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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING MIND MAPPING

TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN WRITING


DESCRIPTIVE TEXT AT THE TENTH GRADE
STUDENTS OF SMA N PURWOREJOIN
THE ACCADEMIC YEAR OF 2013/2014



A THESIS

Submitted to the English Department of the Teacher Training and
Education Science Faculty of Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement toObtain SarjanaPendidikan Degree










By:
DEDY SETYO ANGGORO
10.212.0040



ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PURWOREJO
2014


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A.Background of the Study
Language is very important in our life and its function is for
communication. Brown (2001:34) stated that the theory of language in
communication language teaching is a system for the expression of
meaning primary function interaction and communication. By using
language, people can transmit knowledge, give opinions, get information,
and express their feelings. It is used to express anger, annoyance as well as
admiration and respect. But basically, the main function of language is
sending message or meaning by one person to another.
English is an international language which is the most commonly used
to communicate by the people among the different countries. It is needed
as a means to communicate whether in spoken and written. English has an
important role in the improvement of science, technology and literature.
Beside that many books, journals, and bulletins are written in English.
As the first foreign language in Indonesia, English becomes one of the
compulsory subjects in Elementary School, Senior High School, Senior
High School, and University. As compulsory subject, English becomes very
important subject in school. Indonesian students as a part of society
absolutely need English. As the result, the government always made effort
to improve the quality of English teaching. By improving the quality of
teachers and other components in educational process, hopefully English
teaching can be improved.
In English there are language skills which should be mastered by
students. The skills are reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Students
are hoped to be able to master all of English skills. According to the
researcher, the skill which is most difficult to be mastered is writing.
Urquhart and Mclver (2005:6) stated that writing is a complex process,
and most of the research literature recognizes the difficulty for students.
When people write, they make a special contribution to the way they
thought. Writing means giving a visualization of some ideas that we have to
be words and sentences.
Writing is a part of language skill. Writing is a skill that is exclusive
domain of scribes and scholar in educational or religious instituions
(Brown, 2004: 218). Nowadays, writing becomes the most difficult in
studying english,especially for senior high school students. For senior high
school level, for example, the teaching and learning english starts from
introduction the dialogue texts. It will continue to the descriptive, recount,
narrative, anecdotes and report texts.
Method is one important component in teaching learning process.
Therefore, the use of method is very much recommended, so that the
interaction happening between the teacher and students will increase
students interest to learn. One of the methods that can be used is Mind
Mapping. Mind Mapping uses diagram as the way to teach. It is often
created around a single word or picture, placed in the center, to which
associated ideas, words and concepts are added. Major categories radiate
from a central node, and lesser categories are sub-branches of larger
branches
Nowadays, the school curriculum for senior high school is curriculum
based on genres. According to Knap and Watkins (2005:22) Genre as a
textual category, is theorized as an abstraction or classification of
real-life, everyday texts. One of the genres that taught in the tenth grade
of senior high school is descriptive text. Descriptive text is a kind of text
that has social function to describe place, person or thing. Writing
descriptive text is important to the students in Senior High School. The
purpose is to give information about person, place, or thing.
By studying this case, the researcher wants to find an interesting
method to teach descriptive text as the way to improve students writing
ability. The researcher try to apply the method used to teach writing
especially descriptive text. Practicing new method like Mind Mapping for
teaching will make the students interested in learning English in the
classroom. The students will not be bored with the material given by the
teacher. By using Mind Mapping, students are expected to make easier in
improving their writing skill.
From the information above, the researcher is interested in writing a
thesis entitled The Effectiveness of Using Mind Mapping Method to
Teach Descriptive Text as the Way to Improve Students Writing Ability in
The First Grade of SMA N . PurworejoIn The Academic Year Of
2013/2014.
B.Identification of the Problem
As the one of those important skills, writing become the most difficult
skill experienced by senior high school student because it has close
relationship with English grammar and structure. According to Jordan et al
(2008:195) factors that influence students writing ability are as followed:
1.Create a supportive atmosphere for writing.
Teacher should create a supportive atmosphere for writing to make the
students happy and fun with the learning process. The supportive
atmosphere also make easier to the students in receiving the material. The
students will not feel ashamed to write because they feel comfortable to
express their idea in writing. They will not worry that their writing will laugh
by others.
2.Emphasize pre writing strategies like brainstorming, visualization, or
story-telling. The use of visualization or story as a brainstorming before
the teacher starting the lesson will increase students interest in writing. The
students will have good impression of the material since the first
visualization.
3.Emphasize the stages of writing, e.g. brainstorming, structuring ideas,
editing ideas. The teacher should help and guide students in expressing
their ideas, especially in the stages of writing. The stages are selecting the
idea, structuring the ideas, and editing the ideas. So, the students can
express their ideas in written form with the correct structure.
Based on the factors above, the researcher is interested inconducting
research using Mind Mapping as a method to teach descriptive text as the
way to improve students writing ability. Because the students sometimes
feel bored since the method and media that teacher used is boring. When
the teacher used usual method, the students will not be interested with
what the teacher teaches.
In this research the researcher wants to give an interesting way to
teach descriptive text use Mind Mapping. Using Mind Mapping for
learning will make the students easy to understand and will guide the
students to write descriptive text. Mind Mapping is usually taught and
used by college students, but it is an easy and interesting method. So
Mind Mapping will easily gain the interest from the student in senior high
school and also can motivate students and improve their writing ability.

C.Limitation of The Study
In this research, the researcher limits the study of the research on
teaching simple present tense by using mind mapping to the eighth
students of SMA N Purworejo in academic year 2013/2014. The use
of Mind Mapping is hoped to reduce the students difficulties in writing
descriptive text.
D.Statement of The Problem
The researcher problem is formulated in the following question:Is the
use of Mind Mapping effective in teaching simple present tense to
improve the students ability in writing descriptive text on the tenth grade
students of SMA N . Purworejo?
E.Objectives of The Study
Objectives of the study is the sentence that show that there is
something which is gotten after finishing the research
(Arikunto,2010:97). Based on the statement of the problem, the
researcher formulates the problemto find out whether there is
effectiveness or not of using Mind Mapping to improve the students
ability in writing descriptive text at the tenth grade students of SMA N
Purworejo.
F.Significance of The Study
The researcher hopes that this research gives useful contributions
for educational succes. This study will be significant for:
1.Teacher
Theoretically, this research is supposed to make contribution to the
foreign language teaching, especially English teaching program in Senior
High School. If the research runs well, it can be expected that it will be a
short accurate information. In practice, it will give additional information to
Senior High School English Teacher about a better method to teach
simple present tense, especially its application in writing descriptive text.

2.Students
This research is expected to be able to help the students in learning
grammar especially in simple present learning to develop their writing
ability. It is alsoexpected to give more motivation to learn English, to give
assumption that writing English is fun, and to reborn their self confidence
that they can write English correctly.
3.Other
The researcher will get more knowledge by doing this research. The
reseacher also gets new experience which will be useful for this time and
for the future.For those who want to observe teaching learning method will
probably need to read this thesis as one of their references. This thesis
discusses about specific method in teaching learning process that still
need to be developed in the future research.
G.Definition of key term
To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation on the topic
discussed, the researcher thinks it is better to state the definition on each
keyword in the title of this research; the researcher clarifies the main term
as follows:

1.Effectiveness
Effectiveness is a measure of the strength of one variables effect on
another or the relationshipbetween two or more variables. (Richard, 2010:
190)

2.Mind Mapping
A mind mapping is a diagram used to visually outline information. A mind
mapping is often created around a single word or text, placed in the
center, to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added. Major
categories radiate from a central node, and lesser categories are
sub-branches of larger branches. Categories can represent words, ideas,
tasks, or other items related to a central key word or idea.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map)
3.Improve
Improve is (v) become or make something greater in amount, number, value,
etc. (Hornby, 2003:688)
4.Ability
Ability is the quality of being able to do something, especially the physical,
mental, financial, or legal power to accomplish something
(http://yourDictionary.com).
5.Writing
Writing is viewed as the result of complex processes of planning,drafting,
reviewing and revising and some approaches to the teaching offirst and
second language writing teach students to use these processes. (Richard,
2010: 640)
6.Descriptive text
Descriptive text is a text which is say what a person or a thing is like. Its
purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
(Gerot and Wignell, 1995:208)
7.Senior High School
Senior High School is a school for young people between the ages of 14
and 18. (Hornby, 2000:1211)

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED THEORY

As a tool of observing this research, the researcher uses some
related theories as the references which are able to help him in analyzing
data. Prior the declare discussion, in this term, the researcher wants to
present some theories on teaching, learning, teaching learning process,
writing, anddescriptivr text.

A.Literature Review
1.Teaching and Learning Process
a.Teaching
Teaching is about transmission of knowledge from teacher to
students, or is it about creating in which, somehow, students learn for
themselves (Harmer, 2001: 56). It is similar to show somebody how to do
something so that they will able to do it themselves. Furthermore, teaching
is to give somebody information about particular subject or help
somebody learn something.
According to Brown (2000: 7), teaching is to guide and to give
facilities in learning process that enabling the learner to learn, and setting
theconditions for learning. He also describes that teaching means showing
or helping someone to leanr how to do something, guiding in the study of
something, providing the knowledge, and causing to know or to
understand. In Hornby (2000: 1332), teaching is to give lessons to
students in a school, university, etc.
From the definitions above, the researcher can conclude that
teaching is an activity of education to make a change of someone from
does not know to know something by giving knowledge.
b.Learning
According to Chamber and Gregory (2006: 44), that in education,
learning is understood:
1.To have particular objects ( people are setting out to learn something )
2.To imply certain levels or standards of achievement.
3.Generally, to be worthwhile / non-rival: involving the acquisition of
knowledge, understanding and skills that are seen as desirable and
important or usefull.
From the definition above, the researcher concludes that learning is
an effort of somebody to get more knowledge or something that has not
been mastered before.
c.Teaching-Learning Process
The teaching learning process cannot do if there are no teachers and
students. Brown (2000: 6) stated that teaching and learning process
happens because there is an interaction of an individual to the social
environment. It means that teaching and learning cannot work without
involvement of the both teaching and learning.
Nunan and Lamb (1996: 10) divide teaching-learning process into
three phases as follows:
1.Planning
There is consultation on what the students are going to learn and
how they are going to do. In this process, goals and objectives of the
course is set, monitored, and modified. This process is the design of what
the learner will get and do during the course.
2.Implementing
Learners develop the skills; in turn it is used and reflected inside or
outside the classroom. There is also modification and creation on learning
tasks and the data of science lerant.
3.Assessment and evaluation
How much the students reach after or whilst learning is needed to be
measured. By doing a test, we could get clear information on how the
teaching-learning progress. In the same way, the modification and
evaluation during and after course could be done.
2.General Concept of Writing
a. Definition of Writing
Writing is likely to be the most difficult in the school since the
students have to produce a text by using English. They have to write about
what they think in their mind and state it on a paper by using the correct
procedure. Writing is not the only activities combine words. Writing is a
process repeated, namely process of revising and rewriting.
Meyers (2005:2) states that writing is a way to produce language
you do naturally when you speak. Writing is an action- a process of
discovering and organizing your ideas, putting them on a paper, reshaping
and revising them.
Harmer (2004:86) states that writing is a process and that we write
is often heavily influenced by contains of genres, then these element have
to be present in learning activities. From definition above the researcher
can conclude that writing is a way to produce language that comes from
our thought. It is written on a paper or a computerscreen.

3.General Concept of Text
a.Definition of Text
The ability to use a language is manifested through the text
production. The text in this study refers to a boarder sense, not merely a
reading text as we usually use in studying a language. Words are put
together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created.
Halliday and Hasan (1994:293) state that a text is a semantic unit:
best thought of not as a grammatical unit of all a different kinds. A text we
have suggested is not just a string of sentences. In other word is not
simply a large grammatical unit, something of the same kinds as sentence
but differing from it in size a sort of super sentence.
A text may be spoken and written, prose or verse, dialogue or
monologue, single proverb to a whole play, a momentary cry for help to all
day discussion on commit. It is clear from the definition that a text does
not depend on form. It may be very short like a scream of help, warnings, or
signs. The form of the text may be very long such as a text of religious
sermon, a book, a whole play etc, reading text, as are usually use in
teaching English is also a text, but a text is not only a reading text. It may
be spoken or written. Every day we produce text as many as the
interaction that we make with other people.

b.Types of Text (Genre)
According to Richard and Schmidt (2002:549), genre is a type of
discourse that occurs in particular setting, that has distinctive and
recognizable patterns and norms organization and structure, and that has
particular and distinctive communicative function.
In short, the genre is a piece of writing which shares a common
purpose which tends to a common structure, on language purpose, and
might be to provide instructions for someone else to carry out the task.
Richard and Schmidt (2002:337) divide genre into four. They are:
1)Descriptive writing
It provides a verbal pictures or account of a person, place or thing.
2)Narrative writing
It reports an event or tells the story of something that happened
3)Expository writing
It provides information about an explains a particular subject patterns of
development within expository writing include giving example, describing a
process of doing or making something, analyzing causes, and effects,
comparing and/or contrasting, defining a term or concept, and dividing
something into parts or classifying it into categories
4)Argumentative writing
Attempts to support a controversial point or defend a position on which
there is a difference of opinion.
Gerot and Wignell (1995:193) differentiate the genres of text based
on the story genres into nine types. Below is a description of some
common text types or writing genres stated by Gerot and Wignel:
a.Spoof
Spoof is a kind of genre which has purpose to retells an event with
humorous twist.
b.Recount
Recount is a text which has a purpose to retell events for the purpose of
informing or entertaining.
c.Repot
Report is a kind of genre which has purpose to describe the way things are,
with reference to arrange or natural, man-made and social phenomena in
our environment.
d.Analytical Exposition
Analytical exposition is a text which has a purpose to persuade the reader
or listener that something is the case.
e.News Item
This is factual text that informs the readers about event of the day which
are considered newsworthy or important.
f.Anecdote
The function is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing
incident.



