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1.

CCUkSL CU1LINL
1. CCu8SL Cu1LlnL
2. LxL8ClSLS
3. ln18CuuC1lCn
4. nA1C Codes
3. vCWLL SCunuS
6. CCnSCnAn1 SCunuS
7. vCWLL CCM8lnA1lCnS
A vowel Comblnauons
al/ay
CLher a vowel comblnauons
L vowel Comblnauons
ee and ea
CLher e vowel comblnauons
l vowel Comblnauons
C vowel Comblnauons
u vowel Comblnauons
8. ulC8APS
ulgraphs
1rlgraphs
l88LCuLA8 vCWLLS/LxCL1lCnS
1LnSLS
8LCSl1lCnS
nCunS
vL88S
Au!LC1lvLS
AuvL88S
A81lCLLS
8CnCunS
Su8!LC1 vL88 AC8LLMLn1
SLn1LnCL S18uC1u8L
CCMMCnL? uSLu WC8uS
CAMLS & AC1lvl1lLS
2. LkLkCISLS
# 8reaLhe from your sLomach
# exaggeraLed SMlLL Lo sh
# le Lo rlghL sLreLch & klsslng nolse
# open mouLh - Longue -> up, down, le & rlghL. 1ongue ln clockwlse & counLerclockwlse.
# L& 8 sound - Longue fully ouL - & Longue fully pulled back
# LLL (smlle) - AAAA (open) - CCC (sh)
# Say "AW"- (llke "Arkansas" -- drop Lhe [aw).
# Say "LL"-ull Lhe corners of your llps back and say "Leeeee...."
# Make wlde chewlng mouons whlle hummlng genLly.
# SLreLch every muscle ln your [aw and face. Cpen your mouLh as wlde as
posslble (as lf you were abouL Lo yawn), whlle movlng your [aw ln clrcles, and sldeways.
# Cpen your mouLh wlde, as ln Lhe prevlous exerclse, and shuL lL agaln. 8epeaL 3 umes.
# !aw lsomeLrlcs
?ou can do Lhls [aw exerclse yourself or have someone help you. SLarL wlLh your
mouLh open. Pave someone hold your chln rmly. 1ry Lo close your mouLh uslng
noLhlng buL your [aw muscles - do noL move your head! Pold for a counL of 3.
?ou wlll denlLely feel faugue ln your [aw muscles aer dolng Lhls a few umes. SLarL
ouL only dolng 3-3 of Lhese.
now, for Lhe nexL [aw exerclse you sLarL ln Lhe opposlLe dlrecuon. SLarL wlLh your
mouLh closed. 1hls ume have someone place Lhelr hand under your chln. WlLhouL
movlng your head Lry Lo open your mouLh. Pold for a counL of 3.
1ry 3-3 and lncrease Lhe amounL as you galn sLrengLh.
3. IN1kCDUC1ICN
Ingred|ents of Language
! vowels - 1hese aecL Lhe baslc pronunclauon of a word.
! ConsonanLs - 1hese are Lhe smallesL unlLs of sound. 1hey are also mosL aecLed by our reglonal
and moLher Longue lnuence.
! Syllables - 1hese allow us Lo break up words so LhaL we can ldenufy whaL Lhelr pronunclauon could
be.
! Syllable SLress - Pelps us Lo accuraLely pronounce a word.
! Symbols - Lvery language has a seL of symbols called alphabeL.
! Spelllngs - lmporLanL for eecuve wrlung. ronunclauon ls lmporLanL for eecuve communlcauon.
! Lnunclauon - lully pronounclng each syllable of a word wlLh Lhe proper emphasls.
! Crammar - Lvery language has seL of rules, whlch decldes senLence consLrucuon.
! vocabulary - SeL of words used commonly and lL lncreases wlLh age.
! Modulauon - Pelps us lmblbe Lhe expresslon and rhyLhm assoclaLed wlLh a language Lo keep Lhe
audlence hooked.
! 8aLe of Speech - Speaklng aL a pace LhaL ls comforLable Lo hear and comprehend.
! llllers - use of meanlngless words or sounds LhaL ls dlsLracung.
! Slang - lnformal language speclc Lo a parucular group.
! SLance - MalnLalnlng an approprlaLe posLure Lo faclllLaLe communlcauon.
! Acuve LlsLenlng - An acL of paylng auenuon Lo Lhe speaker and also lemng hlm/her know LhaL you
are paylng auenuon.
!volce ClarlLy- Speaklng clearly so as Lo be undersLood.
4. NA1C Codes
A Alpha n november
8 8ravo C Cscar
C Charlle apa
u uelLa C Cuebec
L Lcho 8 8omeo
l loxLroL S Slerra
C Colf 1 1ango
P PoLel u unlform
l lndla v vlcLor
! !ulleL W Whlsky
k kllo x x-8ay
L Llma ? ?ankee
M Mlke Z Zulu
S. VCWLL SCUNDS
A has IIVL sounds.
1. Ae - Arablc, Apple, Pand, AccenL, 8ack, Allergy, Pave, Pad, Pas, Anuvlrus, ApuLude, lnacuve, kldnap
MouLh osluon: Wlde open, laughLer llnes,
2. Au = Awwww
Words beglnnlng wlLh Au,Al, Aw
AuLo, Always, Awesome, AlmosL,
3. A - sound of Lhe alphabeL
Any, Many, 8ake, Anyway, Able, behave, agenLcomplalnL
4. Aa - Second leuer of Lhe Plndl AlphabeL
Ask, AsLhma, 8askeL, AghasL
3. Uh - CenLle, shorL sound.
eLal, Meal, fronLal, ApproprlaLe, Awake
LxL8ClSL: ldenufy Lhe sounds of A ln Lhe followlng Words:
AblllLy AccenLure Aggresslve Already Are
Able AdmlnlsLrauon Agony An ArgumenL
AbouL AdverusemenL Alr Apologlse Around
AbsoluLely Agaln AlrporL AppeuLe Ask
AcceleraLe AgalnsL Allas AppreclaLe Asked
AccenL Aged Ally ApproprlaLe Assess
a able abouL above across acL acuon acLually add addluon ad[ecuve afrald Afrlca aer agaln
agalnsL age ago agreed ahead alr all allow almosL alone along already also alLhough always am
Amerlca among amounL an and angle anlmal anoLher answer any anyLhlng appear apple are area
arms army around arrlved arL as ask aL away
L has 1WC sounds.
1. Lh - MosL common sound
30 of Lhe uP (1sL leuer of Plndl)
Lend, Mend, 8enL, LlephanL, Lnergy, Lmbrace, LorL, Lspeclally, Lvery, Lvldence, Lplsode,
2. Lee - alphabeL sound.
used less frquenLly
Meal, MeaL, Lel, LlaLed. Lasy, Lach, Lqual, LquallLy, Lrase, LvenL, Lvll, LlLher,
usually La = ee
Lxcepuon - Lye (l sound)
Lar LllLe Lnergy Lnvelope LL ceLera (eLc)
Lcho Lmbarrass Lnglne LnvlronmenL Lvenlng
Lconomlcs Lmbassy Lnglneer Lqual LvenL
Lducauon Lmergency Lnough LquallLy Lveryone
LlLher Lmployee LnLerLaln Lscape LveryLhlng
Lleven Lndeavour LnLrepreneur Lspeclally Lvoluuon
each early ears earLh easL easy eaL edge eecL eggs elghL elLher elecLrlc elemenLs else end energy
englne Lngland Lngllsh en[oy enough enLered enure equal equauon especlally Lurope even evenlng
ever every everyone everyLhlng exacLly example excepL exclung exerclse expecL experlence experlmenL
explaln express eye
I has 1WC sounds.
l lce ldea lf l'll lmporLanL ln lnches lnclude lncrease lndlan lndlcaLe lndusLry lnformauon lnsecLs
lnslde lnsLead lnsLrumenLs lnLeresL lnLeresL lnLo lron ls lsland lsn'L lL lLs lL's lLself
1. L (so LL) lmll
lndla, lmage, lnvesugaLe, lnnlLe,
2. l alphabeL (Lye)
lce, lron, lon, lrony, ldle, ldol, lodlne,
l never has a long LL sound - beauuful
C has 1P8LL sounds.
ob[ecL observe ocean of o omce oen oh oll old on once one only open opposlLe or order
oLher our ouL ouLslde over own oxygen
1. Au (so)
Crganlse, CcLober, Cpucal, Cnslde, Cccupy, Cb[ecL, Cend, Crange, College, knowledge,
2. C (Lhe alphabeL)
Casls, Cbey, Cbllge, Cmega, open,
3. uh
Cccasslon, Cven, Cmclal, uove,
U has ICUk sounds.
uncle under underllne undersLand unlL unul up upon us use usually
1. uh = llrsL leuer of Lhe Plndl alphabeL
cuL, buL, muu,
MosL words sLarung wlL 'un' or 'u'. lor eg. undersLand, unLoward, unsLable, upLurn, upsLalrs.
Lxcepuon - unlform & oLher unl words
2. u (Lhe alphabeL sound)
unlque, unlform, unlverse, uranlum, user, usable, uullLy, usual, duke, cuLe, muLe
3. Cooh
Luke, uke, uLe, glue,
4. Co (3Lh leuer of Lhe Plndl alphabeL)
ulley, bull, pull
6. CCNSCNAN1 SCUNDS
A comprehenslve llsL of consonanL sounds follows:
8 makes Lhe /b/ sound as ln !"#, also, when ! follows $ ln Lhe same syllable, lL ls sllenL as ln %"$!.
8 baby back bad ball bank base be bear beaL beauuful became because become bed been before
began begln behlnd belng belleve bell belong below beslde besL beuer beLween blg blll blrds blL
black block blood blow blue board boaL body bones book born boLh bouom box boy branches
break brlghL brlng 8rlush broken broLher broughL broughL brown bulld bulldlng bullL burnlng
buslness buL buy by
C makes Lhe /k/ sound as ln &"# and Lhe /s/ sound as ln &'"('-
When & ls followed by ', ) or *, lL says /s/ as ln &'+#. CLherwlse, lL says /k/ as ln &"#.
Lxamples of Lhe /s/ sound: &'+#,', &')%)+-, &),&%', and &*&%'.\
Lxamples of Lhe /k/ sound: &./"-', &"0', &,'"$, &1,).1(, and &%'0',.
call came can cannoL can'L caplLal capLaln car care carefully carry case caL caLch caule caughL cause cells
cenLer cenLs cenLury cerLaln chance change charL check chlef chlld chlldren choose church clrcle clLy class
clean clear cllmbed close cloLhes cloud coasL cold color column come common company compare compleLe
compound condluons conslder consonanL conLaln conunued conLrol cook cool copy corn corner correcL cosL
couon could couldn'L counL counLry course covered cows creaLe crled crops cross crowd currenL cuL
D makes Lhe /d/ sound as ln 2.-.
dance dark day dead deal deaLh declded declmal deep descrlbe deserL deslgn deLalls deLermlne
developed dlcuonary dld dldn'L dled dlerence dlerenL dlmculL dlrecL dlrecuon dlscovered dlsLance
dlvlded dlvlslon do docLor does doesn'L dog dollars done don'L door down draw drawlng dress
drlve drop dry durlng
I makes Lhe /f/ sound as ln 3"#.
face facL facLorles facLors fall famlly famous far farm farmers fasL faLher fear feel feellng feeL fell
felL few eld g ghL gure lled nally nd ne ngers nlshed re rsL sh L ve aL oor
ow owers y follow food fooL for force foresL form forward found four fracuon lrance free
lrench fresh frlends from fronL frulL full fun
G makes Lhe /g/ sound as ln -'#, and Lhe /[/ sound as ln -'$.
When - ls followed by ), ' or *, lL says /[/ as ln -*$. CLherwlse, lL says /g/ as ln -.%2.
Lxamples of Lhe /[/ sound: -'+#%', -)"+#, and -*$+"(4&.
Lxamples of Lhe /g/ sound: -"%%.+, -.%2, -1)2', -%"((, and -,.5.
Lxcepuons: -'#, -.#, !'-)+, -),%, -)0', -'",, -''(', -)6, -),#7, -'*(',, and -)22*.
Came garden gas gave general geL glrl glve glass go Cod gold gone good goL governmenL grass
greaL Creek green grew ground group grow guess gun
n makes Lhe /h/ sound as ln 7"#, also, someumes 7 ls sllenL, as ln 7.+'(#*.
