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ANN applications in fault locators

G.K. Purushothama
a
, A.U. Narendranath
a
, D. Thukaram
b
, K Parthasarathy
b,
*
a
Department of Electrical Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, India
b
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
Received 8 October 1998; revised 29 May 2000; accepted 17 June 2000
Abstract
Recent developments indicate that Articial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be appropriate for assisting dispatchers in operating electric
power systems. The fault location algorithm being a key element in the digital relay for power transmission line protection, this paper
discusses the potential applicability of ANN techniques for determination of fault location and fault resistance on EHV transmission lines
with remote end in-feed. Most of the applications make use of the conventional Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) model based on back
propagation algorithm. However, this model suffers from the problem of slow learning rate. A modied ANN learning technique for fault
location and fault resistance determination is presented in this paper. A reasonably small NN is built automatically without guessing the size,
depth, and connectivity pattern of the NN in advance. Results of study on a 400 kV transmission line are presented for illustration purposes.
Performance of the modied ANN is compared with the analytical algorithms and conventional MLP algorithm for different combinations of
pre-fault loading condition, fault resistance and fault location. The results are found to be encouraging. q 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All
rights reserved.
Keywords: Neural networks; Fault
1. Introduction
In recent years, many interesting applications of Articial
Neural Networks (ANNs) have been reported in power
system areas [1], such as, load forecasting, unit commit-
ment, security assessment and Fault Analysis [2]. ANNs
have attracted much attention due to their computational
speed and robustness. ANNs have become an alternative
to modeling of physical systems such as a transmission
line. Absence of full information is not as big a problem
in ANNs as it is in the other methodologies. A major advan-
tage of the ANN approach is that the domain knowledge is
distributed in the neurons and information processing is
carried out in a parallel distributed manner. Therefore
ANN reaches the desired solution rather efciently.
It is shown that a multilayer perceptron with a sigmoidal
activation rule and up to two hidden layers has extremely
powerful representational capabilities. However, popularly
used MLP model suffers from slow learning rate and the
need to guess the number of hidden layers and neurons in
each hidden layer. Fahlman et al. [3] suggested an improve-
ment over conventional MLP technique both in the learning
algorithm and ANN architecture. This paper presents a
modied ANN approach for determination of fault location
and fault resistance on a transmission line.
Distance relays for transmission-line protection, though
give an indication of faulty line and type of fault, they may
under-reach/over-reach depending upon pre-fault loading,
fault resistance and remote-end in-feeds. With immediate
knowledge of accurate fault location, and an approximate
value of fault resistance, the cause of the fault can be iden-
tied quickly, facilitating repair and restoration. Even where
helicopters are immediately available for patrol following
unsuccessful reclosing, fault locators perform a valuable
service. Trouble cannot always be found with a routine
patrol with no indication of where the fault occurred. For
example, tree growth could reduce clearances, resulting in a
ash over during severe conductor sagging. By the time the
patrol arrives, the conductors have cooled, increasing the
clearance to the tree. The weak spot is not obvious. The
importance of fault locators is more obvious where foot
patrols are relied upon, particularly on long lines, in rough
terrain. Also locators can help where maintenance jurisdic-
tion is divided between different companies or divisions
Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506
0142-0615/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0142-0615(00)00068-5
www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 191-080-334441; fax: 191-080-3341683.
E-mail addresses: uttama@ee.iisc.ernet.in (G.K. Purushothama),
narendra@suraksha.ee.iisc.ernet.in (A.U. Narendranath),
dtram@ee.iisc. ernet.in (D. Thukaram),
kp@suraksha.ee.iisc.ernet.in (K. Parthasarathy).
within a company. Fault locators are valuable even where
the line has been restored either automatically or non-auto-
matically. In this category are faults caused by cranes
swinging into the line, brushres, damaged insulators and
vandalism. The locator allows rapid arrival at the site before
the evidence is removed or the trail becomes cold. Also, the
knowledge that repeat faults are occurring in the same area
can be valuable in detecting the cause. Weak spots that are
not obvious, but threaten further trouble, may be found
because a more thorough inspection can be focussed in
the limited area dened by the fault locator [4].
Accuracy in establishing the location of a fault is of parti-
cular importance in improving post-fault procedures linked
with line inspection and maintenance/repair work
programmes. In view of the large number of variables
involved in determination of accurate fault location, at
rst it appears to be hard to deal with. The main factors
inuencing the fault location are:
parallel power corridors;
source impedances;
remote-end in-feed;
magnitude and arguments of current distribution factors,
line charging.
The problem is further complicated by the inuence of
pre-fault load current (exporting and importing cases) and
by the wide range of fault conditions which may arise in
practice [4]. Fault location schemes which use either both
local and remote-end relay signals or local relay signals only
are suggested in literature [410]. Schemes which use only
local relaying signals, enjoy the advantage of not requiring a
data link from the remote-end. However, some of these
schemes leave certain issues unresolved, such as, the
assumption of same arguments for the current distribution
factors of the parts of the network located on either side of
the fault point [6], and excluding the effect of shunt capa-
citance in determining fault point [4]. Schemes which need
both end information [5,10], need same inputs irrespective
of the type of fault. However, variation in source impedance
demands the re-learning of the fault locating function.
Analytical techniques covered in the literature [48,10,11]
need impedance values as inputs. Accuracy of these
measurements (Z
SA
, Z
SB
, etc.) affect the accuracy of compu-
tation. Therefore there is a need to have a method which is
independent of the impedance measurements. This paper
proposes an approach based on a modied ANN learning
algorithm, using
only the local relay signals;
both end information;
which should lead to a better and accurate fault locator
(distance) andfault resistance (R
f
) indicator for EHVtransmis-
sion lines with remote-end in-feed. Indication of fault resis-
tance assists in identifying the fault quickly and facilitates
repair and restoration. The developed ANN models have
been tested on a 400 kV, 300 km transmission line of a 24
bus EHV power network. Performance of proposed ANN
based methods are compared with the conventional analytical
methods. Results are presented for the purpose of illustration.
2. Analytical methods for fault location
The analytical methods used for fault location, reported in
literature, use either steady state phasor approach, the differ-
ential equation approach and the traveling-wave approach.
A steady state phasor (equivalent system) approach is
shown in Fig. 1. Procedure for designing a fault locator
[11] can be outlined as follows:
A system or line model is chosen which is best suitable
for representing the system conditions under a fault.
A relaying function based on the line model is obtained.
This function will establish the relationship between the
available waveforms measured during the fault and the
fault distance. An appropriate ltering technique is used
to obtain the required waveforms. Both pre-fault wave-
forms and the post-fault transient waveforms can be used.
The calculation of the fault distance using the relaying
function and the line model chosen.
The above procedure should be carried out within a speci-
ed time window for data acquisition, data processing, fault
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 492
L
(1-p)Z p Z
L
Z
SA
Z
SB
E
A
E
B
Z
SA
Z
SB
E
A
E
B
A
B
G
R
f
I
ldA I
ldB
I
A
I
B
V
A
V
B
I
f
Fig. 1. Equivalent faulted network Eriksson's method.
type identication and distance calculation with the required
level of condence. A tradeoff between speed and accuracy
can generally be observed in each algorithm discussed in the
literature. Some of the popularly used methods reported in
literature are reviewed in the following sections.
2.1. Eriksson's method
Eriksson et al. [4] suggested a fault locator for a transmis-
sion line with remote-end in-feed solving the network rigor-
ously using the one terminal data (V
A
, I
A
and I
fA
). The
equivalent source impedances (Z
SA
and Z
SB
) were assumed
to be known.
Computation of fault location using Eriksson's method is
dened as follows (refer Table 1 and Fig. 1):
V
A
, V
B
, terminal voltages (complex) measured at A and B,
respectively.
I
A
, I
B
, line currents (complex) measured at A and B,
respectively.
I
ldA
, I
ldB
, pre-fault currents (complex) measured at A and
B, respectively.
I
fA
, I
fB
, pure fault complex currents (I
A
2I
ldA
and I
B
2
I
ldB
) measured at A and B, respectively.
R, S, T, three phase notations.
R
f
, fault resistance.
p, fraction of the total line length.
Expression for a three phase fault, sending end (node A)
voltage V
A
is the sum of the drop in the line to the fault
point plus the fault point voltage [4]. Neglecting shunt
admittance, expression for the sending end voltage V
A
applicable to any fault is:
V
A
I
A
p p p Z
L
1I
f
p R
f
1
Solving for p
p
2
2p p K
1
1K
2
2K
3
p R
f
0 2
where
K
1
1 1
Z
SB
Z
L
1
V
A
I
A
p Z
L
K
2