g.Narrative
Narrative is a text which has a purpose to amuse, entertain, and to deal with
actual or various experience in different ways.
h.Procedure
Procedure is a text which has social function to describe how something is
accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
i.Description
Description is a text which has social function to describe a particular
person, place, or thing.
The students ability to understand and write a particular genre
depends not only on the classroom instruction, but also on their
knowledge and previous experiences of the genre. Therefore, the
researcher concluded that genre is a kind of texts which includes specific
structures, features and communicative purpose.

c.Definition of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which is say what a person or a thing is like.
According to Gerot and Wignell (1995:208), descriptive text is the text
that has social function to describe and reveal a particular person, place,
or thing. In descriptive text, the relationship between the researcher and the
readers is like an authority person versus unknown readers or listener. The
text will be found easily around us. It will found in encyclopedias, scientific
magazines, and history texts.
Descriptive text often completed with pictures, diagrams, maps etc.
Descriptive text usually uses vocabularies that cover the word such as the
name of places including location, destination, function, and performance.
For the people, the vocabularies used are the word describing name, ages,
address, job, etc. Moreover, the language use is neutral or objective
language.
We always found descriptive text in our daily life. In various contexts
such text will be easily got. In fact we often communicate by using
descriptive text such as; when we watch something interesting then we are
amazed of it, so we want to tell other about it. Descriptive something
means that we make other people see, listen, feel, or smell something we
see, listens, feel, or smell. We will describe it in our story in the hope that
the listener can imagine what we talk about.
d.Writing Descriptive Text
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help researcher
develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood,
atmosphere describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures
of characters, places, objects etc.
According to Gerot and Wignell (1995:208) the generic structure
and significant lexicogrammatical feature of descriptive text as bellow:
a.The generic structure of descriptive text
1)Identification ; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
2)Description ;describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities,
characteristics.
b.Significant lexicogrammatical features descriptive text are as follow:
1)Focus on specific participants
2)Use of attributive and identifying process.
3)Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal group.
4)Use of the simple present tense.
B.Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a temporary answer of research, until it can be
proved by data collection. Hypothesis taken from hypothesa,which is
consist of two words, hypo mean under and these mean truth (Arikunto,
2006:71). So, the meaning of hypothesis is a temporary answer of
research problem that its truth must be verified empirically.
By using the hypothesis it will make the researcher easier to focus
the researchers work. Therefore, in this study, the researcher proposed two
hypotheses. There is as follow:
1.Ho: there is no effectiveness of using of Using Mind Mapping as aMethod
to Teach Descriptive Text as The Way to Improve Students Writing Ability
in The First Grade of SMA N .Purworejo.
2. Ha : there is effectiveness ofusing of Using Mind Mapping as aMethod
to Teach Descriptive Text as The Way to Improve Students Writing Ability
in The First Grade of SMA N .Purworejo.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS
This chapter will discuss about the research method. In conducting the
research, the research method is very important. By using appropriate
research methods, the subject matter being researched will be clear.
Besides, it also helps the researcher to solve the problem easier. In this
chapter the researcher would like to present the way how to carry out the
research.
A.Research Method
According to Arikunto (2006:160) method is the way in which a
researcher collects the data. To make systematic research, the researcher
must decide the type of the research method that it is suitable. There are
many kinds of method that usually used in research. Between one method
and others is different, so we must choose one of research method that is
suitable.
This research is classified as an Experimental research because the
researcher is doing Experimental or treatment to compare the result of
pre-test and post-test. Moreover, this Experimental research is done by
using quantitative technique in processing the data and getting the result.
Therefore, the research method that used in this research is Experimental
quantitative research.
B.Place and Time of Research
The researcher has set of the time and place for doing the research.
The research is conducted in SMA N 9 Purworejo at tenth grade in the
academic year 2011/2012. In additional, the time of research was on 16
up to 23 May 2012.
In doing the research, the researcher has 4 meetings. The first meeting
used to conduct pre-test, for the second and third meeting are used to
give the treatment. And the last meeting used to conduct post-test.
C.Research Design
The design which is used in this research is control group pre-test and
post-test design. For many true Experimental designs, pretest-posttest
designs are the preferred method to compare participant groups and
measure the degree of change occurring as a result of treatments or
interventions.
(http://www.experimental-resources.com/pretest-posttest-designs.html).
Pretest-posttest design checks the groups before and after the
manipulations begin. By using that statement, this research used two
groups which involve a group of students who belong to Experimental
group and students who belong to the control group. The difference
between the Experimental group and control group is in the treatment. The
Experimental group is given treatment by using Mind Mapping, than the
control one is not given the treatment.
Table 3
Control group pre-test and post-test design
Experimental
group
Control group

X -


Where:
=pretest
X=treatment
=posttest
D.Population, Sample, and Sampling Technique
1.Population
Population is totally of research subject (Arikunto, 2006:130).
According to Sugiono (2010:117) population is the generalization areas
that consist of object or subject that has quality and certain characteristic
that carried out by researcher to learn and to draw conclusion.
Based on the theories above, the researcher conclude that population
is a group of person or individual having quality and characteristics in
common from which a researcher may get the data needed. In this
research, the population is the first grade students of SMA N Purworejo.
2.Sample
According to Arikunto (2006:131) sample is a part or representative
population of the research. Sugiono (2010:62) stated that sample is a
part of the total and characteristic which is has by the population. The
samples which are taken must be representative.
3.Sampling Technique
According to Arikunto (2006:133) sampling is the way of drawing a
sample in the research. Sampling technique is the technique in taking
samples in population.
Arikunto (2006:133) stated that purposive sampling is the one of
the sampling by drawing out the sample based on certain purpose. The
researcher uses this technique because of some factors, i.e. the limitation
of time, budget, etc.
The researcher uses purposive sampling technique in taking the
sample, because the time allocation is limited and the researcher must
choose the classes that are balance in English subject.


E.Research Variable
According to Arikunto (2006:118), variable are the subject of a
research, or the things that become points of attention of a research.
While, Sugiono (2006:60) stated that variable is everything which is in
every form which is settled by the researcher to be learnt as the purpose
to get the information about these, and then get the conclusion.In this
research, the researcher uses two variables, they are:
1.Independent Variable
The independent variable is the major variable which the researcher hopes
to use to investigate. According to Sugiyono (2010:61) independent
variable is variable that influence dependent variable. It is usually
symbolized by X. In this research, independent variable is the use of mind
Mapping.
2.Dependent Variable
The dependent variable is the variable which the researcher observes and
measures to determine the effect of the independent variable. Sugiyono
(2010:61) stated that dependent variable is the variable that influenced
because of any independent variable. It is symbolized by Y. Dependent
Variable in this research is the students ability in writing descriptive text.


F.Data Collecting Technique
Before the researcher gives a treatment to the control group and the
experimental group, firstly, the researcher gives a pre-test for both classes.
The pre-test used to measure the basic ability of writing mastering before
the researcher gives the treatment. The post-test used to measure the
basic ability of writing after the researcher gives the treatment. The
question of pre-test is same for two classes.
The treatment is teaching writing descriptive text using Mind Mapping
as a method. The control group is class X2 which was not given treatment.
The Experimental group is class X1 which was given the material through
Mind Mapping as a method. The writing material is descriptive text.
After giving the treatment through Mind Mapping to Experimental
group, at the last meeting, the researcher gave the post-test for both
groups. It is done to know the students ability in writing descriptive text
after they get the treatment. The result of pre-test and post-test from the
both are compared and averaged. In taking the score of the students, the
researcher took the mean from the total score.
G.Research Instrument
An instrument is a way to get the data. Research instrument is used to
collect the data and it has important role in a research. According to
Arikunto (2006:151) research instrument is a tool on the research that
using a method. While Sugiyono (2006:147) stated that research
instrument is a tool which is used to measure the natural phenomenon and
social phenomenon that is observed. The instrument used to collect the
data in this research is test.
According to Brown (2003:3), test is method of measuring person
ability of knowledge or performance in a given domain. Test can be useful
devices, but they are only one among many procedure and tasks that
teacher ultimately use to asses students. In conducting this research, the
researcher applies the following steps:
1.Pre-Test
According to Richards (1990:228), pre-test is the try out phrase of a
newly written but not fully development test. Tests under development may
be revised on the basic of the item analysis obtained from the result of the
pre-test. Pre-test can be called a test before learning has occurred.
2.Post-Test
According to Richards (1990:225), post-test is a test given after
learning has occurred or is supposed to have occurred. In teaching,
comparison of pre-test and post-test result measure the amount of a
progress a learner has made.
In this research the researcher uses essay test. There is one question
in each test. The material of the test is to write a descriptive text. The
question of test for both class are same, class X1 as experimental group
and class X3 as a control group. The test is intended to know how
effective is the use of Mind Mapping to improve the students ability in
writing descriptive text.
To determine whether the test was valid or not, it can be reached in
two ways, namely:
1)Logical validity is divided into two types, there are content validity and
construct validity. Content validity is validity according to the logic, that a
good test must have a good test material; test items ask all the problems
that exist in the curriculum with a proportional amount. If the conditions
are met, then the test can be aligned with the curriculum. Test which has a
content validity, it means that the test has a charge of material in
accordance with the specific purpose of the applicable curriculum.
2)Construct validity is the validity of the test that is based on the charge
material in accordance with the thinking of the kind described in the
Taxonomy Bloom. The test items of the test are supposed to build up the
balance of the amount corresponding to the level of thinking, namely
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
At the Senior High School level, the emphasis is on the first three levels.
In this thesis the researcher used content and construct validity to
make the essay writing test. The researcher also consulted the test with the
consultant and English teacher of SMA N 9 Purworejo.
H.Data Analyzing Technique
Statistic has a very important role in research in collecting, organizing, presenting, and analyzing data
in number. To analyze the data, the researcher applies an appropriate technique to find out whether there
is effectiveness or not of using Mind mapping to improve the students ability in writing descriptive text at
thetenthgradestudentsofSMANPurworejo.Therearetwokindsoftechniquesofdataanalysis:
1.Descriptive analysis
The descriptive analysis is used to describe the variable of this
research that is the students writing ability that is taught by using Mind
mapping as a method to teach writing descriptive text. In this analysis, the
researcher presents the result of the test. The statistics uses are mean
analysis and standard deviation to compute the students writing ability in
both groups. Additionally, the Mean, Mode, Median, SD, the highest and
lowest scores are also used to analyze the data.
The formula is:
a.Mean
Mean is the average of set scores, obtained by adding the scores
together and dividing by the total number of students (Nunan, 2007:231)
The formula is:







Where:
= the mean score
= the sum of the score
N = the total number of the students
b.SD
Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a set of scores from
the mean of the scores. it is calculated by obtaining the square root of the
variance of a set of scores (Nunan, 2007:232)
The formula is:


Where:
SD = the square of the deviation standard
= the square of each score subtracted by mean score
n = the total number of the students

c.Median
Median is one of explanation techniques based on the middle value of the
data which have been organized from the lowest to the higher or from the
highest to the lowest.

2.Inferential Analysis
In this analysis, the researcher uses test of hypothesis. This analysis is
done to find out whether there is the effectiveness of using Mind mapping
to improve the students ability in writing descriptive text at the tenth
grade students of SMA N 9 Purworejo.
a.Test of Normality
This test is intended to determine the distribution
of the maximum and minimum values as well as the variability of research
data. Tests carried out by using the test for normality distribution with the
chi square technique (x). This study used for normality distribution of initial
abilities and accomplishments to learn English the subject of descriptive
text. As for the formula to test the normality of the data with Chi square
(Sugiono, 2008:241) is


Where:
=thechisquarevalue
=theobservedfrequency
=theexpectedfrequency
With this technique, the criteria for normal data if the subsidized price of calculate is less than
thepriceof tables.Testingcriteriaareasfollows:
If probability > 0.05 the normal population variant. If the probability value < 0.05 then the variant
populationisnotnormal.
b.Test of Homogeneity
This test aims to determine whether the research is uniformly drawn
from the same population, given the research data drawn from separate
groups from one population.
1) Find the variance of experimental group ( ) and the variance of control
group ( )






Where:
= Variance of experimental group
= Variance of control group

2) Find the homogeneity


Where:
F = coefficient of homogeneity
S max = the biggest variance
S min = the smallest variance

If the price Fvalue>Ftable, it stated that the variance of the two groups
are homogeneous.
c.Test of hypothesis
This test is used to
know whether there is effectiveness of using Mind mapping to improve the
students ability in writing descriptive text at the tenth grade of SMA N 9
Purworejo in the academic year of 2011/2012. To decide whether the
hypothesis is accepted or rejected, the t-test formula is used to
comparative two samples. The t-test formula according to Sugiono
(2010:273) is:






Note:
t = t-value
= the mean of experimental group
= the mean of control group
= variance of experimental group
= variance of control group
= number of sample of experimental group
= number of sample of experimental group

In this inferential analysis, hypothesis testing is done. In this testing,
the hypothesis will be analyzed through t-test. The t-test is to see the
score difference between the two variables: the students writing ability of
the experimental group and the control group. After getting the result
of t-value, then the t-value is consulted to the t-table to be interpreted.