had halr halL hand happened happy hard has haL have he head hear heard hearL heaL heavy
held help her here hlgh hlll hlm hlmself hls hlsLory hlL hold hole home hope horse hoL hours
house how however huge human hundred hunung
I makes Lhe /[/ sound as ln 8"$.
!apanese [ob [olned [umped [usL
k makes Lhe /k/ sound as ln 9)#'.
keep kepL key kllled klnd klng knew know known
L makes Lhe /l/ sound as ln %":, and Lhe /l!/ sound as ln -%"2 and &*&%'.
lady lake land language large lasL laLer laughed law lay lead learn leasL leave led le legs lengLh
less leL leL's leuer level lle llfe lled llghL llke llne llsL llsLen llule llve locaLed long look losL loL
loud love low
M makes Lhe /m/ sound as ln $"2.
machlne made maln ma[or make man many map march mark maLch maLerlal mauer may maybe
me mean measure meaL meeL melody members men meLal meLhod mlddle mlghL mlle mllk mllllon
mlnd mlne mlnuLes mlss modern molecules momenL money monLhs moon more mornlng mosL
moLher mounLaln mouLh move movemenL much muslc musL my
N makes Lhe /n/ sound as ln +":.
name nauon naLural near necessary need never new nexL nlghL no nor norLh norLhern nose noL
noLe noLhlng nouce noun now number numeral
makes Lhe /p/ sound as ln :",9.
page palnL palr paper paragraph park parL parucular parLy passed pasL pauern pay people per perhaps perlod
person phrase plcked plcLure plece place plalns plan plane planL planLs play please plural poem polnL pole
poor posluon posslble pounds power pracuce prepared presldenLs preuy prlnLed probably problem process
produce producLs properLy provlde pulled pushed puL
k makes Lhe /r/ sound as ln ,"&'. When , follows a vowel, lL makes a speclal sound: see 8-ConLrolled vowels.
race radlo raln ralsed ran raLher reached read ready really reason recelved record red reglon
remaln remember repeaLed reporL represenL resenL resL resulL reLurn rhyLhm rlch rlde rlghL rlng
rlse rlver road rock rolled room rooL rope rose round row rule run
S makes Lhe /s/ sound as ln ()#, and Lhe /z/ sound as ln 7"(.
safe sald sall same sand saL save saw say scale school sclence sclenusLs score sea seaL second secuon see
seeds seem seen sell send sense senL senLence separaLe serve seL seuled seven several shall shape sharp she
shlp shoes shop shorL should shoulder shouLed show shown slde slghL slgn slgnal sllenL slmllar slmple slnce
slng slr slsLer slL slx slze skln sky sleep sleep slowly small smell smlled snow so so soll soldlers soluuon
some someone someLhlng someumes son song soon sound souLh souLhern space speak speclal speed spell
spoL spread sprlng square sLand sLars sLarL sLaLe sLaLemenL sLay sLeel sLep suck sull sLone sLood sLop sLore
sLory sLralghL sLrange sLream sLreeL sLreLched sLrlng sLrong sLudenLs sLudy sub[ecL subsLances such suddenly
sumx sugar suggesLed sum summer sun supply suppose sure surface surprlse swlm syllables symbols sysLem
1 makes Lhe /L/ sound as ln #":, also, someumes # ls sllenL, as ln 57)(#%'.
Lable Lall Lake Lalk Lall Leacher Leam Lell LemperaLure Len Lerms LesL Lhan LhaL Lhe Lhelr Lhem Lhemselves
Lhen Lhere Lhese Lhey Lhlck Lhln Lhlng Lhlnk Lhlrd Lhls Lhose Lhough LhoughL Lhousands Lhree Lhrough Lhus
ued ume uny Lo Loday LogeLher Lold Lone Loo Look Lools Lop LoLal Louch Loward Lown Lrack Lrade Lraln Lraln
Lravel Lree Lrlangle Lrlp Lrouble Lruck Lrue Lry Lube Lurn Lwo Lype
V makes Lhe /v/ sound as ln 0"+.
valley value varlous verb very vlew vlllage vlslL volce vowel
W makes Lhe /w/ sound as ln 5'#. 5 placed before a slngle vowel wlll usually modlfy lLs sound, as ln 5"(7.
walL walk wall wanL war warm was wash WashlngLon wasn'L waLch waLer waves way we wear weaLher week
welghL well we'll wenL were wesL wesLern whaL wheels when where wheLher whlch whlle whlLe who whole
whose why wlde wlfe wlld wlll wln wlnd wlndow wlngs wlnLer wlre wlsh wlLh wlLhln wlLhouL woman women
wonder won'L wood word work workers world would wouldn'L wrlLe wrluen wrong wroLe
k makes Lhe /ks/ sound as ln !.;, Lhe /gs/ sound as ln ';"&#, and Lhe /z/ sound as ln ;*%.:7.+'.
makes Lhe /y/ sound as ln *'#. * can also acL as a vowel.
Lxamples of < as a ConsonanL - ?es, yam, yell, yellow, yogurL
Lxamples of < as a vowel - gym, my, cycle, baby, halry, sky
yard year yellow yes yeL you young your you're yourself
2 makes Lhe /z/ sound as ln =):.
7. VCWLL CCM8INA1ICNS
A vowe| comb|nanon ls a comblnauon of Lwo or Lhree vowels, or of a vowel and aL leasL one consonanL, LhaL ls
assoclaLed wlLh one or more speclc slngle sounds. lor example, '" has Lhe sounds /long e/ and /long a/, "* has
Lhe sound /long a/, and )-7 has Lhe sound /long l/. 1hese vowel comblnauons are someumes calledd|graphs,
d|phthongs, tr|graphs, and tr|phthongs.
vowel comblnauons occur ln Lhree dlerenL forms ln wrluen Lngllsh:
1.vowels oen appear ln clusLers wlLhln a slngle syllable. 1hls ls Lhe mosL common form.
2.vowels oen appear ln comblnauon wlLh a parucular consonanL or consonanLs whlch, LogeLher, represenL a
sound unlL LhaL ls dlerenL from whaL you would expecL lf you dldn'L know Lhe speclc comblnauon. lor
example, Lhe . ln .%2 has Lhe /long o/ sound, buL lf you dldn'L already know LhaL already, you would Lhlnk
LhaL Lhe . ln &.%2 was shorL.
3.AnoLher common comblnauon ln Lngllsh ls one or Lwo vowels followed by -7. 1he -7 ls usually sllenL. lL ls
usually easler Lo decode Lhe whole unlL ()-7, ')-7) Lhan Lo process Lhe vowel and Lhe -7 seperaLely.
! Vowe| Comb|nanons
"#$"%
1ogeLher, ") or "* make a /long a/ sound.
Lxample words: ")$, ,")+, !,")2, :")+#, ,"*, ("*, (#"*, #")%, #5")+, :,")(', (#")+, and $")+
Cther " vowe| comb|nanons
!"* as ln 2"*, say, play, spray, and #,"*
!"1 as ln 3"1%#, -"1+#, 3,"12, %"1+&7, :"1(', and ("1&'
!"5 as ln ("5, :"5, &%"5, 2"5+, and &,"5%
!"1-7 as ln &"1-7#, #"1-7#, 2"1-7#',, +"1-7#*, 7"1-7#*, and (%"1-7#',
!5" /w/ as ln 5"+#, 5"(7, (5"$:, (>1"(7, (>1"#
!5" /w/ as ln 5";, 5"-, (5"$, and >1"&9
!"%% as ln !"%%, #"%%, 7"%%, and ($"%%
!"%2 as ln !"%2, (&"%2, and "%2',
!"%9 as ln #"%9, 5"%9, &7"%9, and (#"%9
!"%$ as ln "%$(, &"%$, :"%$, and :("%$
!"%# as ln 7"%#, $"%#, and ("%#
& Vowe| Comb|nanons
'' and '"
1ogeLher, '' or '" make a /long e/ sound. Someumes, '" LogeLher makes a /shorL e/ sound or a /long a/ sound
lnsLead.
Lxample words (''): :''9, ('', >1''+, (%'':, &7''(', (#,''#, $''#, and #'"$
Lxample words ('" /long e/): '"#, ('", '"&7, %'"3, :'"&7, $'"+, #'"$, '"(', and :%'"('
Lxample words ('" /shorL e/): 2'"2, 7'"2, (:,'"2, 7'"%#7, and $'"+#
Lxample words ('" /long a/): !,'"9, -,'"#, (#'"9, and *'"
Cther ' vowe| comb|nanons
!eu/ew as ln sleuLh, deuce, few, new, and shrewd
!el/ey/elgh /long a/ as ln vell, belge, Lhey, whey, elghL, and welgh
!el/ey/elgh /long e/ as ln selze, key, money, valley
!el/ey/elgh /long l/ as ln helsL, eye, geyser, helghL
( Vowe| Comb|nanons
!le /long e/ as ln brlef, eld, grleve, and plece
!le/ye /long l/ as ln dle, ue, dye, and rye
!lgh as ln hlgh, Lhlgh, nlghL, lghL, and wrlghL
!lgn as ln slgn, allgn, asslgn, and benlgn
!lnd as ln blnd, klnd, mlnd, grlnd, and behlnd
) Vowe| Comb|nanons
!oo as ln boo, food, smooLh, and moose
!oo as ln book, look, good, and sLood
!oa /long o/ as ln oaL, loam, groan, loaLhe, and loaves
!oe /long o/ as ln doe, and hoe
!ol/oy /y/ as ln oll, coln, volce, boy, and ploy
!old/olk/olL /long o/ as ln gold, scold, folk, yolk, bolL, and volL
!oll/osL /long o/ as ln roll, knoll, scroll, ghosL, mosL, and posL
!oll/osL /shorL o/ as ln doll, loll, cosL, losL, and frosL
!ou/ow as ln ouL, round, bounce, how, down, and browse
!ou/ow /long o/ as ln soul, poulLry, own, glow, snow, and owe
!ou as ln you, soup, group, and rouge
* Vowe| Comb|nanons
!ue /long u/ as ln cue, due, hue, rue, sue, blue, clue, ue, glue, and Lrue
!ul /long u/ as ln sulL, frulL, crulse, [ulce, and slulce
CCMLLk VCWLL SCUNDS
8esldes long vowel sounds, shorL vowel sounds, and Lhe schwa sound, Lhere are some oLher speclal sounds ln
Lngllsh LhaL are represenLed by vowels. 1hey are as follows:
!/aw/ sound as ln "531% and "5'
!/ol/ sound as ln !.)%, :.)(.+, #.)%'#, and "++.*
!/ou/ sound as ln %)-7#7.1(', &.5, ?.5',, and 3.1+#")+
!/oo/ (") sound as ln #..9, :1%%'*, :%"#*:1(, :1%%, and 3..#!"%%
noLe LhaL "oo" makes Lwo dlerenL sounds ln dlerenL words, havlng Lhe " sound as ln 7..9, or Lhe u sound as ln
!..#.
k CCN1kCLLLD VCWLLS
When a vowel ls followed by an ,, lL makes a speclal sound. 1hese are called r-conLrolled vowels, or r-colored
vowels. 1hese phonemes are as follows:
!/ar/ sound as ln &",, -1)#",, @,#71,
!/r/ sound as ln &",', !'",, $",', (&",', ">1",)1$
!/ir/ sound as ln :)',
!/lr/ sound as ln #1,+):, (:)2',, &',4A&"#', and !'"0',
!/or/ sound as ln $"+.,, .!(',0"#.,*, "1#7.,, !,.1-7#, and .,&7",2
!/er/ sound as ln !1/',, &1/',, and $.#7',
usually, /ar/ always sounds llke Lhe ", ln &",, and /or/ always sounds llke Lhe ., ln 3.,. 1he ),, ',, and 1,, sound Lhe
same as ln !),2, 7',, and 31,. 1hese all make a /!r/ sound.
8. DIGkAnS
A d|graph ls a slngle sound, or phoneme, whlch ls represenLed by Lwo leuers. A tr|graph ls a phoneme whlch
conslsLs of Lhree leuers. Powever, many people wlll slmply use Lhe Lerm 'dlgraph' generally Lo descrlbe boLh
comblnauons. ln dlgraphs, consonanLs [oln LogeLher Lo form a klnd of consonanL Leam, whlch makes a speclal
sound. lor lnsLance, : and 7 comblne Lo form :7, whlch makes Lhe /f/ sound as ln :7.+'$)&.
