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STUDY OF PERFORMANCE OF A VARIABLE-SPEED WIND TURBINE

WITH PITCH CONTROL BASED ON A PERMANENT MAGNET


SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
Mohamed Mansour
(1)
, M. N. Mansouri
(2)
and M.F.Mimouni
(3)
Unit Research on Power System and Electrical Machines (RME) Tunisia
National Engineering School of Monastir (ENIM) Tunisia
(1)
med.mansour@yahoo.fr
(2)
mohamednejib.mansouri@enim.rnu.tn
(3)
Mfaouzi.mimouni@enim.rnu.tn
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we present a performance study of a
variable pitch wind turbine with a Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The control strategy
used Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) below the
rated speed, which corresponds to low and high wind
speed, and the maximum energy can be captured from the
wind. The Pitch angle control which is the most common
means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind
turbine when wind speed is above rated speed, is applied.
The control scheme is tested for three real profiles of
wind speed and for two reference wind powers. The
effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is evaluated
by simulation results.
Index Terms Variable-speed wind turbine, PMSG,
MPPT, Pitch Control.
1. INTRODUCTION
Wind generation systems are attracting great attentions as
clean and safe renewable power sources. Wind generation
can be operated by constant speed and variable speed
operations using power electronic converters. The wind
turbine can be operated at the maximum power operating
point (MPPT) for various wind speeds by adjusting the
shaft speed optimally to achieve maximum efficiency at
all wind velocities [1]-[2]. All these characteristics are
advantages of the variable-speed wind energy conversion
systems. In order to achieve the maximum power control,
some control schemes have been studied.
Pitch-adjusting variable-speed wind turbines have become
the dominating type of yearly installed wind turbines in
recent years. There are usually two controllers for the
variable-speed wind turbines which are cross-coupled
each other. In low wind speed below rated value, the
speed controller can continuously adjust the speed of the
rotor to maintain the tip speed ratio constant at the level
which gives the maximum power coefficient, and then the
efficiency of the turbine will be significantly increased.
Pitch angle regulation is required in conditions above the
rated wind speed when the rotational speed is kept
constant. Small changes in pitch angle can have a
dramatic effect on the power output. [3]
Recently, the interest in PM synchronous generators is
increasing. Moreover, compared with an induction
generator, a PMSG has the advantages of a higher
efficiency, due to the absence of rotor losses and lower
no-load current below the rated speed; and its decoupling
control performance is much less sensitive to the
parameter variations of the generator. Therefore, a high-
performance variable-speed generation including high-
efficiency and high controllability is expected by using a
PMSG for a wind generation system [4]-[5].
In this study, we present a control strategy of a variable
pitch wind turbine based on a Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Generator (PMSG). This control strategy,
without measurement of wind speed, permit to operate at
maximum power or at controlled power.
Figure 1 shows the figure of the variable speed wind
generator considered in this paper.
PMSG Wind
Control

Wind turbine PWM Converter


Figure 1. Structure of the wind generator
2. MODELING
2011 8th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices
978-1-4577-0411-6/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE
2.1. Wind turbine modeling
The aerodynamic power at the rotor of the turbine is
given by the following equation:
2 3
1
( , )
2
e e p
P R v C = (1)
where (kg.m
-3
) is the air density, R
e
(m) is the turbine
radius, v (m.s
-1
) is the wind speed and C
p
(,) is the power
coefficient which represents the aerodynamic efficiency
of the turbine and also depends on speed ratio and the
pitch angle .
The speed ratio , is given by :
e t
R
v


= (2)

t
is the mechanical turbine speed (rad/s).
The mechanical torque produced by the turbine is
expressed as follows [6] :
3 2
1
( , )
2
t e m
C R v C = (3)
C
m
(,) is the torque coefficient :
( , )
( , )
p
m
C
C

=
(4)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
P
o
w
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