V
A
I
A
p Z
L
p 1 1
Z
SB
Z
L

K
3

I
fA
I
A
p Z
L
p 1 1
Z
SB
1Z
SA

Z
L

and I
fA
I
A
p D
A
; D
A
being the distribution factor for the
network under consideration,
D
A

1 2pZ
L
1Z
SB
Z
SA
1Z
L
1Z
SB
The above complex Eq. (2) contains two unknowns p and R
f
.
After separating the above complex equation into real and
imaginary simultaneous equations, R
f
can be eliminated.
Finally, expression for p can be derived solving the
quadratic equation in p.
The Eq. (2) shows the relationship between V
A
, I
A
, I
fA
, Z
SA
and Z
SB
in determining fault location. The absence of line
charging capacitance in the equation for fault location,
introduces error in estimated fault location when applied
for EHV transmission lines. Another limitation of this
method is exclusion of the effect of multiple power corridors
normally present in any power network. This drawback
when coupled with high resistance fault and fault nearer
the receiving end (measurements at the sending end) results
in erroneous solution.
2.2. Takagi's method
Takagi et al. [6] considered long line representation for
transmission line in determining location of fault. In this
method, the assumption of same angles for fault current
and pure fault current contribution from side-A leads to
error during high resistance fault under heavily loaded
pre-fault conditions. This method [6] calculates the distance
to a fault point based on the following equation, which
expresses a fault point voltage V
f
and current in the fault
path I
f
using the one-terminal data.
V
f
V
A
coshgp 2Z
s
I
s
sinhgp 3
I
fA

V
fA
Z
s
sinhgp 2I
fA
coshgp 4
After making two approximations namely, tanhgp gp
and angle of I
f
angle of I
fA
; the distance p is obtained
using the one-terminal data as in the following equation.
p
imagV
A
I
p
fA

imagZ
L
I
A
I
p
fA

5
where
p
represents conjugate of the parameter considered.
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 493
Table 1
Measurements processed for various fault types (Eriksson's method and
Takagi's method) K
N
Z
L0
2Z
L1
=3Z
L1
: Z
L0
, Z
L1
are zero sequence
and positive sequence line impedances. I
NA
3I
0A
: AI
RA
, etc. pure
fault current i.e. during fault currentpre-fault current
Type of
fault
V
A
I
A
I
fA
RN V
RA
I
RA
1K
N
I
NA
3
2
AI
RA
2I
0A

SN V
SA
I
SA
1K
N
I
NA
3
2
AI
SA
2I
0A

TN V
TA
I
TA
1K
N
I
NA
3
2
AI
TA
2I
0A

RST
RS V
RA
2V
SA
I
RA
2I
SA
AI
RSA
RSN
ST
STN V
SA
2V
TA
I
SA
2I
TA
AI
STA
TR
TRN V
TA
2V
RA
I
TA
2I
RA
AI
TRA
2.3. Zamora's method
Zamora et al. [5] proposed a method for locating faults in
two-terminal transmission lines based on fundamental
components of fault and pre-fault voltage at the two ends
of a transmission line. This approach is independent of fault
and pre-fault currents, fault type, fault resistance, synchro-
nization condition of register devices located on line ends,
and unbalanced pre-fault condition. Distance factor K
v
which relates the measurements to the fault location, is
dened for given source impedances.
K
v

V
A1
V
B1

6
where V
A1
V
fault
A1
2V
pre fault
A1
positive sequence pure fault
voltage at side A and V
B1
V
fault
B1
2V
pre fault
B1
positive
sequence pure fault voltage at side B
This factor is a function only of the impedances of the
network model and the distance p to the fault point. The
distance to fault point will be determined from the numer-
ical value of K
v
(dening the fault) and the mathematical
function of K
v
(determined for the particular transmission
line under analysis) for a given Z
SA
, Z
SB
and Z
EQ
. If the
source impedances change then the function is to be modi-
ed to accommodate the change in source impedance. For
varying values of source impedances, distance factor, K
v
, is
plotted against fault location in Fig. 2. It can be observed
that for the same value of K
v
, determined fault location is
having a wide variation. Method proposed by Mazon et al.
[10] also suffers from this disadvantage. Another disadvan-
tage of this method is the inability to determine the fault
resistance, because the distance factor is independent of R
f
.
2.4. Measurements required for analytical methods
The complex Eq. (2) contains the unknown p and R
f
.
After separating the above complex equation into real and
imaginary simultaneous equations R
f
can be eliminated.
Finally, expression for p can be derived solving the quad-
ratic equation in p. R
f
can be determined from Eq. (2) by
substituting the value of p.
Eriksson's method and Takagi's method use the terminal
voltage (V
A
) and currents (I
A
) during fault. In addition to
these two values, pure fault current (I
fA
) is also used in order
to compensate for the initial load current, remote-end in-
feed and fault resistance. Zamora's method uses pure fault
positive sequence voltages, V
fA
, V
fB
, on either side the line
under consideration, Thus based on the equations given in
[4] it can be concluded that the measurements indicated in
Table 1 are sufcient to determine fault location and fault
resistance using Eriksson's method and Takagi's method. In
Zamora's method [5], pure-fault positive sequence voltages
(V
fA
, V
fB
) on either sides of the line under consideration are
needed to determine the fault location irrespective of the
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 494
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
fault location in per unit length
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
f
a
c
t
o
r
K
v
zsa=0.0002+j0.025, zsb=0.0003+j0.033
zsa=0.0002+j0.025, zsb=0.0007+j0.067
zsa=0.0005+j0.05, zsb=0.0003+j0.033
zsa=0.0005+j0.05, zsb=0.0007+j0.067
Fig. 2. Effect of source impedance on distance factor (K
v
).
type of fault. The parameters like Z
SA
, Z
SB
, (source impe-
dances of side-A and side-B, respectively) Z
L1
and Z
L0
(posi-
tive and zero sequence line impedances, respectively) are
also used in Eriksson's method and Takagi's method. Lack
of information about network impedances may pose
problem in these analytical methods of fault location.
However, the proposed ANN approach (Section 3) learns
these parameters also while learning the functional relation-
ship between the measurements made at the terminals and
the fault location.
3. Proposed ANN approaches
Two ANN approaches are proposed. ANN approach-1
uses only local measurements, whereas, ANN approach-2
uses both local and remote-end measurements.
The ANN based fault location approaches use the normal-
ized values of pre-fault and fault currents and pre-fault and
fault voltages measured at side-A and side-B of the trans-
mission line system shown in Fig. 3 to determine the
distance to fault. Current and voltage samples are continu-
ously measured. Following a signal from the line protection
at the instant it initiates breaker tripping, current and voltage
samples for six cycles (or till the circuit breaker operates)
are frozen until the completion of the distance-to-fault
computation. Samples are compared for a signicant
change. The required threshold for the current change is
adaptive, depending on the pre-fault current level. The
voltage threshold is xed as generally voltage remains
within a narrow band i.e. around 1 pu. If no change is
found, a one-sample advance occurs and the procedure is
repeated.
3.1. ANN approach 1
This approach uses only local measurements and it is
based on the Eq. (2) derived in the Section 2.1. ANN is
made to learn the relation between pure fault current, during
fault voltage, zero sequence current (if any) and fault loca-
tion p, fault resistance R
f
. The proposed ANN structure is
shown in Fig. 4. It consists of seven ANNs, one ANN each
for different type of fault (totaling six) and one ANN for
identifying the type of fault. The input consists of pre-fault
and post-fault currents and post-fault voltages of three
phases. Various inputs to different fault locator ANNs are
indicated in Table 2.
Depending on type of fault, the number of inputs to
the neural network will vary. Single line- to-ground
fault locator ANNs (RN, SN, TN) have four inputs, viz.
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 495
SA
Z Z
SB
D
Z
SA
Z
SB
Z
E
A
E
B
Z
SA
Z
SB
Z
E
A
E
B
p Z
L
(1-p)Z
L
EQ
A
B
G
pZ
L
(1-p)Z
L
R
f
SA
Z Z
D
Z Z
D
EQ
SB EQ
G
R
f
A B
D = Z + Z + Z
SA SB EQ
where,
I
A
I
I
B
F
Eliminating the Delta ABG;
Fig. 3. Distribution factor determination.
pre-fault current, post-fault current and voltage on the
faulty phase and zero sequence current. Similarly line-
to-line fault, double-line-to-ground fault and three-phase
fault ANNs have six inputs, viz. pre-fault and post-fault
line currents and two post-fault line voltages on faulty
phases (or any two faulty phases for three-phase fault).
In addition to these inputs each ANN receives one more
input from fault type identier. This will enable the ANN
corresponding to that type of fault and disabling other
ANNs.
The fault type indicator enables the corresponding ANN
based on the signal from line protection. There will be two
neurons in the output layer. Output of these neurons indicate
the fraction of the line length (p), where fault has occurred
and fault resistance (R
f
).
3.2. ANN approach-2
This approach is based on both local and remote-end
measurements. Zamora et al. [5] have proposed a method
for locating faults in two-terminal transmission lines. The
procedure is based on the fundamental components of fault
and pre-fault voltage at 50/60 Hz measured at the two ends
of a transmission line. The methodology allows one to
establish a direct calculation procedure that is independent
of fault and pre-fault currents, fault type, fault resistance,
synchronization condition of register devices located on line
ends, and pre-fault condition, either balanced or not. This is
achieved by dening a new concept called distance factor.
This method is suitable when the fault has been previously
detected. The distance factor establishes a one-to-one rela-
tionship between the pure-fault voltages of positive
sequence and distance to the fault point (p). This relation-
ship is a function only of the impedances of positive
sequence present in the model i.e. on the source strength
and line admittances. However, distance factor is not a
function of fault resistance, which makes this method not
suitable for determining the fault resistance. Another draw-
back of this method is that it needs two end measurements as
inputs. Derivation of distance factor is as follows:
V
Ad
V
Bd

f
1
Z
Ad
; Z
Bd
; Z
Ld
; Y
Ld
; Z
EQd
; pI
Fd
f
2
Z
Ad
; Z
Bd
; Z
Ld
; Y
Ld
; Z
EQd
; pI
Fd
7
where Y
Ld
/Z
Ld
is the pos. seq. line admittance/impedance;
Z
Ad
, Z
Bd
the pos. seq. source impedances; Z
EQd
the Pos. seq.
equiv. parallel line impedance; I
Fd
the pos. seq. pure fault
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 496
INPUT TO
ANN
Fault Type
A N N
R N
S N
T N
R S , R S N
S T, S T N
T R, T R N, R ST
OUTPUT
Fault
Location p
Fault
Resistance R
f
Fig. 4. Proposed ANN structure (ANN approach-1).
Table 2
Inputs for ANN Approach-1
Type of fault Inputs
RN,SN,TN Pre-fault phase current
(SLG fault) During fault phase current
During fault phase voltage
Zero sequence current
RS,RT,ST, Pre-fault phase currents
RSN,RTN,STN During fault phase currents
(LL and LLG fault) During fault phase voltages
(Only phases involved in fault)
RST Pre-fault phase currents
(3 Phase fault) During fault phase currents
During fault phase voltages
(Any two of the phase quantities)
current V
Ad
, V
Bd
the pos. seq. pure fault terminal voltages
p fault location
As the impedances/admittances in the above equation are
either known or can be easily determined from the informa-
tion available on the system condition at the time the fault
occurred, the relationship can be expressed as
V
Ad
V
Bd
f
3
p 8
Distance factor K
v
is dened as the module of the quotient of
the two voltages of positive sequence resulting from the
pure fault on both ends of the line. Therefore this distance
factor is independent from voltage phase difference between
the two ends, and thus from the synchronization of register
devices located on both ends of the line.
K
v

V
Ad
V
Bd

u f
3
u 9
This factor is a function only of the impedances of the line
model (already known) and the distance p to the fault point,
which is the unknown value to be determined. The distance
to fault point will be determined from the numerical value of
K
v
(dening the fault) and the mathematical function of K
v
(determined for the particular transmission line under
analysis).
In the previous paragraphs it is shown that ratio of pure
fault positive sequence voltages of either sides of a trans-
mission line is directly related to fault location. This holds
good for a given line impedance (Z
L
), equivalent parallel
line impedance (Z
EQ
) and more importantly a xed source
strength (Z
SA
, Z
SB
). If there is a variation in source strengths
of either side because of any addition or loss of generation,
the mathematical function has to be re-evaluated. Thus the
use of a ratio may limit the amount of information encom-
passed in pure fault positive sequence voltages. Rather than
taking ratio of the two, if an ANN is made to learn the
relation between pure fault positive sequence voltages
and fault location, the mapping will be better. This is
attempted in the second approach in which, pure fault
positive sequence voltages of either sides of a transmis-
sion line are presented as inputs to the ANN irrespective
of the type of fault, fault resistance, pre-fault condition
etc. However, this set of inputs cannot help in estimating
the fault resistance as positive sequence voltage and
currents alone do not contain any information about
fault resistance (except for a three-phase fault with
balanced pre-fault condition). In order to make the
ANN estimate the fault resistance in case of faults invol-
ving ground (SLG, LLG), both positive and zero sequence
pure fault voltages on either sides are included in the
input set. This approach is shown in Fig. 5. The various
inputs to be presented to ANN in this approach are given
in Table 3.
In effect there are two ANN approaches used in locat-
ing the fault and estimating the fault resistance as shown
in the Table 4. For a LL fault and three-phase fault, R
f
is
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 497
not
Rf indicating
ANN
R
f
(Fault
involving ground)
Pos. Seq.
pure fault V Fault Locating
ANN
Seq. pure fault V
INPUT
TOANN
Pos. and Neg. (if any)
Rf indicating
ANN
Seq. pure fault V
Pos. and Zero
(Fault
involving ground)
p
R
f
Fig. 5. Proposed ANN structure (ANN approach-2).
Table 3
Inputs for ANN Approach-2
Output Inputs
For all types of faults
Fault location, p During fault positive sequence voltage and
Pre-fault positive sequence voltage of either sides
Fault resistance, R
f
SLG and LLG fault LL and 3 phase fault
Inputs needed for
fault location and
Zero seq. voltage
Inputs needed for fault
location and Neg. seq. voltage
(if any)
Table 4
Proposed ANN approaches
Approach 1
(one end measurements)
Approach 2
(two end measurements)
Fault type is necessary Fault type is not necessary
for locating fault
Inputs depend on type of
fault for both p and R
f
Inputs depend on type of
fault for R
f
only
estimated by taking both positive and negative sequence
(if any) pure fault voltages of both ends as inputs.
3.3. Effect of network connectivity on ANN training
For a change in network connectivity, following a contin-
gency such as a line outage or generator outage, ANN has to
be retrained to reect the change in network operating
conditions. The change in network operating conditions
may affect source impedances or equivalent parallel line
impedance or both. For credible set of contingencies, a set
of ANNs can also be trained beforehand so that it can be
directly put into service if the need arises. Each line in the
system requiring fault location facility needs a trained ANN
to locate the fault.
3.4. Formation of phasor values for testing of ANNs
The approaches described for fault location use phasor
values of the line voltages and currents. The simplest
method of forming phasor values from sampled data values
is to use the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) evaluated at
power system frequency. The result from the DFT will be in
terms of real and imaginary parts that can then be readily
converted to phasor form where necessary. Whereas in a
digital relay, the digital ltering function is compromised
with the relay operating time, in fault location there is more
freedom on allowing lter delay. Thus in addition to the
fundamental (50 Hz) phasor extraction, extensive digital
ltering of the sampled values prior to the application of
the DFT may be applied to ensure removal of all non-50 Hz
components.
The Fourier transform allows conversion from time to
frequency domain. The need to have knowledge on the
frequency spectrum of some time domain waveforms,
such as power system voltage and current, demands the
use of Fourier transforms. The Fourier transform can be
adapted for use on discrete time signals as such it is
referred to as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In
this case, DFT is used to analyze the time domain waveform
and hence calculate the frequency spectrum together with
the associated phase information. This is of particular rele-
vance to protection where it is clearly advantageous to esti-
mate the 50 Hz component of a power system waveform
corrupted by noise.
DFT, for transforming from time to frequency domains, is
implemented as two equations:
ReXm
X
N 21
k0
xn 2k cos
2pmk
N

10
ImXm
X
N 21
k0
xn 2k sin
2pmk
N

11
where N is the number of samples in the discrete time
sequence xn; m is called the harmonic index, (it species
which frequency the DFT will evaluate) and Xm is the
frequency component. Since sampling produces discrete
time signals, so the DFT produces discrete frequencies.
Taking a sampling frequency of 2 kHz, there will be a 40-
sample window (40 points in the impulse response), and the
DFT delay will be 20 ms. Frequency response of this lter
has a pass band centered on 50 Hz and excellent rejection of
harmonics. Though it is unable to give ultra-high-speed
performance due to a minimum of one cycle delay, for
fault location purpose it gives accurate results.
The Electro Magnetic Transient Programme (EMTP) is
run to simulate ten types of faults viz. RN, SN, TN, RS,
RSN, ST, STN, TR, TRN and RST (Fig. 6). Discrete values
of currents and voltages at a sampling rate of 2 kHz (40 per
cycle) are presented as input to DFT. The output of DFT
contains phasor values of currents and voltages of all three
phases. This output is stored in a cyclical buffer (B
c
). When
a fault is detected, the present fundamental values of
currents and voltages are frozen for six cycles (or till the
circuit breaker operates) in another buffer (B
f
). Now pre-
fault information is available from cyclical buffer (B
c
) and
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 498
Input
to
Proposed
Method
E M T P
Digital Data
D F T
Phasor Values
Fault
Detected ?
No
Yes
B
f
During
fault data
Pre-fault
Data
Bc
Fig. 6. Test Data Generation.
during fault information is available from other buffer (B
f
).
The phasor quantities of current and voltage extracted in this
way are presented to the ANN for testing purpose, after due
processing like computation of sequence components.
4. ANN Models
Two ANN models have been developed based on conven-
tional MLP technique and Fahlman's [3] Cascade Correla-
tion technique, for locating fault on an EHV transmission
line. Back propagation and quick propagation have been
used for training the conventional MLP model and Fahl-
man's model respectively. Both the models are trained
using the simulated results of steady state fault analysis
program for various,
values of fault resistance;
distance of fault;
pre-fault load and generation conditions.
In approach-1, for each type of fault a separate ANN model
is built, whereas in approach-2 fault locating ANN does not
depend on type of fault. However, R
f
estimating ANN
depends on type of fault, i.e. whether the fault involves
ground or not. Thus two ANNs models are built for estimat-
ing R
f
in approach-2, one for faults involving ground (SLG,
LLG) and another for faults not involving ground (LL,
three-phase). In addition to this, an additional ANN is
needed to determine the type of fault in approach-1.
4.1. Conventional multi layer perceptron model (ANN-
CMLP)
Conventional MLP network [12] consists of nonlinear
differentiable transfer functions. The back-propagation
learning rules are used to adjust the weights and biases of
networks so as to minimize the sum squared error of the
network. This is achieved by continually changing the
values of the network weights and biases in the direction
of steepest descent with respect to error. The back-propaga-
tion training may lead to a local rather than a global mini-
mum. The local minimum that has been found may be
satisfactory, but if it is not, a network with more layers
and neurons may do a better job. However, the number of
neurons or layers to add may not be obvious. Conventional
MLP architecture (Fig. 7), is generally decided by trying
varied combinations of number of hidden layers, number
of nodes in a hidden layer etc. and selecting the architecture
which has a better generalizing ability amongst the tried
combinations [13]. The details of the developed conven-
tional MLP model is given in the Results section. NN
Tool-box of MATLAB [13] is used for developing this
model.
4.2. Cascade correlation model (ANN-CC)
S.E. Fahlman et al. developed a CascadeCorrelation
algorithm [3] which automatically builds a NN for a set of
inputoutput patterns. The two ideas suggested by them are:
cascade architecture;
learning algorithm.
This algorithm uses the quick-prop algorithm [3] instead of
simple, linear gradient descent to update the weights in the
network. Quick-prop uses information about the second
derivative of the error to speed up convergence.
CascadeCorrelation [3] is a supervised learning archi-
tecture that builds a near-minimal multi-layer network
topology in the course of training. Initially the network
contains only inputs, output units, and the connections
between them. This single layer of connections is trained,
using the quick-prop algorithm, to minimize the error. When
no further improvement is seen in the level of error, the
network's performance is evaluated. If the error is small
enough, network building is halted. Otherwise a new hidden
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 499
INPUTS
OUTPUT
Hidden
Layer 1
Hidden
Layer 2
Input
Layer
Output
Layer
Fig. 7. Topology of conventional MLP model.
unit is added to the network in an attempt to reduce the
residual error. Fig. 8 shows the cascade correlation archi-
tecture after two hidden units have been added. The vertical
lines sum all incoming activation: (A) connections are
frozen and ( ) connections are trained repeatedly.
This algorithm eliminates the need for the user to guess in
advance the network's size, depth, and topology. A reason-
ably small (though not necessarily minimal) network is built
automatically. Because a hidden-unit feature detector, once
built, is never altered or cannibalized, the network can be
trained incrementally. A large data set can be broken up into
smaller lessons and feature-building will be cumulative.
The arithmetic operations that occur during learning are
as follows:
E
1
2
X
o;p
y
op
2t
op

2
12
where y
op
is the observed value of output o for training
pattern p, and t
op
is the desired or target output.
E is minimized by gradient using,
e
op
y
op
2t
op
f
0
p
13
2E
2w
oi

X
p
e
op
I
ip
14
where f
0
p
is the derivative of the sigmoid activation function
of the output unit for pattern p, I
ip
is the value of the input (or
hidden unit) i, and w
oi
is the weight connecting input i to
output unit o.
Candidate units are trained to maximize C, the correlation
between the candidate unit's output y and the residual errors
e
o
still observed a outputs of the active network. This corre-
lation is computed over all the training patterns p. C is
dened as
C
X
o
X
p
y
p
2 ye
op
2 e
o

15
where y and e
o
are averages of y and e
o
all patterns p. The
maximization of C proceeds by gradient ascent using,
d
p

X
o
s
o
e
op
2 e
o
f
0
p
16
2C
2w
i

X
p
d
p
I
ip
17
where s
o
is the sign of the correlation between the candidate
unit's value and the residual error at output o. Each candidate
unit in the pool starts froma different set of initial weights and
independently tries to maximize its own C value.
Given the gradient values computed above, E can be
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 500
Hidden
Unit
Hidden
Unit
1
2
Inputs
+1
Output
Unit 1
Output
Unit 2
Outputs
Fig. 8. Cascade correlation architecture after two hidden units have been added.
minimized and C can be maximized by simple gradient
descent (or ascent). Instead to get good convergence in a
reasonable number of cycles, quick-prop algorithm is used to
compute the updates. The weight change Dw is computed by
where 2E=2w and 22C=2w are represented by S(t) and s(t),
respectively.
Fahlman's algorithm is particularly well suited for imple-
mentation on parallel hardware with limited inter-processor
communication. During the candidate-training phase (where
the most time is spent for problems of any complexity), each
of the candidate units receives the same set of inputs and the
same error signal. Each candidate hill-climbs independently
to maximize the correlation between its output and the resi-
dual error. These units do not need to communicate with one
another except to pick a winning unit for installation into the
active net.
Cascade architecture is developed by adding hidden units
to the network one at a time and not changing the coupling
weights once they have been added. Learning algorithm
creates and installs the new hidden units. For each hidden
unit an attempt is made to maximize the magnitude of the
correlation between the new units output and the residual
error signal which is to be minimized.
5. Simulation studies
5.1. Simulation using ANN approach
5.1.1. Generation of training patterns
Training patterns are generated from simulated fault
results of a typical 400 kV, 300 km double circuit transmis-
sion line, between nodes 12 (node A) and 17 (node B), of 24
bus EHV system shown in Fig. 9. The parameters consid-
ered for training are given in Table 5. Training patterns are
generated for various combinations of R
f
, Z
SA
, Z
SB
, p and
initial load at bus B (A node 12, B node 17). Combi-
nations of training data in Table 5 result in 5 3 3 10
3 1350 training patterns. The transmission line is repre-
sented by ten p sections of equal lengths (p varying from 0.1
to 0.9). The system load is assumed to vary from 1.5 to 4 pu.
The training is carried out for each of the fault type:
Single line to ground fault;
Line to line fault;
Double line to ground fault;
Three phase fault.
The variables are normalized so as to provide acceptable
input values for the NN. The order in which the training
examples are presented to the network are randomized
(shufed) from one epoch to the next. This form of rando-
mization is critical for improving the speed of convergence.
The ANN approach-1, proposed for the given fault loca-
tion problem, both Conventional Multi Layer Perceptron
(CMLP) and Cascade Correlation (CC), have current and
voltage during fault, current during pre-fault condition as
inputs and actual fault location as a percentage of the total
line length (p) and fault resistance (R
f
) as outputs (refer
Table 2). The ANN Approach-2, both CMLP and CC,
proposed for the problem has two models; one for fault
location and another for fault resistance determination.
Fault locating ANN model has pure fault positive sequence
voltages at the two ends of the transmission line as inputs
and fault location (p) as output. Second model of ANN
approach 2, which determines the fault resistance, has posi-
tive and zero sequence pure fault voltages of both ends of
the line as inputs, in case of faults involving ground (SLG
and LLG). For a LL fault and 3 phase fault, R
f
is estimated
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 501
Fig. 9. Single line diagram of 24 bus EHV system.
Dw
t