When Lwo or more consonanLs appear LogeLher and you hear each sound LhaL each consonanL would normally
make, Lhe consonanL Leam ls called a consonant b|end. lor lnsLance, Lhe word !%'+2 has Lwo consonanL blends: !%,
for whlch you hear Lhe sounds for boLh ! and %, and +2, for whlch you hear Lhe sounds for boLh +and 2.
D|graphs
!&7, whlch makes Lhe /ch/ sound as ln 5"#&7, &7)&9, &7)$:"+='', and &7"$:).+
!&9, whlch makes Lhe /k/ sound as ln &7)&9
!B, whlch makes Lhe /f/ sound as ln &%)B
!-7, whlch makes Lhe /g/ sound as ln -7.(# and -7"(#%*
!-+, whlch makes Lhe /n/ sound as ln -+.$' and -+",%'2
!9+, whlch makes Lhe /n/ sound as ln 9+)3' and 9+)-7#
!%%, whlch makes Lhe /l/ sound as ln 5"%%
!$!, whlch makes Lhe /m/ sound as ln %"$! and #71$!
!+-, whlch makes Lhe /ng/ sound as ln 3"+-, !..$',"+-, and A+-',:,)+#
!+9, whlch makes Lhe /nk/ sound as ln )+9, ()+9 and ,)+9
!:7, whlch makes Lhe /f/ sound as ln 2)-,":7, :7.+', and :7.+)&(
!>1, whlch makes Lhe /kw/ sound as ln >1)&9
!(7, whlch makes Lhe /sh/ sound as ln (7.,', (7):5,'&9, (7",9, and (7)'%2
!((, whlch makes Lhe /s/ sound as ln ?.((
!#7, whlch makes Lhe /Lh/ sound as ln "#7%'#', #..#7!,1(7, !"#7#1!, #7)+, and #71+2',(#.,$
!#7, whlch makes Lhe /Lh/ sound as ln #7)(, #7',', and #7"#
!57, whlch makes Lhe /hw/ sound as ln 57',' and 57)&7
!5,, whlch makes Lhe /wr/ sound as ln 5,)#'
!==, whlch makes Lhe /z/ sound as ln 31== and !1==
1r|graphs
!&7,, whlch makes Lhe /chr/ sound as ln &7,.$' and &7,.$.(.$'
!2-', whlch makes Lhe /g/ sound as ln 2.2-' and :",#,)2-'
!#&7, whlch makes Lhe /Lch/ sound as ln &"#&7, $"#&7
IkkLGULAk VCWLLS]LkCL1ICNS
Someumes, Lhe baslc rules of phonlcs do noL apply. Lach of Lhese lnsLances musL be memorlzed. Common
examples lnclude, buL are noL llmlLed, Lo:
!lCP as ln "hlgh" or "slghL"
!-nC as ln "slng," "song," "sung"
!CS1 as ln "mosL" (buL noL "losL" or "cosL") uses Lhe long sound lnsLead of Lhe normal shorL sound.
!CW has Lwo dlerenL sounds as ln "low" and "cow." (or, "sow" and "sow.")
!Lu has Lhree dlerenL sounds as ln "lled," "played," and "walked"
!Cl does noL follow Lhe Lwo vowels rule, e.g., "molsL" or "boll."
!uouble C has Lwo dlerenL sounds, as ln "book" and "loose."
!CuS as ln "nervous."
!Au as ln "faulL" or "haul."
!-SlCn, -1lCn, and -ClCn are all pronounced "shun."
!CuCP has aL leasL seven dlerenL sounds, as ln "bough," "cough," "hough," "Lough," "Lhorough," "LhoughL,"
and "Lhrough."
9. 1LNSLS
Acnv|ty, acnon state or be|ng |n the past
SIMLL AS1
3 USLS -
1) asL evenLs LhaL are now nlshed
!ohn cuL hls nger lasL week
l wenL Lo college 3 years ago.
Pe aLe Lhe dlnner 1 hour ago.
l slepL well lasL nlghL.
2) SlLuauon ln Lhe pasL
l llved ln new ?ork for 10 years
3) A serles of acuons ln Lhe pasL
Pe enLered a room, llL a clgareue and smlled aL Lhe guesLs.
3 ICkMS
1) ueclarauve SenLences
Sub[ecL + verb+Lu or an lrregular verb form
Pe enLered Lhe room, llL a clgareue & smlled aL Lhe guesLs.
2) Cuesuons
Aux verb + Sub[ecL + verb ln presenL form
Pow long dld he work Lhere?
3) negauve SenLences
Sub[ecL + Aux verb+noL + verb ln pasL form
Pe dldn'L learn any lLallan when he was ln lLaly Lwo year ago.
AS1 CCN1INUCUS
We usually use 1he asL Conunuous (rogresslve) Lo Lalk abouL longer acuons ln progress ln Lhe pasL. 1he acuons
can be lnLerruped by someLhlng ("Pe was readlng when she arrlved") or can be happenlng aL Lhe same some ("She
was learnlng Lngllsh when he was waLchlng 1v"). 1here are also Lwo oLher uses.
S USLS
1) Acnons |n progress (|n the past)
l was waLchlng 1v yesLerday ln Lhe evenlng.
She was noL crylng.
2) Interrupted acnons |n progress (|n the past)
[ SenLence ln asL Conunuous ] + WPLn + [SenLence ln asL Slmple ]
WPLn + [ SenLence ln asL Conunuous ] + [SenLence ln asL Slmple ]
[ SenLence ln asL Slmple ] + WPLn + [ SenLence ln asL Conunuous ]
l was Lalklng wlLh !ames when Lhe Lelephone rang.
1he plane crashed when Angellca was playlng Lennls.
3) Irr|tanon over someth|ng or somebody (|n the past)
l was wonderlng lf you could open Lhe wlndow.
l was Lhlnklng you mlghL help me wlLh Lhls problem
4) Acnons |n progress at the same nme (|n the past)
l was waLchlng 1v and 8arbara was readlng a book.
1he famlly was eaung Lhe dlnner and Lalklng.
S) 1|m|d ] po||te quesnon
l was wonderlng lf you could open Lhe wlndow.
l was Lhlnklng you mlghL help me wlLh Lhls problem
3 ICkMS
1) os|nve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
Pave you been runnlng?
Pow long have you been learnlng Lngllsh?
2) uesnons
Auxlllary verb + Sub[ecL + verb + lng
Pave you ever seen Lhls program?
Pave you found Lhe Lelephone number?
3) Neganve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
Pe hasn'L Laken any drug for Lwo years
l haven'L meL my perfecL parLner yeL
nCW 1C
auxlllary verb "Lo be" ln Lhe pasL form
1he pasL form of Lhe auxlllary verb "Lo be" ls:
lor Lhlrd person slngular: "was"
lor all oLhers: "were"
resenL aruclple of your verb (verb + lng)
Lalk + lng = Lalklng be + lng = belng
SIMLL kLSLN1
can express boLh Lhe presenL and Lhe fuLure.
6 USLS
1) Iacts and Genera||zanons
Lalk abouL Lhlngs we belleve are (or are noL) Lrue.
generallze abouL somebody or someLhlng.
lL ls a blg house.
8uenos Alres ls a large clLy.
A dog ls noL larger Lhan an elephanL
2) nab|ts and kounnes
Lo lndlcaLe LhaL an acuvlLy ls a hablL or a rouune.
We leave for work aL 7.30 every mornlng.
Susan oen meeLs wlLh her frlends aer school.
1hey usually play fooLball on Sunday.
uSLu wlLh adverbs of frequency
always
never
frequenLly/oen
usually
seldom/rarely
nowadays
every week/year
someumes/occaslonally
from ume Lo ume
l always go Lo church on Sundays.
3) ermanent S|tuanons
Lalk abouL slLuauons ln llfe LhaL lasL a relauvely long ume.
l llve ln 8osLon.
Pe works as a reman.
MargareL drlves a orsche.
4) State Verbs
we use presenL slmple wlLh sLaLe verbs
We know Lhls man
MargareL drlves a orsche
l llke swlmmlng
S) I|xed ] Cmc|a| arrangements
1o Lalk abouL evenLs LhaL don'L change
1he meeung sLarLs aL 4pm
1he Lraln leaves aL noon
When does Lhe plane Lake o?
6) Narranons
1o Lell a sLory or a [oke
A man goes Lo vlslL a frlend and ls amazed Lo nd hlm
playlng chess wlLh hls dog. Pe waLches Lhe game ln
asLonlshmenL for a whlle
3 ICkMS
1) Dec|aranve Sentences
Sub[ecL + verb
A dog ls an anlmal
l have Lwo eggs
2) uesnons
Auxlllary verb + Sub[ecL + verb
Cuesuons requlre Lhe auxlllary verb Lo do or, ln Lhe Lhlrd person slngular, does.
A: uoes she llke golng Lo Lhe mounLalns? 8: ?es, she does.
keep ln mlnd LhaL when you ask a quesuon, Lhe verb does noL con[ugaLe:
?LS: uoes she have a dog?
nC: uoes she has a dog?
lor Lhe verb Lo be, we do noL use an auxlllary:
?LS: ls he Lall?
nC: uoes he be Lall?
3) Neganve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb+noL + verb
1hey don'L llve ln new ?ork anymore
l don'L llke wlnLer
resent S|mp|e
LlsLed below are uses wlLh examples, and Lhe sLrucLure of Lhe presenL slmple Lense.
ermanent or |ong-|asnng s|tuanons
Where do you work?
1he sLore opens aL 9 o'clock.
She llves ln new ?ork.
kegu|ar hab|ts and da||y rounnes
l usually geL up aL 7 o'clock.
She doesn'L oen go Lo Lhe clnema.
When do Lhey usually have lunch?
Iacts
1he LarLh revolves around Lhe Sun.
WhaL does 'sLrange' mean?
WaLer doesn'L boll aL 20 degrees.
Iee||ngs
l love walklng around laLe aL nlghL durlng Lhe summer.
She haLes ylng!
WhaL do you llke? l don'L wanL Lo llve ln 1exas.
Cp|n|ons and states of m|nd
Pe doesn'L agree wlLh you.
l Lhlnk he ls a wonderful sLudenL.
WhaL do you conslder your besL accompllshmenL?
1|metab|es and schedu|es
1he plane leaves aL 4 p.m.
When do courses begln Lhls semesLer?
1he Lraln doesn'L arrlve unul 10.33.
Common present nme express|ons |nc|ude:
usually, always, oen, someumes, on SaLurdays, aL weekends (on weekends uS Lngllsh), rarely, on occaslon, never,
seldom
Structure
os|nve
ln Lhe posluve form add an 's' Lo Lhe base form of Lhe 3rd person slngular. lf Lhe verb ends ln -y preceded by a
consonanL, change Lhe -y Lo -les.
l, ?ou, We, 1hey - eaL lunch aL noon.
Pe, She, lL - works well ln any slLuauon.
Neganve
Con[ugaLe Lhe helplng verb 'do' noL (don'L and doesn'L) Lhe base form of Lhe verb Lo make negauves.
l, ?ou, We, 1hey - don'L en[oy opera.
Pe, She, lL - doesn'L belong Lo Lhe club.
uesnons
Con[ugaLe Lhe helplng verb 'do' (do or does) Lhe base form of Lhe verb ln quesuon forms.
uo - l, you, we, Lhey - work ln Lhls Lown?
uoes - he, she, lL - llve ln Lhls clLy?
kLSLN1 CCN1INUCUS
malnly used Lo express Lhe ldea LhaL someLhlng ls happenlng aL Lhe momenL of speaklng.
S USLS
1) resent Acnons
acuons happenlng aL Lhe momenL of speaklng.
Pe ls eaung a dlnner.
1hey are swlmmlng.
2) 1emporary Acnons
acuvlues conunulng for only a llmlLed perlod of ume
l'm rldlng a blke Lo geL Lo work because my car ls broken
1hey are noL Lalklng wlLh each oLher aer Lhe lasL argumenL.
3) Longer Acnons |n progress
when we are ln a mlddle of dolng someLhlng ume-consumlng
1hey are worklng hard Lo earn money.
l am Lralnlng Lo become a professlonal fooLballer.
4) Iuture (persona|) arrangements & p|ans
someLhlng wlll be done ln Lhe near fuLure.
l'm meeung kaue ln Lhe evenlng.
Pe's ylng Lo 8ome ln SepLember.
S) Irr|tanon |n the present over someLhlng or somebody
Lo express lrrlLauon or anger over somebody or someLhlng ln Lhe presenL.
She's always complalnlng abouL everyLhlng!
!ohny ls always asklng me sLupld quesuons!

