,7; l\I,1.2.

Aegean: II,16.

Aemilia: (Emilia) ï,LL,3; I,1"4; I,75,

7; II,3,2.

Aeneas:'[., I0,2; II,27,7.

Aenus: V,22,

Aeolians: Preface L4; I1,L7,9.

Aûrica (Libya): Preface 14,25; Y,1),8;

v,14.

Agatrhias: Preface, 14.

Ahuramazda: II,24,9.

,

Ahriman: I,7, 5; II,24,9-lO.

Alamanni:

'6,6;

I,4;

I,7,9;

II,6,9;

I,6,2;1,6,3;

I,6,4; I,

l,Ll,2; IT-,1,7; II,6,7;

II,9,L2.

Alamannicus:

I,4,3.

Alans: III, 15, 9; IY,9.

Alexander:

L. Alexander T'he Great: II,25,8; IY,

)A 2, Als<ander the son of Mamaea =

Severus Alexander: II,26; LY,24.

3. Alexander of Tralles: V,6,5,

Alexander Polyhistor: II, 25,

5;

lI,

25, 9.

Alexandria:

Il,

15, 5i II,

16, 4; V, 1r, 8.

Aligem:

I,8,6;

20,9;1I,9,t3.

I, 9,2; I,9,4;

I,20; l,

Amalasuntha: Preface 30; I,5, 8.

Amida: Prcface23.

Anahita: II,24,8.

Anastasius: Pref.ace 23; IT, 27 ,7 .

*

i. e. as reproduced in the present translation.

TY,26,34; IV,

II,27; II,27,4;

II,29; Y,6.

TI,L8,3; IY,21;

  • 164 Inden o{ prcpet nêËêr

Aruth: I, 20,8.

Arzanene: IV,29,8,

Asia: Pteface L4; Prelace26;

LO,2; lI,L7;

25,4; Y,tl,2;

II,17,9;

Y,12,4.

I,2,2; Il,

II,18,5;

II,

Asinius Quadratus:

Assyrians:

lI,

24,

II,

I,6,3.

1"8,5; I1,23,9; TI'24,2;

8; II,25, 4; II, 25, 5.

Astyages: II,25,6,

Ate:

I,7,5.

Athanasius:

lll,14, 4;

III,t4, 5;

7,2; IY,tl.

II,

Athenians:

10,3; II, 10,5.

IV,

Athenocles: 1I,24,8.

Athyras:

Attica:

Augustus:

V,t4,5.

II, 10,2.

Tl,t7 ; Il,l7,).

Avars: 1,3,4.

Babas: III,18,10.

Babylon,

Babylonians: 1I,23,70; II,

24,8; 11,25,5.

Bacchus: V,23,8.

Balmach: III, 17, r.

Barazes: IV,13,34.

Basileios Stoa:

TI,29,2; III, 1,4.

Basi-liscus: IY,29,2.

Bederiana: Y,2L,2.

Beirut:

II, 15,2;

Bel: 1I,24,8.

II, 15, 4.

Beleus: II,25,Ç5.

Belesys: 1I,25,5.

Belisarius: Preface )0; Y,t5,7; Y,16,);

Y,16,7; V, 19; V, 19,2-1;Y,19,6-10;

Y,20,1-4; V,20,8,

Beroea: Prcface27.

Berossus: II,24,8.

Bessas: II, 18,8;

Bion: ïI,25,5.

II,20,5; III,2,)-7.

Bitgors: 1I,11,3.

Bladrernae: V, 14,8,

Boniface: Preface,24,

Bonus: I,19.

Bosporus: V, 14,8.

Bruttium: II, 1,4.

Budrlous: III,15,9.

Burgundians: I,3,3-5.

Burugundi: Y,17,34.

Butilinus: I,6,2;

Buzes: II,

I,7,8; T,Ll,2;

I,

1I,2,2; lï,

II,10,8.

