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Zheyan Jin
Zheyan

Jin
School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics
Tongji

University
Shanghai, China, 200092
Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Infinite wings versus finite wings
Airfoil shapes are two-dimensional. We consider them to stretch
indefinitely along the span direction, and therefore the flow around them
must also be two-dimensional.
Airfoil data comes from airfoil shapes that completely span the wind
tunnel section, and this is a reasonable approximation to a 2D airfoil.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Infinite wings versus finite wings
Real wings are not infinite in span. They have a finite wing-span. As
we shall see, because real wings do not go on forever, the flow over
them is not two-dimensional. This has very important effects.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Infinite wings versus finite wings
Wing span b
W
i
n
g

r
o
o
t
r
c

V
t
c
W
i
n
g

t
i
p
Streamline over the
top surface
Streamline over the bottom surface
Top view
(planform)
Low pressure
High pressure
Front view
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Infinite wings versus finite wings
The physical mechanism for generating lift on the wing is the existence of a
high pressure on the bottom surface and a low pressure on the top surface. As
a by-product of this pressure imbalance, the flow near the wing tips tends to
curl around the tips.
On the top surface, there is generally a spanwise component of the flow from
the tip toward the wing root. On the contrary, there is generally a spanwise
component of the flow from the root toward the tip on the bottom surface.
View from
above
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Infinite wings versus finite wings
The tendency of the flow to leak around the
wing tips has another important effect on the
aerodynamics of the wing. This flow establishes
a circulatory motion that trails downstream of
the wing; that is, a trailing vortex is created at
each wing tip.
These wing-tip vortices downstream of the
wing induce a small downward component of air
velocity in the neighborhood of the wing itself.
This downward component is called downwash,
denoted by the symbol w.
Condensation in the cores
of wingtip vortices from an
F-15E as it disengages from
a KC-10 Extender following
midair refueling.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
One reason that geese and pelicans fly in neat V-
formation is that by maintaining a very precise
spacing, birds can get a slight upward boost form the
trailing vortex of the bird in front: the outer side of the
trailing vortex of the bird in front has an upward
component.
On course, the leader at the point of the V gets no
such benefit, which is undoubtedly why birds
exchange the lead position relatively often in such
flocks.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
Wingtip vortices can be harmful.
When small airplanes are thrown out
of control by trailing of very large ones.
The vortex system of a fixed wing is
quite simple, in practice consisting of
the bound vortex on the wing and a
trailing vortex off each wing tip that
gradually dissipates far behind the wing.
Wake turbulence and tip vortices
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
The downwash combines with the free
stream velocity V to produce a local
relative wind which is canted downward
in the vicinity of each airfoil section of
the wing.
The angle between the chord line and
the direction of V is the angle of attack
. We now precisely define as the
geometric angle of attack.
The local relative wind is inclined
below the direction of V by the angle i,
called the induced angle of attack.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
The presence of downwash has two
important effects on the local airfoil
section, as follows:
1. The angle of attack actually seen
by the local airfoil section is the angle
between the chord line and the local
relative wind. This angle is defined as
the effective angle of attack.
i
o o = o
eff
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
2. The local lift vector is aligned
perpendicular to the local relative wind,
and hence is inclined behind the vertical
by the angle i.
Consequently, there is a component
of the local lift vector in the direction of
V ; this drag is created by the presence
of downwash.
This drag is defined as induced drag.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
The tilting backward of the lift vector
shown in the right picture is one way
visualizing the physical generation of
induced drag. Two alternative ways are
as follows:
1. The three-dimensional flow induced
by the wing-tip vortices alters the
pressure distribution on the finite wing in
such a fashion that a net pressure
imbalance exists in the direction of V .
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Downwash
2. The wing-tip vortices contain a large
amount of translational and rotational
kinetic energy. This energy is provided
by the aircraft engine.
In effect, the extra power provided by
the engine that goes into the vortices is
the extra power required from the
engine to overcome the induced drag.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Road Map General features of finite-wing aerodynamics:
downwash, effective angle of attack, and
induced drag
Additional tools needed for finite wing analysis:
1. Curved vortex filament
2. Biot-Savart Law
3. Helmholzs vortex theorems
Method of analysis
Prandtls classical
lifting-line theory
Modern numerical
lifting-line method
Lifting surface
theory
Modern vortex lattice
numerical method
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Differences in nomenclature
For the two-dimensional bodies:
Lift, drag, and moments per unit span have been denoted with primes. For
example, L, D, and M.
The corresponding lift, drag, and moment coefficients have been denoted
by lower case letters, for example, cl, cd, and cm.
For the three-dimensional bodies:
Lift, drag, and moments on a complete three-dimensional body are given
without primes. For example, L, D, and M.
The corresponding lift, drag, and moment coefficients have been denoted
by capital letters, for example, CL, CD, and CM.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Drag
Total drag on a subsonic finite wing in real life
Pressure drag Dp Skin friction drag Df Induced drag Di
Profile drag
Profile drag coefficient:
S q
D
C
i
i D

=
,
S q
D D
c
p f
d

+
=
i D d D
C c C
,
+ =
Induced drag coefficient:
Total drag coefficient:
5.1 Introduction: Downwash and Induced Drag
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.2 The vortex filament, the Biot-Savart law, and Helmholtzs theorems
The Biot-Savart law
In general, a vortex filament can be
curved. The filament induces a flow field in
the surrounding space.
Vortex filament
of strength
dV
dl
r
The velocity at point P, dV, induced by
a small directed segment dl of a curved
filament with strength I

is
3
4
r
r dl
dV
I
=
t
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.2 The vortex filament, the Biot-Savart law, and Helmholtzs theorems
The Biot-Savart law
Now apply the Biot-Savart law to a
straight vortex filament of infinite length.
The direction of the velocity is downward.
The magnitude of the velocity is given by:
h 2t
I
= V
V
-
P
r
h
dl
+
x
y
z
}
+

I
=
3
4
r
r dl
t
V
dl
r
}
+

I
=
2
sin
4
V
u
t
The velocity induced at P by the
entire vortex filament is:
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.2 The vortex filament, the Biot-Savart law, and Helmholtzs theorems
The Biot-Savart law
Let h be the perpendicular distance form
point P to the vortex filament. Then,
Thus, the velocity induced at a given point P by an infinite, straight vortex
filament at a perpendicular distance h from P is simply:
h 2t
I
= V
V
-
P
r
h
dl
+
x
y
z
h 2
sin
h 4
sin
4
V
0
2
t
u u
t
u
t
t
I
=
I
=
I
=
} }
+

d dl
r
u
u
u
u
d
h
dl
an
h
l
h
2
sin
t
sin
r
=
=
=
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.2 The vortex filament, the Biot-Savart law, and Helmholtzs theorems
Helmholtzs vortex theorems:
The great German mathematician, physicist, and physician Hermann von
Helmholtz was the first to make use of the vortex filament concept in the analysis of
inviscid, incompressible flow.
Helmholtzs vortex theorems:
1. The strength of a vortex filament is constant along its length.
2. A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the boundaries of the
fluid or form a closed path.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.2 The vortex filament, the Biot-Savart law, and Helmholtzs theorems
Lift distribution:
Most finite wings have a variable chord, with the exception of a simple rectangular
wing.
Also, many wings are geometrically twisted so that is different at different
spanwise locations- so-called geometric twist. If the tip is at a lower than the root
the wing is said to have washout; if the tip is at a higher than the root, the wing
has washin.
The wings on a number of modern airplanes have different airfoil sections along the
span, with different values of L=0; this is called aerodynamic twist.
Front view of wing
y
-b/2 b/2
) ( ) ( ' ' y V y L L I = =

## Copyright by Dr. Zheyan Jin

Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Prandtl reasoned as follows.
A vortex filament of strength that
is somehow bound to a fixed location
in a flow -a so-called bound vortex- will
experience a force L=Vfrom the
Kutta-J oukowski theorem.
This bound vortex is in contrast to a
free vortex, which moves with the
same fluid elements throughout a flow.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Prandtl reasoned as follows.
Let us replace a finite wing of span b
with a bound vortex, extending from
y=-b/2 to y=b/2. Since a vortex filament
cannot end in the fluid, we assume the
vortex filament continues as two free
vortices trailing downstream from the
wing tips to infinity.
This vortex is in the shape of
horseshoe, and therefore is called a
horseshoe vortex.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
A single horseshoe vortex.
Consider the downwash w induced along
the bound vortex from b/2 to b/2 by the
horseshoe vortex.
The two trailing vortices both contribute
to the induced velocity along the bound
vortex, and both contributions are in the
downward direction.
The bound vortex induces no velocity along itself.
b/2
-b/2
z
x
y
Trailing vortex
Trailing vortex
Bound
vortex
A single horseshoe vortex
) 2 / ( 4 ) 2 / ( 4
) (
y b y b
y w
t

+ t
=
I I
The first term on the right-hand side is the contribution from the left trailing
vortex. The second term is the contribution from the right trailing vortex.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory:
A single horseshoe vortex.
We can reduce the above equation to:
Note that w approaches -as y approaches b/2 or b/2.
A single horseshoe vortex
2 2
) 2 / ( 4
) (
y b
b
y w

I
=
t
The downwash distribution due to the single horseshoe vortex shown in above
figure does not realistically simulate that of a finite wing.
The downwash approaching an infinite value at the tips is especially disconcerting.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
b/2
-b/2
z
x
y
Trailing vortex
Trailing vortex
Bound
vortex
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Let us superimpose a large number of
horseshoe vortices, each with a
different length of bound vortex, but with
all the bound vortices coincident along a
single line, called the lifting line.
The circulation varies along the line of
bound vortices.
3 2 1
I + I + I d d d
Along AB and EF, the circulation is:
1
I d
2 1
I + I d d
Lifting line
1
I d
b/2
A

3 2 1
I + I + I d d d
1
dI

1
dI
2
dI
2
dI
3
dI
3
dI
B
C
D
E
F
-b/2
2 1
I + I
d d
Along BC and DE, the circulation is:
Along CD, the circulation is:
Note that the strength of each trailing vortex is equal to the change in circulation along
the lifting line.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Let us assume there are infinite number
of horseshoe vortices along the lifting line.
The vortex sheet is parallel to the direction of V .
There is continuous distribution of (y) along
the lifting line. The value of the circulation at
the origin is 0
The total strength of the sheet integrated across the span is zero, because it
consists of pairs of trailing vortices of equal strength but in opposite direction.
z
x
y
Lifting line
0
I
b/2
d V
-b/2
) (y I = I

y0
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
The velocity dw at y0 induced by the
entire semi-infinite trailing vortex located
at y is given by:
The minus sign in the above equation is needed for consistency with the right
picture.
For the trailing vortex shown, the direction of dw at y0 is upward and hence is
a positive value, whereas is decreasing in the y direction, making d/dy a
negative quantity. The minus sign in the above equation makes the positive dw
consistent with the negative d/dy.
) ( 4
) / (
0
y y
dy dy d
dw

I
=
t
dx
z
x
y
Lifting line
0
I
b/2
d V
-b/2
) (y I = I

y0
dw
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
The total velocity w induced at y0 by
the entire trailing vortex sheet is the
summation of the last equation over all
the vortex filaments:
The value of the downwash at y0 due to all the trailing vortices.
}

I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
b
b
y y
dy dy d
y w
t
Keep in mind that although we label w as downwash, w is treated as positive in
the upward direction in order to be consistent with the normal convention in an xyz
rectangular coordinate system.
dx
z
x
y
Lifting line
0
I
b/2
d V
-b/2
) (y I = I

y0
dw
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Assume this section is located at the
arbitrary spanwise station y0. The
induced angle of attack i is given by:
Generally, w is much smaller
than V , and hence i is a small
angle, on the order of a few
degrees at most.
)
) (
( tan ) (
0
1
0

=
V
y w
y
i
o

=
V
y w
y
i
) (
) (
0
0
o
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
By substituting the above equation
into the downwash equation, we
obtain
that is, an expression for the
induced angle of attack in terms
of the circulation distribution (y)
along the wing.
}

I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
b
b
i
y y
dy dy d
V
y
t
o
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Consider again the effective angle of attack eff.
Since the downwash varies across the span, then eff is also variable;
eff= eff(y0). The lift coefficient for the airfoil section located at y=y0 is:
] ) ( [ 2 ] ) ( [
0 L 0 0 L 0 0 = =
= = o o t o o y y a c
eff eff l
) ( ) (
2
1
0 0
2
y V c y c V L
l
I = =
'

From the Kutta-J oukowski theorem, lift for the local airfoil section
located at y0 is
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Finally, we obtain
Thus
0 L
0
0
0 L 0
) (
) (
] ) ( [ 2
=

=
+
I
=
=
o o
o o t
y c V
y
y c
eff
eff l
) (
) ( 2
0
0
y c V
y
c
l

I
=
i eff
o o o = Since
}

I
+ +
I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0 0
0
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
b
b
L
y y
dy dy d
V
y
y c V
y
y
t
o
t
o
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
It simply states that the geometric angle of attack is equal to the sum of
the effective angle plus the induced angle of attack.
The fundamental equation of Prandtls lifting-line theory.
}

I
+ +
I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0 0
0
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
b
b
L
y y
dy dy d
V
y
y c V
y
y
t
o
t
o
eff is expressed in terms of , and i is expressed in terms of an
integral containing d/dy. Hence, the above equation is an integro-
differential equation, in which the only unknown is ;
all the other quantities, ,c, V , and L=0, are known for a finite wing of
given design at a given geometric angle of attack in a freestream with
given velocity.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
1. The lift distribution is obtained from the Kutta-J oukowski theorem:
The solution =(y0) obtained from the above equation gives us the three
main aerodynamic characteristics of a finite wing, as follows:
}
}
}

I = =
I =
=
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
'
) (
2
) (
) (
b
b
L
b
b
b
b
dy y
S V S q
L
C
dy y V L
dy y L L

) ( ) (
0 0
'
y V y L I =

I
+ +
I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0 0
0
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
b
b
L
y y
dy dy d
V
y
y c V
y
y
t
o
t
o
2. The total lift is obtained by integrating the above equation over the span
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
3. The induced drag per unit span is:
}
}
}

I = =
I =
=
2 /
2 /
,
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
'
) ( ) (
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
b
b
i
i
i D
b
b
i i
b
b
i i
dy y y
S V S q
D
C
dy y y V D
dy y y L D
o
o
o
i i
o sin L D
' '
=
Since i is small, this relation becomes
i i
o
' '
L D =
The total induced drag is obtained by integrating the above equation
over the span
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
1. 0 is the circulation at the origin.
Consider a circulation distribution given by:
) ( ) (
'
y V y L I =

2
0
'
)
2
( 1 ) (
b
y
V y L I =

2
0
)
b
y 2
( 1 ) ( I = I y
2. The circulation varies elliptically with distance y along the span; hence, it
is designated as an elliptical circulation distribution. Since
Note:
0 ) 2 / ( ) 2 / ( = I = I b b
we also have
Hence, we are dealing with an elliptical lift distribution.
3.
Thus, the circulation, hence lift, properly goes to zero at the wing tips.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
First, let us calculate the downwash.
What are the aerodynamic properties of a finite wing with such an elliptic
lift distribution?
}

I
=
2 /
2 /
0
2 / 1 2 2 2
0
0
) ( ) / 4 1 (
) (
b
b
dy
y y b y
y
b
y w
t
2 / 1 2 2 2
0
) / 4 1 (
4
b y
y
b dy
d

I
=
I
Substitute this into the down wash equation, we obtain,
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
The integral can be evaluated easily by making the substitution
What are the aerodynamic properties of a finite wing with such an elliptic
lift distribution?
}
}

I
=

I
=
t
t
u
u u
u
t
u
u
u u
u
t
u
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
cos cos
cos
2
) (
cos cos
cos
2
) (
d
b
w
d
b
w
u u u d
b
dy
b
y sin
2
cos
2
= =
b
w
2
) (
0
0
I
= u
Hence,
This states that the downwash is constant over the span for an elliptical lift
distribution.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
The induced angle of attack
What are the aerodynamic properties of a finite wing with such an
elliptic lift distribution?

I
= =
bV V
w
i
2
0
o
Note that both the downwash and induced angle of attack go to zero as the
wing span becomes infinite- which is consistent with our previous discussions
on airfoil theory.
The induced angle of attack is also constant over the span for an elliptical lift
distribution.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
A more useful expression for i can be obtained as follows.
What are the aerodynamic properties of a finite wing with such an elliptic
lift distribution?
t
t u u
t
b V
L
b
V d
b
V L

= I
I = I =
}
4
4
sin
2
0
0
0
2
0
dy
b
y
V L
b
b
}

I =
2 /
2 /
2 / 1
2
2
0
)
4
1 (
Again use the transformation
u cos ) 2 / (b y =
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
However,
What are the aerodynamic properties of a finite wing with such an elliptic
lift distribution?
t t
o
t
2
0
2
1 2
2
b
SC
bV b
SC V
b
SC V
L L
i
L
= =
= I

S b / AR
2

L
SC V
2
2
1
L

=
An important geometric property of a finite wing is the aspect ratio, denoted
by AR and defined as
AR t
o
L
i
C
=
The induced angle of attack:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
Or,
The induced drag coefficient
t t
t
b
SC V
AR
C
S V
b
L L
i D

=
2
) (
2
C
,
} }

I
= I =
t
to
u u
o o
0
0
2
0
2 /
2 /
,
2
sin
2
2
) (
2
C
S V
b
d
b
S V
dy y
S V
i i
b
b
i
i D
The above equation states that the induced drag coefficient is directly
proportional to the square of the lift coefficient.
AR
C
2
,
t
L
i D
C
=
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
The induced drag is a consequence of the presence of the wing-tip vortices,
which in turn are produced by the difference in pressure between the lower
and upper wing surfaces.
The lift is produced by this same pressure difference.
Hence, induced drag is intimately related to the production of lift on a finite
wing; indeed, induced drag is frequently called drag due to lift.
The induced drag coefficient
The dependence of induced drag coefficient on the lift is not surprising, for
the following reason.
AR
C
2
,
t
L
i D
C
=
First property:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
To reduce the induced drag, we want a finite wing with the highest possible
aspect ratio.
Unfortunately, the design of very high aspect ratio wings with sufficient
structural strength is difficult.
Therefore, the aspect ratio of a conventional aircraft is a compromise
between conflicting aerodynamic and structural requirements.
The induced drag coefficient
CDi is inversely proportional to aspect ratio.
AR
C
2
,
t
L
i D
C
=
Second property:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
Assuming that a0 is the same for each section, cl must be constant along
the span. The lift per unit span is given by
Consider a wing with no geometric twist (i.e., is constant along the span)
and no aerodynamic twist (i.e., L=0 is constant along the span).
The local section lift coefficient cl is given by:
( )
0 0
a c
=
=
L eff l
o o
l
l
c q
y
y c cc q y

= =
) ( L
) ( ) ( L
'
'
Third property:
For an elliptic lift distribution, the chord must vary elliptically along the span;
that is, for the condition given above, the wing planform is elliptical.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical Lift Distribution:
Illustration of the related quantities: an elliptic lift distribution,
elliptic planform, and constant downwash
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Although an elliptical lift distribution may appear to be a restricted, isolated case,
in reality it gives a reasonable approximation for the induced drag coefficient for
an arbitrary finite wing.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Elliptical lift distribution:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Supermarine Spitfire Supermarine Spitfire
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
where the coordinate in the spanwise direction is now given by , with 0<=

<=.
In terms of , the elliptic lift distribution
Consider the transformation:
u cos
2
b
y =
u u sin ) (
0
I = I
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
2
0
)
b
y 2
( 1 ) ( I = I y
can be written as
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
This equation hints that a Fourier sine series would be an appropriate
expression for the general circulation distribution along an arbitrary finite wing.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory

= I
N
n
n A bV
1
sin 2 ) ( u u
where as many terms N in the series can be taken as we desire for accuracy.
An must satisfy the fundamental equation of Prandtls lifting-line theory.
dy
d
n nA bV
dy
d
d
d
dy
d
N
n
u
u
u
u

=
I
=
I
1
cos 2
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
Substituting the above equations into the angle of attack equation, we obtain
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory

+ + =
=
N
n L
N
n
n
nA n A
c
b
1
0
0
0 0
1
0
0
0
sin
sin
) ( sin
) (
2
) (
u
u
u o u
u t
u o
This equation is evaluated at a given spanwise location; hence, 0 is specified. In
turn, b, c(0), and L=0(0 ), are known quantities from the geometry and airfoil
section of the finite wing. The only unknowns in the above equation are the Ans.
Hence, written at a given spanwise location, the above equation is one algebraic
equation with N unknowns, A1,A2,, AN.
However, let us choose N different spanwise stations, and let us evaluate the
above equation at each of these N stations. We then obtain a system of N
independent algebraic equations with N unknowns, namely, A1, A2,, AN.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
Now that () is known.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
AR A
S
b
A C
n
n
d n
d n A
S
b
dy y
S V
C
L
N
n
b
b
L
t t
t
u u u
u u u
t
t
1
2
1
0
1
0
2
2 /
2 /
) 1 (
1 (
0
2 /
sin sin
sin sin
2
) (
2
= =

=
=
=
= I =
}

} }

Note that CL depends only on the leading coefficient of the Fourier series expansion.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
The induced drag is obtained by
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
}

}

=
I
=

t
u
u u
u
t t
o
0
0
1
2 /
2 /
0
0
cos cos
cos 1
y - y
) / (
4
1
) ( d
n
A
dy dy d
V
y
N
n
b
b
i
The induced angle of attack is obtained by
}

}
|
.
|

\
|
= I =

t
u u u o u o
0
1
2
2 /
2 /
, D
sin ) ( sin
2
) ( ) (
2
d n A
S
b
dy y y
S V
C
i
N
n
b
b
i i
0
0
0
0
sin
sin
cos cos
cos
u
u t
u
u u
u
t
n
d
n
=

}
0
0
1
0
sin
sin
) (
u
u
u o
n
nA
N
n i
=
Thus,
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
In the above equation, 0 is simply a dummy variable which ranges from 0 to

across the span of the wing; it can therefore be replaced by , and the above
equation can be written as:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
u u u
t
d n nA n A
S
b
N
n
N
n i
) sin ( ) sin (
2
C
1
0
1
2
, D
}

=
Substitute this equation to the drag coefficient equation, we have
u
u
u o
sin
sin
n ) (
1
n
A
N
n i
=
0
0
1
0
sin
sin
) (
u
u
u o
n
nA
N
n i
=
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
In the drag coefficient equation, the mixed product terms involving unequal
subscripts are equal to zero. Hence,
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
] )
A
n( 1 [ ) n ( C
n
2
) n (
2
C
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
1 , D
1
2
1
2
2
, D

+ = + =
= =
N
n
N
n i
N
n
N
n i
A
ARA A A AR
A AR A
S
b
t t
t
t
}

=
=
=
t
t
u u
0
) ( 2 /
) ( 0
sin sin
k m
k m
k m
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
Thus,
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
] 1 [
C
C
2
, D
o
t
+ =
AR
L
i
where
2
1
n
2
A
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

A
N
o
eAR
C
C
L
i D
t
2
,
=
Note that 0;hence, the factor 1+ in the above equation is either
greater than 1 or at least equal to 1. Let us define a span efficiency factor,
e, as e=1/(1+ ).
where e 1. Note that =0 and e =1 for the elliptical lift distribution. Hence,
the lift distribution which yields minimum induced drag is the elliptical lift
distribution.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
General Lift Distribution:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
However, elliptic planforms are
more expensive to manufacture
than, say, a simple rectangular
wing.
On the other hand, a rectangular
wing generates a lift distribution
far from optimum. A compromise
is the tapered wing.
Recall that for a wing with no
aerodynamic twist and no
geometric twist, an elliptical lift
distribution is generated by a wing
with an elliptical planform.
Rectangular wing
Elliptic wing
Tapered wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Effect of Aspect Ratio:
Note that the induced drag
coefficient for a finite wing with a
general lift distribution is inversely
proportional to the aspect ratio.
Note that AR, which typically varies
from 6 to 22 for standard subsonic
airplanes and sailplanes, has a
much stronger effect on CD,i than
the value of .
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Induced drag factor as a function
of taper ratio.
] 1 [
C
C
2
, D
o
t
+ =
AR
L
i
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Effect of Aspect Ratio:
Hence, the primary design factor for
minimizing induced drag is not the
closeness to an elliptical lift
distribution, but rather, the ability to
make the aspect ratio as large as
possible.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Induced drag factor as a function
of taper ratio.
] 1 [
C
C
2
, D
o
t
+ =
AR
L
i
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Effect of Aspect Ratio:
There are two primary differences between airfoil
and finite-wing properties.
1. A finite wing generates induced drag.
2. The lift slope is not the same.
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
const
AR
C
C
const C
d
dC
L
L
i L
i
L
+ =
+ =
=

) (
) (
) (
0
0
0
t
o o
o o o
o
o o
AR a
a
a
d
dC
L
t o / 1
0
0
+
= =
o
0
a
L
C
Infinite
wing
0 L=
o
i
o o o =
eff
L
C
a
Finite
elliptic
wing
For a finite wing of general planform, the left
equation is slightly modified
( ) ) 1 ( / 1
0
0
t t + +
=
AR a
a
a
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Example 1:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
055 . 0 = o
( ) ( )
1
0
0
97 . 4
055 . 1 8 / 2 1
2
1 / 1

=
+
=
+ +
AR a
a
a
t t
t
t t
Assume a0=2for thin airfoil theory
00789 . 0
8
055 . 0 1 4335 . 0
) 1 (
2 2
,
=
+
= + =
t
o
t

AR
C
C
L
i D
Consider a finite wing with an aspect ratio of 8 and a taper ratio of 0.8.
The airfoil section is thin and symmetric. Calculate the lift and induced
drag coefficients for the wing when its angle of attack is 5. Assume
that =.
Solution:
Since the airfoil is symmetric, aL=0=0. Thus,
4335 . 0 ) 5 ( deg 0867 . 0
0 1
= = =

ree a C
L
o
From a figure in the textbook, we can obtain
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Example 2:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
423 . 0 =
L
C
1787 . 0
055 . 0 1
001 . 0 6
1
C
, 2
L
=
+
=
+
=
t
o
t
i D
ARC
The lift slope of this wing is therefore
Consider a rectangular wing with an aspect ratio of 6, and induced drag factor
=0.055, and a zero lift angle of attack of -2. At an angle of attack of 3.4, the
induced drag coefficient for this wing is 0.01. Calculate the induced drag for a
similar wing at the same angle of attack, but with an aspect ratio of 10. Assume
that the induced factors for drag and the lift slope, and , respectively, are
equal to each other. Also, for AR=10, =0.105.
Solution:
Hence,
d
dC
L
/ 485 . 4 deg / 078 . 0
) 2 ( 4 . 3
423 . 0
0 0
= =

=
o
Firstly, let us calculate CL for the wing with aspect ratio 6.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Example 2:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
Solving for a0, we find that this yields a0=5.989/rad. Since the second wing (with
AR=10) has the same airfoil section, then a0 is the same. The lift slope of the
second wing is given by
Consider a rectangular wing with an aspect ratio of 6, and induced drag factor
=0.055, and a zero lift angle of attack of -2. At an angle of attack of 3.4, the
induced drag coefficient for this wing is 0.01. Calculate the induced drag for a
similar wing at the same angle of attack, but with an aspect ratio of 10. Assume
that the induced factors for drag and the lift slope, and , respectively, are
equal to each other. Also, for AR=10, =0.105.
Solution:
The lift slope for the airfoil can be obtained by
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
0
056 . 0 1 055 . 0 1 6 / 1
485 . 4
1 / 1
a
a
a
a
AR a
a
a
d
dC
L
+
=
+ +
=
+ +
= =

t
t t o
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Example 2:
5.3 Prandtls Classical Lifting-Line Theory
The lift coefficient for the second wing is therefore
Consider a rectangular wing with an aspect ratio of 6, and induced drag factor
=0.055, and a zero lift angle of attack of -2. At an angle of attack of 3.4, the
induced drag coefficient for this wing is 0.01. Calculate the induced drag for a
similar wing at the same angle of attack, but with an aspect ratio of 10. Assume
that the induced factors for drag and the lift slope, and , respectively, are
equal to each other. Also, for AR=10, =0.105.
Solution:
For AR=10
( ) ( )
AR a
a
a / 95 . 4
105 . 0 1 10 / 989 . 5 1
989 . 5
1 / 1
0
0
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
t t t
0076 . 0
10
105 . 0 1 464 . 0
) 1 (
2 2
,
=
+
= + =
t
o
t

AR
C
C
L
i D
464 . 0 ] 2 ( 4 . 3 [ 086 . 0 ) (
0 0
0 L
= = =
=

L
a C o o
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
Consider the most general case of a finite wing of given planform and geometric
twist, with different airfoil sections at different spanwise stations. Assume that we
have experimental data for the lift curves of the airfoil sections, including the
nonlinear regime. A numerical iterative solution for the finite-wing properties can
be obtained as follows:
1: Divide the wing into a number of
spanwise stations. Here k+1 stations
are shown, with n designating any
specific station.
y
y
1 2 3 n k k+1
For the given wing at a given , assume the lift distribution along the span; that
is, assume values for at all the stations 1, 2,., n,, k+1 . An elliptical
lift distribution is satisfactory for such an assumed distribution.
2:
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
3:
With this assumed variation of

calculate the induced angle of attack
i
y
y
1 2 3 n k k+1
Using i from step 3, obtain the effective angle of attack eff at each station
form
4:
}

I
=
2 /
2 /
) / (
4
1
) (
b
b
n
n i
y y
dy dy d
V
y
t
o
1
1
6 , 4 , 2
1
1
) / ( ) / (
4
) / (
3 4
1
) (
+
+
=

I
+

I
+

I
A
=

j n
j
j n
j
k
j
j n
j
n i
y y
dy d
y y
dy d
y y
dy d
y
V
y
t
o
The integral is evaluated numerically.
By using Simpsons rule,
) ( ) (
n i n eff
y y o o o =
where y is the distance between stations.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
5:
With the distribution of eff calculated from step 4, obtain the section lift
coefficient (cl)n at each station. These values are read from the known lift
curve for the airfoil.
6:
n l n n
n l n n n
c c V y
c c V y V y L
) (
2
1
) (
) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2 '