3 ICkMS
1) Dec|aranve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
1hey are swlmmlng ln Lhe sea
Pe ls geng marrled Lhls monLh
2) uesnons
Auxlllary verb + Sub[ecL + verb + lng
ls she eaung my cake now?
Are you meeung uavld Loday?
3) Neganve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + noL + verb + lng
Pe ls noL [oklng
We are walung for my uncle
IU1UkL SIMLL
words LhaL lmply Lhe fuLure or aux consLrucuon + maln verb
wlll, can,should, may, musL, mlghL, golng Lo,
4 uSLS
1) rom|ses
Lo make promlses
l promlse l wlll buy you Lhls Loy.
romlse you wlll never leave me!
2) Unp|anned Acnons
Lalk abouL unplanned (sponLaneous) declslons.
l wlll close Lhe wlndow. lL's sLarung Lo raln
uon'L worry! l wlll help you wlLh Lhls problem.
3) red|cnons based on exper|ence or |ntu|non
lL wlll raln ln a momenL.
lL wlll geL more dlmculL.
4) nab|ts
Pe wlll always make nolse when we are sleeplng.
She wlll blLe her llp lf she's nervous abouL someLhlng.

3 ICkMS
1. Dec|aranve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb
wlll ='ll or wlll+noL=won'L
you should never use wlll Lo say
whaL somebody has already arranged
or declded Lo do ln Lhe fuLure:
l Lhlnk he wlll regreL hls cholce.
l wlll come back aL 10 p.m.
2. uesnons
Auxlllary verb + Sub[ecL + verb
Wlll he be surprlsed when he sees me?
Wlll Mark be able Lo do Lhe shopplng before 10 a.m.?
3. Neganve Sentences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb
l won'L Lake any heavy equlpmenL wlLh me.
l'm sorry l won'L be able Lo help you wlLh your Lngllsh Loday.
IU1UkL CCN1INUCUS
3 USLS
1) Iuture acnons
luLure acuons ln progress.
ln an hour, l wlll be slng ln fronL of my 1v.
ln Lhe evenlng, l wlll be baklng a blrLhday cake.
2) Guesses
Cuesses abouL Lhe presenL or Lhe fuLure.
8eaLrlce wlll be geng marrled very soon.
Pe won'L be comlng any ume soon. Pe ls sull aL Lhe omce.
3) uesnons
ollLe quesuons abouL somebody's lnLenuons.
Wlll you be golng Lo Lhe supermarkeL? l have someLhlng Lo buy.
Wlll you be comlng home before or aer 10 p.m.?
3 ICkMS
1) ueclarauve SenLences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
She'll be havlng a baLh when l'm back home.
1hey wlll be geng home [usL abouL now.
2) Cuesuons
Auxlllary verb + Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
ls she golng Lo be cooklng when we knock aL Lhe door?
Wlll you be uslng Lhe screwdrlver?
3) negauve SenLences
Sub[ecL + Auxlllary verb + Auxlllary verb + verb + lng
We won'L be havlng supper Lomorrow before o'clock.
l am noL golng Lo be learnlng Lngllsh Lomorrow aL Lhls ume.
10. kLCSI1ICNS
kLCSI1ICNS
repos|nons are words whlch begln preposluonal phrases.
A prepos|nona| phrase ls a group of words conLalnlng a pteposluoo, a noun or pronoun object of tbe
pteposluoo, and any moJlfets of tbe object.
A preposluon slLs ln fronL of (ls pre-posluoned" before) lLs ob[ecL.
1he followlng words are Lhe mosL commonly used preposluons:
oboot below excepuoq o[ towotJ
obove beoeotb fot oo ooJet
octoss beslJe(s) ftom ooto ooJetoeotb
ofet betweeo lo oot ooul
oqolost beyooJ lo ftoot of ootslJe op
olooq bot loslJe ovet opoo
omooq by lo splte of post op to
otoooJ coocetoloq losteoJ of teqotJloq wltb
ot Jesplte loto sloce wltblo
becoose of Jowo llke tbtooqb wltboot
befote Jotloq oeot tbtooqboot wltb teqotJ to
bebloJ except of to wltb tespect to


lL ls useful Lo locaLe preposluonal phrases ln senLences slnce any noun or pronoun wlLhln Lhe
preposluonal phrase musL be Lhe preposluon's ob[ecL and, Lherefore, cannoL be mlsldenued as a verb's
dlrecL ob[ecL.
!" $%& '$"(& ls a preposluonal phrase.
)$"(& ls Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon $", noL Lhe dlrecL ob[ecL of Lhe verb *("+&.

,-( ls Lhe dlrecL ob[ecL of Lhe verb *("+&.
!" $%& .("/&(0 '$"(& ls a preposluonal phrase.

NC1L:
A word LhaL looks llke a preposluon buL ls acLually parL of a verb ls called a parucle.
1&2* 34 ls a verb meanlng Lo rob."
1herefore, 34 ls noL a preposluon, and 5-67 ls noL Lhe ob[ecL of a preposluon.
lnsLead, 5-67 ls Lhe dlrecL ob[ecL of Lhe verb %&2* 348

1o avold confuslng prepos|nons wlLh parnc|es, LesL by movlng Lhe word (op) and words followlng lL Lo
Lhe fronL of Lhe senLence:
94 $%& 5-67 four armed men held.
lf Lhe resulung senLence does noL make sense, Lhen Lhe word belongs wlLh Lhe verb and ls a parucle, noL
a preposluon.
noLe Lhe dlerence:
1he resulung senLence makes sense. 1herefore, 34 ls a preposluon.
1he resulung senLence does noL make sense. 1herefore, 34 ls a parucle ln Lhls senLence.

1he followlng examples lllusLraLe Lhe dlerence beLween preposluons and parucles:

Some oLher examples of parucles:
qlve lo toto lo poll tbtooqb wote oot btoke op
qo lo fot pot lo fot btloq op foooJ oot blow op
look op moke op look ovet