L4,5; lI,t,4; Tl,L,7l;

4; II,5,2;

II,8,7; I1,9,11;

18,8; III,2,8;

III,3,8; III,

4,7i III,6,4*8i III' 7, l0; III, 20,8;

IV, T',2.

Cadusia: 11,27 ,2,

Caesarea: Ptef.ace 22.

Caesena: I,20,9.

Calabria: II,L,5.

Callipolis: Y,12,).

Cambyses:

l.Cambyses the father of CYrus: II,

25,6;LY,29,6'.

2. Cambyses

the son of CYrus: II,

26,4,

Campania:

Campsae:

II, 1,4;

II, b;

Il,

Cantabri-Cantabria:

II,4;

II,4,4.

14, 6.

II, 17, 3; II, 17,7.

Cappadocia:

Capua:

IV,24,).

1I,4,4;

II,10,8.

Carduchian

Hills: IY'29,7.

Carthage:

Pteface 24

..

Casulinus: II,4,4-5; II, 10,8.

Catharus: III,7,8.

Caucasus:

II,L8,4;

III, 15,9; IV, 1,

II,21, 10, III,8,5;

8; IY,6,2; IY,9.

Ceneta;

II,3,3.

Centumcellae: I, 11; I, 11,6.

Chadus: III,16.

Chaerernon: II,

17, 2; lI, 17,7-8,

Chaldaeans: TI,8,9; II,25,2.

Chanaranges: II,6,4.

Chettus: V,

Childebert:

Chlodomer: I,

16.

I,),2;

),2;

1,5;

l,),3;

I,3,2.

II, 14,8-11.

ï, ),5;1,3,6.

Chlodwig (Clovis):

Chlota.t: 1,3,2;

1,5; II, 14,8-11.

Chobus: III,3,9.

Chorianes: Preface29.

Chosroes: Preiace24,27;

II,27,9;

II,28:

II,

2;

)2;

1I, 32,

IY,6,2;

2;

II, 18,6; II,26;

lI,3L,4;

III'

II,29,9;

lI,

)2' 5;

lïï, L;

lY,2),3;

IY,29,5; IY,

29,9; lY, )0, 4;

lI,

Iÿ, 30,7.

Chytropolia:

20, 5 ; II,

2L, 2; ll, 22.

Ciberis: \1,12,2.

Cilicia: LY,24,3.

Classis: 1,20,5.

Conon: LY,29,2,

Constantinople:

4;

II,L4,7;

III,14,3;

2),5;

IV, 9,

Pteface, 26;

II,15;

I[,L5,2;

ïbid.30; l,

III,3;

III'

ll,16'4;

III,15,7;

IY,l,2i IY,1,8;

10; IY,2l,4;

IV, 30,

IV,5,7-8;

8; V, 3;

Iadrr d ptopÊr nünêr

t6,

V,6,6-7t

V, 10,2i V, 12, !; V, 14i V,

14,6i \,25,6,

Coet II,16,

Cotalsr

II, 19;

II, 22,3i IlI,6,)i llI,7i

III,28,6; IV, 15,4.

Cotrigurs: V,

V, 17;

11,2; V, 11,6; Y,72,7;

ÿ,25.

V,24,)i

Cronosr I1,24,8;

Ctesias of Cnidos: 1I,25,5.

Ctesiphon: I1{,29,L0.

Cumae: L,8,2; I,

Cutilzis: III, L7 ,5.

LL, 5; I,20; I,20,6-9.

Cyrus:

1, Cyrus the son of Cambyses: II,

25, 6;

II, 26, 4; IY,

29, 6.

2.Cytus the son of Florus and lather

of Paul the Silentiary: Y,9,7.

Dabragezas: III,6,9; III,7,2; III,

2L,6-8; IV, 18; IV, 18,3.

Damascius: II,30, 3.

Danube: Preface 26; I,79; \Y,22,7; Y,

11,5; Y,25,2.

Daphniaca: Prctace7.

Datius:

  • L. Darius

the son of Hystaspes: I,

II,26,4;

2,2; II,L0,2; II,24,6;

IV,29,6.