C
p
Speed ratio
Beta=-2
Beta=0
Beta=2
Beta=3
Beta=5
Beta=10
Figure 2. Power coefficient characteristic versus speed ratio
and pitch angle .
Thus any change in the rotor speed or the wind speed
induces change in the tip speed ratio leading to power
coefficient variation. In this way, the generated power is
affected. Figure 3 shows a group of typical C
p
- curves
where optimum values of tip speed ratio
opt
, correspond
to the maximum power coefficient C
pmax
. Figure 3 shows
that the mechanical power converted from the turbine
blade is a function of the rotational speed, and the
converted power is maximized at the particular rotational
speed for various wind speed.
Figure 3. Mechanical power versus rotor speed characteristics
The typical power control regions of wind turbine are
shown in figure 4. The turbine starts operating when the
wind speed exceeds cut-in wind speed. The power
captured by the turbine increases with the wind speed
increasing. At the set point of wind speed, the generating
power reaches the rated power of the turbine. If the wind
speed continues to rise, the generator output power
remains constant at the design limit. Due to safety
consideration, the turbine is shut down at speeds
exceeding cut-out wind speed.
Figure 4. Power control regions of wind turbine
2.2. Mechanical shaft modeling
The mechanical system is represented by the following
equation :
t
T t em t s
d
J C C f C
dt

= (5)
where J
T
(kg.m
2
) is the total inertia which appears on the
shaft of the generator, C
t
(N.m) is the mechanical torque,
C
em
(N.m) is the electromagnetic torque, C
s
(N.m) is the
dry friction torque and f (N.m.s.rad
-1
) is a viscous friction
coefficient.
3. CONTROL
3.1. Control of the wind turbine
To not degrading the machine, it is necessary to limit its
speed. This speed limit will be obtained using the pitch
angle . When the rotational speed of the turbine exceeds
a speed
tn
, the control will give the order to increase the
pitch angle to reduce the turbine torque C
t
. The figure 5
shows the speed limit.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

P
i
t
c
h

a
n
g
l
e

(
)
Rotational speed of the turbine (rpm)
Figure 5. Reference Pitch angle versus the speed turbine
The limitation of the torque and so of the turbine speed is
carried out using the pitch control. The speed corrector is
a corrector proportional presenting one not linearity.
The torque has been supposed proportional to rotational
speed of the turbine by linearization of the model to
order 1 [7] [8] [9]. The control strategy implemented is as
follows :
0
0
2 for 0<
( ) for >
ref t tn
ref t tn t tn


= = <


= +


(6)
with
0
() is the initial pitch angle (optimal value) and
tn
(rad/s) is the nominal mechanical turbine speed.
After, to take into account the orientation system of the
blades which can be of type hydraulic or electric, we
introduce a transfer function of the first order. The
purpose of this system is to control the position of the
blades according to a reference.
1

1
ref
b
s

=
+
(7)
s is the Laplace operator and
b
is the time-constant of the
orientation system of the blades.
Figure 6 shows the block diagram of the Pitch angle
control system implanted in the simulation software
Matlab-Simulink.
C
t
Re
ref

v=f(t)
X
u
2
( )
t mes
f

=
t mes

1
(1 )
b
s +
( ) ,
m
C f =
( )
3
1/2
e
R
X
.
.

Figure 6. Pitch angle control system implemented in


the Matlab-Simulink.
3.2. The Proposed Control Strategy
To control the power of the wind generator P
wg
, it is
enough to control the electromagnetic torque C
em
, by
regulation of the stator currents and to know the rotational
speed of the shaft. The turbine speed
t
is limited by the
orientation of the blades.
For this study, we will suppose that the electric machine
and its drive are ideal, thus whatever the generated power,
the developed electromagnetic torque is at any moment
equal to its reference value :
em em ref
C C

= (8)
The reference electromagnetic torque C
em-ref
, can be
developed in two different methods [10]
The first method for an operating at maximum power,
aims at improving the aerodynamic output of the turbine
in order to extract the wind power maximum. This power
is extracted when the turbine operates at maximum power
coefficient.
Equation 9 gives the expression of the maximum power
obtained using the strategy MPPT (Maximum Power
Point Tracking), which permit to adjust automatically the
ratio speed, at its optimum value (
opt
), in order to obtain
the maximum power coefficient (C
pmax
) :
max
5
3 3
3