reposluons - 1lme
Lngllsh usage Lxample
!on !days of Lhe week ! on Monday
!ln !monLhs / seasons
!ume of day
!year
!aer a cerLaln perlod of ume
(wbeo?)
! ln AugusL / ln wlnLer
! ln Lhe mornlng
! ln 2006
! ln an hour
!aL !for olqbt
!for weekeoJ
!a cerLaln polnL of ume (wbeo?)
! aL nlghL
! aL Lhe weekend
! aL half pasL nlne
!slnce !from a cerLaln polnL of ume (pasL ull
now)
! slnce 1980
!for !over a cerLaln perlod of ume (pasL
ull now)
! for 2 years
!ago !a cerLaln ume ln Lhe pasL ! 2 years ago
!before !earller Lhan a cerLaln polnL of ume ! before 2004
!Lo !Lelllng Lhe ume ! Len Lo slx (3:30)
!pasL !Lelllng Lhe ume ! Len pasL slx (6:10)
!Lo / ull /
unul
!marklng Lhe beglnnlng and end of a
perlod of ume
! from Monday Lo/ull lrlday
!ull / unul !ln Lhe sense of bow looq sometbloq
ls qoloq to lost
! Pe ls on hollday unul lrlday.
!by !ln Lhe sense of ot tbe lotest
!up Lo a cerLaln ume
! l wlll be back by 6 o'clock.
! 8y 11 o'clock, l had read ve pages.
reposluons - lace (osluon and ulrecuon)
Lngllsh usage Lxample
!ln !room, bulldlng, sLreeL, Lown,
counLry
!book, paper eLc.
!car, Laxl
!plcLure, world
! ln Lhe klLchen, ln London
! ln Lhe book
! ln Lhe car, ln a Laxl
! ln Lhe plcLure, ln Lhe world
!aL !meanlng oext to, by oo object
!for toble
!for evenLs
!place where you are Lo do
someLhlng Lyplcal (waLch a
lm, sLudy, work)
! aL Lhe door, aL Lhe sLauon
! aL Lhe Lable
! aL a concerL, aL Lhe parLy
! aL Lhe clnema, aL school, aL work
!on !auached
!for a place wlLh a rlver
!belng on a surface
!for a cerLaln slde (le, rlghL)
!for a oor ln a house
!for publlc LransporL
!for televlsloo, toJlo
! Lhe plcLure on Lhe wall
! London lles on Lhe 1hames.
! on Lhe Lable
! on Lhe le
! on Lhe rsL oor
! on Lhe bus, on a plane
! on 1v, on Lhe radlo
!by, nexL Lo,
beslde
!le or rlghL of somebody or
someLhlng
! !ane ls sLandlng by / nexL Lo / beslde Lhe
car.
!under !on Lhe ground, lower Lhan (or
covered by) someLhlng else
! Lhe bag ls under Lhe Lable
!below !lower Lhan someLhlng else buL
above ground
! Lhe sh are below Lhe surface
!over !covered by someLhlng else
!meanlng mote tboo
!gemng Lo Lhe oLher slde (also
octoss)
!overcomlng an obsLacle
! puL a [ackeL over your shlrL
! over 16 years of age
! walk over Lhe brldge
! cllmb over Lhe wall
!above !hlgher Lhan someLhlng else,
buL noL dlrecLly over lL
! a paLh above Lhe lake
!across !gemng Lo Lhe oLher slde (also
ovet)
!gemng Lo Lhe oLher slde
! walk across Lhe brldge
! swlm across Lhe lake
!Lhrough !someLhlng wlLh llmlLs on Lop,
bouom and Lhe sldes
! drlve Lhrough Lhe Lunnel
!Lo !movemenL Lo person or
bulldlng
!movemenL Lo a place or
counLry
!for beJ
! go Lo Lhe clnema
! go Lo London / lreland
! go Lo bed
!lnLo !enLer a room / a bulldlng ! go lnLo Lhe klLchen / Lhe house
!Lowards !movemenL ln Lhe dlrecuon of
someLhlng (buL noL dlrecLly
Lo lL)
! go 3 sLeps Lowards Lhe house
!onLo !movemenL Lo Lhe Lop of
someLhlng
! [ump onLo Lhe Lable
!from !ln Lhe sense of wbete ftom ! a ower from Lhe garden
CLher lmporLanL reposluons
Lngllsh usage Lxample
!from !who gave lL ! a presenL from !ane
!of !who/whaL does lL belong Lo
!whaL does lL show
! a page of Lhe book
! Lhe plcLure of a palace
!by !who made lL ! a book by Mark 1waln
!on !walklng or rldlng on horseback
!enLerlng a publlc LransporL vehlcle
! on fooL, on horseback
! geL on Lhe bus
!ln !enLerlng a car / 1axl ! geL ln Lhe car
!o !leavlng a publlc LransporL vehlcle ! geL o Lhe Lraln
!ouL of !leavlng a car / 1axl ! geL ouL of Lhe Laxl
!by !rlse or fall of someLhlng
!Lravelllng (oLher Lhan walklng or
horserldlng)
! prlces have rlsen by 10 percenL
! by car, by bus
!aL !for oqe ! she learned 8usslan aL 43
!abouL !for Loplcs, meanlng wbot oboot ! we were Lalklng abouL you
repos|nons of 1|me, |ace, and Introduc|ng Cb[ects
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on november 3, 2008 .
Summary:
1hls resource provldes guldellnes and a pracuce acuvlLy for uslng preposluons ln your wrlung.
repos|nons
reposluons are words or shorL phrases LhaL ldenufy Lhe spaual (ln space), dlrecuonal (Lhe dlrecuon ln
whlch someLhlng ls movlng), or Lemporal (ln ume) relauonshlp of one or more people or Lhlngs Lo oLher
people or Lhlngs. reposluons communlcaLe absLracL relauonshlps as well as concreLe ones. Whlle all
languages have preposluons, Lngllsh has a parucularly large number of Lhem, wlLh lmporLanL dlerences
of nuance beLween slmllar preposluons. 1hls handouL wlll glve an overvlew of preposluons, along wlLh a
pracuce acuvlLy.
repos|nons for 1|me, |ace, and Introduc|ng Cb[ects
Cn ls used wlLh days:
!l wlll see you on Monday.
!1he week beglns on Sunday.
At ls used wlLh noon, nlghL, mldnlghL, and wlLh Lhe ume of day:
!My plane leaves at noon.
!1he movle sLarLs at 6 p.m.
In ls used wlLh oLher parLs of Lhe day, wlLh monLhs, wlLh years, wlLh seasons:
!Pe llkes Lo read |n Lhe aernoon.
!1he days are long |n AugusL.
!1he book was publlshed |n 1999.
!1he owers wlll bloom |n sprlng.
1o express exLended ume, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: s|nce, for, by, from-to, from-unn|,
dur|ng, (w|th)|n.
!She has been gone s|nce yesLerday. (She le yesLerday and has noL reLurned.)
!l'm golng Lo arls for Lwo weeks. (l wlll spend Lwo weeks Lhere.)
!1he movle showed from AugusL to CcLober. (8eglnnlng ln AugusL and endlng ln CcLober.)
!1he decorauons were up from sprlng unn| fall. (8eglnnlng ln sprlng and endlng ln fall.)
!l waLch 1v dur|ng Lhe evenlng. (lor some perlod of ume ln Lhe evenlng.)
!We musL nlsh Lhe pro[ecL w|th|n a year. (no longer Lhan a year.)
1o express nouons of place, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: Lo Lalk abouL Lhe polnL lLself: |n, Lo
express someLhlng conLalned: |ns|de, Lo Lalk abouL Lhe surface: on, Lo Lalk abouL a general vlclnlLy, at.
!1here ls a wasp |n Lhe room.
!uL Lhe presenL |ns|de Lhe box.
!l le your keys on Lhe Lable.
!She was walung at Lhe corner.
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng hlgher Lhan a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: over,
above.
!Pe Lhrew Lhe ball over Lhe roof.
!Pang LhaL plcLure above Lhe couch.
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng lower Lhan a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: under,
underneath, beneath, be|ow.
!1he rabblL burrowed under Lhe ground.
!1he chlld hld underneath Lhe blankeL.
!We relaxed ln Lhe shade beneath Lhe branches.
!1he valley ls be|ow sea-level.
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng close Lo a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: near, by,
next to, between, among, oppos|te.
!She llves near Lhe school.
!1here ls an lce cream shop by Lhe sLore.
!An oak Lree grows next to my house
!1he house ls between Llm SLreeL and Maple SLreeL.
!l found my pen lylng among Lhe books.
!1he baLhroom ls oppos|te LhaL room.
Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons Lo lnLroduce ob[ecLs of Lhe followlng verbs.
At: g|ance, |augh, |ook, re[o|ce, sm||e, stare
!She Look a qulck glance at her reecuon. (excepuon wlLh m|rror: She Look a qulck glance |n Lhe
mlrror.)
!?ou dldn'L laugh at hls [oke.
!l'm looklng at Lhe compuLer monlLor.
!We re[olced at hls safe rescue.
!1haL preuy glrl smlled at you.
!SLop sLarlng at me.
Cf: approve, cons|st, sme||
!l don'L approve of hls speech.
!My conLrlbuuon Lo Lhe arucle conslsLs of many pages.
!Pe came home smelllng of alcohol.
Cf (or about): dream, th|nk
!l dream of nlshlng college ln four years.
!Can you Lhlnk of a number beLween one and Len?
!l am Lhlnklng about Lhls problem.
Ior: ca||, hope, |ook, wa|t, watch, w|sh
!uld someone call for a Laxl?
!Pe hopes for a ralse ln salary nexL year.
!l'm looklng for my keys.
!We'll walL for her here.
!?ou go buy Lhe uckeLs and l'll waLch for Lhe Lraln.
!lf you wlsh for an "A" ln Lhls class, you musL work hard.
repos|nons for 1|me, |ace, and Introduc|ng Cb[ects - art 2
Summary: 1hls secuon deals wlLh preposluons and Lhelr sLandard uses.
Contr|butors: Chrls 8erry, Allen 8rlzee, LllzabeLh Angell
Last Ld|ted: 2011-03-23 03:07:43
Cne po|nt |n nme
Cn ls used wlLh days:
- l wlll see you on Monday.
- 1he week beglns on Sunday.
At ls used wlLh noon, nlghL, mldnlghL, and wlLh Lhe ume of day:
- My plane leaves at noon.
- 1he movle sLarLs at 6 p.m.
In ls used wlLh oLher parLs of Lhe day, wlLh monLhs, wlLh years, wlLh seasons:
- Pe llkes Lo read |n Lhe aernoon.
- 1he days are long |n AugusL.
- 1he book was publlshed |n 1999.
- 1he owers wlll bloom |n sprlng.
Lxtended nme
1o express exLended ume, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: s|nce, for, by, fromto, from-unn|,
dur|ng,(w|th)|n
- She has been gone s|nce yesLerday. (5be lef yestetJoy ooJ bos oot tetotoeJ.)
- l'm golng Lo arls for Lwo weeks. (l wlll speoJ two weeks tbete.)
- 1he movle showed from AugusL to CcLober. (8eqlooloq lo Aoqost ooJ eoJloq lo Octobet.)
- 1he decorauons were up from sprlng unn| fall. (8eqlooloq lo sptloq ooJ eoJloq lo foll.)
- l waLch 1v dur|ng Lhe evenlng. (lot some petloJ of ume lo tbe eveoloq.)
- We musL nlsh Lhe pro[ecL w|th|n a year. (No looqet tboo o yeot.)
|ace
1o express nouons of place, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: Lo Lalk abouL Lhe polnL lLself: |n, Lo
express someLhlng conLalned: |ns|de, Lo Lalk abouL Lhe surface: on, Lo Lalk abouL a general vlclnlLy, at.
- 1here ls a wasp |n Lhe room.
- uL Lhe presenL |ns|de Lhe box.
- l le your keys on Lhe Lable.
- She was walung at Lhe corner.
n|gher than a po|nt
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng hlgher Lhan a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: over,
above.
- Pe Lhrew Lhe ball over Lhe roof.
- Pang LhaL plcLure above Lhe couch.
Lower than a po|nt
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng lower Lhan a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: under,
underneath, beneath, be|ow.
- 1he rabblL burrowed under Lhe ground.
- 1he chlld hld underneath Lhe blankeL.
- We relaxed ln Lhe shade beneath Lhe branches.
- 1he valley ls be|ow sea-level.
C|ose to a po|nt
1o express nouons of an ob[ecL belng close Lo a polnL, Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons: near, by,
next to, between, among, oppos|te.
- She llves near Lhe school.
- 1here ls an lce cream shop by Lhe sLore.
- An oak Lree grows next to my house
- 1he house ls between Llm SLreeL and Maple SLreeL.
- l found my pen lylng among Lhe books.
- 1he baLhroom ls oppos|te LhaL room.
1o |ntroduce ob[ects of verbs
Lngllsh uses Lhe followlng preposluons Lo lnLroduce ob[ecLs of Lhe followlng verbs.
At: g|ance, |augh, |ook, re[o|ce, sm||e, stare
- She glanced at her reecuon.
(excepuoo wltb :;(("(. She glanced |n Lhe mlrror.)
- ?ou dldn'L laugh at hls [oke.
- l'm looklng at Lhe compuLer monlLor.
- We re[olced at hls safe rescue.
- 1haL preuy glrl smlled at you.
- SLop sLarlng at me.
Cf: approve, cons|st, sme||
- l don'L approve of hls speech.
- My conLrlbuuon Lo Lhe arucle conslsLs of many pages.
- Pe came home smelllng of alcohol.
Cf (or about): dream, th|nk
- l dream of nlshlng college ln four years.
- Can you Lhlnk of a number beLween one and Len?
- l am Lhlnklng about Lhls problem.
Ior: ca||, hope, |ook, wa|t, watch, w|sh
- uld someone call for a Laxl?
- Pe hopes for a ralse ln salary nexL year.
- l'm looklng for my keys.
- We'll walL for her here.
- ?ou go buy Lhe uckeLs and l'll waLch for Lhe Lraln.
- lf you wlsh for an "A" ln Lhls class, you musL work hard.
!"#$%&'(%)& %+ ,'"#-(%) . /%
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on !anuary 11, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource explalns how Lo use Lhe preposluon \'Lo\' ln senLences regardlng dlrecuon.
Uses of "1o"
1he baslc preposluon of a dlrecuon ls "Lo."
1C: slgnles orlenLauon Loward a goal
When Lhe goal ls physlcal, such as a desunauon, "Lo" lmplles movemenL ln Lhe dlrecuon of Lhe goal:
we few ftom New otk to lotls. (Ot) we few to lotls.
When Lhe goal ls noL a physlcal place, for lnsLance, an acuon, "Lo" marks a verb, lL ls auached as an
lnnluve and expresses purpose. 1he preposluon may occur alone or ln Lhe phrase ln order. 1he Lwo
uses can also occur LogeLher ln a slngle senLence:
- We ew from new ?ork Lo arls Lo see our faLher.
1he oLher Lwo preposluons of dlrecuon are compounds formed by addlng "Lo" Lo Lhe correspondlng
preposluons of locauon.
1he preposluon of locauon deLermlnes Lhe meanlng of Lhe preposluon of dlrecuon.
Cn + 1C = onLo: slgnles movemenL Loward a surface
ln + 1C = lnLo: slgnles movemenL Loward Lhe lnLerlor of a volume
("1o" ls parL of Lhe dlrecuonal preposluon Loward, and Lhe Lwo mean abouL Lhe same Lhlng.)
1be ftoq jompeJ ooto tbe lllypoJ.
1be mllk weot loto tbe qloss.
WlLh many verbs of mouon, "on" and "ln" have a dlrecuonal meanlng and can be used along wlLh "onLo"
and "lnLo".
1hls ls why "Lo" ls lnslde parenLheses ln Lhe uLle of Lhe handouL, showlng LhaL lL ls somewhaL opuonal
wlLh Lhe compound preposluons. 1hus, Lhe followlng senLences are roughly synonymous:
1be popet weot loto tbe qotboqe coo.
1be ctob wosbeJ op ooto tbe sbote.
1o Lhe exLenL LhaL Lhese palrs do dler, Lhe compound preposluon conveys Lhe compleuon of an acuon,
whlle Lhe slmple preposluon polnLs Lo Lhe posluon of Lhe sub[ecL as a resulL of LhaL acuon. 1hls
dlsuncuon helps us undersLand how dlrecuonal and locauonal preposluons are relaLed: Lhey sLand ln Lhe
relauonshlp of cause and eecL.
- 1he paper wenL lnLo Lhe garbage can.
os|non of sub[ect: Lhe paper ls ln Lhe garbage can.
- 1he crab washed up onLo Lhe shore.
os|non of sub[ect: Lhe crab ls on Lhe shore.
- See Lhe secuons below for some excepuons Lo Lhls rule.
Uses of "to"
1o occurs wlLh several classes of verbs.
Verb + to + |nhn|nve
verbs ln Lhls group express wllllngness, deslre, lnLenuon, or obllgauon.
W||||ngness: be wllllng, consenL, refuse
Des|re: deslre, wanL, wlsh, llke, ask, requesL, prefer
Intennon: lnLend, plan, prepare
Cb||ganon: be obllgaLed, have, need
- l refuse Lo allow you Lo lnumldaLe me wlLh your LhreaLs.
- l'd llke Lo ask her how long she's been skllng.
- l plan Lo graduaLe Lhls summer.
- Penry had Lo pay hls Luluon aL Lhe 8ursar's omce.
ln oLher cases "Lo" ls used as an ordlnary preposluon.
Verbs of commun|canon: llsLen, speak (buL noL Lell), relaLe, appeal (ln Lhe sense of 'plead,' noL 'be
auracuve')
Verbs of movement: move, go, Lransfer, walk/run/swlm/rlde/drlve/ y, Lravel
LxcepL for Lransfer, all Lhe verbs ln llsLed here can Lake Loward as well as Lo. Powever, "Lo" suggesLs
movemenL Loward a speclc desunauon, whlle "Loward" suggesLs movemenL ln a general dlrecuon,
wlLhouL necessarlly arrlvlng aL a desunauon:
1be plooe wos beoJeJ towotJ o stotm clooJ.
1he golf ball rolled Loward Lhe hole.
Pere are some more examples:
- urlve Loward Lhe clLy llmlLs and Lurn norLh. (urlve ln Lhe dlrecuon of Lhe clLy llmlLs, Lurno may
be before arrlvlng Lhere.)
- 1ake me Lo Lhe alrporL, please. (l acLually wanL Lo arrlve aL Lhe alrporL.)
repos|nons of D|recnon - Cnto
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on !anuary 11, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource explalns Lhe uses of Lhe preposluon, "onLo."
Uses of "Cnto"
"CnLo" can generally be replaced by "on" wlLh verbs of mouon.
1be bot weot oo(to) bls beoJ.
Pere are some more examples:
- uleLrlch [umped on(Lo) Lhe maL.
- Puan fell on(Lo) Lhe oor.
- ALhena cllmbed on(Lo) Lhe back of Lhe Lruck.
Some verbs of mouon express Lhe ldea LhaL Lhe sub[ecL causes lLself or some physlcal ob[ecL Lo be
slLuaLed ln a cerLaln place (compare Lhe Lhree example dlrecLly above).
Cf Lhese verbs, some Lake only "on". CLhers Lake boLh on and onLo, wlLh Lhe lauer belng preferred by
some speakers.
Pere are some more examples:
- 1he plane landed on Lhe runway. (noL onLo Lhe runway)
- Sam hung Lhe decorauon on Lhe ChrlsLmas Lree. (noL onLo Lhe Lree)
- Pe placed Lhe package on Lhe Lable. (noL onLo Lhe Lable)
- !oanna spllled her Coke on Lhe rug. (noL onLo Lhe rug)
- Samlr moved Lhe chalr on(Lo) Lhe deck.
- 1he crane lowered Lhe roof on(Lo) Lhe house.
- 1he baby Lhrew Lhe poL on(Lo) Lhe oor.
verbs Laklng only "on" are rare: seL may be anoLher one, and so perhaps ls puL. CLher verbs Laklng boLh
preposluons are ralse, scauer (when lL Lakes a dlrecL ob[ecL), pour, and add.
- 1he farmer scauered seed on(Lo) Lhe ferule ground.
- We're addlng on a wlng aL Lhe back of Lhe bulldlng.
- We're addlng a porch onLo Lhe house.
ln "We're addlng on a wlng aL Lhe back of Lhe bulldlng" on ls really parL of Lhe verb, whlle ln "We're
addlng a porch onLo Lhe house" onLo ls a slmple preposluon. 1hls conLrasL polnLs Lo a falrly lmporLanL
and general rule:
5lmple pteposluoos coo combloe wltb vetbs, bot compoooJ pteposluoos coooot.
noLe also LhaL ln "1he farmer scauered seed on(Lo) Lhe ferule ground", Lhe word "on" has lLs ordlnary
meanlng of a posluon on a surface, buL ln Lhls case Lhe surface ls verucal raLher Lhan horlzonLal Lhe
slde of a bulldlng.
1here are a number of verb-preposluon comblnauons whlch are formally llke "add on" buL have Lhe
meanlng "of conunulng or resumlng an acuon" when used ln Lhe lmperauve mood.
LxcepL for hang, whlch Lakes boLh on and onLo, Lhey all occur only wlLh on. 1he meanlngs of Lhese
comblnauons, some of whlch are ldlomauc, are glven ln parenLheses. noL all of Lhem have Lhe force of a
command.
- Pang on(Lo Lhe rope) ('conunue Lo grasp ughLly')
- carry on ('resume whaL you were dolng')
- sall on ('resume or conunue salllng')
- dream on ('conunue dreamlng', a humorous way of saylng 'LhaL ls an unaualnable goal')
- lead on ('resume or conunue leadlng us')
- rock on ('conunue playlng rock muslc')
utlve oo! (Ot, keep Jtlvloq towotJ tbe clty).

repos|nons of D|recnon - Into
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on !anuary 11, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource explalns how Lo use Lhe preposluon, "lnLo."
Uses of "Into"
WlLh verbs of mouon, "lnLo" and "ln" are lnLerchangeable excepL when Lhe preposluon ls Lhe lasL word
or occurs dlrecLly before an adverblal of ume, manner, or frequency.
ln Lhls case only ln (or lnslde) can be used.
5plke ls lyloq lo bls boose. (Not loto.)
Pere are some more examples:
- 1he pauenL wenL lnLo Lhe docLor's omce. 1he pauenL wenL ln. (noL lnLo)
- Cur new nelghbors moved lnLo Lhe house nexL door yesLerday. ('Lo Lake up resldence ln a new
home')
- Cur new nelghbors moved ln yesLerday.
ln "Cur new nelghbors move ln yesLerday", Lhe lasL word ls Lhe ume adverblal yesLerday, so Lhe ob[ecL of
Lhe preposluon ln can be omlued. Cf course, ln an lnformauon quesuon, "lnLo" also can be lasL word
excepL for an adverblal when lLs ob[ecL ls quesuoned by a wh- word:
- now whaL klnd of Lrouble has she gouen herself lnLo?
- now whaL sorL of Lrouble ls she ln?
verbs expresslng sLauonary posluon Lake only "on" or "ln" wlLh Lhe ordlnary meanlngs of Lhose
preposluons.
lf a verb allows Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon Lo be omlued, Lhe consLrucuon may have an ldlomauc
meanlng.
- 1he caL saL on Lhe maL.
- 1he docLor ls ln hls omce.
- 1he docLor ls ln. ('avallable for consulLauon')
- ln(Lo) has Lwo speclal uses wlLh move.
When "move ln" ls followed by a purpose clause, lL has Lhe sense of "approach".
1he llon moved ln for Lhe klll.
- 1he pollce moved ln Lo rescue Lhe hosLages lnslde Lhe bulldlng.
ln "1he llon moved ln for Lhe klll." and "1he ollce moved ln Lo rescue Lhe hosLages lnslde Lhe bulldlng"
"ln" ls parL of Lhe verb, so "lnLo" cannoL be used, We cannoL say: "1he llon moved lnLo for Lhe klll."
When "lnLo" ls used wlLh move, lL funcuons as an ordlnary preposluon Lo convey Lhe ldea of movlng
someLhlng from one place Lo anoLher.
- We'll move your broLher's old bed lnLo your room.
A moo ls jomploq loto tbe pool.
1be moo ls lo tbe pool.
1he person ls placlng grocerles lnLo Lhe shopplng bag.
1be petsoo bos completeJ pomoq qtocetles lo tbe boq.
!"#$%&'(%)& %+ 0$1(12 3#21(%)&4'$ . 5
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on March 23, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource covers Lhe preposluons LhaL begln wlLh A deallng wlLh spaual relauonshlps.
reposluons of spaual relauonshlps deal wlLh "where" Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe senLence ls or "where" Lhe
acuon ls Laklng place.
Above
WrlLe your name above Lhe llne.
Across
uraw a llne across Lhe page.
Aga|nst
She leans aga|nst Lhe Lree.
Ahead of
1he glrl ls ahead of Lhe boy.
A|ong
1here ls lace a|ong Lhe edge of Lhe cloLh.
Among
Pe ls among Lhe Lrees.
Around
uraw a clrcle around Lhe answer.
!"#$%&'(%)& %+ 0$1(12 3#21(%)&4'$ . 6
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on March 23, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource covers preposluons of spaual relauonshlp LhaL begln wlLh 8.
8eh|nd
1he boy ls beh|nd Lhe glrl.
8e|ow
WrlLe your name be|ow Lhe llne.
8eneath
Pe saL beneath Lhe Lree.
8es|de
1he glrl ls sLandlng bes|de Lhe boy.
8etween
She ls between Lwo Lrees.
!"#$%&'(%)& %+ 0$1(12 3#21(%)&4'$ . 7.8
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on March 23, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource deals wlLh preposluons of spaual relauonshlp from l Lhrough C.
Irom
Pe came from Lhe house.
In front of
1he glrl ls |n front of Lhe boy.
Ins|de
Pe ls |ns|de Lhe house.
Nearby
1here ls a Lree nearby Lhe house.
C
Pls haL ls o.
Cut of
Pe came out of Lhe house.
!"#$%&'(%)& %+ 0$1(12 3#21(%)&4'$ . /.9
1hls resource was wrluen by 1ony C|masko.
LasL edlLed by A||en 8r|zee on March 23, 2010 .
Summary:
1hls resource shows uses for preposluons of spaual relauonshlp from 1 Lhrough W.
1hrough
She wenL through Lhe door.
1oward
She ls walklng toward Lhe house.
Under
Pe ls hldlng under Lhe Lable.
W|th|n
lease mark only w|th|n Lhe clrcle.
!3:!80;/;8<0 87 !=5>:
1 ) AT - IN - ON
AT ON
IN
We use at for a point: We use on for a surface:
We use in for an enclosed
space:
at the window - at the entrance -
at the door
on the wall - on the ceiling - on
the floor - on a page
in the garden - in the house -
in London - in the water
at the end of the street - at the
station - at the top
on a cover
in her bag - in a row - in a
town
Bill is waiting for you at the bus
stop.
Have you seen the notice on
the notice board?
There is nobody in the room.
She lives in a small village.

Special Information:
AT ON
IN
1. We say that someone is at an
event:
1. We use on with small
islands:
1. We say in when we talk
about a building itself
at a party - at a pop concert - at
a conference - at a meeting
She spent her holiday on a
small island.
The rooms of Tom's house
are small.
Tom is at a party.
2. We say that a place is on
the coast / on a river / on a
road:
2. We usually say in with
towns and villages:
2. We say at with buildings
when we say where the event
(film, concert,...) takes place:
London is on the river Thames.
His parents live in York.
Where were you yesterday? At
the cinema.
Portsmouth is on the south
coast of England.
The meeting took place at the
headquarters.
3. We say at someone's
house:
We were at Bill's house last
Thursday.
4. We say at for a place which
is a part of our journey:
We stopped at a very nice
village. Does the train stop at
Nashville?
AT ON IN
at home - at work - at school - at
university - at college - at the
station - at an airport - at the
seaside - at sea (on a voyage) -
at reception - at the corner of a
street - at the back / front of a
building / cinema / group of
people, etc. - arrive at with other
places or events
on a farm - on the left - on the
right - on the ground floor - on
the first, second,... floor - on the
way - on the chair (sit) - on the
radio - on television - on a
horse - on the corner of a street
- on the back / front of a letter /
piece of paper etc
in the newspaper - in bed - in
hospital - in prison - in the
street - in the sky - in an
armchair (sit) - in a
photograph - in a picture - in
a mirror - in the corner of a
room - in the back / front of a
car - arrive in a country or
town
2) TO - INTO - BY
TO INTO
BY
We say go / come / travel / fly /
walk / return / drive / have
been etc. to a place or event:
We say go into / come into etc.
= enter a room / building etc.:
We say by to say how we
travel:
Last year we flew to London.
We went to work at seven.
He opened the door and went
into the room.
We went to Paris by plane. I
usually go to work by bike /
by car / by underground / by
bus
BUT:
we say on foot
we cannot use by if you say my
car / the train / a taxi

Then use in for taxis and cars.
Then use on for bike / public
transport.


!"#!$%&'&$(% $* '&+#
AT ON
We use at with times: We use on with dates and days:
at 5 oclock - at 11.45 - at midnight - at
lunchtime
on 12 March - on Friday(s) - on Friday morning
(s)
Tom usually gets up at 7 oclock. on Sunday afternoon(s) - on Saturday night(s)
on Christmas Day (but at Christmas)
We use at in these expressions:
at night - at Christmas - at the moment / at
present - at the same time - at weekends - at
the age of...


IN DURING
We use in for longer periods of time:
We use during + noun to say when
something happens:
in April - in 1986 - in winter - in the 19th century
- in the 1970s - in the morning(s) / in the
afternoon(s) / in the evening(s)
during the film - during our holiday - during the
night

In + period of time = a time in the future: I fell asleep during the film.
Jack will be back in a week.
We met a lot of interesting people during our
holiday.
The train will leave in a few minutes.

In + how long it takes to do something:
I learned to drive in four weeks.

FOR SINCE
We use for + a period of time: We use since + a period of time:
for six years - for two hours - for a week since April - since 1992 - since 8 o clock
Ive lived in this house for six years. They have
been watching TV for two hours.
It has been raining since one o clock. Theyve
known each other since they were at school.

UNTIL FROM - TO

We use until/till to say how long a situation
continues:
We use from - to + beginning and end of a
period:
Lets wait until it stops raining. I stayed in bed
until half past nine.
Last evening we watched TV from 5 to 8 o
clock.
<8?<0
1radluonal grammarlans dene a noun as "a person, place, Lhlng, or ldea."
,%;2* deslgnaLes a person, Lherefore, cbllJ ls a noun.
Slmllarly, *&:"/(-/0 deslgnaLes an ldea, Lherefore, Jemoctocy ls a noun.
ln addluon, nouns can be ldenued by Lhe presence of slgnal words such as $%&.

Word order can also provlde clues abouL nouns. lor example, ln Lhe followlng senLence, lL ls clear LhaL
Lhe parL of speech LhaL wlll L lnLo sloL #1 and sloL #2 musL be nouns:

Cen, sumxes wlll suggesL LhaL a word ls a noun. lor example, -uoo, -oess, -meot, or -et aL Lhe end of a
word usually slgnlfy LhaL Lhe word ls a noun, as ln soqqesuoo, bopploess, lovolvemeot, and Jloet.
nouns may be made plural, usually wlLh Lhe sumx -s or -es, as ln books and foxes.
nouns show ownershlp wlLh Lhe addluon of an aposLrophe and, someumes, an addluonal -s, as ln a
book's pages, LwenLy stoJeots' essays.
Common nouns such as scbool, bosloess, or petsoo deslgnaLe an enure class.
roper nouns, on Lhe oLher hand, deslgnaLe a speclc example of a class: 1owsoo uolvetslty, 8lock ooJ
uecket compooy, Ioe. roper nouns are caplLallzed.
nouns may be counLable (1 fotk, 2 fotks, J fotks, etc.) or non-counLable (soqot, oll).
nouns may slgnlfy concreLeness (compotet, foqetooll) or absLracLness (peoce, ftleoJsblp).

Iuncnons of Nouns
Sub[ect (S) - a noun or pronoun parLnered wlLh a predlcaLe verb.
A sub[ecL
1. does an acuon wlLh an acuon verb

2. exlsLs wlLh a verb of belng

3. ls renamed or descrlbed aer a verb of belng or a llnklng verb

4. ls acLed upon wlLh a passlve verb


Cb[ect of repos|non (C) - a noun or pronoun answerlng "whom" or "whaL" aer a preposluon ln a a
preposluonal phrase.


D|rect Cb[ect (DC) - a noun or pronoun answerlng "whom" or "whaL" aer an acuon verb. A dlrecL
ob[ecL "recelves" or ls Lhe "ob[ecL" of Lhe acuon.


keta|ned Cb[ect (kC) - a noun or pronoun answerlng "whom" or "whaL" aer a passlve verb.


Ind|rect Cb[ect (IC) - a noun or pronoun answerlng "Lo whom/whaL" or "for whom/whaL" aer an acuon
verb.
An lndlrecL ob[ecL
- always precedes a dlrecL ob[ecL
- never has Lhe word Lo" or for" sLaLed


Sub[ecnve Comp|ement (SC) - a noun, pronoun, or ad[ecuve LhaL renames or descrlbes (equals) Lhe
sub[ecL aer a verb of belng or a llnklng verb.


Cb[ecnve Comp|ement (CC) - a noun, pronoun, or ad[ecuve LhaL renames or descrlbes (equals) Lhe
dlrecL ob[ecL.
1esL for CC: lnserL "Lo be" beLween Lhe uC and Lhe CC


Appos|nve (App) - a noun or pronoun LhaL renames anoLher noun, An apposluve ls usually placed nexL
Lo Lhe noun lL renames..

<"3(:&$ renames Lhe noun ="&. 1herefore, qootmet ls an apposluve of Ioe.
When an apposluve ls noL placed nexL Lo Lhe noun lL renames, Lhe apposluve ls called a de|ayed
appos|nve.


A delayed apposluve may rename Lhe word ;$ ln some senLence consLrucuons.

ln Lhe above senLence, Lhe apposluve $" :&&$ 0"3 renames ;$8 >$ ($" :&&$ 0"3) ls o pleosote.
ln Lhls senLence, pleosote ls Lhe sub[ecuve complemenL of lt.
1herefore, lt = pleosote = to meet yoo.
,#"-%
verbs have Lradluonally been dened as words LhaL show acuon or sLaLe of belng.


verbs can also someumes be recognlzed by Lhelr posluon ln a senLence.
ln Lhe followlng Lwo senLence frames, only a verb can be puL lnLo Lhe empLy sloL.
nCun 1PL8L nCun
(verb) (verb)

Cen, prexes and sumxes (amxes) wlll slgnlfy LhaL a word ls a verb. lor example, Lhe sumxes -lfy, -lze, -
ote, or -eo usually slgnlfy LhaL a word ls a verb, as ln typlfy, cbotoctetlze, lttlqote, and sweeteo. rehxes
such as be-, Je-, or eo- may slgnlfy LhaL a word ls a verb, as ln bestow, Jetbtooe, and eocootoqe.
1hese amxes, oen lnconslsLenL from verb Lo verb, are called der|vanona| amxes. Added Lo a word, Lhey
elLher change Lhe word's parL of speech
Lxample:


or change Lhe word's meanlng
Lxample:

1he base form of a verb ls derlved from Lhe verb's |nhn|nve: to - vetb


lour sumxes conslsLenLly added Lo a verb's base creaLe all forms of a verb used ln all Lenses:
1. ?' creaLes 3rd person slngular / presenL Lense (Pe tolks.)
2. ?;6. creaLes Lhe presenL paruclple / used wlLh be (Pe ls tolkloq.)
3. ?&* creaLes Lhe slmple pasL (Pe tolkeJ.)
4. ?&6 creaLes Lhe pasL paruclple / used wlLh bove (Pe bos tolkeJ.)
Note: The -en verb ending used with a form of to have as an
auxiliary is generally written -ed, as in has talked.

unllke Lhe derlvauonal amxes, Lhese |necnona| sumxes are conslsLenLly used wlLh all verbs, even
Lhough Lhelr form may look dlerenL from verb Lo verb.
8ecause many verbs ln Lngllsh are lrregular, as resulL, Lhelr -&* and/or @&6 endlngs may noL follow any
obvlous pauern.

Lxamples: Lxamples:
($" A(;$&B SmlLh wtltes shorL sLorles aL home. (-s endlng) ($" A(;$&B
SmlLh ls wtluoq shorL sLorles aL home. (-loq endlng)
($" A(;$&B
SmlLh A("$& shorL sLorles aL home. (?&* endlng)
($" A(;$&B
SmlLh bos wtlueo shorL sLorles aL home. (-eo endlng)
($" A(;$&B

($" 530) !ones boys a newspaper each day. (-s endlng) ($" 530)
!ones ls boyloq a newspaper Loday. (-loq endlng)
($" 530)
!ones 5"3.%$ a newspaper yesLerday. (?&* endlng)
($" 530)
!ones bos 5"3.%$ newspapers every day. (?&6 endlng)
($" 530)

($" .") SLudenLs qo Lo Lhe llbrary oen. (-s endlng) ($" .")
SLudenLs ote qoloq Lo Lhe llbrary oen. (-loq endlng)
($" .")
SLudenLs weot Lo Lhe llbrary oen. (?&* eoJloq)
($" .")
SLudenLs bove ."6& Lo Lhe llbrary oen. (?&6 endlng)


1he ma[orlLy of verbs are regular and conslsLenLly use ?&* and ?&6 Lo form Lhelr slmple pasL Lense and
pasL paruclples. (e.g. tolkeJ, bos tolkeJ)

Many verbs are lrregular, however, and follow no conslsLenL pauern ln creaung Lhelr ?&* and/or ?&6
forms. A llsL of Lhe ma[or lrregular verbs ls shown below.

resent ast (-ed form) ast arnc|p|e (-en form)
otlse otose otlseo
osk oskeJ oskeJ
ouock ouockeJ ouockeJ
owokeo owokeoeJ Ok owoke owokeoeJ
beot bote botoe/boto
beqlo beqoo beqoo
blow blew blowo
bteok btoke btokeo
btloq btooqbt btooqbt
botst botst botst
cboose cbose cboseo
clloq clooq clooq
come come come
Jlve JlveJ Ok Jove JlveJ
Jo JlJ Jooe
Jtoq JtoqqeJ JtoqqeJ
Jtow Jtew Jtowo
Jtlok Jtook Jtook
Jtlve Jtove Jtlveo
Jtowo JtowoeJ JtowoeJ
eot ote eoteo
foll fell folleo
fy few fowo
fotqlve fotqove fotqlveo
fteeze ftoze ftozeo
qet qot qot Ok qoueo
qlve qove qlveo
resent ast (-ed form) ast arnc|p|e (-en form)
qo weot qooe
qtow qtew qtowo
booq (tbloqs) booq booq
booq (people) booqeJ booqeJ
boppeo boppeoeJ boppeoeJ
koow koew koowo
loy lolJ lolJ
leoJ leJ leJ
lle loy lolo
looseo looseoeJ looseoeJ
lose lost lost
poy polJ polJ
tlJe toJe tlJJeo
tloq tooq tooq
tlse tose tlseo
too too too
see sow seeo
set set set
sboke sbook sbokeo
sbtlok sbtook Ok sbtook sbtook Ok sbtookeo
sloq sooq sooq
slok sook Ok sook sook
slt sot sot
speok spoke spokeo
splo spoo spoo
splt spot spot
sptloq sptooq Ok sptooq sptooq
steol stole stoleo
suoq stooq stooq
resent ast (-ed form) ast arnc|p|e (-en form)
suok stook Ok stook stook
sttlve sttove sttlveo
stoJy stoJleJ stoJleJ
sweot swote swoto
swlm swom swom
swloq swooq swooq
toke took tokeo
teot tote toto
tbtow tbtew tbtowo
woke woke Ok wokeJ wokeo Ok wokeJ
weot wote woto
weove wove woveo
wtloq wtooq wtooq
wtlte wtote wtlueo

A verb phrase ls dened as Lhe maln verb LogeLher wlLh all lLs auxlllarles (helplng verbs).
Auxlllary verbs always precede Lhe maln verb.
1here are Lwo Lypes of aux|||ary verbs:
1. lnecLed auxlllary verbs:
be have do
2. Modal auxlllarles (consldered more fully under (auxlllary verbs)
present past no tense
wlll would musL
shall should
can could
may mlghL

Lxamples of verb phrases:
Pe %-' $-7&6 Lhe LesL. (auxlllary bos + maln verb toke.)
Pe ;' $-7;6. Lhe LesL. (auxlllary ls + maln verb toke)
Pe *;* $-7& Lhe LesL. (auxlllary Jo + maln verb toke)
Pe %-' 5&&6 $-7;6. Lhe LesL. (auxlllarles bos beeo - maln verb toke)

verbs may be dlvlded lnLo Lhree Lypes:
A. Acnon verbs - show an acuon -- elLher physlcal or menLal


8. Verbs of be|ng (forms of be - ;'C -(&C A-'C A&(&, bos/bove/boJ 5&&6, wlll 5&) - show a sLaLe of
exlsLence:


C. L|nk|ng verbs - llnk a sub[ecL wlLh lLs complemenL
(A sobjecuve complemeot "compleLes" / "equals" Lhe sub[ecL.)
Llnklng verbs: oppeot, toste, smell, feel, look, soooJ, qtow, seem, temolo, become

nC1L: MosL llnklng verbs can also be used as acuon verbs.