  • 2. Darius the father of Attâxerxes: II, )a d,

rt

t'

  • J. Darius the son of Arsames: II,

-

25,8,

Datis: II,70,2.

Demosttrenes:

'1. Athenian General: II, 10,5.

  • 2. Athenian Orator and Statesman:

II,29,2.

Dercetades:

Dlimnites:

II,25,4.

III,17,Ç7;

IïI,18;

III,

18,

5-11; III, 22,5;

III,26,24; III,28,

6-:7; IY, t3,8.

Diodorus Siculus: II, 18,5; 11,25,5.

Dogenes of Phoenicia: II,30,3.

Dionysiaca: IV,23,5,

Dioscorus of Tralles: Y,6,5.

Doconos: II,2L,LO.

Don: V,11,2.

Dorotheus: Y,21,2.

Edessa:

Pref.ace,27.

Egypt: II,t5,9;

II,15,11; II,25,L0;

IY,23,5,

Bgypthnl

Eloee,

II, lE,

li

V,10,r,

Gulf of: Preface, 14.

Elmlngclr: IlI,2l,6, Elminzur: IV, 15; IV, 15,2.

Enyo: I,7,5.

Ephtlralites: lY, 27, 4;

Epidamnus:

Eris:

I,'1,5.

I,77,).

lY,

28, 3.

Ethiopians: Prelace2T.

Eulamius of Phrygia: II,30,3.

Eutope: Prcface1,4;

Ibid.26; II, 10,2;

v,11,L

Eustratius: IIï, 1,5,7.

Eutydrianus:

Euxine:

Preface 1.1.

II,2A,7; III, 19,

9;

III,21,,2;

Y,L,2; Y,3,2; V, 11,3; V, 14,8.

Fanum: II,2,4; II,3.

Faventia: I, 15,8; I,17; I,L7,5.

Filimuth: I,7L,3.

Florentia (Elorence): I, 11; I, 11,6.

Florus: Y,9,7,

Franks:

Ç5;

I, lL,2;

I,17,4;

20,2;

II,l,6;

II,6,3;

9-12; 1I,10;

72,5-7; II,13;

I,1,,7; I,2; I,2,3;

ï,5; I,6,4; I,7;

I, 1,2,2; I,L4,

I,3;

I,3,

I,7,2; I,7,9; 4-4; I, L5, 6;

1,20; I,

I,22,2;

1T,5,8-9;

9,4 II,9,

II,

I,18,5; I,19,2;

I,20,9-ll; I,21,4;

II,3; II,5,3-6i

I1,6,5--7;

II,7; II,

II,10,8; II,11,4;

II, L4,8; II,14,1l.

Fritigern: Preface3L; I,20.

Fulcaris: I, 1L, 3; I,14, 3; ï,74,6; T,L5;

\15,5; I, 15, 10; I,t6,6.

Gaiseric: Ptef.ace, 24.

Ganges: II,25,4.

Gaul:

I,2.

Geümer: Ptef.ace,24.

Gepids: I,4,2.

Gerrnans: T,2; I,5,5; I,6,3,

Germanus:

1. Germanus the father of

Justin

(3):

II, 18,8; III,17,4; III,20,9; III,

24,7; I1I,25,8; IY,L51' IY,21.

2. Germanus the son of Dorotheus:

Y, 2L, 2; Y,

22, 3;

Getae: Preface, l.

Y,23, 3.

Gibrus: III,20, 10.

Golden Horn: V, 14,8.

Goths: Preface

I,3; I,),3;

J0; Ibid. 31; I,l;1, L, Ç7

T.,5; \5,2-4; I,6,4-6;

;

Indqx'd proper nrmcl

I,7,8; I,8; I,8, 4-6; I,9,5;

\10,4t,

l,

I, 10,9; I,15,7-9; I,20; I, 20,2-4i

10,9; I,75,7-9, I,20; I,2A,24;1.,

20,1.0;

II,2,2;

73; II, L3,2-4;

lï,

Il,9,13; II,12,2;

II, 14, 6-7;

V, 15, 8.