eSt; if Dw
t21
0
st
st 21 2st
Dw
t21;
if Dw
t21
0: and
st
st 21 2st
, m
mDwt 21; otherwise:
8
>
>
>
<
>
>
>
:
Table 5
Training and test input generation data
Parameter Training Testing
R
f
in V 10,30,50,70,90 20,40,60,80,100
Z
SA
in pu j0.02, j0.04, j0.06 j0.03, j0.05, j0.07
Z
SB
in pu j0.02, j0.04, j0.06 j0.03, j0.05, j0.07
p in pu 0.05,,0.95 0.1,,0.9
Initial load
at B in p.u.
1.5, 2.5, 3.5 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 502
Table 6
Comparison of ANN models: SLG fault
Trial no. Hidden nodes Epochs
CMLP CC CMLP CC
Approach 1 (both p and R
f
)
Based on local measurements
1 76 56 76 755 64 980
2 76 66 64 567 61 077
3 76 69 68 654 59 901
4 76 58 61 487 60 876
5 76 57 60 867 63 356
Av 76 61 66 466 62 038
Approach 2 (fault location)
Based on both end measurements
1 42 40 36 755 35 980
2 42 42 36 568 34 479
3 42 42 37 651 36 968
4 42 39 38 443 38 678
5 42 38 37 459 36 139
Av 42 40 37 375 36 449
Fault resistance (R
f
)
1 48 34 47 686 44 980
2 48 41 45 546 41 077
3 48 42 48 344 46 601
4 48 38 41 584 40 876
5 48 43 40 841 44 056
Av 48 40 44 800 43 518
Table 7
Comparison of ANN models: LL fault
Trial no. Hidden nodes Epochs
CMLP CC CMLP CC
Approach 1 (both p and R
f
)
Based on local measurements
1 88 66 76 835 68 940
2 88 68 73 557 63 687
3 88 71 68 634 65 305
4 88 75 69 437 66 497
5 88 69 70 465 61 205
Av 88 70 71 786 65 127
Approach 2 (fault location)
Based on both end measurements
1 48 43 38 849 36 204
2 48 45 39 406 37 423
3 48 47 37 950 37 411
4 48 43 39 295 36 541
5 48 48 39 269 37 941
Av 48 45 38 954 37 104
Fault resistance (R
f
)
1 52 34 49 686 47 091
2 52 41 51 546 46 843
3 52 42 50 344 47 306
4 52 38 51 584 50 962
5 52 45 52 841 51 014
Av 52 40 51 200 48 643
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
20
15
10
5
0
5
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
fault type SLG, initial power flow (200 MW)
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
4
3
2
1
0
1
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
Fig. 10. SLG fault approach 1.
by taking positive and negative sequence (if any) pure fault
voltages of both sides as inputs (refer Table 2).
Studies are conducted on IBM RISC-6000 workstations.
The accuracy of the results were measured by the absolute
value of deviation from the target on the training patterns.
Fifty trials are conducted for training the NN for each type
of fault. Results of the trials are indicated in Tables 6 and 7
for SLG and LL fault respectively.
5.1.1.1. ANN approach 1. The inputs for ANN
approach 1, obtained from local end measurements are
based on proposed analytical method. For an SLG fault,
number of neurons in the hidden layer varied from 56 to
69 in ANN-CC (Cascade Correlation) model. While ANN-
CMLP (Conventional MLP) model fails to converge for less
than a total of 76 neurons in the two hidden layers and
80 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model
resulted in an average number of epochs of 66 466,
whereas ANN-CC model required an average number of
epochs of 62 038 over ve trials. For a line-to-line fault,
number of neurons in the hidden layer were varying from 66
to 75 in ANN-CC. While ANN-CMLP model failed to
converge for less than a total of 88 neurons in the two
hidden layers and 80 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-
CMLP model resulted in an average number of epochs of
71 786, whereas, ANN-CC model required an average
number of epochs of 65 127 over ve trials. Target sum-
squared error of both the methods is taken as 0.001. The
details of two ANN architectures are given in Tables 6 and 7.
5.1.1.2. ANN approach 2. The inputs for fault locating
model of ANN approach 2, are based on Zamora's
method, whereas, inputs for fault resistance indicating
model of ANN approach 2, are based mainly on
domain knowledge and intuition. However, the inputs are
obtained from both end measurements. For an SLG fault,
and fault locating ANN, number of neurons in the hidden
layer were varying from 38 to 42 in ANN-CC model. While
ANN-CMLP model fails to converge for less than a total of
42 neurons in the two hidden layers and 50 000 epochs
being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model resulted in an
average number of epochs of 37375, whereas ANN-CC
model required an average number of epochs of 36 449
over ve trials. The target sum-squared error is taken as
0.001 in both the methods. Fault resistance recalling ANN
has number of neurons varying from 34 to 43 in ANN-CC
model. While ANN-CMLP model failed to converge for less
than a total of 48 neurons in the two hidden layers and
50 000 epochs being set as limit. For a line-to-line fault,
and fault locating ANN, number of neurons in the hidden
layer were varying from 43 to 48 in ANN-CC model. While
ANN-CMLP model fails to converge for less than a total of
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 503
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
15
10
5
0
5
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
fault type SLG, initial power flow (400 MW)
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
Fig. 11. SLG fault approach 1.
48 neurons in the two hidden layers and 50 000 epochs
being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model resulted in an
average number of epochs of 38 954, whereas ANN-CC
model required an average number of epochs of 37 104
over ve trials. Fault resistance recalling ANN has
number of neurons varying from 34 to 45 in ANN-CC
model. While ANN-CMLP model failed to converge for
less than a total of 52 neurons in the two hidden layers
and 55 000 epochs being set as limit. ANN-CMLP model
resulted in an average number of epochs of 51 200, whereas,
ANN-CC model required an average number of epochs of
48643 over ve trials. The target sum-squared error is taken
as 0.001 in both the methods. The details of two ANN
architectures are given in Tables 6 and 7.
5.1.2. Testing of developed ANNs
The developed ANN models have been tested on the
system with different parameters as shown in Table 5 for
various types of faults. EMTP is run on the system consid-
ered and results are presented as input to DFT. Required
measurements for ANN approach-1, given in Table 2, for
a particular type of fault, are fed to the corresponding ANN.
In approach-2 inputs (3) for the fault location are the pure
fault positive sequence voltages of either sides and remain
the same irrespective of the type of fault. However, inputs
for the fault resistance identication ANN are both positive
and negative/zero sequence (if any) pure fault voltages of
either sides. Unbalanced pre-fault condition may result in
pure-fault negative sequence components differing from
post-fault negative sequence components, however, pure-
fault zero sequence components are same as post-fault
zero sequence components as there will not be any pre-
fault zero sequence components. ANN results were
compared with the results of three analytical methods, viz.
Eriksson's method (Method 1).
Load compensated Takagi's method (Method 2).
Proposed analytical method (Method 3).
The results are also compared with the two ANN
approaches, viz.
ANN Approach-1 based on local measurements
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 504
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
fault type LL, initial power flow (200 MW)
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
Fig. 12. LL fault approach 1.
Table 8
Samples of extracted phasors from EMTP
Phasor p 0:2 p 0:4
Load current 3.117/19.57 3.117/19.57
I
ra
10.445/236.16 8.700/234.48
i
Sa
3.779/291.65 3.560/294.67
I
ta
2.310/145.24 2.590/143.38
v
b
0.645/231.62 0.679/222.63
ANN-CMLP: Conventional MLP model.
ANN-CC: CascadeCorrelation model.
ANN Approach-2 based on both end measurements.
ANN-CMLP: Conventional MLP model.
ANN-CC: CascadeCorrelation model.
The percentage error of the analytical methods is compared
with ANN based methods. It is observed that performance of
all the ANN methods with respect to accuracy of recalling is
nearly equal. Hence for comparison purpose, percentage error
of ANN-CC, based on local measurements (Approach-1), is
plotted against the analytical methods in Figs. 1013. Fig. 10
shows the percentage error in various methods, for an SLG
fault, and initial power ow of 200 MW in the line, whereas,
Fig. 11 shows the percentage error for an SLG fault, and
initial power ow of 400 MW. Similarly Fig. 12 shows the
percentage error in various methods, for a LL fault, and
initial power ow of 200 MW in the line, whereas, Fig. 13
shows the percentage error for a LL fault, and initial power
ow of 400 MW.
For typical test cases of an SLG fault on R-phase, current,
and voltage output from EMTP corresponding to a fault
resistance of 60 V, pre-fault load of 300 MW, and for a
fault location of 20 and 40% of line length respectively
are considered. Estimated peak values and angles of phasors
from DFT are stored in buffers, B
f
and B
c
. RMS values of the
estimated quantities obtained from these buffers are indi-
cated in Table 8. From the studies it is observed that high
impedance faults with high pre-fault loading conditions,
caused more errors in the analytical methods. However,
proposed ANN methods do not suffer either from variation
in pre-fault load or from high value of fault resistance (R
f
).
Proposed ANN model, ANN-CC, learn fast by taking less
number of epochs. It also has less number of neurons in the
hidden layers compared to the ANN-CMLP model. It is
observed that performance of all the ANN methods with
respect to accuracy of recalling is nearly equal. However,
ANN models can be chosen depending upon the hardware
requirement, availability of measurements, learning speed,
number of neurons in the hidden layers etc.
6. Conclusions
Two ANN approaches are proposed for fault location and
estimation of fault resistance on EHV transmission line. One
approach uses local measurements whereas other approach
uses both end measurements. Performance of proposed
ANN approaches have been compared with conventional
algorithmic schemes. Though both approaches perform
equally good in estimating fault location, approach-1
based on local measurements is preferable because of its
G.K. Purushothama et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 23 (2001) 491506 505
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
fault type LL, initial power flow (400 MW)
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
fault location in percentage of line length
p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
e
r
r
o
r
i
n
f
a
u
l
t
r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Proposed Analytical method
Erikssons method
Takagis method
ANN method
Fig. 13. LL fault approach 1.
better recalling ability of fault resistance. Incidentally,
approach-1 needs only one end of the line to be equipped
with measuring instruments, whereas, approach-2 needs
measurements from both ends. It is observed that the
proposed ANN model based on cascade correlation,
(ANN-CC), takes less number of epochs for learning and
less number of neurons in hidden layers compared to
conventional MLP model, (ANN-CMLP). It is also
observed that the proposed ANN approaches give accurate
results even for large variations of pre-fault load and fault
resistance. It is also observed that all the ANN methods are
found to be at least as accurate as the best analytical method
indicated in the gures. However, based on the nature and
type of the inputs needed, speed of learning and number of
hidden neurons needed, ANN-CC with approach-1 (based
on proposed analytical algorithm) can be considered as an
accurate fault locator and fault resistance indicator. For a
change in network conguration, following a contingency,
either the ANN has to be retrained or an ANN trained
beforehand for the contingency has to be put into service.
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