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Inspection Technologies

www.RosenInspection.net
Information Brochure
(AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002)
HiRes Axial Flaw Detection Tool
(AFD)
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 2 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
1 | Introduction 3
2 | System Description 4
2.1. Measurement Principle 5
3 | Capabilities and Specifications 6
3.1. Testing performance 6
3.2. Field experience 9
3.3. Performance specification 10
3.4. Operating Specifications 10
3.5. Current Project Status 10
4 | Reporting 11
5 | Availability 13
6 | Annotation 14
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 3 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
1 | Introduction
Traditional inspection technology for inline inspection of pipelines has difficulties
detecting narrow longitudinal shaped defects. These types of defects are usually too
narrow to be detected by normal Ultrasonic Technology or by Magnetic Flux Leakage
Technology.
ROSEN has developed Transverse Flux Technology and this induces the magnetic
field in transverse direction, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline.
Narrowly shaped longitudinal type defects are now clearly detected and can be sized
accurately.

This development is a step closer to the ultimate ability to detect and size all possible
pipeline defects economically.
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 4 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
2 | System Description
The AFD tool consists of the following units:
- Battery, Electronic and Memory unit
- Magnet and Sensor unit
- Odometer unit
Fig. 1 16 High Resolution AFD Tool
The sensor unit of the 16 AFD tool consists of 72 sensor carriers and a total amount
of 576 measurement channels.
Challenges are:
- The use of two magnet units to obtain full circumferential cover
- High magnetization to ensure validity of results (> 10 kA/m)
- Extremely high resolution
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 5 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
2.1. Measurement Principle
The basic principle of the AFD detection survey is the high-resolution magnetic flux
leakage method (MFL). The pipe wall is magnetized circumferentially to saturation by
the use of state of the art permanent magnets. Induction of the circumferential flux
field ensures that long, narrow defects will be detected.
In normal condition (no flaws) the magnetic flux can travel undistributed through the
pipeline. In the presence of internal and external metal loss, the flux is leaking out of
the pipeline and is picked up by hall-effect sensors.
Fig. 2a Flux line distribution of pipe without flaw Fig. 2b Flux line distribution of pipe with
external flaw
Fig. 2c Flux line distribution of pipe with internal flaw
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 6 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
3 | Capabilities and Specifications
The key specifications of the 16 ROSEN Axial Flaw Detection (AFD) tool reflect
the design parameters established during the theoretical modeling (Finite element
magnetic field calculations) and development tests:
- Full 360 degrees sensor coverage with sensor spacing below 3 mm (576 sensors
16 tool)
- Wall thickness capability: up to 13 mm at >= 10 kA/m
- Velocity range: 0.5-3 m/s
- Minimum bend radius: 1.5 D
The compact tool (3 sections, overall length 2.77 m) can inspect liquid or gas
pipeline sections up to 280 km length.
3.1. Testing performance
Initial runs in specially prepared test sections have shown that a very positive
detection is being obtained of even extremely narrow features. Even 0.2mm wide
external features of a depth of only 0.2 t of the wall thickness are clearly detected.
The feature length [mm], width [mm] and depth [%] are shown on the data plots of
test features (fig. 3a/b & 4a/b). We have successfully detected flaws with a 0.1mm
opening.
This leads to justify expectations that AFD inspection will ultimately be developed
into a reliable tool for detecting cracks. The service cannot yet be called a crack
detection service, as we have no proof presently what the minimum required crack
opening is for detection.