Y,Ll,l; V,»,6-7,

II,2O,5;

IV,2; IV,

Gteece: 11,L0,2;

Greek Language:

30,4,

Greek Literature:

II,28.

Greeks: I,7,4; II,10,4; II,23,10; II,

24,9.

Gubazes:

III,3;

II, 18,6;

IIl,2,3;

III,2,8-11;

III,3,8-9;

III.4; IIT,4,2:

10,8;

III,

III,L4,

IlI,4,5-6;

11,8;

III,9,3; III,

III,12,6;

III,L3,5;

2-3;

IY,1; IV, 1, 4; IY,2,3-5; TY,5,

7-9; lY,6,3; IY,8,3-4;

IV,8,6; IV,

9,5; IY,10,34; IV, 11; IV,21.

Guntarith: Preface,25.

Gylippus: II, 10,5.

rI, 18,5.

TI,30,3.

I,11,

IV,

TY,2L,5; IY,22.

Iberia: II,22,\

12,L3;

III,2,6;

\1I,6,2; IJI,

10; IV,9;

III,19,5; l[,28,

TY,12,2; IY,13,5;

IY,L5,4; LY,23,

2;[Y,30,6.

Iberians: TI,21.,7.

Iliger: TII,L7,5,

Illus:

Kavad: Preface23,24; IV,27,6-7; IY,

28; TY, 28, 3-8;

Kerman: [V,26,2.

lY , 29, 5; IV , 30, 5.

Kclrnanrhehl IV,26,

:

Ihdrx s, tËpÉ! ârm6r

167

Mrxentlur: IV, 13,2; IV, 14; IV, 14, !.

Mclrntlar: V, 14,5; V,20,r,

Medesr ïI,21,9-L0; 11,24,8i II,25,

I,77; ï,17,6;

5-9.

Memnonius: Pteface 14.

Mermeroes:

Pref.ace29;

II, 19; II, 19,5;

II,20; 11,20,3; Iï,,2L,4; II,22; II,

22, 6; II,

21, 9

;

III, 2; IIT, 2, 6i IY, L5.

Mesdritha: II,22,5.

Mestrianus:

III, L4, 5.

Metrodorus: V,6,4-5,

Miliades:

II, 10,3.

Misimians: III, 15,8; III, 16; IlI,L6,5;

III,Ll,3; IY,12,2; IV, IJ; IV, LJ,

5-6;

4-6;

IY,15,4-7; Iÿ,L6,4-5; IY,L7,

IY,t9,2; IY,20,6.

Mithridates: lI, 25, I0. Moesia: I, 19; V, L1,6.

Moors: Pref.ace 25; III, 20, 9.

Muchetuisis: II,

19; I1,22,3;

III,6, l;

III,6,9; III,7; III 15; IlI,L9,5;

III,28,6; II1,28,9; IY,9,7; IV,

L3,5.

Nad:oragan: IIl,2i

III,

17,

4;

III,

19; III,19,8;

IIl,22;

III,23,4;

24,7; TII,27,8;

III,6,2; III,15;

77, 6; III,18, 11; III,

III,20l' III,20,3-5;

I1I,24,24; IIï,

III,28;

III,28,6i

Ill,28, L0; IV, 12,2; TY,l2,7; IY,

23,2t [Y,30,6. Natsah: IY,25. Natses: Prüace3l; I, 1; I,

9,4; I,10; I,10,3;

4;

I,7,8;

l,

I,10,9; I,ll,6;

L,12; I,12,3; I,L2,9; I,L,13; I,L3,

'

4-5; T.,L4;

'L6,3;

I,75,2; I,L5,1.0; I, 16; I,

l,L7; L,L7,2; I,L7,2; T,L7,

34;

I,18,8; I, 19;

I,20,5; I,20,8; I,

1; I,22,8i

lI,7i

6-7; T,18; I, 18,

I,L9,4i 1,20,1;

2li I,2L,24; ï, 22; 1,,22,

II, 1; II, 4,2-3;

II,7,3-:7;

II,8;

II,6; I1,6,34i

II,9;

TI,9,2; \I,9,

II,

13; II,LL,3; II,L2,10; II, 11,4;

14; II,14,2-7.