2
e p
MPPT t t
opt
R C
P K

= = (9)
The second method for an operating at constant power is
used to limit the generator power at its nominal value in
the case of high winds. So it is necessary to degrade a part
of the kinetic power to not damaging the turbine. The
speed limit is obtained with the pitch angle control.
The power limitation takes place so as naturally by
decrease of the electromagnetic torque which becomes
then inversely proportional to the shaft speed. It is then
possible, with this control strategy, to extract any power
as much as the wind allows it. In the contrary case, it will
extract the maximum wind power in order to obtain the
maximum value of the power coefficient (C
pmax
).
Knowing the turbine speed, the generated wind power can
be set at its nominal value by adjusting the reference
electromagnetic torque.
- If the reference power P
wg-ref
is less than the maximum
power P
MPPT
, then we can provide P
wg-ref
, thus :
wg ref
em ref
t
P
C

(10)
- Conversely, if the reference power P
wg-ref
is superior to
the maximum power P
MPPT
, then we cannot provide
P
wg-ref
, thus the maximum power is extracted :
2 MPPT
em ref t
t
P
C K

= =

(11)
3.3. Global control structure
The control structure of the variable speed wind generator
is given in Figure 7.
To control the wind generator power P
wg
, it suffices to
know the rotational speed of the shaft
t-mes
which is
limited by the pitch angle control, and to control the
reference electromagnetic torque C
em-ref
, by regulation of
the stator currents.
ref
Wind turbine PWM Converter
MPPT
PMSG Control
( )
ref t mes
f

=
Pitch Control
t mes

Cem-ref
Pwg-ref
PMSG
Is
2


/
em ref t mes
em ref wg ref t mes
C K
or
C P


=
=
Figure 7. Control structure of the wind generator
4. SIMULATION RESULTS
To validate the turbine model, we used three types of
wind : a low wind with an average speed of 6,5 m/s, a
medium wind with an average speed of 10 m/s and a high
wind with an average speed of 12 m/s. The Figure 8
shows the three real profiles of wind speed considered in
the simulations.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time (s)
W
in
d
s
p
e
e
d
(
m
/s
)
(a) Low wind
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time (s)
W
in
d
s
p
e
e
d
(m
/s
)
(b) Medium wind
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time (s)
W
in
d
s
p
e
e
d
(
m
/s
)
(c) High wind
Figure 8. Profiles of the three winds considered in the
simulations
To show the principle of power control of the wind
generator, its behaviour subjected to two different
reference wind powers : a reference power fixed at 350
kW and another fixed at 700 kW, will be illustrated using
numerical simulations carried under the Matlab -
Simulink.
The Figures 9 to 11 show the simulation results when the
reference power turbine is fixed at 350 kW. The figures
12 to 14 show the simulation results when the reference
power turbine is fixed at 700 kW.
We present for each reference wind power and with the
three profiles of wind speed, the mechanical turbine speed
N
t
, the power coefficient C
p
, the pitch angles
ref
and ,
the turbine torque C
t
, the generated powers P
wg
and P
MPPT
,
and the reference electromagnetic torque C
em-ref
.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
rb
in
e
(rp
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
P
it
c
h
a
n
g
le
s
(
)

Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
r
b
in
e
to
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
(d) C
t

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s

(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
e
le
c
tr
o
m
a
g
n
e
t
ic
t
o
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)

(f) C
em-ref
Figure 9. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
low wind and with P
wg-ref
= 350 kW: rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
rb
in
e
(r
p
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
p
itc
h
a
n
g
le
s
()
Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
rb
in
e
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(d) C
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s
(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
fe
r
e
n
c
e
e
le
c
tr
o
m
a
g
n
e
tic
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(f) C
em-ref
Figure 10. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
medium wind and with P
wg-ref
= 350 kW: rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
r
b
in
e
(r
p
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
P
itc
h
a
n
g
le
s
(
)
Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
r
b
in
e
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(d) C
t

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s
(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
fe
r
e
n
c
e
e
le
c
tro
m
a
g
n
e
tic
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(f) C
em-ref
Figure 11. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
high wind and with P
wg-ref
= 350 kW : rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
rb
in
e
(rp
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
P
it
c
h
a
n
g
le
s
(
)
Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
r
b
in
e
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(d) C
t