= I
= I =
where cn is the local section chord. Keep in mind that in all the above
steps, n ranges from 1 to k+1.
From (cl)n obtained in step 5, a new circulation distribution is calculated from
the Kutta-J oukowski theorem and the definition of lift coefficient:
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
7:
The new distribution of obtained in step 6 is compared with the values
that were initially fed into step 3. If the results from step 6 do not agree with
the input to step 3, then a new input is generated. If the previous input to
step 3 is designated as old and the result of step 6 is designated as new,
then the new input to step 3 is determined from
8:
) (
old new old input
D I I + I = I
where D is a damping factor for the iterations.
Steps 3 to 7 are repeated a sufficient number of cycles until new and old
agree at each spanwise station to within acceptable accuracy.
From the converged (y), the lift and induced drag coefficients are obtained.
The integrations in these equation can again be carried out by Simpsons
rule.
9:
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
Lift coefficient versus angle of attack
The numerical lifting-line solution at high angle of attack agrees with the
experiment to within 20 percent, and much closer for many cases.
Therefore, such solutions give reasonable preliminary engineering
results for the high-angle-of-attack poststall region.
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.4 A numerical nonlinear lifting-line method
where D is a damping factor for the iterations.
Surface oil flow pattern on a stalled, finite rectangular wing
with a Clark Y-14 airfoil section.
At high angle of attack, there is a strong spanwise flow, in combination with
mushroom-shaped flow separation regions.
Clearly, the basic assumptions of lifting-line theory, classical or numerical,
cannot properly account for such three-dimensional flows.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Supersonic airplanes usually have highly swept wings.
A special case of swept wings is those aircraft with a triangular planform - called delta
wings.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Question:
Since delta-winged aircraft are high-
speed vehicles, why are we discussing
this topic in the present chapter, which
deals with the low-speed,
incompressible flow over finite wings?
All high-speed aircraft fly at low speeds
for takeoff and landing;
Moreover, in most cases, these aircraft spend the vast majority of their flight time
at subsonic speeds, using their supersonic capability for short supersonic dashes,
depending on their mission.
Therefore, the low-speed aerodynamics of delta wings has been a subject of much
serious study over the past years.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Variants:
There are several variants of the basic
delta wing used on modern aircraft:
(a) Simple delta
(b) Cropped delta
(c) Notched delta
(d) Double delta
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Leading-edge vortices over the top surface of a delta wing at angle of attack. The
vortices are made visible by dye streaks in water flow.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
The flow field in the crossflow plane above a delta wing at angle of attack, showing
the two primary leading-edge vortices. The vortices are made visible by small air
bubbles in water.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Schematic of the spanwise pressure coefficient
distribution across a delta wing.
Pressure over the bottom surface:
The spanwise variation of pressure over
the bottom surface is essentially
constant and higher than the free stream
pressure.
Pressure over the top surface:
The spanwise variation in the midsection
of the wing is essentially constant and
lower than the freestream pressure.
However, near the leading edge the
static pressure drops considerably.
creating a strong suction on the top
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
The suction effect of the leading-edge vortices enhances the lift; for this reason,
the lift coefficient curve for a delta wing exhibits an increase in CL for values of
at which conventional wing planforms would be stalled.
Note the following characteristics:
1. The lift slope is small, on the order
of 0.05/degree.
2. The lift continues to increase to
large values of ; the stalling angle of
attack is on the order of 35. The net
result is a reasonable value of CL,max,
on the order of 1.3.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Schematic of the spanwise pressure coefficient
distribution over the top of a delta wing as
The direction of the suction due to
modified.
Since the pressure is low over this
frontal area, the net drag can
decrease.
5.5 The Delta Wing
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Vortical flow over a 70 degree delta wing at an angle of
attack of 30 degrees
Vortex breakdown
The primary vortices begin
to fall apart somewhere
along the length of the
vortex when a delta wing is
at a high enough angle of
attack.
In summary, the delta wing is a common planform for supersonic aircraft. The low-
speed aerodynamics of these wings are quite different from a conventional planform.
5.6 Ludwig Prandtl - Father of modern aerodynamics
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953)
Major contributions:
1. Thin airfoil theory.
2. Finite-wing theory.
3. Boundary-layer concept.
4. Compressibility corrections.
5. Supersonic shock and expansion-wave theory.
Ludwig Prandtl was a German scientist. He was a
pioneer in the development of rigorous systematic
mathematical analyses which he used to underlay the
science of aerodynamics, which have come to form the
basis of the applied science of aeronautical engineering.
Hubert Ludwieg, Hermann Schlichting,
Theodore von Krmn, Reinhold Rudenberg
Notable students:
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.7 Summary
i eff
o o o =
The wing-tip vortices from a finite wing induce a downwash which
reduces the angle of attack effectively seen by a local airfoil section:
In turn, the presence of downwash results in a component of drag
defined as the induced drag Di.
Downwash
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.7 Summary
3
4
r
r dl I
=
t
dV
Vortex sheets and vortex filaments are useful in modeling the
aerodynamics of finite wings.
The velocity induced by a directed segment dl of a vortex filament is
given by the Biot-Savart law:
Vortex Filament
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.7 Summary
}

I
+ +
I
=
2 /
2 /
0
0 0
0
0
0
) / (
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
b
b
L
y y
dy dy d
V
y
y c V
y
y
t
o
t
o
In Prandtls classical lifting-line theory, the finite wing is replaced by a
single spanwise lifting line along which the circulation (y) varies.
A system of vortices trails downstream from the lifting line, which
induces a downwash at the lifting line.
The circulation distribution is determined from the fundamental equation
Prandtls classical lifting-line theory
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
Chapter 5 Incompressible Flow Over Finite Wings
5.7 Summary
AR a
a
a
AR
C
C
AR
C
b
w
L
i D
L
i
t
t
t
o
/ 1
2
0
0
2
,
0
+
=
=
=
I
=
Results from classical lifting-line theory:
Prandtls classical lifting-line theory
Elliptic wing:
Downwash is constant:
General wing:
) 1 )( / ( 1
1
0
0
2 2
,
t t
t
o
t
+ +
=
= + =
AR a
a
a
eAR
C
AR
C
C
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i D