Neocnos: TII,23,9; III,24; III,28,8,

Nepos:

LY,29,1.

Nesos: II,2l,7-10; Il,22t

Nicias: II, 10,r,

NiIe: IT,lr,5,

ll\

17,4; IT1,79; III,lg,7-lt

3-8;

IY,73,2; lY,ll,

llf IIII

IIl,r0,

,.

,']I

,,

I

j

:I

Ninus:

  • 168 ïnrlex rrf proper nanlei

1. Assyrirn

King,

perh. =

rod cf. Gen.10,11;

25,4; II,25,5.

l:iblicrrl Ninr-

II,l8,5; II,

2.Capital of Assyria = Nineveh: II,

23,L0.

Ninyas: II,24,2-3.

Nisibis: IY,25,6.

Nonnus: IY,23,5.

Odenathus: IY,24,4,

Odoacer (Odovacar): 1,5,7. Ognaris: IlI,27.

Ollaria:

II,20,5.

Olympius: Y,6,5.

Onoguri: 1II,5,6.

Onoguris:

II,22,3;

5,6-8; III,6,3;

III,3,

III,7;

8; III,4;

IY,9,6;

11.

Orestes: IY,29,3,

III,

IY,

Palladius: T,9,4.

Palmyra: [Y,24,4.

Panopolis: IV,23,5,

Papak: II,27; II,27,2-5.

Parma: I,L4,4; I,15,9; I,t7,2;I, 17,7;

I, t8,2.

Parthians: TI, 25, 9-L0,

Parysatis: II,24,4.

Paul:

1

..

Paul the Silentiary:

2. Paul the father

Y, g,7

.

of Maurice: IV,

29,9.

Pelasgians: II, L7

;

II,

L7, 5.

Peroz (Firuz) : Pref.ace23; IY,27,34;

IY,29,2.

Persia -

I,7,5;

21,7;

25,8i

28;

Persian(s):

1I,10,3;

I1,22,);

Preface 24, I,2,2;

I1,18;

II,23;

II, L9;

II,24,5;

II,27,5;

Il,

U,

II,

7, 5

;

TII,

2;

8,

III,

-9

II,26; II,26,24;

III,

5,

6; III,

7

;

III,12;

III,

L7, 7

lil,

III,9,L4;

17,

2; III,

2; III,

III,1.2,8;

;

; III, 27, 7

25, 5-7

;

III, 22,

III,

27, 3 ;

IV,

24, 24;

TII,28. III,28,5;

6,2;

IY,L5,24;

III,28,8-9;

IY,L2,2; IY,1.3,5-7; IY,15;

IY,2L,4;

IY,23; IY,30,

V, 10,5.

2; IY,30,5; IV,30,8;

Petra: Prcface29; III,2,6.

Phanitheus: I,11.,3.

Phatsantes;

IY,73,3.

Phattazes: III,

11, 2; III,14,2.

Phasis:

l. A rlvcr ln Luzierr:

II,

I8,4;

II, l9l

IV,

II,2l, 1.0; 11,22,2; III,21,3;

29,2; Y,1,4.

2. A town situated at the mouth

of

the

river Phasis: III, 19,8; III,22;

IIT,22,8,

Philagrius: lII, 1.5,7.

Philip:

II,25,8.

Philomathius: III,20, 9; III,22,3.

Phocaeans: I,2,2.

Phoenicia: II, 1,5,2; II,30, 3.

Picenum:

II,2,4.

Pisa: I, 11,6.

Pisaurum: II,2,5.

Plato: Preface 9; II,28,2; II,30,3; IY,

27,7; Y,4,4.

Pontus: