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Internet use and academic achievement: gender differences

in early adolescence.
As a new medium of learning in the twenty-first century, the Internet has brought unprecedented
opportunities to students. To capitalize upon such opportunities, schools and families eagerly
facilitate Internet use, particularly in East Asia East Asia
A region of Asia coextensive with the Far East.
East Asian adj. & n. , where academic achievement remains the top priority at school. At the same
time, however, the Internet has also become a major concern for parents, because some online
activities may seriously distract adolescents from their homework. For parents and educators alike,
therefore, it is important to determine whether and how Internet use is linked to academic
achievement, a key outcome of school learning.
Previous studies have been inconclusive INCONCLUSIVE. What does not put an end to a thing.
Inconclusive presumptions are those which may be overcome by opposing proof; for example, the
law presumes that he who possesses personal property is the owner of it, but evidence is allowed to
contradict this presumption, and show who is about the relation between Internet use and
academic achievement. Among high school students, for example, the amount of time using the
Internet has little to do with individuals' academic achievement. Furthermore, students' grade point
averages (GPA GPA
abbr.
grade point average
Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated
by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted ) are not closely
correlated correlate
v. correlated, correlating, correlates
v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with specific activities, such as searching for information, E-mailing, and playing games (Hunley
et al., 2005). Among college students, however, searching information online about course materials
helps boost intellectual development and facilitates preparation for future jobs. In contrast, heavily
indulging in online recreation has been closely linked to impaired academic performance (Kubey,
Lavin, & Barrows, 2001; Kuh & Hu, 2001).
Internet use varies greatly by what students do online and how they do it. Like many other domains
in adolescente, the content and other patterns of Internet use also differ widely between boys and
girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua.
. Does such a gender gap account for the lack of consistent findings about how these activities are
linked with academic achievement? For example, does any one specific online activity help boost
academic achievement for boys and girls alike? Or is it possible that boys benefit from one activity
while girls gain from another?
Following consistent findings about the gender gap in Internet use, this paper examines whether
and how male and female adolescents differ in the ways various aspects of Internet use affect
academic achievement. These aspects include the overall frequency of using the Internet, activities
students engage in online (such as information seeking Information seeking is the process or activity
of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. Information seeking
is related to, but yet different from, information retrieval (IR). , chatting and socializing with friends,
and playing games), the location where they use the Internet, and whether parents regulate such
use. Data were drawn from the Taiwan Youth Project, a panel survey series that has followed 2,690
youths from grade 7 (age 13) since 2001.
BACKGROUND
Internet Use and Academic Achievement
Some studies have suggested a positive association between college students' Internet use and their
learning. In Suhail and Bargee's (2006) survey study with 200 university students from Pakistan,
around three quarters of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample
drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or
confirm marketing strategy. noted positive effects of Internet use on their learning in at least
three aspects. First, Internet use improved their grades. Second, the Internet expanded their
reading, writing, and information-processing skills. Third, the Internet has proved a helpful tool in
their studies. In another study, Kuh and Hu (2001) used data (collected with the College Student
Experiences Questionnaire) from 71 four-year colleges and universities in the United States United
States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi
(9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in
population and the fourth largest country in area. (N = 18,344) and found that surfing the Internet
for course material had positive net effects on intellectual development and vocational preparation,
in addition to personal development.
Other studies have found a negative link between college students' Internet use and academic
performance. For example, non-heavy Internet users had higher academic grades than heavy
Internet users as a group (Chen & Peng, 2008). In another study, at a large public university in the
United States (N = 572) significantly more students believed that their academic performance had
been impaired when they were involved in heavy recreational Internet use, defined as usage of
synchronous Refers to events that are synchronized, or coordinated, in time. For example, the
interval between transmitting A and B is the same as between B and C, and completing the current
operation before the next one is started are considered synchronous operations. Contrast with
asynchronous. , computer-mediated communication (CMC (Common Messaging Calls) A
programming interface specified by the XAPIA as the standard messaging API for X.400 and other
messaging systems. CMC is intended to provide a common API for applications that want to become
mail enabled.
1. ), such as multi-user domains (MUDs) and Internet Relay Chat See IRC.
(chat, messaging) Internet Relay Chat - (IRC) /I-R-C/, occasionally /*rk/ A client-server chat system of
large (often worldwide) networks. IRC is structured as networks of Internet servers, each accepting
connections from client programs, one per user. (IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Computer
conferencing on the Internet. There are hundreds of IRC channels on numerous subjects that are
hosted on IRC servers around the world. After joining a channel, your messages are broadcast to
everyone listening to that channel. ) (Kubey, Lavin, & Barrows, 2001).
Although Internet use has been equally popular among high school students, relatively fewer studies
have explored how Internet use is linked to academic achievement among these adolescents. One
rare study (Hunley et al., 2005) recruited 10th-grade students from science and social studies
classes at three public high schools in Ohio This is a list of high schools in the state of Ohio. Adams
County
Adams County Christian School, West Union
Manchester High School, Manchester
North Adams High School, Seaman
Ohio Valley Career and Technical Center, West Union
and asked them to keep a log of their computer use for one full week. Using GPA as the indicator,
the study found no significant relation between academic achievement and the amount of time spent
on the Internet. Nor did such achievement have any noticeable association with such online
activities as searching for information, playing games, or Emailing.
In view of the lack of consistent evidence supporting an association between Internet use and
academic achievement, it appears that the Internet may not play a major role in adolescents'
learning. As suggested earlier, however, previous studies may have overlooked gender differences in
Internet use among adolescents. Taking such a key factor into account, the current study aims to
compare and contrast what aspects of Internet use affect the school learning among boys and girls,
respectively.
Gender Differences in Internet Use
Studies have suggested that even though the gender gap in computer use is closing among
adolescents, boys and girls still differ greatly in what they do online (Clemente, 1998; Imhof,
Vollmeyer, & Beierlein, 2007; Odell, Korgen, Schumacher, & Delucchi, 2000). Whereas more female
adolescents use the Internet to search for information (Chen & Peng, 2008; Lin & Yu, 2008; Odell et
al., 2000) and for E-mail (Chen & Peng, 2008; Lin & Yu, 2008; Odell et al., 2000; Sherman et al.,
2000), more male adolescents use the Internet to play games (Chen & Peng, 2008; Griffiths, Davies,
& Chappell, 2004; Lin & Yu, 2008; Odell et al., 2000; Sherman et al., 2000).
Such gender differences prevail from elementary school elementary school: see school. through
college in some societies. Ina study of 5th and 6th graders in Taiwan, for example, Lin and Yu (2008)
found that boys tended to spend a little more time than girls in terms of weekly use of the Internet.
They also differed significantly in their top three online activities: the percentages of time girls spent
searching for homework information and using e-mail were higher than those of boys; in" contrast,
boys played games more often than did girls.
The patterns remain about the same among college students, at least in the United States and
Taiwan. For example, Odell et al. (2000) surveyed American college students from five states and
found that more female than male students used the Internet for E-mailing and research, while more
male students played online games. Sherman et al. (2000) also investigated the Internet gender gap
among American college students by comparing the usage patterns of three student cohorts in 1997,
1998, and 1999. Male college students participated more in WWW WWW or W3: see World Wide
Web.
(World Wide Web) The common host name for a Web server. The "www-dot" prefix on Web
addresses is widely used to provide a recognizable way of identifying a Web site. surfing,
newsgroups This is a list of newsgroups that are significant for their popularity or their position in
Usenet history.
As of October 2002, there are about 100,000 Usenet newsgroups, of which approximately a fifth are
active. , MUDs (multi-user, real-time virtual world online gaming See gaming. ), and chat groups,
while female students reported significantly higher E-mail use. Based on a large national survey in
Taiwan, Chen and Peng (2008) also found that whereas males spent more time playing online games
than did females, females spent more time searching for academic information, as well as making
friends and chatting.
Male and female adolescents also differ markedly in terms of where they access the Internet. As
revealed in study after study, boys visit Internet Cafes more often than their female counterparts,
who use the Internet mostly at home and at school (Hsu & Chuang, 2008; Lin & Yu, 2008; Wu &
Cheng, 2007). Internet Cafes may indeed provide a convenient environment and fast access to the
Internet so that customers can concentrate on their work without interference from others (Wu &
Cheng, 2007). Such a setting, however, has also become a place for adolescents to indulge
indulge
v. indulged, indulging, indulges
v.tr.