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 7 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
The following features could be detected during pull tests:
| Length | Width | Depth
| 50 mm | 5 mm | 40%
| 10 mm | 5 mm | 40%
| 25 mm | 5 mm | 20%
| 25 mm | 1 mm | 20%
| 25 mm | 1 mm | 60%
| 50 mm | 0.2 mm | 40%
Fig. 3a: raw data, line plot, 16 extra high resolution AFD tool, 1
st
pull test (L,W,D)
Fig. 3b raw data, color plot, 16 extra high resolution AFD tool, 1
st
pull test (L,W,D)
(50,5,40); (10,5,40); (25,5,20); (25,1,20); (25,1,60); (50,0.2,40)
(50,5,40); (10,5,40); (25,5,20); (25,1,20); (25,1,60); (50,0.2,40)
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 8 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
| Length | Width | Depth
| 50 mm | 0.5 mm | 20%
| 10 mm | 0.5 mm | 60%
| 25 mm | 0.5 mm | 60%
| 10 mm | 0.5 mm | 40%
| 25 mm | 0.2 mm | 20%
| 10 mm | 0.2 mm | 60%
Fig.4a: raw data, line plot, 16 extra high resolution AFD tool, 2
nd
pull test (L,W,D)
Fig. 4b: raw data, color plot, 16 extra high resolution AFD tool, 2
nd
pull test (L,W,D)
(50,0.5,20) ; (10,0.5,60); (25,0.5,60); (10,0.5,40); (25,0.2,20); (10,0.2,60)
(50,0.5,20) ; (10,0.5,60); (25,0.5,60); (10,0.5,40); (25,0.2,20); (10,0.2,60)
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 9 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
3.2. Field experience
A major commercial project to inspect 1400 km of hydrocarbon liquid pipeline (wall
thickness up to 9.53 mm) has shown that the practical operation of the AFD
technology under field conditions fully meets the targets to obtain high quality data
sets.
With the field data having been processed and analyzed (e.g. fig. 5 and fig. 6), a
large-scale verification project is presently ongoing.
Fig. 5: single long weld feature
Fig. 6: series of longitudinal weld features
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 10 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
3.3. Performance specification
Based on the AFD system performance to date, the following detection
specification (90 % POD) is valid for axially orientated features:
- Feature length: >= 25 mm
- Feature depth: >= 0.2 t
- Feature width: >= 0.2 mm
For other features, such as pitting and general corrosion a detection level of 0.2 t
is specified.
3.4. Operating Specifications
The following operating specifications are valid:
| Pipeline Products | Any
| Max. Product Temperature | 70 C / 158 F
| Max. Operating Pressure | 15 MPa
| Operating Speed Range | 0.5 3.0 m/s
| Minimum Pipeline Bend Radius | 1.5 D
| Wall Thickness (16) | 4-13 mm
| Maximum Run Time (16) | 116 h
| Maximum Inspection Length (16) | 280 km
3.5. Current Project Status
- 2000 km of runs with the 16 extra high resolution tool have just been performed
- high amount of data has been recorded
- automatic longitudinal and girth weld search function available
- feature search function basics available
- feature evaluation software under development
- detailed specifications for AFD Tools are currently being evolved
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 11 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
4 | Reporting
The high amount of raw data recorded by the tools is checked in independent steps
for completeness and quality. The data is then transformed into a format that provides
easy access to all areas of interest and enhances the performance of the analysis
software.
Automated data evaluation searches all data recorded and detects, identifies and
classifies all significant features. Results of this automated process are stored in
database files.
Following this process experienced Data Analysts verify each result by means of
advanced software packages developed by ROSEN, and programmed specifically for
the purpose of data evaluation.
ROSEN reports all survey results in two formats: a hard copy report with comments,
lists, statistics and graphics and the user-friendly client software package ROSOFT,
which includes both raw data and the database system.
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 12 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
ROSOFT is a basic requirement for pipeline management systems in terms of quality
control and lifetime prediction. It provides digital information about all data recorded
during the survey with full and fast access to the database and raw inspection data.
Comprehensive information about each defect can be viewed, evaluated in detail, and
easily printed for field use.
Fig. 7 ROSOFT Screenshot
Inspection Technologies
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page 13 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
5 | Availability
The following tools are available:
- 12 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 14 inch: standard circumferential resolution: 13mm
- 14 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 16 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
On request:
- 6 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 8 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 10 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 18 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
- 20 inch: high circumferential resolution: 2.9 mm
Inspection Technologies
www.RosenInspection.net
page 14 AFD info brochure rev1.2 July 22, 2002
6 | Annotation
Disclaimer
Due to the complexity of the inline inspection technology all stated information and
specifications are of a general character only and should be treated as such.
Specifications can deviate in practice within certain limits from indicated general
specifications and characteristics due to specific line and run conditions as well as
specific tool setup.
Since our tools and technology are continuously advancing, changes to specifications
can occur without previous announcement.