TEACHINGVOCABULARYWITHTHETHEMEFRUITSTROUGHWORDSEARCH
PUZZLETOTHESEVENTHGRADESTUDENTSOFTHESTATEJUNIORHIGHSCHOOL
16OFPALEMBANG

AResearchProposalDesignby:

Name:ADEIRAWAN
SRN:2010.111.286
Class:5.G
Subject:ResearchOnLanguageTeaching
Lecturer:Dr.Suhuri,M.Pd

StudentRegistrationNumber2010111299
EnglishEducationStudyProgram
LanguageandArtsEducationDepartment







FACULTYOFTEACHERSTRAININGANDEDUCATION
UNIVERSITYOFPGRIPALEMBANG
2012/2013

TEACHINGVOCABULARYWITHTHETHEMEFRUITSTROUGHWORDSEARCH
PUZZLETOTHESEVENTHGRADESTUDENTSOFTHESTATEJUNIORHIGHSCHOOL
16OFPALEMBANG


1.Background
A language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using
sounds, symbols and words in expressing a meaning, idea or thought. This language can be
used in many forms, primarily through oral and written communications as well as using
expressionsthroughbodylanguage.
Languagemay refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using
complex systems ofcommunication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex
communication.
According to Brown, H. Douglas (2007:384), language is a systematic means of
communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or
markshavingunderstoodmeanings.
Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously,
without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying
logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to
processinformationorbehaveintelligently.(ThelanguageInstinct,1994:6)
On the other hand, according to Ron Scollon (2004, p.272), wish to emphasize that, first
of all, language isnotsomething that comes in nicely packaged units and that it certainlyisa
multiple,complex,andkaleidoscopicphenomenon.
Teaching English to the students can said tricky. Many people argue that describe the
subject matter is very difficult because English is a foreign language inevitably be carried out
underthedemandsofthecurriculuminforceinourcountry.
Many students feel confused when they want to speak English with smart fast way. But
they were confused where to start. Does first have to master grammar, conversation,
vocabulary,readingorwriting?
Vocabulary is one of the language aspects. The students cannot read, speak, listen, and
write without understanding the meaning of words.But, by teaching vocabulary first, the students
easily able to read, understand and memorize vocabulary more quickly because this is a very
effectiveway.
In addition, a better way and easier to teach English, especially vocabulary to students is
by using games, such as word search puzzle game. Because this game could be an alternative
or variation in the methods of English teaching for teachers. With this method, students will not
feel bored in learning English. But they will become critical and active children in learning
English.
Word search puzzle can be designed for any educational levels, which make them an
ideallearningactivityforthestudents.
Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle is not only in written activities and fun
so that it would make the students passive learners but also process of the teaching these
vocabulary at to be applied in active activities in a for of communication the students will be
taughthowmemorizeforaspellingtesttodoawordsearch.
Based on the above statements, the writer takes the title of this study as follow teaching
vocabulary with the theme fruits through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of
theStateJuniorHighSchool16ofPalembang.

2.Problem
The problem of this study is to find out whether the word search puzzle is affective or not
for teaching vocabulary to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of
Palembang.

2.1LimitationoftheProblem
This study is limited towards teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle to the
seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 16 of Palembang. The vocabulary tough
inthethemefruitsislistedbelow:
1. Banana6.Guava11.Pineapple
2. Apple7.Kiwi12.Jackfruit
3. Orange8.Melon13.Mango
4. Peach9.Date14.Grape
5. Cherry10.Olive15.Pear

2.2FormulationoftheProblem
The formulation of the problem in this study is started in the following question, Is it
effective teaching vocabulary with the theme fruits through word search puzzle to the seventh
gradestudentsoftheStateJuniorHighSchool16ofPalembang?

3.ObjectiveoftheResearch
The objective of this study is to find out whether it is significantly effective teaching
vocabulary with the theme fruits through word search puzzle to the seventh grade students of
theStateJuniorHighSchool16ofPalembang.

4.SignificancesoftheResearch
By using this study, there are some significance to the students, teachers, other
researchers,andwriterherself.
Forstudents
This study will be helpful for students in vocabulary and the students apply word search
puzzletoincreasetheirvocabularyskills.
ForteachersofEnglish
After knowing effectiveness in teaching vocabulary of the word search, the teacher can
implementthismethodwhentheyteachingvocabulary.
Forotherresearchers
To be the source of information for other researchers who are also investigating word
searchpuzzle.
Forthewriterherself
The result of this study can be useful to enlarge her knowledge about teaching
vocabularythroughwordsearchpuzzle.

5.Hypotheses
The hypothesisisatentativeanswerto theproblem of research,untilprovenbythe data
collected.(Arikunto,2006:71)
The hypothesisis atemporaryanswerto theproblem oftheoreticalresearchthatis
consideredmostlikelyorhighestlevel oftruth.Technically,the hypothesisisa statementabout
thestate ofthe populationto betested fortruththroughdataobtainedfromthe
researchsample.Statistically,the hypothesisis a declaration ofstate ofthe parametersthatwill
betestedthroughastatisticalsample.(Margono,S,2009:67).
The hypotheses of the study are proposed in terms of null hypotheses (Ho) and
alternativehypotheses(Ha).Theyarefollows:
1.(Ho):Itisnoteffectiveinteachingvocabularywiththethemefruits
throughwordsearchpuzzletotheseventhgradestudentsoftheState
JuniorHighSchool16ofPalembang.
2.(Ha):Itiseffectiveinteachingvocabularywiththethemefruitsthrough
wordsearchpuzzletotheseventhgradestudentsoftheStateJunior
HighSchool16ofPalembang.

6.TheCriteriaforTestingtheHypotheses
In this research, the hypotheses will be tested by the critical value oft distribution table
for one tailed test. Since the degree of freedom (df) is 39 (401=39) with 95% or 0, 05
significance level for onetailed test, the criteria value in thettable is 1.684. If the result of the
matchedttest is the same or less than 1.684, the null hypotheses (Ho) will be accepted. On the
other hand, if the result of matchedttest is equal to or exceeds 1.684, the alternative
hypotheses (Ha) will be accepted and consequently the null hypotheses (Ho) will be rejected
(HatchandFarhady,1982:272).

7.LiteratureReview
Inliteraturereview,thewriterdiscusses:
(1)Conceptofteaching
(2)Conceptofvocabulary
(3)Conceptofwordsearchpuzzle
(4)Teachingvocabularythroughwordsearchpuzzle
(5)Relatedpreviousstudy.

7.1ConceptofTeaching
According to Newton (1992: ii), teaching is a profession conducted by using a
combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the teachers creative
provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is a
science since it is a system and ordered set ideas and method used by the teacher in doing
his/her job. Further more teaching is skill for it demands the abilityattained from relevant theories
andthattheyareabletogainlinguisticandcommunicativecompetenceinthetargetlanguage.
According to Finocchiaro, 1982:5), teaching is trying to keep the students motivation high
by using a variety of short activitiesfour to six different activitieswithin a 45minute period
cantering around the same teaching point, whether a grammatical feature, a notion, or a function
of language, through the cognitivecode theory, that is, the inductive presentation of a linguistic
item or category, with tasks and activities that will lead to habit formation of features of
pronunciation, morphology, and syntax, which will in turn, lead to fluency and accuracy by
focusing more specifically on social communication as the major of objective of language
teaching.
Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and students and among
students themselves. The students need to comprehend the new language, but can best do this
when allowed asking about what it is they do not understand rather than rely on their teacher or
textbooktoanticipateareasofcomprehensiondifficultyandsimplifyapriority(Pica,1992:4)
Teaching is accompanied by evaluation to know the results of teachinglearning activities
because evaluation is a necessary component of all activities, especially in TEFL, whose main
objective is to monitor, to help, and to grade the students use of the language. (Oller, Jr, 1987:
21)
Teaching is showing or helping someone to learn, giving instructions guiding providing
withknowledgecausingtoknoworunderstand.(Brown,H.Douglas,2007:391)

7.2ConceptofVocabulary
Vocabulary is a set ofLEXEMES, including single words,COMPOUND
WORDSandIDIOMS(Richard,Jack:JohnPlattandHeidiWeber,1985:307).
According to Hornby (1974:959), vocabulary is a total number of words which (with rules
forcombiningthem)makeupthelanguage.
According to lexical field theory, the vocabulary of a language is essentially a dynamic
and wellintegrated system of lexemes structured by relationships of meaning. (Howard
Jackson,2000:14)
Websters (1988:110 p.9) states that vocabulary is a list of words, usually arranges
alphabeticallyanddefined,explained,ortranslated.
In learning vocabulary, the learners should emphasize on the aspect of words. The
successinlearningaforeignlanguageisdeterminedbythesizeofvocabularyonehaslearned.

7.2.1TheImportantofVocabulary
Vocabulary is very important in language, a large number of vocabularies are so difficult
to learn, and because of that, the teacher should use good method in teaching vocabulary. Since
the teaching of English in Indonesia is aimed increasing that teaching vocabulary? The English
teacher much takes deep concern of vocabulary lesson. However, vocabulary teaching has not
always been very responsive to such problems, and the teachers have not fully recognised the
tremendouscommunicativeadvantageindevelopinganextensivevocabulary.
According to Websters (1988:9), in learning language, someone will learn the words of
that language since we have learned that it is the essential area of language. From the
statementsabove,weassumedthatvocabularyisaveryimportantelementofalanguage.
Although there are many techniques of teaching vocabulary. Nation (1974: 10, p.9) says,
when we teach a word we must teach three things: (1) we must teach the shape or the form of
the word, (2) we must teach the meaning of the word, (3) and we must teach that the form and
themeaningofthewordtogether.

7.3ConceptofWordSearchPuzzle
According to Hornby (1995: 947), puzzle is a thing that is difficult to understand or answer
a mystery or a question or toy that is designed to test a persons knowledge, skill, intelligence,
etc.
A word search puzzle is a word game that is letters of a word in a grid that usually has a
rectangular or square shape. The objective of this puzzle is to find and mark all the words hidden
inside the box. The words may be horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Often a list of the hidden
words is provided, but more challenging puzzles may let the player figure them out. Many word
search games have a theme to which all the hidden words are related. The puzzle it self kind to
play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phases in learning process
inordertodevelopcommunicationskill.
7.4.TeachingVocabularythroughWordSearchGames
To success in teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, the teacher should have
differenttechniquefordifferentlevel.
Teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle enables the students to find out to
information or guests the meaning on unfamiliar words. So, the word search puzzle can help the
students. The students may be happy and interesting in learning and they always try to know the
newwordsfromwordsearchpuzzle.
Relating to the importance of teaching vocabulary through word search puzzle, as far as
it is know some students are always confused with the problem of through puzzle. In this case,
there are many ways to making the students interested in what they are learning the teacher can
create a game, which the student can think about new words that related with the topic of word
search puzzle. Teaching vocabulary by using word search puzzle make students more relax,
enjoyable, happy and the students understanding the material. And also can improve their
achievement.
Children without an extensive vocabulary have a hard time understanding what theyre
reading, especially as they get older and reading material becomes more difficult. To complicate
matters, most young readers, including different learners, have a larger spoken vocabulary than
areadingvocabulary.(Goodman,Lori.Wordplay,2003:13)
7.5RelatedPreviousStudy
In this study there is one related studies, which is similar to this present study, she is
written by Supriyani (2001). The title of her thesis is: TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY
USING PUZZLE TO THE SEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH
SCHOOLYAYASANPEMBINAPALEMBANG.Thepurposesofherthesisare:
(1) To find out the whether or not there are differences in vocabulary using puzzle and the
studentswhoarenottaughtwithoutpuzzle.
(2)Toknowhowthestudentsabilityinvocabularymasteryaftertheyaretaughtusingpuzzle.
From the study above, the writer compares her research with those of Supriyani. There
are similarities and differences between her and the writer. The similarities between the previous
study and this study: (1) the instrument used by the previous study was the puzzles, (2) the
puzzle was used by the previous study for teaching vocabulary. This studies the experimental
method for teaching vocabulary. And the differences are the location of the research and the
samples of the research. The result of Supriyanis thesis is teaching vocabulary through puzzle
waseffectivetotheseventhyearstudentsofSMPYayasanPembinaPalembang.

8.ResearchProcedure
In method and procedure focuses on the discussion of (1) Research Variables, (2)
Operational Definitions, (3) Method of Research, (4) Population and Sample, (5) Techniques for
collectingtheData,(6)TechniquesforAnalyzingData.
8.1ResearchVariables
There are two kinds of research variables. They are independent variable and dependent
variable. Independent variable is presumed to have an effect on, to influence some how another
variable, while dependent variable is a variable that the independent variable is presumed to
affect(FraenkelandWallen,1990:39)
Variable is any trait that can change values from case to case. Examples of variables
would be gender, age, income, or political party affiliation. In any specific theory, some variables
will be identified as causes and others will be identified as effects or result. In the language of
science, the causes are calledindependent variablesand the effects or result variables are
calleddependentvariables.(Healey,JosephF.1999:3)
In my research variable, the independent variable on this investigation is the word search
puzzleanddependentvariableisteachingvocabulary.


8.2OperationalDefinitions
In this part, some important terms must be operationally defined to avoid
misinterpretation and misunderstanding on what this thesis is discussing about. They are: (1)
Teaching,(2)Vocabulary,(3)WordSearchPuzzle.
(1)Teaching
Teaching is activities guiding the students learning activities, arranging, and organizing
environment around. The students can stimulate and develop the students to learn the turn of the
teachingisaproveperformedbytheteachertoincreasestudentslearningactivities.
Teachingisanactivityin whichteachersconveyknowledgeand experiencetotheir
students.Thegoalisforthe knowledgepresented tostudentsthatcanbe
understoodbylearners.
Teachingisanorganizedactivityormanagethe environmentas
wellgoodandconnectswiththekids,andbecomeinvolvedinthelearningprocess.

(2)Vocabulary
Vocabulary is a total number of words that make up language and alist or collection of
words arranged in alphabetical order and explained a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole
language,asingleworkorauthor,abranchofscience,orthelikeawordbook.
A vocabulary is defined as all the words known and used by a particular person.
However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a
personisexposedto.
(3)WordSearchPuzzle
Wordsearchpuzzlesareagamein thesearch forthe
words,eithervertically,horizontally,anddiagonally.This
gamecanhelpstudentsincreasetheirvocabularyandmakethemhappyindoingsearchpuzzle
gameofwords.
8.3MethodofResearch
According to Hornby (1995:780), method is the way of doing something. In writing this
study, the writer will use the experimental design. Richards, et.al (1985:100) states that an
experimental method is an approach to educational research in which the idea of hypothesis is
tested or verified by setting up situation in which relationship between different subjects or
variablescanbedetermined.
The method used in conducting this research is experimental method. Dealing the
experimental method, Isaac and Michael (1982:54) states that is it use to approximate the
conditions of the true experiment in a setting, which does not allow the control and/ or
manipulationofallrelevantvariables.Thefollowingarethesteptakenindoingthisresearch.
1.Surveyingtheliteraturerelatingtoproblem
2. Determining the type of research to be conducted, and how it will be affect the design of the
researchinvestigation.
3. Establishing clearly the goals and objectives of the made, and the how these translate into
testableresearchhypotheses.
4. Identifying the population from which inferences are made, and the limitations of the sample
drawn,forpurposesoftheinvestigation.
8.4PopulationandSample
8.4.1.Population
Populationisall
datathatconcernsusinascopeandtimethatwespecify.Thus,populationrelateddata,
nothuman.Ifeveryhuman beingto provideadata,thenumberorsize of thepopulationwill
beequaltothenumberofhumans.(Margono,S.2009:118).

Understandingothers,mentionsthat thewholeobject ofthe
studypopulationwascomposedofhumans,objects,animals,plants,symptoms,test
scores,oreventsas asource ofdatathathavecertain
characteristicsinastudy.(HadariNawawi,1983:141)
The population of this research in the seventh grade student of State Junior High School
16 of Palembang in the academy year at 2009/2010. There were five classes VII A until VII E
consistedof4students,sothetotalofthanwas200students.
Table seventh grade students at State Junior High School 16 of Palembang are 200
studentsasshownintable1below:
Table1
Thepopulationofthestudy
No Class Students
1 VIIA 40
2 VIIB 40
3 VIIC 40
4 VIID 40
5 VIIE 40
Total 200
(Source:StateJuniorHighSchool16ofPalembang)
8.4.2.Sample
Sampleisanygroupofindividual,whichselectedtopresentapopulation.(Richards,et
al,1992:321)
Arikunto (1993:104) states that the sample is any number of things, people or events
which are less than the total population. In this research, the sample of the study is dawn from
thepopulationbyusingclusterrandomandsampling.
AccordingtoFraenkelandWallen(1990),sampleisagroupinaresearchstudyon
whichinformationisobtained.Itisselectedinsuchawaythatitrepresents,thelargergroup
(population)fromwhichitisobtained.Inchoosingthesampleforthestudy,thewriterwilluse
clusterrandomsamplingmethod.FraenkelandWallenstatethatclusterrandomsamplingisthe
selectionofindividualsratherthatsingleindividual.Allindividualsinaclusterareincludedinthe
sample.
8.5TechniquesforCollectingtheData
In collecting the data for this study, the written test will be used. A test is any procedure
for measuring ability, knowledge, or performance (Richards, et,al 1985:291). Test is given to help
the students assess the effect of experimentation and to know so far the students can
understand what they have learned. They will be to kinds of the best that will use by the writer.
The first will be pretest which will by given before the treatment and the second one will by
posttest which will by given after the treatment. The test both pretest and posttest for the
experimental group has the same procedure. The writer will be ask the student 20 item in the
multiple choices. The student to till to blanks the boxes in the puzzle from left to right or from top
todownusingkeywordsprovideinthethemefruits.
8.5.1ValidityoftheTest
Validity (in testing) is the degree to which a test measures what it supposed to measure,
or can be used successfully for the purposes for which it is intended. A number of different
statistical procedures generally seek to determine what the test measure, and how well it does
so.(Richard,Jack:JohnPlattandHeidiWeber,1985:304)
The validity of a test is the degree to which it measure what it claims to measure. A test
is valid to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful, and useful.
(RobertJ.Gregory,2004:116)


TABLE2
TESTOFSPECIFICATION
Objectives Indicator NoofItems TypeoftheTest
Thestudent
comprehendthe
wordsrelatedfruits
Thestudentsare
abletofillthe
blanksboxeswith
thewordsrelated
tothefruits
120 Filltheblankswith
thechoosea,b,c,
andd(multiple
choices)to
completethe
sentences

8.5.2ReliabilityoftheTest
According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1990), reliability refers to the consistency of the
scores obtained show consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an
instrumenttoanotherandfromonesetofitemstoanother.
Realibility (in testing) is measure of the degree to which a test gives consistent results. A
test is said to be reliable if it gives the same results when it is given on different occasions or
when it is used by different people. (Richard, et, al. 1985:243). In this study, the internal
consistency of reliability of estimated through KuderRichardson Reliability Coefficient. Dealing
with it, Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:149) write that, for research purpose, a useful rule is that
reliability should be at lest 0,70an preferably higher. A reliability of 0.70 indicates 70%
consistency in the scores and are produced by the instrument. In other words, a minimum a
reliability of required of should be higher. The following the KuderRichardson formula: 21 (KR
21)formulas.(FraenkelandWallen(1993:149)
KR21=
Where
KR21=KuderRichardsonReliabilityCoefficient
K=Numberofitemsinthetest
M=Meanofthesetoftestscores
SD=StandardDeviationofthesetoftestscores.

TofindtheSDthefollowingtheformulaisused:

=

Where
X=NumberofCorrectAnswer
X=StudentsMeanScore
n=NumberofStudents
8.6TechniqueforAnalyzingtheData
In analysing the data collected from the test, the writer will analyze them by using
matchedttest. It will be used to know significance difference between the students
achievement in the pretest and that in the posttest. The formula in the matchedttest will be as
follow:
t=
where:
t:Thevaluebywhichstatisticalsignificanceofthemeandifferencearejudged
X
1
:Meansofthestudentsscoresintheposttest
X
2
:Meansofthestudentsscoresinthepretest
SD:TheStandardErrorsofDifferencesbetweenTwoMeans
(Source:HatchandFarhady1982:116)

TheformulaofSDis:
=
Where:
SD:StandardDeviationofthedifferences
n:NumberofPairs

WheretheformulaofSDis:
=
Where:
SD:StandardDeviationofthedifferences
n:Numberofpairs


REFERENCES
Brown,H.Douglas.2007.PrincipleofLanguageLearningandTeaching.NewYork:
PearsonEducation,Inc.

Richard,Jack,JohnPlattandHeidiWeber.1985.LongmanDictionaryofApplied
Linguistics.HarlowEngland:LongmanGroupLimited.

Fraenkel,Jack.RandNorman.E.Wallen.1990.HowtoDesignandEvaluate
Research.NewYork:Mc.GrawHill.Inc.

Saleh,Yuslizal.1997.MethodologyofTEFLintheIndonesianContextBook
I.Palembang:FacultyofTeacherTrainingandEducationUniversityof
SriwijayaPalembang.

Healey,JosephF.1999.Statistics:aToolforSocialResearch.NewYork:Wadsworth
PublishingCompany.

Hornby,A.S.1995.OxfordAdvancedLearnersDictionary.Oxford:Oxford
UniversityPrees.

Jackson,Howard.2000.Words,Meaning,andVocabulary.Newyork:TheGromwell
Press.Trowbridge.

Margono,S.2009.MetodologiPenelitianPendidikan.Jakarta:PT.RINEKACIPTA

Rositasari,Tri.1997.IncreasingStudentsVocabularyThroughQuartetGameinthe
FifthYearatSDMethodist1Palembang.Unpublished:FacultyofTeacher
TrainingandEducationSriwijayaUniversityIndralaya.

Goodman,Lori.2003.Wordplay.USA:McGrawHillCompanies.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006.Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT.
RINEKACIPTA.
THE FACTORS THAT CAUSE STUDENTS DFFICULTIES IN
COMPREHENDING THE ENGLISH READING TEXT OF THE EIGHT
YEAR STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL1 OF
PAGARALAM
1. Background
English is an international language beside that English means of communication. English
has important position in every aspect of the life, it is not only in education but also in business,
social, tourism, etc. the importance of English can be seen form other side. Nowadays many
thingshavebeenwrittenprintedinEnglishi.e.magazine,newspaper,andscientificbook.
In education English has been chosen as one of the subject that should be mastered by
the student in junior high school, senior high school, and university level. In Indonesia teaching
Englishfocusonfourbasicskills,namelylistening,reading,speakingandwriting.
Reading is first of all, and essentially, the mechanical skill of decoding, of turning the
printed symbols into the sounds which are language (McCracken and Walcutt, 1969: 6). Of
coursethereasonweturntheprintintosoundistogetatthemeaning.
According Clark and Starr (1986: 270271) Reading is a difficult skill that takes your to
master. For most of us it is skill we must continue to learn well into our adult lives. Undoubtedly
most of your best student will not have mastered all the skill they need to because efficient,
effectivereadersandsomeofyourstudentswillbetrulydisabledreaders.
According to Harmer (1995: 6) Reading for detailed comprehension, whether. Looking for
detailed information or language, must be seen by students as something very different from the
reading skill mentioned above. When looking for details, we expect students to concentrate on
theminutiaeofwhattheyarereading.
According to Bartlet in Nunan (1995: 68) Discourse comprehension is process of utilizing
linguistics cues background knowledge to reconstruct meaning, these schemata important,
particularlytosecondandforeignlanguagelearners.
In fact, many students get difficulties in comprehending the English reading text getting the
general information, specific information, vocabulary, grammatical, and main idea of paragraph
of a text (Lusiana, 2007:2). Block in Putri(2003:11) states that there are number of causes of
poor comprehension, such as lack of vocabulary knowledge, inappropriate reading strategies
and reading speeds, some factors associated with students (boring activities in reading), text ( of
low interest materials), situation (uncomfortable situation towards learning), and Insufficient time
spent in reading. It means that the factors that cause students difficulties in comprehending the
reading text, not only from the teacher strategies, text and also the students self. The interaction
between the teacher and also the students has influence to the students in comprehending the
text,someofthereasonitmaymethodologythattheteacherusesinteaching.
The lack of ability in comprehend the reading text, becausethe students dont know to
apply some of reading skill and they have no ability in comprehend it, such as inability in
scanning, skimming, guessing meaning from the context, etc. the students unable in getting the
messagefromthetextandtheywillbefailureinansweringthequestionrelatedtothetext.
Based on fact above, the writer interest to do this research entitle The Factors That Cause
Students Difficulties in Comprehending the English Reading Text of the Eight Year Students of
theStateJuniorHighSchool1ofPagaralam.

1.2.Problems
1.2.1.LimitationofProblem
The limitation in this research is limited toward the factors that cause students difficulties in
comprehending the English reading text of the eight year students of the State Junior High
School1ofPagaralam.
1.2.2.Formulationoftheproblems
Thewriterformulatesthefollowingquestions:
1.WhatarethestudentsdifficultiesincomprehendingtheEnglishreadingtext?
2.WhatarethefactorsthatcausestudentsdifficultiesincomprehendingtheEnglishreadingtext?
3.WhatisdominantfactorthatfacedbystudentsincomprehendingtheEnglishreadingtext?
1.3.Theobjectivesofthestudy
Theobjectivesofthisstudyare:
1.TofindoutthestudentsdifficultiesincomprehendingtheEnglishreadingtext.
2.To find out the factors that causes the student difficulties in comprehending the English reading
text.
3.To find the dominant factor that causes the students difficulties in comprehending the English
readingtext.
1.4.Thesignificanceofthestudy
1.Be useful for the teacher in helping their students in comprehending the English reading text after
theteacherfindoutthefactorsthatcausestudentsdifficultiesincomprehendthereadingtext.
2.Be useful for the students to improve their ability in comprehending the English reading text and
tobemoreactiveinlearningEnglish.
3.Itishopedthatthisthesiswillbeusefulforthenextresearchers.

2. Literaturereview
This chapter presents: 1) The concept of reading, 2) Reading skills, 3)The concept
reading comprehension, 4) The difficulties in reading comprehension, 5) The factors that cause
studentsdifficultiesincomprehendingthereadingtext,6)Previousrelatedstudy.
2.1.TheconceptofReading
According to Elizabeth (2008:12) Reading is the process of constructing meaning from
print and from other symbol. Reading involves not just theprint and the illustrations, but also
readers bringing to the process their knowledge of the world and their past experiences. The
reading process does not involve reading every single letter and that is why proofreading is so
difficult:whenyouareveryfamiliarwiththeideasyouhardlyneedtoreadthewordsatall.
Reading is interactive processas conversation is because is both reader and writer
depend on each other. The interaction is complicated by the fact that the writer is absent at the
time of reading so he gets no feedback and cannot know what parts of her text will cause
misunderstanding. He has to guess and shape the text accordingly, but as he never knows who
thereaderswillbe,hewillnevercompletelysucceed(Nuttal,1996:11).
According to Rudd (1989:5) Reading is a highly complicated process which relies on
great variety of skill, and skills is the operative word here. Reading is vital to daily life. Not,a day
goes past without reading, even if its only selecting the correct packet from the kitchen shelf or
readingstreetsign.
According to McCracken and Walcutt (1969:4) Reading is to get information of some sort
from the printed page. But since we get information in the same way from spoken language, this
purposesdoesnotdefinereadinginawaythatdistinguishesitfromtalking.
Reading is seen as selective process taking place between the reader and the text, in
which background knowledge and various of language interact with information in the text to
contributetotextcomprehension.
Based on explanation above, its can be concluded that reading means a process between the
readerstounderstandingthemessagingthatiswrittenfromthetext.
2.2.Readingskills
Reading skills should be taught functionally. Therefore, as you as a middle or secondary
school teacher must teach reading skill in your regular contents courses. Besides, learning to
use these skills while reading material they must study anyway gives students a reason for trying
them.(ClarkandStarr,1981:271)
AccordingtoCochran(1993:12)Readingskillscontentsof:
1.Vocabulary
a.LearningtermstoEnglish(e.g.,apostrophe,adjective)
b.Learning English (literary or grammatical) meaning for common words (e.g., romantic, subject,
act).
c.Understandingwordschangeinmeaningandpronunciation(e.g.,edelweiss,croissant).
d.Understanding how new words are coined or how they enter our language (e.g., snafu,
morpheme).
2.Comprehension
a.Selectingsignificancedetails,classifyingconvergently,formulatingmainideas.
b.Followingdirections.
c.Recognizingsequence
d.Inferringtime,place,mood,motiveofcharacters
e.Makingcomparisons
f.Respondingtoimagery
g.Recognizingsemanticandliterarydevices
h.Distinguishingbetweenfactandliterarydevices
i.Detectingfallaciesofreasoning.
According to Inmon and Lenier(1992:156157) There are four basic types of reading: study
reading, rapid reading, skimming, and scanning. Each type suited to a particular type of reading
materialandreadingpurpose,andeachshouldbepracticedatdifferentspeeds.
1.Study readingon difficult textbook or technical material when your purpose is thorough
understanding and/or memorization. study reading rates usually do not exceed 250 words per
minute.
2.Rapid readingshould be used when your purpose is to get a general idea of what you read and
when the material is not extremely complicated. types. types of material suitable for rapid
readingincludenewspapers,magazines,novels,andlightnonfiction.
3.Skimmingis quickly looking over a selection to get the general idea rather than reading every
word. it is used (1) when surveying a chapter or article, (2) when all you need is a general
overview, and (3) when reviewing something you once read to refresh your memory. to give you
anexampleofskimming,wehaveemphasizedsomewords,inthefollowingarticle.
4.Scanningis locating specific information, such as a name, a place, or a date. For example,
when you look up something in the dictionary or in the telephone book, you are scanning. you run
your eyes over the page and read only the information surrounding what you are looking for. You
mayalsousescanningintextbooksforexample,whenyouparticularnameordateinachapter.

2.3.TheConceptofComprehension
2.3.1.DefinitionofReadingComprehension
Comprehension is understanding the meaning of what is the read from the print,
illustrations, layout and design (Elizabeth, 2008:190). Stop think for a moment. You are probably
a very proficient reader, and proficient readers take comprehension for granted. As you read this
book the written symbols create meaning. When you comprehend the words, does this mean
that you are makingthat you are making a mental image of the information in the words? Does
comprehension depend on decoding and pronouncing the words on the pages? Comprehension
isbothofthesethings.
According to Elizabeth (2008:190) is the actsimultaneouslyandconstructingmeaning from
the text. Students have to extract meaning from the printed words on the page by working out
how printoperates to represent words. They also need to build new meanings by integrating
newideaswitholdinformation.Indoingthis,theyareconstructingmeanings.
According to Hornby in Lusiana (2007:10) reading comprehension means reading with the
powerofunderstandingoftheprintedsymbols.
Reading comprehension is the goal instruction in reading and recognition is a means to help
achievethatgoal(Choate,1995:153).
According to Bartlet in Nunan (1995:68), discourse comprehension involves a transaction
of utilizing linguistic cues and background knowledge to reconstruct meaning, these schemata
areextremelyimportant,particularlytosecondtosecondandforeignlanguage.
According to Abdulaziz andStover (1989:1112) students can perform their own calculations
andkeeptheirownchartinreadingcomprehensionskill.
1.Main idea A multiplechoice main idea exercise follows each reading. Stunts are required to
distinguish a statement of the main idea from other statement of the main idea from other
statementthataretrueaboutthereading.
2.Comprehension questions The comprehension questions are means to test students
understanding.
3.Using new vocabulary Questions on new vocabulary words are intended to lead the student
throughthereadingideabyideaandnewwordbynewword.
4.Additional reading This reading usually includes only one quick exercise to test comprehension. I
isnotatimedreadingandisnotreadingandisnotmeantforextensiveanalysis.
According to Richards ,et al in Jaya(2005:9) states that readers purposes in reading and
thetypesofreadingusedreferredto:
1.Literal comprehension, where reading in order to understand, remembers, or recall the
informationexplicitlycontainedcontainedinapassage.
2.Inferential comprehension, where reading in order to find information, which is not explicitly
statedinapassage,usingthereadersexperienceandinstitution,andbyinferring.
3.Critical or evaluation comprehension, where in order to compare information in a passage with
thereadersownknowledgeandvalues.
4.Appreciative comprehension, where reading in order to gain an emotional or other kind of valued
responsefromapassage.
According to Wagman (1984:95) Comprehension, or understanding what has been
decoded, in the essence of reading. A readers ability to comprehend is built on aptitude in
associating meaning with printed symbols and relating these meanings to personal language
patterns and personal experience. When decoded symbols produce familiar concepts, the
readersabilitytounderstandtheauthorsmessageisgreatlyenhanced.
2.4.TheDifficultiesinComprehendingSkill
According to Edna Wagman (1984:95) Much greater difficulty in measuring
comprehension is apparent when one tries to evaluate the readers understanding in the more
intangible areas of critical reading and thinking, judging, evaluating, or applying understanding
gainedfromtheprintedpage.
According to Perera (1894:274 ), there are types of difficulty in reading comprehension, they
are:
1.illegible handwriting, print that is blurred or uncomfortably small, or lack of contrast between the
wordsandthebackground.
2.when the subject matter is outside the readers knowledge and experience. In this case, it is
possibleforallthewordsofthetexttobeunderstoodbutforthewholenottomakesense.
3.presented by unfamiliar vocabulary. Some of the book written for junior school pupils, contains
severalwordswhichareunlikelytobeknownbyyoungchildren.
4.theremaybegrammaticaldifficultiesinthetext.
5.theyoverallofdiscourseorganizationmaybeunclearorunfamiliar.
According to Burgmeier, Eldred, and Zimmerman (1991)the difficulty of reading
comprehension can divide establishing a context, understanding words, putting words into
sentence,andthelastusingwordincontext.
According to Cutler (1993:2) for faster reading with comprehension, you certainly should
be able to make reading and study time a more meaningful valuable, productive, and enjoyable
experience.
In Jaya (2005:25) found that the students difficulties in comprehending the reading text,
they are Vocabulary, Grammatical structure, Literal comprehension, Inferential comprehension,
appliedcomprehension,Criticalreading,andFormatofreadingtext.
According to Markstein (1981: 6) Comprehensive word or phrase related to the reading
write it on the chalkboard, and then ask the students to freely associate any words that come to
minduntilthereareperhaps30to40wordsphrasesontheboard.
2.5TheFactorsthatcausesStudentsDifficultiesinComprehendtheReadingText.
According to Block in Putri (2003:11) states that there are number of causes poor
comprehension such as lack of vocabulary knowledge, inappropriate reading strategies and
reading speeds, some factor associated with students boring activities in reading), text(of low
interest materials), situation(uncomfortable situation towards learning), and insufficient time
spentinreading.
According to Latulippe (2021) there are two groups of words that give problems to
studentsofasecondlanguage:referencesandconnectives.
1.References. References are words or phrases that are used as substitutes for words or
phrases used either before or (less often) after the reference in the reading material. They are
usedtoavoidunnecessaryrepetitionofwordsorphrases.
2.Connectives. Connectives are words that are used to link (connect) ideas together in some kind
of relationship. Connectives can be used to signal a causeexpected result relationship in which
theresultfollowslogicallyfromthecause.
PuspitainJaya(2005:18fountthatmanydifficultiesincomprehendingreadingtext:
1.Thelackofcompetencetofindoutthemainideaandspecificideainthereadingtext.
2.The lack of ability to predict the meaning of words in the reading texts and students has limited
vocabulary.
3.The lack of students abilities to discriminate or different between noun and adjective. The
studentslesscomprehendsingrammarofreadingtext.
4.Thelackofbackgroundknowledgeaboutthereadingtext.
5.Thelackofcomprehendingaboutreadingtext.
There are five reasons that causes the students fault in reading (Nuttal, 1996:35), they
are:
1.Negativeexpectations
Perhaps you expected them not to succeed negative expectations are easily detected and
areknowntoinfluencestudentperformanceadversely.
2.Unsuitabletasks
Perhapsthetaskwereatfault:toodifficult,ofthepointorboring.
3.Thewrongprocedures
Did you use the task to promote learning (not just to test), by providing Scaffolding, to help
students to develop their capacity to interpret. Some of the steps you can take in roughly the
sequenceinwhichyouwouldusetheminclassarethefollowing:
Encouraging: urging students to have try, praising them for what they get right, not blaming them for
whattheygetwrongbutusingittohelpthemimprove
Prompting: Helping students complete the original task by giving cues, asking easier questions,
settingsupplementarytasks.
Probing: finding out way a students has given a particular answer, so that if need be you can help
himtoseewherehewentwrong.
Modeling: demonstrating appropriate ways of doing thing so that the students will understand what
iswanted.
4.Expectingthemtorunbeforetheycanwalk
Expecting too much too soon, students accustomed to a passive role must be gently eased
intoactiveparticipation,andrequiredonlygraduallytotakeresponsibilityfortheirreading.
5.Thewrongtexts
In this research the writer will be investigated the factors that6 cause the students difficulties
in comprehending the English reading text, such as: (1) Factor from the teacher inappropriate
reading strategies, the method in explaining the reading skills towards to students, and time . (2)
Factor from the students lack of vocabulary knowledge, situation, students attitude. (3) Factor
fromthetextunsuitablereadingtext,unfamiliarvocabulary,grammaticalintext.

2.6.PreviousRelatedStudy
In this research the writer also describes the previous studies. The previous studies here
are by Putra Jaya and Septi U Putri. Jayas title is difficulties comprehending reading text faced
by third year ofthe State Senior High School 6 of Bengkulu. And Putris title is the factors that
cause students difficulties in reading text in the second year at the Vocational State Senior High
schoolof1Bengkulu.
Both of these have similarity and differences toward this research that will be done by the
writer.Thesimilarityisbothstudiestalkingaboutthestudentsprobleminreadingsubject.
The differences is that the writer try to find out the factors that cause students difficulties
in comprehending the English reading text, meanwhile Jayas thesis try to find out the difficulties
comprehending reading text faced by third year of the State Senior High School 6 of students
Bengkulu. The results of Jayas thesis are the students got difficulties in comprehending the
reading material because of lack of vocabulary. Based on his investigation, he found that
students got difficulties in critical reading, applied comprehension , inferential comprehension,
literalcomprehension,grammaticalstructure,andefficientreading.
The second thesis by Putri, she found that the factors in reading text are vocabulary
factors,grammarfactors,andthewholeatextfactors.
3.ResearchProcedures
This chapter presents:The method of research, 2) Operational definition, 3) The population
amid sample, 4) The technique for collecting the data, 5) Validity and Reliability, and 6) The
techniqueforanalyzingthedata.
3.1.MethodofResearch
The method that will be used in this research is descriptive method. Where the date
describeobjectively or based on the fact. This method will be used because the writer wants to
describe the factors that cause students difficulties in comprehending the English reading text of
the eight year students of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam. Gay (1976:189) states
that descriptive involves collecting date in order to test hypothesis or answer concerning the
currentstatusofthesubjectofthestudy.
3.2OperationalDefinitions
The title of this research is The Factors That Causes Students difficulties in
Comprehending the English Reading Text of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam. To
avoid misunderstanding about terms, the writer defines them, they are: factors, cause, difficulty,
comprehend,andEnglishreadingtext.
1.Factors are causes that influences somebody or something that include inlearning process,
suchasvocabulary,grammar,andtext.
2.Causeinpersonorthingthatmakessomethinghappen.
3.Difficultyissomethingdifficult,hardtodoorunderstand.
4.Comprehendreferstounderstandfullythemindsactorpowerofunderstanding.
5.English reading text refer to all kinds of reading material that used by the students in learning
processe.g.,textbookpassage,worksheetquestions,shortstories,interestartifices,etc.

3.3.ThePopulationandSample
3.3.1.ThePopulation
According to Fraenkel and Wallen(1990:84) states that the population refers to all the
members of particular group. It is the group. It is group of interest to the researcher, the group of
whom the researcher would like to generalize the result of a study. The population of the
research is the eight year students of the State Junior High School 1 of Pagaralam in academic
year2010/2011.thetotalnumberofstudentsis152studentsandfrom4classes.






TABLE1
THEPOPULATIONOFRESEARCH

No Classes Total
1 8.A 38
2 8.B 38
3 8.C 38
4 8.D 152
To
tal








(Source:StateJuniorHighSchool1ofPagaralaminacademicyear20102011)

3.3.2.TheSample
Sample is any group of individuals on when information is obtained (Fraenkel and Wallen,
1990). Arikunto (2006:134) says that if the samples are less than 100, take all the sample. And if
the sample more than 100, take 1015% or 2025% or more. Depend on the researcher ability in
time,energyandfind.
In this research, the writer will use cluster random sampling, where the sample will be
chosen as group rather than individuals. In determine the sample the writer will do the following
steps:
a.Writerthenameofthefourclassesinpieceofpaper.
b.Thewriterwillrollthepaper.
c.Putthefourpapersintheglass.
d.Shakethepaperandtakeofthem.






TABLE2
SAMPLEOFTHERESEARCH

No Classes Total
1 8.B 38

3.4.TheTechniqueforCollectingtheData
Incollectingthedata,writerwillusetest,andquestionnaire.
3.4.1.Test
Test is examination or find the it quality, value, composition, etc trial or examination of
something, his powers, knowledge, skills, etc (Hornby, 1955:1233). The writer will give written
test about reading comprehension to the students, and it will be used to measure the students
difficulties in comprehending the English reading txt. The test consist of 20 multiple choice
questionsanditconsistofsixreadingskills,theyare:
1.Specificinformation
2.Detailedinformation
3.Gistidea
4.Specificmainidea
5.Detailedmainidea
6.Guessingthemeaningofwordsbasedonthecontext.
3.4.2.Questionnaire
Questiannaire is written or printed list of questions to be answered by a group of people,
especiallytogetfactsorinformation,orforasurvey(Hornby,1955:1952).
Questionnaire will be used to know the factors that students difficulties in comprehending
the English reading text. The students questionnaire consist of 20 questions, and the
questionnairewriteinIndonesia.
3.5.ValidityandReliability
3.5.1.Validity
Validity is the most important idea to consider when preparing or selecting an instrument
foruse(FraenkelandWallen:127).Itwillbeusedtothecheckthevalidityoftestmaterials.
In this research the writer will ask to the teacher and consult to the advisor to get
suggestion,advice,andcorrectioningivingthetestandquestionnairetothestudents.

TABLE3
Specificationofthetestitems
No Readingtomeasure Numberoftestitems
1 Specificinformation 5,10,11,13,18
2 Detailedinformation 1,2,3,4,6,9,14
3 Gistidea 19
4 Specificmainidea 20
5 Detailedmainidea 12,16
6 Guessing meaning of the
wordbasedonthecontext
7,8,15,17

3.5.2.Reliability
Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtainedhow consistent they are for
each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to
another(FraenkelandWallen,1990:133).
In this research the writer will be used KR21(KurderRichardson 21) formula to measure
reliabilityofthetestitems.ThefollowingistheKurderRichardson21(KR21)formula.

KR21=
{FraenkelandWallen(1990:135)}

Where:
KR21=KurderRichardsonreliabilitycoefficient
K=Numberofitemsinthetest
M=Meanofthesetofthescore
SD=Standarddeviationsofthesetofthescores


And

SD=
Where:
SD=Standarddeviationsofthesetofthescores
X=Studentsindividualscores
=Meanofthescores
n=Totalnumberofdata
3.6.TheTechniqueforAnalyzingthedata
3.6.1.Test
Inanalyzingthedata,thewriterswilldothefollowingstep:
1.Thewritercollectthestudentspaperafterthestudentshaveansweredthequestions.
2.2.groupingtherightanswerofthestudents.
3.Groupingthewronganswerofthestudents.
4.Compute the average percent of the students score in comprehending the reading text. In this
researchthewriterwillusethefollowingformula:

P=
Where:
P=Percentage
F=Frequency
N=Totalnumberofitem

3.6.2.Questionnaire
The data from the student response to the questionnaire will be analyzed by using
percentage. In order to get percentage scores, the total of the students choices is divided by the
totalnumberofsamplestudentsandmultipliedby100%(Lusiana,2007:24).
P=
Where:
P=Percentage
F=Frequency
N=Totalnumberofsamples
If the students response give yes answer is equal or more than 50%, it means the items
mightcausesthedifficulties.




REFERENCES

Fraenkel, and Wallen. 1990.How to Design and Evaluate Research inEducation.America: Mc
GrawHill,Inc.
Arikunto,Suharsimi2006.ProsedurPenelitianSuatuPendekatanPraktik.Jakarta:RinekaCipta.
Elizabeth,Susan.2008.DevelopingLiteracy:AssessmentandTeaching.China:SueHill.
Abudulaziz,andStover.1989.AcademicChallengesInReading.NewJersey:PrenticeHall,Inc.
McCracken,andWalcutt.1969.BasicReading.Sacramento:CaliforniaStateDepartmentofEducation.
Cochran. 1993.Reading In the Content Areas for Junior High School andHigh School. America: Allyn and
Bacon.
Latulippe.1987.DevelopingAcademicReadingSkill.NewJersey:PrenticeHall,Inc.
Clark,andStarr.1986.SecondaryandMiddleSchoolTeachingMethods.America:Macmillan,Inc.
Burgmeir,Arline.1991.AcademicVocabularyStudy.NewJersey:PrenticeHall,Inc.
Wagman,Edna.1984.TheAssessmentInReading.NewJersey:PrenticeHall,Inc.
Cutler,WadeE.1993.TripleYourReadingSpeed.NewYork:PrenticeHall.
LindaMarkstein.1981.DevelopingReadingSkill.America:NewBuryHousePublisher.
Rudd,Shirley.1984.TimeManageYourReading.England:GowerPublishingCompanyLimited.
Inmon,andLenier.1992.CollegeReadingBook2.NewYork:PrenticeHall.
Jeremy,Harmer.1998.HowtoTeachEnglish.Longman:CambridgeUniversityPress
Gay,L.R.1976.EducationalResearchCompetenciesforAnalysisandApplication.Singapore:Merril.
Hornby. 1955.OxfordAdvanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. Great Britain: Oxford University
Press.
Husnaini, R. 2003. The First Year Students Difficulties in Answering Reading Comprehension Question
in Accordance with Reading Skill at SMU negeri 3 Palembang. Thesis. Palembang: University of
PGRIPalembang.
Jaya, P. 2005.The Difficulties in Comprehending Reading Text Faced by Third Year ofSMU Negeri 6
StudentsBengkulu.UnpublishedThesis.Bengkulu:UniversitasBengkulu.
Lusiana, M. 2007. Some Problems in Teaching Reading Comprehension entitledHelicopter to the Eight
Year Students of SMP Negeri 35Palembang. Thesis. Palembang: Universitas of PGRI
Palembang.
Nunan, D. 1996.Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers. Great Britain: Redwood
Books.
Nuttal,C.1996.TeachingReadingSkillinaForeignLanguage.GreatBritain:Heineman.
Putri, S, U. 2003. The Factors that Cause Students Difficulties in Reading Text in The Second Year
StudentsatSMKN1Bengkulu.Thesis.Bengkulu:UniversityofBengkulu.
Subana,Rahadi,Sudrajat.2010.StatistikPendidikan.Bandung:PustakaSetia..

CONTOH PROPOSAL BAHASA INGGRIS
1.1Background
Languagehasimportantroleinhumanlife,sinceitisatoolwhichhumanusetointeract
withotherpeople.Therefore,masteringseveralforeignlanguagesisconsiderably
necessary,especiallyEnglish.StatusofEnglishasuniverselanguagehasmadepeoplein
theworldtomasteringEnglish.
Consideringthefactabove,IndonesiangovernmentputEnglishasoneofcompulsory
subjectthatshouldbemasteredbythestudents.Itisnotonlycoverfourlanguageskills
areas(listening,reading,speaking,andwriting)butalsoothersaspectsoflanguagesuch
asvocabulary.VocabularyissupposedastheimportantelementinlearningEnglishto
supportthefourEnglishskillsitself.Byhavingenoughvocabulary,theabilityto
communicateandtoconveyoursocialneedcanbeestablished.Iflearnerhasenough
vocabulary,theywillabletounderstandtheutterancewhichtheylistens,theywillableto
speakfluently,andtheycanunderstandthecontentofthetexteasily.
BasedontheresultofinterviewwiththeEnglishteacheratSMPN15Kendari,thewriter
gotthattheEnglishabilityofstudentsisstilllowbecauseofthelackofvocabulary.To
improvestudentsvocabulary,teacherhastouseappropriatetechnique,bothdirectlyand
indirectly.Directwayssuchas:showingpictures,usingflashcards,andsemantic
mapping.Whileindirectwayscanbedonebymeansofreadingtextandsummarizingit.
Inthisstudy,thewriterchoosessemanticmappingtechniquetoimprovestudents
vocabulary.Thistechniquebuildsstudentspriorknowledgeorschematabecauseusing
semanticmappingcanestablishstudentspriorknowledge.Byusingthistechniquethe
studentsalsocanstudyindependently.ItsupportbyMori(1993)whosaidthatsemantic
mappingmakesthestudentsbecomeindependentlearnersinthesensethatlearnby
usingtheirownwriterthinking.
Basedontheabovereasons,thewriterintereststoconductaresearchhowtoimprove
studentsvocabulary.ThetitleisTheUseofSemanticMappinginImprovingStudents
VocabularyachievementatClassVIIAofSMPN15Kendari.
1.2ResearchQuestion
Basedonthebackgroundofthisstudy,thewriterformulatestheresearchquestionas
follows:isthereanysignificantimprovementofstudentsvocabularyachievementasa
resultofusingsemanticmappingtechniqueinteachingvocabulary?
1.3TheObjectiveoftheStudy
Theobjectiveofthisstudyistofindoutwhetherthereisasignificantimprovementof
studentsvocabularyachievementasaresultofusingsemanticmappingtechniquein
teachingvocabularyornot.
1.4SignificanceoftheStudy
ItbecomessourceinformationforEnglishteacher,particularlyEnglishteacheratSMPN
15Kendari.
Itcanhelpstudentsinmasteringvocabulary.
Itbecomesareferenceforthenextresearcherwhowantstoconductaresearchwhich
samewiththisstudy.
1.5Hypothesis
Thehypothesisofthisstudyisthereisasignificantimprovementofstudentsvocabulary
achievementasaresultofusingsemanticmappingtechniqueinteachingvocabulary.
1.6ScopeoftheStudy
Thisstudywillfocusontheteachingofvocabularybyusingsemanticmappingtechniqueat
classVIIAofSMPN15Kendari.Thevocabulariesthatwillbeuseisthevocabularies
whichfindinthetextbookforJuniorHighSchoolwhichparticularlyusingbythestudents
andthetextbookisbasedonKTSPcurriculum.
1.7DefinitionofTerm
Inthisdefinition,thewriterjustdefinesonlytheimportantterms.Theyare:
Semanticmappingisastrategythatcanbeusedinalldisciplinestodemonstratethe
relationshipsbetweenideas.Whenteachingvocabularyexplicitly,itcanbeusedasatool
forstudentstodiscovertherelationshipsbetweenvocabularywords.
Thevocabularyachievementinthisstudyisthescoreofstudentsaftertheyreceivethe
treatment.










THE IMPLEMENTATION OF APPROXIMATIVE SYSTEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN TEACHING OF
SPEAKING SKILL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN 1 KERUAK IN THE SCHOOL YEAR
2010/2011



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter, the researcher presents about background of the problems, statement of the
problems, objectives of the study, significances of the study, scope and limitation of the study,
and definition of key terms.

A. Background of the Problems
One of language skill aspects which are very important in yielding creative, critical and smart
future generation is speaking skill. By mastering speaking skill the students will be able to
express their thought and feeling intelligently based on the situation and context when they
speak about the language.
According to William Nemser (in Ricard, 1997: 55) the language systems represent in a
contact situation can be classified in accordance or agreement with their functions as: (1)
the targetlanguage is that in which communication is being attempted; in the case of a learner
it is the language, he is learning when he uses it. (2) The source language is that acting as a
source of interference (deviations from norm of the target language), it is normally the learners
language. (3) An approximativesystem is the deviant linguistic system actually employed by the
learners attempting to utilize or use the target language. Such approximative systems change in
character and accordance or agreement with proficiency level, variation is also introduced by
learning experience (including exposure to target language script system), communication
function, personal learning characteristic, etc.
There are some symbols can be used to be understood the statements above, those are: (1) LT:
Target Language, (2) LS: Source Language, (3) La S: An approxiamtive System and (4) La1...n:
Indices referring to systems at successive or continuous stages of proficiency. John Lotz, (in
Richard, 1971: 55).
It means that, the learners who study about the other language, so it will be their second
language. For example, the learners who study about English language therefore it is as the
target language.
According to John Lotz, William W. Gage (in Ricard, 1997: 56), in identifying a specific type of
La, the name of the LS precedes or first that of the LT: Thus Indonesia-English refers to
Latypical of native speakers of Indonesian communicating imperfectly in English. That can be
assumpted into three folds are: (1) Learner speech at a given time is patterned product of
linguistic system, La distinct from LS and LTinternally structure. (2) Las at successive stages of
learning form an evolving or development series. La1...n the earliest occurring when a learner
first attempts to use LT(merger or combine the achievement of perfect proficiency is rare for
adult learners). (3) In given contact situation, the Las of learners at the same stage of
proficiency roughly in the same form with major variations thinking that able to distinguish the
language in learning experience. The speech of a learner, according to the assumption above is
structural organized in manifesting the order and cohesiveness of a system.
It is very significant to be learnt because: First, direct and systematic examination of learner
speech is largely neglected. Classroom teacher, while aware of general patterns in learners
behavior and often taking them into account in their teaching is rarely attempted
comprehensive studies of these regularities within a linguistic framework. Second, such
investigation is also prerequisite for the validation of both the strong and weak claims of the
contrastive approach. Third, it can be shown that the direct examination of Lais required as well
by the suppositions of the contrastive approach itself. The last, Las merit or good attitude
examination in their own right. Having interest for general linguistic theory comparable on the
one hand to child language and on the other to the language of victims of certain types of
speech disorder, as dependent systems forming evaluative gradations toward specific
languages but falling outside the normal dialectical and stylistic scope and of these languages.
William Nemser, (Richards, 1971: 56)
The final context for that study of interlanguage phenomena is the learning of English in
countries where English is studied as a foreign language in formal settings (such as the school),
and where English is not normally a language of instruction but simply a branch of study. In
foreign language contexts, the English lesson is the occasion or chance to bring a sample of
American or British life into the classroom, and the lessons are about life and people in
English-speaking countries, (www.language systems com). In second language contexts, the
content of the school course is usually local, and learners begin to learn English without
necessarily knowing or caring what life is like in England or America. The learner is generally
not satisfied until he or she eradicates traces of his or her foreign accent, though for practical
purposes, this may not be possible due to the limited time available in the school course.
Limitation to the acquisition of standard English in the foreign language settings are hence not
socially imposed limitation, which is encountered with the analysis of domestic dialects; in the
foreign language setting limitations are rather individual, reflecting personal differences in
motivation, perseverance, aptitude and so on. There are no societal limits to the leaners
progress in English. In reality those who do acquire accent less English in a foreign language
context probably do so because of unique personal opportunities, rather than because of the
school program, (www.language systems com).
Someone can be able to communicate by using English language after they have learnt; it can
be learnt in the other course especially in the school where the students can focus their study
to learn it. The aim at school is not only for looking the scores or marks but also school is
learning for life and gets the knowledge as many as possible in free time or any other time.
Meanwhile, the empiric study on the field shows almost same phenomena. This case shows
that the speaking skill of senior high school students is very low level. The diction is still poor;
they often use ineffective sentence and confusing grammar.
Try to see the condition of the school now, it still assumed as a load activity by some students
in the classroom. So, there is no special research that study about it, but as far as researcher
observation the populations of XI.B students in the classroom 33 students, they are only
handled by one teacher, they consist of 10 male and 23 female. They are still low in
understanding of English language because in conducting the teaching and learning process
some students permit to get out but they go to the canteen while the other study in the
classroom, after studying will be finish they back without knowing by their teacher, at least 40%
are active and 60% are not active. In interviewing with some students in the classroom, they
talk with variation languages based on their mother tongue and combining with Indonesia
language in teaching and learning process is running well. The last problem is students have
not complete and good facility in their school. So, it will be difficult to be taught them in
teaching speaking skill.
Based on the above phenomenon, the writer wants to implement of approximative systems of
foreign language in teaching speaking skill for eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Keruak in the
school year 2010/2011.

B. The Statement of the Problem
The statement that can be formulated by the researcher in this study is: How is the
implementation of approximative systems of foreign language in teaching of speaking skill for
eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Keruak in the school year 2010/2011?
C. Objective of the Study
The objective of this research is to find out the implementation of approximative systems of
foreign language in teaching of speaking skill for eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Keruak in
the school year 2010/2011.

D. Significances of the Study
The significant of the study can be theoretically and practically.
1. Theoretically
The result of the study may give the information in acquiring English; this research also informs
the readers that there are many ways of students in teaching speaking skill.
2. Practically
The result of this study is expected to be used either in the classroom or out of the class as one
of the class and the subject for students in teaching speaking skill.

E. Scope and Limitation
The target of this study is investigating the implementation of approximative systems of
foreign language in teaching of speaking skill. Properly speaking in this case, by using the
approximative systems of foreign language for the first year students of SMAN 1 Keruak.
Furthermore, this study attempts to describe the students speaking. Where the scope and
limitation of the study are limited to the subject and object research.
1. Subjects
The research subject is limited at the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Keruak in the school
year 2010/2011.
2. Object
The research object is limited on the students achievement in speaking skill by using
approximative systems of foreign language for the learners.

F. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid problem misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the research finding, the
researcher would like to explain and define the key terms are used.
a) Approximative systemis the deviant linguistic system actually employed by the learner
attempting to utilize the target language. Such approximative system changes in character and
accordance with proficiency level; variation is also introduced by learning experience (including
exposure to target language script system communication function, personal learning
characteristics, etc. William Nemser (in Richard, 1971: 58). To be clear, there are some
symbols can be used to be understood the statements above, those are: LT: Target Language, LS:
Source Language, La S: An approxiamtive System and (4) La1...n: Indices referring to systems at
successive or continuous stages of proficiency. William Nemser (in Richard, 1971: 56). It means
that, the learners who study about the other language, so it will be their second language for
example, the learners who study about English language therefore it is as the target language.
In identifying a specific type of La, the name of the LS precedes or first that of the LT: thus
Indonesia-English refers to Latypical of native speakers of Indoneisa communicating
imperfectly in English.
b) A foreign languageis a language is not spoken by the people of a certain place. It is also a
language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to, i.e. an English speaker
living in Japan can say that Japanese is a foreign language to him or her, http : // en, Wikipedia.
Org).
c) Speaking skillis the process by which humans acquire to perceive, produce and use words to
understand and communicate or people learn a second language in addition to their native
languages, it refers to what the learner does, it does not refer to the teacher does for working
on language teaching, http//:Wikipedia. language acquisition.com









CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the writer presents about the Approximative Systems of Foreign Language, the
Concepts of Approximauive Systems, the Factors of Approximative Systems, and Evidence for
the Systematic Nature of The Stages of Foreign Language Acquisition, Speaking Skill, the
Concept of Speaking Skill, the Factors Which Influence Speaking, the Technique of Teaching
Speaking Skill, Relevant Study, and Theoretical Framework.

A. Approximative Systems of Foreign Language
The language systems represent in a contact situation can be classified in accordance or
agreement with their functions as: (1) The target language is that in which communication is
being attempted, in the case of a learner it is the language he is learning when he uses it, (2)
The source language is that acting as a source of interference (deviations from norm of the
target language), it is normally the learners language, (3) Anapproximative system is the
deviant or ignore linguistic system actually employed by the learners attempting to utilize or
use the target language. Such approximative systems change in character and accordance or
agreement with proficiency level, variation is also introduced by learning experience (including
exposure to target language script system), communication function, personal learning
characteristic, etc. Clearly, there are some symbols can be used to be understood the
statements above, those are: (1) LT: Target Language, (2) LS: Source Language, (3) La S: An
approxiamtive System and (4) La1...n: Indices referring to systems at successive or continuous
stages of proficiency. William Nemser, (in Richard, 1971: 56). It means that, the learners who
study about the other language, so it will be their second language for example, the learners
who study about English language therefore it is as the target language.

1. The Concepts of Approximative Systems
Selinker emphases not just the existence of interlanguage but also where it comes from.
He looks for it is origin in the processes through which the mind acquires a second language. L2
learning differs from first language acquisition in that it is seldom completely
successful, 5 percents of L2 framers have absolute success in his view. The L2 fossilizes at
some point short of the knowledge of the native speaker, for example German TimePlace
order after the verb in the English IL of German speakers. SeIinker (1972) proposes that the
lucky 5 percent of successful L2 learners take advantage of a latent language structure in the
mind like that used in first language acquisition, that is to say the LAD. The 95 percent of
learners who are less successful rely on a psychological structure also latent in the brain and
activate when one attempts to learn a second language, but distinct from the latent language
structure. Interlanguage therefore attempts to explain the fossilization in the L2 learners
system noted by both Nemser and Selinker. Both interlanguage and approximative system lay
stress on the change in the learners language system over time. According to Selinker (1972),
the difference between interlanguage and Nemsers approximative system is that interlanguage
does not necessarily converge on the target language.
Selinker, (1972) claims that interlanguage depends on five central processes these are parts of
the latent psychological structure:
a. Language transfer, in which the learner projects features of the L1 on to the L2.
b. Overgeneralization of L2 rules, in which the learner tries to use L2 rules in ways which it
does not permit.
c. Transfer of training, when teaching creates language rules that are not part of the L2, as
when a teachers over-use of he discourages the students from using she.
d. strategies of L2 learning, such as simplification, for example when the learner simplifies
English so that all verbs may occur in the present continuous, yielding sentences such as Im
hearing him.
e. Communication strategies, such as when the learner omits communicatively redundant
grammatical items and produces It was nice, nice trailer, big one, leaving out a.
The crucial insight contributed by Selinker is not the actual processes that he puts
forward, but his insistence that an explanation is called for in terms of the processes and
properties of the mind. He postulates not only an independent grammar but also a
psychological mechanism for creating and using it. Transfer is only one of at least five
processes involved in interlanguage in the individual mind. Selinker (1972) is also ambiguous
about whether the five processes are for the creation of interlanguage or for its use, witness
remarks such as He would like to hypothesis these five processes are processes which are
central to second language learning, and that each process forces fossil sable material upon
surface IL utterances. (Corder, 1978, p.71: http : // w.w.w. teaching styles online.com).

2. The Factors of Approximative Systems
The small amount of research and speculation about learners approximative systems term
from Nemser, (in Richards, 1971: 3) Suggests that seven factors may influence and characterize
these second language learners systems. These factors are discussed bellows:
1. language Transfer
The first factor is language transfer. Sentences in the target language may exhibit inferences
from the mother tongue. Predicting errors by comparing the linguistic systems and the target
language. George, (in Ricards, 1971: 5) finds that one-third of the deviant sentences from
second language learners could be attributed to language transfer.

2. Intralingual Interference
The second factor, intralingual interference by (Richards, 1970: 6), refers to items produced
by the learner which reflect not the structure of mother tongue, but generalizations based on
partial exposure to target language.
3. Sociolinguistic Situation
The third factor is the sociolinguistic situation. Different settings for language use result in
different degrees and types of language learning. These may be distinguished in terms of the
effects of the socio-cultural setting on the learners language in term of relationship holding
between the learner and the target language community and the respective linguistic markers
of these relations and identities. Included here are thus the effects of the learners particular
motivations for learning the second language as well as the effects of the socio-cultural setting.
The distinctions of compound /co-ordinate bilingualism, Wein-reich, 1953, Ervin and
Osgood, 1954, Lambert 1961 (in Richard, 1971: 7) rests upon an assumption that different
setting for language learning may motivate different processes of language learning. For
example, two languages may be learned in the same socio-cultural setting or in two different
setting.


4. Modality
The learners language may vary according to the fourth factor, the modality of exposure to
target language and modality of production. Production and perception may involve acquisition
of two partially over lapping systems. Nemsers research suggests that two different systems
may be internalized in the target language depending on the modality. He finds that in the
productive modality, phonological replacements differed depending on whether the learner is
imitating utterances he hears or producing speech spontaneously. Nemser,(in Richard,1971: 8).
5. Age
The fifth factor which may affect the approximative system of the second language learner is
his age. Some aspects of the childs learning capacities change as he grows older and these
may affect language learning. The childs memory spans increase age. He acquires a greater
number of abstract concepts, and he uses these to interpret his experience. Lenneberg (in
Richard, 1967: 11) notes a period primary language acquisition, postulated to be biologically
determined, beginning when the child starts walking and continuing until puberty.
6. Succession of approximative systems
The sixth factor concerns the lack of stability of the learners approximative systems. Such
systems are usually unstable in given individuals. Since here is invariably continuing
improvement learning the target language. Because the circumstances from individual language
learning are never identical. The acquisition of new lexical, phonological and syntactic items
varies from one individual to another. Whinnom, (in Richard, 1971: 12) since most studies of
second language learners systems have dealt with the leaners production rather than his
comprehension of language, the question also arises as to whether the grammar by which the
learner understands speech is the same as that by which he produces speech, since as we see
above, modality may the influence the type of system developed.
7. Universal Hierarchy of difficulty
Unlike the factors characteristic of approximative systems so far. The seventh factor
receives little attention in the literature of second language acquisition. This factor is
concerned with the inherent difficulty for man of certain phonological, syntactic or semantic and
structure. Some forms may be inherently difficult to learn no matter what the background of the
learner.
The concept of difficulty may be presumed to affect the learners organization of what
he perceives (for which the term learning strategy may be useful) and the organization of what
the produces (for which the term communication strategy may be used). Focusing on learning
strategies direct attention to the cues which learner uses to identify elements in the new
language. As Torrey, (in Richards, 1971: 13) comments, many aspects of language learning are
very difficult to analyze into specific responses even where it is possible the responses are
various and at different level (one item may belong to two level in one language and four in
another) degrees of learning will be examined in term of specific instances rather than with the
general category of responses. What the learner finds difficult will also depend on the degree
and nature of what has acquired of the second language.
In short, the seven factors discussed above suggest that the approximative systems of
language learners are much richer in linguistic, pedagogic, and social significance than
heretofore suspected. While approximative system of language learners may be studied as
entities worthy of attention in and of themselves, the results of such study should also provide
feedback to language teaching practice and to general linguistic theory. (Corder, 1978, p.71:
http : // w.w.w. teaching styles online.com).

3. The Evidence for the Systematic Nature of the Stages of Foreign Language Acquisition
In presenting evidence for the reality and structural autonomy this Las or approximative
systems, it should be pointed out the language students, while of special interest here,
represent a minority among La users. Moreover, learner systems are by definition transient,
while effective language teaching implies preventing, or postponing as long as possible the
formation of permanent intermediate systems and subsystem (deviant phonological and
grammatical structures). Nevertheless, it is clear that evidence for Lais abunduction of given
target language by learners sharing the same native language. This angularity, in fact forms a
principal basis for the belief that comparison of La and LT providesinformation essential to
pedagogic strategy. Such characteristics constitute the foreign accent typical of learners as well
as of other bilinguals sharing the same mother tongue, i.e. speaker of the same attempting to
communicate in a given LT. William Nemser, (in Richard, 1971: 58).
Evidence suggests that the speech behavior of language learners may be structurally organized
and that the contact situation should therefore be described not only by reference to the source
(SL) and target (TL) languages of the learner, but also by reference to a learner system (AL).
Investigation of such learner systems is crucial to the development of contrastive analysis
theory and to its application to language teaching. However, these systems also merit
investigation in their own right through their implications for general linguistic theory.
Experimental and informal observation of the contrastive approach in its present form reveal
serious limitations, in part because learner behavior cannot be exhaustively described without
reference to the AL. Theoretical and practical considerations therefore converge to suggest the
direct and systematic examination of such learner speech, viewed within the general framework
of the current theory. Such investigation would (1) provide attested information, of immediate
utility in teaching and course development, on patterns of learning behavior for the principal
structures of the target languages; (2) permit further assessment of the current suppositions of
contrastive analysis; and (3) make possible a preliminary description of AL, thus progressing
toward a reformulated contrastive approach. www.languaesystem.come).

B. Speaking Skill
In this part describes about the concept of speaking skill, the factors which influence speaking
and technique of teaching speaking.

1. The Concept of Speaking Skill
According to Chomsky, (in Brown, 2008: 33) Speaking skill is the capability to other the
articulation to express, to state or deliver though, opinion and wish to the other person. The
People who know a language called as speaker of the language. Speaking includes all other
kinds of knowing and many activities of foreign language learners are primary interest to speak.
Classroom activities that develop learners skill to express themselves through speak, it seems
that an important component of language skill. The students face many problems in learning
this skill, so that the teacher should help the students to solve this, such as; giving students
some instructions by using easy language, avoid using beyond language than your students and
keeping the students use the target language.
Therefore, as the foreign language learners are demonstrated for many decades, but as
an English teachers have to keep in mind that the student unable to predict the all because the
student and retaining. So that way, they need to know new words, structures, and concepts.
Richard and Rodgers, (in Rohaniah, 2008: 8) proposes seven factors that will help to formulate
an approach to teach of foreign language for the learners as adopted from theoretical on each
factor and will be able to design classroom technique these are:
a. Students cognitive learning process
Virtually all of the students processing with respect to the second language itself are in focal,
controlled mode for review of cognitive process and some classrooms application. Therefore,
the teacher can expect to engage in plenty of repetition of a limited numbers of word, phrase,
and sentences.
b. Students creativity
The ultimate goal of learning a language is to be able to comprehend and produce it in
unlearned situation, which demands receptive and productive creativity. At the foreign language
learners, the learners can be creative only within the confines of a highly controlled repertoire
of language.
c. Teacher talk
In the second language situation, especially multilingual classes, teacher use of a student
native language is seldom an issue. In foreign language situation, it becomes an option. The
rule of thumb here is usually to restrict classroom language to English unless some distinct
advantages are gained by the use of their native language.
d. Authenticity of language
The language that students expose to should, according to principle of CLT be authentic
language is not just because in this case is the learners will predict what the instrument talk
about. To make sure utterances are limited to short, simple phrase, this, the students are
repetition needed opportunity to practice their new language.
e. Fluency and accuracy
Fluency is a goal at this level but only within limited utterance lengths, fluency does not have to
apply only to long utterance. Attention to accuracy should center on particular grammatical and
phonological, or discourse elements that are being practical. On the other hand, the English
teachers need to correct some selected grammatical and phonological errors. So that way, the
students dont fall into the trap of assuming that pronunciation work (on phonemes, phonemic
patterns, intonation, rhythm, and stress) is very important in this case.
f. Technique
Short, some mechanical techniques are appropriate and other drilling. Group and pair activities
are excellent techniques as long as they are structured and clearly defined with specific
objectives. So, technique is very important because at this level the students are limited
language capacity.
g. Grammar
Grammar in the classroom is another issue. A typical of foreign language learners level will
deal at the outset with appropriate verb forms, personal pronouns, definite and indefinite
article, singular and plural noun, and simple sentence in progressing of grammatical topic from
simple to complex. Therefore, an inductive approach to grammar with suitable examples and
patterns will be more effective.

2. The Factors Which Influence Speaking
Speaking has some current issues moral communication that will help the student to provide
some perspectives to be more practical consideration which will explants more in teaching
pronunciation work in communicative, interactive courses of study. According to Morrow, (in
Zamzam, 2005/2006) states that communicative approach is almost everything that is done
with a communicative intents or sharp.
Accuracy and fluency, all language performs centers on the distinction between accuracy and
fluency. It is now very clear that fluency accuracy are important goals to pursue in CTL
(Communicative Language Teaching) while fluency may in many communicative language
course be an initial goal in language teaching, accuracy is achieved to some extents by allowing
the students to focus on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in their oral circle
output.

3. The Technique of Teaching Speaking
In teaching oral communication the writer does the instruction for students attention to express
their speaking skill in implementing of approxiamtive systems of foreign language that will be
created in form of groups work talking. After that, they will discuss with their friends and from
each groups will has representation to talk about the material is being taught it is conducted
repeatedly. The researcher also helps students to talk about what the material to be taught.
Then, the researcher necessary to give them the treatment that what they are able to express
the material in form of picture and also the picture must be related with their material to be
taught. Through this case, between the researcher and learners will be easier to do this activity.

C. Relevant Study
In this part, the researcher states the closely-related study which is relevance with this study in
some cases, such described bellows:
Siti Maulida Nopriyana conducts a study with the titleThe Implementation of Pragmatic
Approach in Increasing Students Speaking Ability for the Eighth Grade of SMPN 4 Selong In the
School Year/2010. The study is attempted to find out the implementation of pragmatic
approach in teaching speaking ability for the eighth grade of SMPN 4 Selong in the school year
2009/2010. The researchers design of the study is Classroom Action Research (CAR) that is
aimed at describing how pragmatic approach increase students speaking ability for the eighth
grade of SMPN 4 Selong in the school year 2009/2010.
The finding of Siti Maulida Nopriyana study is concluded that the mean score of cycle I and II
are 63 and 65, 6 and the result of observation pointed that the teaching and learning process is
very active. Those results prove that the pragmatic approach able to be implemented to the
students in increasing speaking skill.
After knowing the relevant study above, these studies are the same with my research in
research design that is using Classroom Action Research (CAR). However, Siti Maulida
Nopriyana study uses pragmatic approach to increase students speaking ability and the
researchers study uses approximative systems of foreign language in the same teaching.

D. Theoretical Framework
When the teaching and learning process conducted in the classroom, the teachers are
expected to create variation model of presenting the materials. It might be in form of the
strategies or the techniques used in order the learning process will be more attractive and
challenging for the students. The teachers also should not be monotonous in the teaching and
learning process. In speaking class, the teachers can create a good condition that might involve
students participation in any kinds of class activity; therefore they will be active and desire to
talk.
In this case, the researcher will implement the approximative systems of foreign language to
teach their speaking skill. He will arrange the table inform of grouping, minimal in one group
five persons. After giving the task they will discuss about the material and after that they will
be asked to talk about what they have discussed in turn form. After that the students will be
asked to discuss the material that is given by the researcher then they will tray to make some
concepts individually based on the material being taught in the classroom.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODLOGY

This chapter, the researcher presents some discussions about Research Design,
Participants of the Study, Instrument of the Study, Technique of Data Collection and Technique
of Data Analysis.

A. Research Design
This research, the researcher designed a method that was used in the research is the
Classroom Action Research (CAR).
The Classroom Action research (CAR) is also defined as one of problem solving strategies in
which uses the action, and the process of skill development to detect and solve the problems.
Hopkins, (in Wiriaatmadja, 2008: 66). It could be concluded that the Classroom Action Research
has purposes to solve the problems and it is reflective. In this case, the researcher and the
teacher built collaboration in learning activity until the researcher got the same reason and
understanding about the problem. So the research was done in the effort of the implementation
of approximative systems in teaching speaking skill.
This Classroom Action Research (CAR) was completely done through several cycles. Each cycle
comprises several integrated points such as students learning achievement, the teachers
teaching procedures (lesson plan, teachers action, observation and the last was the reflection
stage where a teacher paid much attention on the present results for the sake of preparing the
next cycles.
According to Hopkins, (in Wiriaatmadja, 2008: 66) this research conducted in two cycles. The
stages that were done each cycle are as follow:
Cycle 1:
1. Planning
In this step, the researcher also prepared the instruments such as materials, syllabus, lesson
plan, worksheet, learning scenario, technique and the instrument to observe and evaluate the
teaching and learning process.
a. Syllabus
Syllabus is a set of teaching and learning activity in which contains some materials will be
taught in a number of each meeting. The components of syllabus are competence standard (SK),
based competence (KD), materials, learning activity, indicators, evaluation, time allocation and
learning source. The materials were given in this study were three kinds of tense namely:
Simple present, past tense and present continuous tense. For the first cycle, the materials of
these tenses are using paragraph in form of narrative and descriptive texts. The second cycle
was taught in form of narrative texts that the students talked are the story talks about. The
theme varied but refers to the tense.
b. Lesson Plan
Lesson plan (RPP) is adopted from syllabus as it aims at teaching and learning process to reach
based competence (KD). It is arranged in every based competence (KD) in one meeting even
more. The components are the same as syllabus. However, lesson plan is completed with
subject identity, method and steps in teaching and learning activity.
c. Students Worksheet (LKS)
It is given to know students achievement of the materials being taught. It consisted of
competence standard (SK), based competence (KD), summary of material, instrument to observe
and some questions.
2. Acting
After knowing the problem faced by the students of SMAN 1 Keruak for eleventh grade students
who have low scores in speaking, the researcher conducted the action that has been planned.
The action was aimed at solving the problem that has been made-up. Therefore, the teacher
and the researcher played group work in implementing of approximative systems in teaching
and learning process.
3. Observing
Observing is the time of collecting data to supervise to what extent the result of acting
achieves the objective after being taught through approximative system of foreign language.
The data of students achievement were taken in form of quantitative and the data was gotten
from the result of speaking tests in answer scores.
4. Reflecting
This activity is evaluating about the change of students success in learning situation and
teacher. This case, the data gained from the test and the result of observation which was
interpreted and analyzed whether the action activity results in the progress, successfulness.
The analysis is to know the weakness on the cycle I. the writer could make the clear and
accurate conclusion. Then the result of reflection was used to determine the second cycle (cycle
II) to get the improvement of the action.
Cycle 2:
1. Planning
The activities are:
a. Learn the results of reflection on the cycle I, which be inputted in the action more effective
and efficient in cycle II.
b. In cycle II, the things that needed to be prepared in essentially the same as planning in
cycle I, differing only in material or sub concepts that was studied and revised the improvement
of learning results from reflection of cycle I.
2. Action
Action was implemented in cycle II in essentially the same as cycle II, but differs in materials or
sub concepts, implementation of action plans based on what has been designed or made.
3. Observation
The activities of observation were conducted from starting up to finish of action with such
procedures in the cycle I.
4. Reflection
Reflection on the cycle II was essentially the same as cycle I, the differences was material or
sub concepts that was studied. Meanwhile, in the cycle II was an improvement of cycle I and
cycle II. In according with the results of reflection in every previous cycle, if reflection
exhaustiveness of qualified in the cycle II defined the implementation of the action is stopped,
but if still not successful it will be proceed to the next cycle. (Wiriaadmadja 2008: 56).

B. Participant of the Study
There were some elements are involved in this participation of the study in the school of SMAN
1 Keruak are those who have responsible in concluding the research, they were:
1. Headmaster
Headmaster of SMA 1 Keruak helped the researcher to describe the information and condition
of the students. In this case, he was helpful in processing of the research that was conducted
by the researcher. Therefore, the researcher was easier in conducting the research.
2. Teacher
In this case, the English teacher gave information about the students achievements in English
especially in teaching speaking skill.
3. Staff
Researcher asked helping to the staffs of SMAN 1 Keruak to seek the documents of students
data in previous semester to compare with present data.
4. Students
Students of SMAN 1 Keruak were the main of the research because they gave the data that
could conclude the result of the study whether it is effective or not. Without those students, the
researcher could not be able to conduct the research completely.
5. Researcher
The researcher did the research to implement the approximative systems of foreign
language in teaching speaking skill for eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Keruak in the school
year 2009/2010.

C. Instrument of the Study
Based on the research methodology, the researcher needed to determine the research
instrument to derive the data. The instrument that was designed can be used as a measurement
to get a valid data. (Arikunto, 2002:122) states that the instrument is the tool that is used by the
researcher to collect the data. Then, the instrument might be in form of some questions or
exercises to measure knowledge, intelligent, achievement and attitude of someone or group of
people. In choosing the instruments of data collection depends on the technique of data
collection. Therefore, the researcher used two techniques in collecting the data. Firstly, the data
of students achievement was taken from speaking test in implementing the appximative
systems by giving some questions or exercises and the secondly, the data of teaching and
learning process of approximative system was taken from observation checklist.
1. Test
The classroom action research was conducted into two cycles. There were also tests in each
cycle. Test is some questions or exercises and to measure skill, knowledge, intelligent and
attitude of someone or group of people (Burhan Bungin, 1992: 179). Therefore, the researcher
conducted tests in each cycle. So that way, the researcher took the score based on the oral
production of students to measure the progress in form of group work. The components of the
scoring criteria refer to Foreign Service Institute (FSI), they are: accent, grammar, vocabulary,
fluency and comprehension. Those components will be evaluated by the criteria of the
weighting table bellows:
Oller, (in Rohaniah, 2008: 29)


Oller, (in Rohaniyah, 2008: 31).
The above weighting table of the comprehensive description of the FSI procedure is conversed
as follows:

Oller, 1979:323, Valette, 1977:160 (in Nurgiyantoro, 1995:286)


The researcher used the orally test in this study, the form of the oral test employed was
verbal test based on the topics being taught in oral test or speaking, the respondents were
asked to speak at least five minutes. The researcher graded the grammar scale receives the
heaviest weighting, followed by vocabulary comprehension, fluency, accent, which receives the
lowest weighting.
2. Observation Checklist
To get the data through observation, it was conducted by using checklist. Checklist is an
observation device that consists of names of subject and factors that is researched. It was also
defined as the list of data variables that will be collected (Sugiyono, 2006: 267). It was used to
observe the implementation of approximative systems of foreign language. The researcher only
checked Yes or No about the indicators of the study. The teacher and the students also fulfilled
the format of evaluation.

D. Technique of Data Collection
After the instruments were determined, thus the next step is collecting the data. The data
means the whole information that is directly collect from the subjects. The data is obtained by
giving the students a questionnaire and tests in objective form. (Burhan Bungin, 2009: 123).
Moreover, the data about implementation of approximative systems of foreign language was
gathered by using the following steps:
1) Data test technique
The test was done by giving a test in the form of an oral presentation. In this case, the students
were required to speak in front of the class by using retelling the story. It was based on the
lesson plan of eleventh grade at semester one. There were some indicators that the writer
observed during the process. Those were:
a. The students vocabulary
b. The grammatical errors on the sentences that students make
c. The students fluency
d. The students pronunciation during the oral presentation.
2) The observation technique
The writer used the observation technique to gather data and information regarding the
activities done into two cycles. In the first, the writer observed the teachers action during the
teaching and learning process and also observed the students initial ability. In the second
cycle, the writer observed the teaching and learning process that was designed based on the
lesson plan in the teaching scenario and concluded the result. Then, the writer tended to
observe any progress or development made by students after implementing the approximative
systems of foreign language.
In evaluating the students result of speaking skill, the researcher referred to the Foreign
Service Institute (FSI) criteria. The following were:
1. Before giving the test, the researcher prepared a classroom management.
2. Prepared the instrument (question in form of retelling the story and format of observation
checklist).
3. The researcher implemented approximative systems of foreign language.
4. The researcher elaborated the rules and steps of approximative systems of foreign
language.
5. When the approximative systems of foreign language were being implemented, the
researcher controlled and evaluated students speaking skill
6. The researcher recapitulated the scores based on the result.
E. Technique of Data Analysis
In this point the researcher discussed about the technique of data description and data
analysis.

1. Data Description
Technique of data description was used in this research is descriptive statistics. It was used to
determine the data into high, average and low categories. For the purpose, the writer used the
pattern:
Mi + 1 SDi to Mi + 3 Sdi = High
Mi 1 SDi to < Mi + 1 SDi = Average
Mi 3 SDi to < Mi 1 SDi = Low
(L.R. Gay, 1986: 394)

2. Data Analysis
To analyze the data, it is related with the characteristics of the data itself. Therefore the data
which was collected as follows:
a. Students Achievement. In this case, the researcher analyzed of the data by using descriptive
statistics to know the mean and standard deviation, are analyzed by using this formula:
M

Where: M = Mean Score
X = the Total of students Score
N = the Number of Students
Then, the researcher determined the indication of successful of the achievement students
speaking skill in comprehending the materials. It could be implemented by counting the total of
average scores that were evaluated as the students classical completeness while students
individual completeness were analyzed through Minimum Completeness Criteria (MCC)/KKM
(PERMENDIKNAS, 2007) says that learning completeness criteria can be used as a successful
criterion. In this case, KKMof English language deals with speaking skill is 60. Therefore the
individual completeness is regarded success if the students get score 60 (the scores are
between 0-100) and the classical completeness is regarded success if the percentage is 75%
of the whole students get score 60 (the scores are between 0-100).
The following is the formula used to know the indication of successful of classical
completeness:

KB : The successful of learning
Ni : The Number of students who obtain mark 60
N : The whole number of students
Wardani, (in Fathurrahman, 2009: 46)

b. Action process
There some processes were applied by the researcher as follows:
1. On going analysis
This, the researcher analyzed the process of action, observation, and reflection of each cycle by
observing of the implementation of approximative systems. The researcher analyzed the data
without waiting all cycles over. But the researcher analyzed the data directly when he got them
from the participant of the research problem.
2. Overall analysis
In this part, the researcher analyzed the data completely in all cycles. He waited the complete
data from the participant of the research then all data were collected. In other word, he began
analyzing the complete data of all cycles accurately and precisely.






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