1. To yield to the desires and whims of, especially to an excessive degree; humor.
2.
a. in online games. While Internet Cafes are seen as a masculine MASCULINE. That which belongs
to the male sex.
2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man,
and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et
Donations Testamentaires, n. gaming space and are thus considered highly gendered (Wu &
Cheng, 2007; Hsu & Chuang, 2008), parents and teachers may become concerned that those who
overly indulge in the Internet, especially boys, will tend to lag behind academically. As found in a
large survey, high school students in Taiwan who spent more time playing online games had lower
academic achievement in later school years (Chen & Lu, in press). Although the association is only
marginally significant, it raises an important issue as to the role of gender differences in
understanding how Internet use is correlated with academic achievement.
HYPOTHESES
Previous studies have shown some associations between Internet use and academic achievement,
while gender differences in online activities and the location of use of the Internet are well
documented. By taking into account gender differences in patterns of Internet use, the current study
aims to reexamine reexamine also re-examine
tr.v. reexamined, reexamining, reexamines
1. To examine again or anew; review.
2. Law To question (a witness) again after cross-examination. the association between Internet use
and academic achievement. Based on the above review, the following hypotheses were formulated.
Hypothesis 1. Adolescents' academic achievement partly depends on their activities on the Internet
earlier in their school years.
1a. Academic achievement will be higher if they use the Internet more often to search for
information.
1b. Achievement will be lower if they use the Internet to socialize socialize
v. socialized, socializing, socializes
v.tr.
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. .
1c. Achievement will be lower if they use the Internet to play games.
Hypothesis 2. Academic achievement will be impaired if adolescents use the Internet Cafe The high-
tech equivalent of the coffee house. However, instead of playing chess or having heated political
discussions, you browse the Internet and discuss the latest technology. CDs, DVDs, games and other
"cyber stuff" are also generally available. more often for online activities.
Hypothesis 3. The association between Internet use and academic achievement differs between male
and female adolescents.
METHOD
Sample and Data Collection
Data were taken from the Taiwan Youth Project (TYP TYP Typical
TYP Type
TYP Typist
TYP Tribal Youth Program
TYP Take Your Pick
TYP Transitional Year Program (higher education)
TYP Ten Year Plan
TYP Taiwan Yellow Pages
TYP Thank You, Partner ), a laptop review panel study based at the Academia Sinica
For the institution in mainland China, see Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The Academia Sinica (Chinese: ?????; Pinyin:
in Taiwan. The project was started in the year 2000 and has conducted 8 waves of interviews as of
the end of 2008. Students were sampled from middle schools (ages 13-15) located in the northern
part of Taiwan: Taipei City, Taipei County Taipei County (Traditional Chinese: ??? or ???; Hanyu
Pinyin: Tib?i Xi n; Tongyong Pinyin: Tib?i Si n; Wade-Giles: T'ai-pei Hsien; Pe?h-?e-j?: Ti-
pak-ko?n) is located in northern Taiwan and encircles Taipei , and Yi-Lan County, using the multi-
stage, stratified stratified /stratified/ (strati-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
stratified
adj.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling
technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in
marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters)
and a sample of the groups is selected. method. For the first wave of the survey, 40 middle schools
were randomly selected. In each school, two classes of 7th graders were chosen at random. All
students in these classes, one of each of their parents, and their homeroom homeroom
n.
A school classroom to which a group of pupils of the same grade are required to report each day.
Noun 1. homeroom
teachers were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires.
The initial successful samples included 2,690 students. The respondents were re-interviewed each
year afterwards afterward also afterwards
adv.
At a later time; subsequently.
afterwards or afterward
Adverb
later [Old English fterweard]
Adv. 1. , with 2,683, 2,663, and 2,354 students retained in the second, third, and fourth waves of the
surveys, respectively. For the purpose of this study, data were drawn from the second wave of the
student survey when the student respondents were in the 8th grade. Only the dependent variables,
the standardized test score of the high school entrance examination, was taken from the data
collected in the third wave. This test score measures students' academic achievement at the end of
9th grade.
Since many students did not report their scores, the number of valid cases dropped to 1,409. We
conducted t-tests and Chi-square analyses to check for the differences in any aspect of Internet use
between the respondents that provided their test score and those that did not. The only difference
that turned out to be significant was the use of Internet Cafes: more students who did not provide
their test scores visited Internet Cafes than those who did provide their scores (p < .05). Although
the remaining valid cases are somewhat biased toward the non-Internet Cafe users, we expect the
findings to be useful for the understanding of how Internet use is associated with academic
achievement among most adolescents.
Measures
Dependent variable. As noted, the dependent variable--the self-reported test score in the high school
entrance exam--measures students' academic achievement at the end of the 9th grade as the major
outcome. The valid scores ranged from 30 to 289 in the sample, with a mean score of 168.1 (see
Table 1).
Independent variables. All independent variables were taken from the students' survey in the 8th
grade. For overall frequency of Internet use, respondents reported how often they used the Internet:
"at least once a day," "two or three times a week," "once a week," "seldom," or "never." The answers
were recorded in reverse order so that a higher number indicated more frequent use. For online
activities, respondents were asked what activities they usually engaged in on the Internet. They
were allowed to choose more than one activity, from: searching for information, chatting and
socializing with friends, playing games, and other activities. Each activity was coded as a dummy
variable This article is not about "dummy variables" as that term is usually understood in
mathematics. See free variables and bound variables.
In regression analysis, a dummy variable . The first three activities attracted about the same number
of students, ranging from 40% to 47%. The location where one gained access to the Internet most
often was divided into three categories: at home, at school, at the Internet Cafes, in addition to
"others" (e.g., at cram schools, at someone else's homes). Only the Internet Cafe (about 11%) was
used as a dummy variable in the analysis. Finally, respondents were asked whether their parents set
rules about certain aspects of their life, including the amount of time spent on Internet use or on
computer games. Over 60% of the students had such parental regulation.
Control variables. To take prior academic achievement into account, we controlled for the
respondents' class ranking in the 8th grade (i.e., 1 = ranked in the last part of the class, to 2 = the
latter part, 3 = ranked between 16-25, 4 = 6-15, or 5 = ranked top 1-5). Since the class size ranged
between 30 and 40 in nearly all sampled classes, the ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism
class of well-ordered sets. categories should be close to a universal measure for prior
achievement. Other controls included gender (male = 1) and father's and mother's education (i.e., 1
= elementary and lower, 2 = middle school, 3 = high school and higher).
Data Analyses
After describing the patterns of Internet use among Taiwanese male and female 8th graders, we first
checked gender differences with Chi-square analyses. Then Pearson correlation was used to identify
the intercorrelations among the variables. Finally, and most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly -
above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , we performed regression analyses to examine how respondents'
academic achievement in the 9th grade varied on the patterns of Internet use in the 8th grade, while
controlling for background variables and academic achievement in the 8th grade. To verify if any of
such variations differed between boys and girls, the regression analyses were repeated after the
sample was split by gender.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Most of the respondents used the Internet two or three times a week. Compared to females, males
were online more frequently (see Table 2). In terms of averages, males and females differed
markedly in every aspect of Internet use. For example, more than half the female respondents used
the Internet to search for information, as well as to chat and socialize. Only about one fourth
indicated they used it to play online games. By contrast, playing games was the most popular
Internet activity for male respondents, with 66% reporting that they usually used the Internet for
games, followed by searching for information (43%), and chatting and socializing (25%). Gender
differences were apparent, as indicated by Chi-square analyses (see Table 2): More female students
searched for information and chatted and socialized socialize
v. socialized, socializing, socializes
v.tr.
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. with friends than did their male
counterparts; while more males noted playing games as an activity they usually engaged in on the
Internet. Likewise, a significantly greater percentage of male respondents reported that they mostly
used the Internet in Internet Cafes. Regarding parental regulation, more male students said their
parents had established rules about how much time they could spend. Choosing a CPU for your
notebook is a crucial primary step. Note that a fourth Generation Intel Core i7-4600U Processor
based on the Haswell microarchitecture provides for a fast and fluid user experience.on the Internet
or playing computer games.
Table 3 presents the intercorrelations among variables. All variables related to the patterns of
Internet use in the 8th grade were significantly correlated with academic achievement in the 9th
grade. While overall frequency of Internet use, Internet use for searching for information, and
parental regulation of time spent on Internet use were positively correlated with later academic
achievement, chatting and socializing, playing games online, and going to Internet Cafes were
negatively correlated.
Some of these associations remained significant after background variables were taken into account.
All of these background variables, gender, father's and mother's education, and prior academic
achievement (in the 8th grade) helped explain academic achievement in the 9th grade, accounting
for 58.5% of the total variance (Model 1, Table 4). As one would expect, academic achievement in
the 8th grade had the greatest impact on subsequent academic achievement.
When all the background variables were held constant, the frequency of Internet use alone turned
out to be a nonsignificant nonsignificant
adj.
1. Not significant.
2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for
being of random occurrence. factor in understanding how well a student performed on the high
school entrance exam Noun 1. entrance exam - examination to determine a candidate's preparation
for a course of studies
entrance examination
exam, examination, test - a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; "when the
test was stolen the professor had to . What they did on the Internet, however, remained critical to
how they performed academically. For example, those who used the Internet to search for
information outscored those who did not by 11.28 points (p < .001, Model 2). By contrast, students
who used the Internet for chatting and socializing underperformed by an average of 6.32 points.
Those who played online games also scored 6.35 lower, on average (p < .01, Model 2). Thus,
regardless of gender, parents' education, and how well they were doing academically a year ago,
what the adolescents did on the Internet continued to clearly distinguish who scored better on the
high school entrance exam. The findings confirm Hypotheses 1a, 1b, and 1c. Spending time on the
Internet per se had no definite implication for students' academic achievement, but the types of
online activities indeed played a key role.
The same negative effect also lingered from the use of Internet Cafes. Even among students who
shared a similar background and engaged in the same Internet activities, those who went to Internet
Cafes consistently performed more poorly on the entrance exam, lowering the score by 7.39 points,
on average (p < .05, Model 3, Table 4). Such an effect remained significant even after we also
controlled for parental regulation (a factor that helped raise the score itself). Therefore, even when
these adolescents were identical or similar in background factors, prior academic achievement, the
frequency and the activities they did online, and under similar parental regulation, going to Internet
Cafes alone weakened their academic performance. Hypotheses 2 is thus confirmed.
Although the combined contribution of Internet use was relatively small, given the rigorous
statistical controls we employed and the prospective longitudinal longitudinal
adj.
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. design of the study (which
involved a one-year gap between independent variables and the dependent variable), it is impressive
that their regression coefficients reached the level of significance at p < .05 or p < .001. Consistent
with the zero-order correlation, Internet use for searching for information was positively linked with
later academic achievement, whereas chatting and socializing with friends, playing games, and the
use of Internet Cafes were negatively linked to that achievement.
Previous studies have suggested that male and female
adolescents differ markedly in what they do on the
Internet and where they go online. To disentangle any
gender differences in the association between Internet
use and academic achievement, therefore, we split the
full sample by gender and proceeded with further
analyses within each group. As expected, the effects from
the background variables remained very important and
substantial in both groups. How well boys and girls did
on the high school entrance exam was definitely affected by both parents' education and the
students' class ranking in the 8th grade (Table 5), consistent with findings in Table 4. The effects of
Internet use, however, differed somewhat between males and females.
For boys, searching for information online proved to be a positive and important factor in the exam
score (p < .001, Models 1 & 2, Table 5). Among the three other factors pertaining pertain
intr.v. pertained, pertaining, pertains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to Internet use that resulted in negative impacts on the full sample, however, only playing
online games had a significant and negative effect among boys (Model 1). Part of such an effect was
determined by where the male adolescents played the games and the extent of parent regulation
(Model 2). That is, although that negative effect lost part of its significance after Internet Cafe and
parental regulation were added into the model (Model 2), playing online games remained the only
factor in using the Internet that hindered academic achievement. Within the male subsample
subsample
n.
A sample drawn from a larger sample.
tr.v. subsampled, subsampling, subsamples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample). , furthermore, parental regulation turned out to be
another factor that helped students score better on the entrance exam, an effect that only emerged
after splitting the full sample.
The female subsample revealed a somewhat different pattern as to how Internet use was linked to
academic achievement. There tend to be several selections for you to take consideration when
selecting the personal computer. Therefore, we have provided some information for you to make the
choice easier.Like boys, girls who went online to search for information also scored significantly
better than those who did not (p < .001, Model 3). Unlike their male counterparts, however, female
adolescents did not score worse if they used the Internet to play games. Rather, poor performance
on the exam was significantly linked to earlier Internet use for chatting and socializing (p < .05,
Model 3). Also unlike boys, parental regulation did not help girls score better (Model 4).
Therefore, not only did male and female adolescents differ in the kinds of activities they mostly
engaged in on the Internet and where they went online, but the ways such Internet use linked to
later academic achievement also varied. While both boys and girls gained from using the Internet as
a main source of information, only boys suffered by going online for playing games, and only girls
scored poorly if they used the Internet mainly for social purposes. Thus, the previous findings with
the full sample are partly correct, and the current findings with split subsamples partly confirm
Hypothesis 3. These findings call for modifications along the gender line: The positive effects of
Internet use on academic achievement apply to boys and girls alike, but one needs to stipulate
stipulate 1
v. stipulated, stipulating, stipulates
v.tr.
1.
a. To lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract.
b. the negative effects more discriminately discriminate
v. discriminated, discriminating, discriminates
v.intr.
1.
a. in terms of gender. Using academic performance as the yardstick, an overuse overuse Health
care The common use of a particular intervention even when the benefits of the intervention don't
justify the potential harm or cost-eg, prescribing antibiotics for a probable viral URI. Cf Misuse,
Underuse. of the Internet for social purposes makes girls particularly vulnerable whereas
indulging in online games is especially harmful to boys.
CONCLUSION
Gender differences in online activities are substantial among Taiwanese adolescents, a finding
consistent with a study on Taiwanese 5th and 6th graders (Lin & Yu 2008) and with Western studies
on high school and college students (Chen & Peng, 2008; Griffiths, Davies, & Chappell, 2004; Odetl
et al., 2000; Sherman et al., 2000). On average, male students use the Internet more frequently than
do female students. They use the Internet for recreational purposes (e.g., online games) more often
than their female counterparts. In contrast, female students use the Internet more to search for
information and to chat and socialize with friends. Boys also visit Internet Cafe more often to gain
access to the Internet and have more parental regulation of their Internet use.
Patterns of Internet use are closely linked to academic achievement later in middle school. Although
the frequency of using the Internet in the 8th grade is not a key factor in distinguishing who scores
better on the high school entrance exam, what students do online clearly distinguishes such
academic performance. While using the Internet to search for information is positively linked with
later academic performance, Internet use for recreational and social purposes exerts a negative
impact on academic achievement. These results are generally consistent with prior studies of
American college students (Kubey, Lavin, & Barrows, 2001; Kuh & Hu, 2001). In addition, using
Internet Cafes as the location for accessing the Internet exerts a negative effect on later academic
achievement.
Most importantly, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. further regression analyses, males and females differ not only in their patterns of Internet use,
but in how these patterns affect their academic performance. For female students, the most popular
online activity in the 8th grade is chatting and socializing. The more time they spend on this activity,
the lower their scores on the high school entrance exam a year later, an effect absent among boys.
By contrast, it is gaming, the most popular online activity for males, that significantly lowers boys'
scores, but not girls'. Furthermore, Internet Cafes and parental regulation of Internet use partly
explain why gaming lowers male students' later test scores, a further modification unique to boys. As
a recent study found in the United Kingdom, boys who play computer games often are more likely
than girls to quarrel QUARREL. A dispute; a difference. In law, particularly in releases, which are
taken most strongly against the releasor, when a man releases all quarrels he is said to release all
actions, real and personal. 8 Co. 153. with their parents when facing parental regulation
(Livingstone (2007). While parental regulation helps boost performance on entrance exams, playing
online games alone hurts scores, even after taking into account such regulation and other aspects of
Internet use.
Thus, among students who share similar background characteristics and are at the same academic
level in 8th grade, what they do on the Internet, rather than how often they go online, has important
implications for how well they will achieve on one of the most important exams of their lives. During
such a process, not only does gender make a difference in the patterns of Internet use, but it also
plays a key role in differentiating what kinds of online activities help or hinder hinder 1
v. hindered, hindering, hinders
v.tr.
1. To be or get in the way of.
2. To obstruct or delay the progress of.
v.intr. students' academic achievement in middle school. In studying how the Internet affects
learning or how well students perform in early adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of
puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls
approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological
changes. , then, gender remains a critical factor that deserves further examination. When more
cross-national or cross-cultural data become available, it would be even more fruitful fruitful
adj.
1.
a. Producing fruit.
b. Conducive to productivity; causing to bear in abundance: fruitful soil.
2. to examine the linkage between Internet use and academic achievement. Such a comparative
perspective would further identify the extent to which the current findings can be applied in various
social and cultural contexts.
REFERENCES
Chen, S. Y., & Lu, L. (in press). After-school time use in Taiwan: Its effects on educational
achievement and well-being. Adolescence.
Chen, Y. F., & Peng, S. S. (2008). University students' Internet use and its relationships with
academic performance, interpersonal interpersonal
adj.
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. relationships, psychosocial psychosocial /psychosocial/ (si?ko-soshul) pertaining to or
involving both psychic and social aspects.
psychosocial
adj.
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This article drew upon data from the Taiwan Youth Project (TYP), a panel study funded by the
Academia Sinica as a thematic thematic
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or being a theme: a scene of thematic importance.
2. program from 2004 to 2007 (grant number AS-93-TP-C01, http://www.typ.sinica.edu.tw/). Part
of the research framework of this paper was also taken from the first author's research project
sponsored by the National Science Council, Taiwan (grant number NSC NSC
abbr.
National Security Council
Noun 1. NSC - a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on
foreign and military and national security; supervises the Central Intelligence Agency 98-2410-
H-007-004-MY2).
Fu, Yang-Chih, Ph.D., Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Requests for reprints should be sent to Su-Yen Chen, Ph.D. Center for Teacher Education, National
Tsing Hua University, 221 Education Building, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu, TAIWAN, 30013.
E-mail: suychen@mx.nthu.edu.tw
Table 1 Summary of Variables
Variables Means S.D. Min. Max.
Independent variables
Male 0.506 0.500 0 1
Father's educational level
(1=elementary or lower,
2=middle school, 3 = high 1.754 0.718 1 3
school or higher) Mother's
educational level (1 =
elementary or lower,
2 = middle school, 3 = high 1.630 0.659 1 3
school or higher)
Frequency of Internet use 2.166 1.255 0 4
Internet use for searching 0.475 0.500 0 1
information
Internet use for chatting 0.403 0.491 0 1
and socializing with friends
Internet use for playing games 0.464 0.499 0 1
Interest use in Interest Cafe 0.112 0.316 0 1
Parental regulation on 0.604 0.489 1 1
Interest use
8th academic achievement 3.540 1.045 1 5
(ranking in the class)
Dependent variable
9th grade academic achievement 168.1 53.5 30 289
(test scores of high-
school entrance exam)
Table 2 Gender Differences in Patterns of Internet Use
Male Female
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Frequency of Internet use 2.26 (1.276) 2.07 (1.226)
Internet use for searching
information 0.43 (0.496) 0.52 (0.500)
Internet use for chatting and
socializing with friends 0.25 (0.436) 0.56 (0.497)
Internet use for playing games 0.66 (0.475) 0.27 (0.442)
Internet use in Internet Cafe 0.16 (0.364) 0.07 (0.256)
Parental regulation on
Internet use 0.70 (0.459) 0.51 (0.500)
[chi square]
Frequency of Internet use 17.138 *
Internet use for searching
information 8.332 *
Internet use for chatting and
socializing with friends 115.978 ***
Internet use for playing games 189.333 ***
Internet use in Internet Cafe 25.777 ***
Parental regulation on
Internet use 53.798 ***
* p <.05, ** p <.01 *** p < .001
Table 3 Inter-correlations Among Variables
1 2 3 4
1. Gender 1.000
2. Father's
education 0.033 1.000
3. Mother's
education 0.010 0.622 *** 1.000
4. Prior
achievement -0.100 *** 0.106 *** 0.141 *** 1.000
5. Freq. of
Internet use 0.079 * 0.148 *** 0.152 *** 0.128 ***
6. Search for
info. -0.082 * 0.079 * 0.138 *** 0.179 ***
7. Chat and
socialize -0.307 *** -0.037 -0.007 -0.019
8. Play
games 0.392 *** -0.017 -0.049 -0.115 ***
9. Internet
Cafe 0.137 *** -0.066 * -0.091 ** -0.062 *
10. Parental
regulation 0.197 *** 0.080 * 0.071 * -0.007
11. Academic
achievement -0.031 0.331 *** 0.345 *** 0.719 ***
5 6 7 8
1. Gender
2. Father's
education
3. Mother's
education
4. Prior
achievement
5. Freq. of
Internet use 1.000
6. Search for
info. 0.035 1.000
7. Chat and
socialize 0.149 *** -0.022 1.000
8. Play
games 0.118 *** -0.167 *** -0.057 * 1.000
9. Internet
Cafe 0.027 -0.131 *** 0.041 0.218 ***
10. Parental
regulation 0.118 *** 0.009 -0.016 0.075 *
11. Academic
achievement 0.151 *** 0.250 *** -0.086 * -0.134 ***
9 10
l. Gender
2. Father's
education
3. Mother's
education
4. Prior
achievement
5. Freq. of
Internet use
6. Search for
info.