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s

(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
fe
r
e
n
c
e
e
le
c
tr
o
m
a
g
n
e
tic
to
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(f) C
em-ref
Figure 12. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
low wind and with P
wg-ref
= 700 kW : rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
r
b
in
e
(r
p
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
P
it
c
h
a
n
g
le
s
(
)

Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
r
b
in
e
to
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)

(d) C
t

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s
(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
fe
r
e
n
c
e
e
le
c
t
r
o
m
a
g
n
e
tic
t
o
r
q
u
e
(N
m
)
(f) C
em-ref
Figure 13. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
medium wind and with P
wg-ref
= 700 kW : rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
R
o
ta
tio
n
a
l s
p
e
e
d
o
f th
e
tu
r
b
in
e
(r
p
m
)
(a) N
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r c
o
e
ffic
ie
n
t C
p
(b) C
p

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
P
itc
h
a
n
g
le
s
()
Beta
Beta-ref
(c)
ref
and
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
x 10
5
Time (s)
T
u
rb
in
e
to
rq
u
e
(N
m
)
(d) C
t

0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
P
o
w
e
r
s
(
k
W
)
Pwg
PMPPT
(e) P
wg
and P
MPPT
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
x 10
5
Time (s)
R
e
fe
re
n
c
e
e
le
c
tro
m
a
g
n
e
tic
to
rq
u
e
(N
m
)
(f) C
em-ref
Figure 14. Simulation of a variable speed wind turbine under a
high wind and with P
wg-ref
= 700 kW : rotational speed of the
turbine, power coefficient, pitch angles, turbine torque,
generated powers and reference electromagnetic torque
With the low wind, and for the two reference powers 350
kW and 700 kW, the simulation results are identical
because the maximum power which we can extract from
the wind generator is less than the reference wind power.
In the incapacity to provide the P
wg-ref
, it is thus an
operating at maximum power which is shown in figures 9
and 12. The blades are at their optimal angle ( = -2)
(Figures 9(c) and 12(c)), and the power coefficient is
maximum (C
pmax
= 0.44) (Figures 9(b) and 12(b)).
Figures 10, 13 and 14 illustrate that the wind generator
can, at times, to produce the reference wind power P
wg-ref
.
We thus observe an operating at constant power at P
wg-ref
.
In this case, we see that the pitch angle increases to
reduce the turbine torque C
t
and the power coefficient is
no longer at its maximum. Moreover, the rotational speed
of turbine is effectively limited to 25 rpm.
For an operating at maximum power, it is easy to check
that the turbine speed, the electromagnetic torque and the
wind power are deeply correlated with the wind speed.
We note that the Pitch angle follows well its reference.
Consequently, we prove the efficiency of the implanted
actuator.
We also observe that the wind power P
wg
follows well its
reference P
wg-ref
.
5. CONCLUSION
This paper presents a control strategy of a variable pitch
wind turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Generator (PMSG). To control the wind generator power,
two operating modes were applied : an operating at
maximum power which permit to extract the wind power
maximum (MPPT), and an operating at constant power
which is used to limit the turbine speed at its nominal
value in the case of high wind (Pitch angle control). This
control scheme is tested for three real profiles of wind
speed and for two reference wind powers. It can easily be
simulated with the help a software like Matlab-
SIMULINK. Simulations have been carried out by
considering a 750 kW wind turbine. The simulation
results showed the effectiveness of the control strategy
adopted. As prospects for this work, we will associate to
this wind generator, a flywheel energy-storage systems, to
be able to take part in the management of the power grid.
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7. APPENDIX
Wind turbine
Nominal power of the turbine : P
tn
= 750 kW
Radius : R
e
= 24 m
Number of blades : 3
Nominal rotational speed : N
tn
= 25 rpm

opt
= 5
C
pmax
= 0.44
Density of air : = 1.22 kg.m
-3
Dry friction torque : C
s
= 953 Nm
Viscous friction coefficient : f = 0 N.m.s.rad
-1
Total inertia of the mechanical transmission: J
T
=10
5
kg.m
2