7. Chat and
socialize
8. Play
games
9. Internet
Cafe 1.000
10. Parental
regulation 0.026 1.000
11. Academic
achievement -0.108 *** 0.069 *
* p <.05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001
Table 4 Regression Analyses of Academic Achievement
in the 9th Grade
Model 1 Model 2
Male 3.59 (1.91) 5.03 (2.30) *
Father's education 11.87 (1.69) *** 11.45 (1.75) ***
Mother's education 12.08 (1.84) *** 11.17 (1.91) ***
Prior academic 35.03 (0.94) *** 33.80 (1.02) ***
achievement
Frequency of 0.04 (0.97)
Internet use
Use the Internet to:
search for information 11.28 (2.06) ***
chat and socialize -6.32 (2.17) *
play games -6.35 (2.22) *
Go to Internet Cafe
Parental regulation
Constant 2.23 (4.24) 9.04 (5.10)
N 1283 1142
R-square 0.587 0.592
Adjusted R-square 0.585 0.590
F-value 453.66 *** 205.90 ***
Model 3
Male 4.67 (2.35) *
Father's education 11.30 (1.75) ***
Mother's education 10.78 (1.91) ***
Prior academic 33.80 (1.02) ***
achievement
Frequency of -0.22 (0.97)
Internet use
Use the Internet to:
search for information 10.77 (2.06) ***
chat and socialize -6.05 (2.18) *
play games -5.49 (2.24) *
Go to Internet Cafe -7.39 (3.10) *
Parental regulation 4.18 (2.10) *
Constant 8.81 (5.22)
N 1142
R-square 0.596
Adjusted R-square 0.592
F-value 166.82 ***
* p <.05 ** p <.01 *** p <.001
Table 5 Regression Analyses of
Academic Achievement in the 9th Grade by Gender
Males
Model 1 Model 2
Father's 10.75 (2.40) *** 10.21 (2.38) ***
education
Mother's 12.16 (2.59) *** 12.25 (2.58) ***
education
Prior academic 34.15 (139) *** 34.10 (137) ***
achievement
Freq. of 0.76 (1.34) 0.58 (1.34)
Internet use
Use the
Internet to:
search 10.90 (2.87) *** 10.33 (2.85) ***
for info
chat and -3.00 (3.24) -2.89 (3.21)
socialize
play -10.51 (3.00) *** -8.99 (3.11) *
games
Go to -6.86 (3.77)
Internet
cafe
Parental 8.68 (3.06) *
regulation
Constant 12.67 (6.87) 8.19 (7.17)
N 576 576
R-square 0.632 0.639
Adjusted 0.628 0.634
R-square
F-value 139.41 *** 111.51 ***
Females
Model 1 Model 2
Father's 1234 (2.57) *** 12.31 (2.57) ***
education
Mother's 10.02 (2.83) *** 9.73 (2.86) **
education
Prior academic 32.97 (1.52) *** 32.96 (1.53) ***
achievement
Freq. Of -0.80 (1.41) -0.99 (1.42)
Internet use
Use the
Internet to:
search 10.88 (2.97) *** 10.53 (2.99) ***
for info
chat and -9.31 (2.96) * -8.89 (3.04) *
socialize
play -1.72 (3.32) -1.83 (3.32)
games
Go to -5.13 (5.56)
Internet
cafe
Parental 1.14 (2.94)
regulation
Constant 15.08 (7.56) * 15.85 (7.77) *
N 566 566
R-square 0.554 0.554
Adjusted 0.548 0.547
R-square
F-value 198.82 *** 176.84 ***
* P <.05 ** p <.01 *** p <.001
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