Acuon verbs may be elLher trans|nve or |ntrans|nve.
A. A Lransluve verb ls one LhaL ls followed by a dlrecL ob[ecL.
Lxample:


8. An lnLransluve verb ls one LhaL ls nC1 followed by a dlrecL ob[ecL.
Lxample:


Cauuon: An lnLransluve verb may be followed by ad[ecuves, adverbs, and/or preposluonal
phrases. As long as Lhe verb ls noL followed by a noun or pronoun funcuonlng as Lhe dlrecL
ob[ecL, Lhe verb ls |ntrans|nve.
Lxample:



nC1L: Some acuon verbs may be elLher Lransluve or lnLransluve.
Lxample: (lef)


AnoLher example (teoJ):




verbs have Lhree moods: |nd|canve, |mperanve, and sub[uncnve.
A. 1he lndlcauve mood sLaLes a facL, asks a quesuon, or exclalms.


8. 1he lmperauve mood glves a command. 1he sub[ecL ls always "you" undersLood.


C. 1he sub[uncuve mood occurs ln Lwo lnsLances:
1. The sentence indicates a situation contrary to fact.

2. 1he senLence
- shows a wlsh, deslre, or demand
- ln a nomlnal clause beglnnlng wlLh $%-$
- followlng verbs such as *&';(&C *&:-6*C (&D3&'$C '3..&'$

ADILC1IVLS
1he 8as|c ku|es: Ad[ecnves
Ad[ecuves modlfy nouns. 1o modlfy means Lo change ln some way. lor example:
- "l aLe a meal." Meol ls a noun. We don'L know whaL klnd of meal, all we know ls LhaL someone
aLe a meal.
- "l aLe an enormous lunch." loocb ls a noun, and eootmoos ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles lL. lL Lells
us what k|nd of meal Lhe person aLe.
Ad[ecuves usually answer one of a few dlerenL quesuons: "WhaL klnd?" or "Whlch?" or "Pow many?"
lor example:
- "1he toll glrl ls rldlng a oew blke." 1oll Lells us wh|ch glrl we're Lalklng abouL. New Lells us what
k|nd of blke we're Lalklng abouL.
- "1he tooqb professor gave us Lhe fool exam." 1ooqb Lells us what k|nd of professor we're Lalklng
abouL. llool Lells us wh|ch exam we're Lalklng abouL.
- "llfeeo sLudenLs passed Lhe mldLerm exam, twelve sLudenLs passed Lhe nal exam." llfeeo and
twelve boLh Lell us how many sLudenLs, mlJtetm and fool boLh Lell us wh|ch exam.
So, generally speaklng, ad[ecuves answer Lhe followlng quesuons:
- Wh|ch?
- What k|nd of?
- now many?
Some other ru|es:
MosL of Lhe ume, ad[ecuves come before nouns. Powever, Lhey come aer Lhe nouns Lhey modlfy, mosL
oen when Lhe verb ls a form of Lhe followlng:
- be
- feel
- LasLe
- smell
- sound
- look
- appear
- seem
Some examples:
- "1he dog ls black." 8lock ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun Joq, buL lL comes aer Lhe verb.
(8emember LhaL "ls" ls a form of Lhe verb "be.")
- "8rlan seems sad." 5oJ ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun 8tloo.
- "1he mllk smells rouen." koueo ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun mllk.
- "1he speaker sounds hoarse." nootse ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun speoket.
8e sure Lo undersLand Lhe dlerences beLween Lhe followlng Lwo examples:
"1he dog smells carefully." Pere, cotefolly descrlbes how Lhe dog ls smelllng. We lmaglne hlm snlmng
very cauuously.
8uL:
"1he dog smells clean." Pere, cleoo descrlbes Lhe dog lLself. lL's noL LhaL he's smelllng clean Lhlngs or
someLhlng, lL's LhaL he's had a baLh and does noL sunk.
Ad[ecnves w|th Countab|e and Uncountab|e Nouns
Summary: 1hls resource provldes baslc guldellnes of ad[ecuve and adverb use.
Contr|butors:aul Lynch, Chrls 8erry
Last Ld|ted: 2010-04-17 03:34:23
1he 8as|c ku|es: Ad[ecnves
A counLable noun ls one LhaL can be expressed ln plural form, usually wlLh an "s." lor example, "caL--
caLs," "season--seasons," "sLudenL--sLudenLs."
An uncounLable noun ls one LhaL usually cannoL be expressed ln a plural form. lor example, "mllk,"
"waLer," "alr," "money," "food." usually, you can'L say, "Pe had many moneys."
MosL of Lhe ume, Lhls doesn'L mauer wlLh ad[ecuves. lor example, you can say, "1he caL was gray" or
"1he alr was gray." Powever, Lhe dlerence beLween a counLable and uncounLable noun does mauer
wlLh cerLaln ad[ecuves, such as Lhe followlng:
- some/any
- much/many
- llule/few
- a loL of/loLs of
- a llule blL of
- plenLy of
- enough
- no
Some]Any:
8oLh "some" and "any" can modlfy counLable and uncounLable nouns.
- "1here ls some waLer on Lhe oor."
- "1here are some Mexlcans here."
- "uo you have ooy food?"
- "uo you have ooy apples?"
Much]Many:
"Much" modles only uncounLable nouns.
- "1hey have so mocb money ln Lhe bank."
- "1he horse drlnks so mocb waLer."
"Many" modles only counLable nouns.
- "Mooy Amerlcans Lravel Lo Lurope."
- "l collecLed mooy sources for my paper."
L|u|e]Iew:
"Llule" modles only uncounLable nouns.
- "Pe had llule food ln Lhe house."
- "When l was ln college, Lhere was llule money Lo spare."
"lew" modles only counLable nouns.
- "1here are o few docLors ln Lown."
- "Pe had few reasons for hls oplnlon."
A |ot of]|ots of:
"A loL of" and "loLs of" are lnformal subsuLuLes for much and many. 1hey are used wlLh uncounLable
nouns when Lhey mean "much" and wlLh counLable nouns when Lhey mean "many."
- "1hey have lots of (much) money ln Lhe bank."
- "A lot of (many) Amerlcans Lravel Lo Lurope."
- "We goL lots of (many) mosqulLoes lasL summer."
- "We goL lots of (much) raln lasL summer."
A ||u|e b|t of:
"A llule blL of" ls lnformal and always precedes an uncounLable noun.
- "1here ls o llule blt of pepper ln Lhe soup."
- "1here ls o llule blt of snow on Lhe ground."
|enty of:
"lenLy of" modles boLh counLable and uncounLable nouns.
- "1hey have pleoty of money ln Lhe bank."
- "1here are pleoty of mllllonalres ln SwlLzerland."
Lnough:
oooqb modles boLh counLable and uncounLable nouns.
- "1here ls enough money Lo buy a car."
- "l have enough books Lo read."
No
No modles boLh counLable and uncounLable nouns.
- "1here ls oo ume Lo nlsh now."
- "1here are oo squlrrels ln Lhe park."
./012341 56 ./41678
ku|e #1: Ad[ecnves mod|fy nouns, adverbs mod|fy verbs, ad[ecnves, and other adverbs.
?ou can recognlze adverbs easlly because many of Lhem are formed by addlng -ly Lo an ad[ecuve.
Pere are some senLences LhaL demonsLraLe some of Lhe dlerences beLween an ad[ecuve and an adverb.
8lchard ls careless.
Pere careless ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe proper noun 8lchard.
8lchard Lalks carelessly.
Pere carelessly ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb Lalks.
rlya was exLremely happy.
Pere happy ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe proper noun rlya and exLremely ls an adverb LhaL modles
Lhe ad[ecuve happy.
Adverbs can'L modlfy nouns, as you can see from Lhe followlng lncorrecL senLences.
Pe ls a quleLly man.
1he correcL senLence above should say, "Pe ls a quleL man."
l have a happlly dog.
1he correcL senLence above should say, "l have a happy dog."
ku|e #2: An ad[ecnve a|ways fo||ows a form of the verb to be when |t mod|hes the noun before the
verb. nere are some examp|es that show th|s ru|e.
l was nervous.
She has been slck all week.
1hey Lrled Lo be helpful.
ku|e #3: L|kew|se an ad[ecnve a|ways fo||ows a sense verb or a verb of appearance fee|, taste, sme||,
sound, |ook, appear, and seem when |t mod|hes the noun before the verb.
Sharon's cough sounds bad.
Pere bad ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun cough. uslng Lhe adverb badly here would noL make
sense, because lL would mean her cough lsn'L very good aL soundlng.
CasLor oll LasLes awful.
Pere awful ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun oll. uslng Lhe adverb awfully here would noL make
sense, because lL would mean LhaL casLor oll lsn'L very good aL Lasung.
1he ocean alr smells fresh.
Pere fresh ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun alr. uslng Lhe adverb freshly here would noL make
sense, because lL would mean LhaL Lhe alr has a sense of smell LhaL lL uses ln a fresh manner.
She seems unhappy Loday.
Pere unhappy ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe pronoun she. uslng Lhe adverb unhapplly here would noL
make sense, because lL would mean LhaL she lsn'L very good aL seemlng.
8e careful Lo nouce wheLher Lhe word modles Lhe sub[ecL or Lhe verb ln Lhe senLence. lf Lhe word
modles Lhe sub[ecL, you should use an ad[ecuve. lf Lhe word modles Lhe verb, you should use an
adverb. 1he dlerence ls shown ln Lhe followlng palr of senLences.
1hls apple smells sweeL.
Pere sweeL ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun apple. uslng Lhe adverb sweeLly here would noL make
sense, because lL would mean LhaL Lhe apple can smell Lhlngs ln a sweeL manner.
?our dog smells carefully.
Pere carefully ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb smells. uslng Lhe ad[ecuve careful here would noL
make sense, because lL would mean LhaL Lhe dog glves o an odor of carefulness.
Avo|d|ng Common Lrrors
- 8ad or 8adly?
When you wanL Lo descrlbe how you feel, you should use an ad[ecuve (Why? leel ls a sense verb,see
rule #3 above). So you'd say, "l feel bad." Saylng you feel badly would be llke saylng you play fooLball
badly. lL would mean LhaL you are unable Lo feel, as Lhough your hands were parually numb.
- Cood or Well?
Cood ls an ad[ecuve, so you do noL do good or llve good, buL you do well and llve well. 8emember,
Lhough, LhaL an ad[ecuve follows sense-verbs and be-verbs, so you also feel good, look good, smell good,
are good, have been good, eLc. (8efer Lo rule #3 above for more lnformauon abouL sense verbs and verbs
of appearance.)
Confuslon can occur because well can funcuon elLher as an adverb or an ad[ecuve. When well ls used as
an ad[ecuve, lL means "noL slck" or "ln good healLh." lor Lhls speclc sense of well, lL's Ck Lo say you feel
well or are well for example, aer recoverlng from an lllness. When noL used ln Lhls healLh-relaLed
sense, however, well funcuons as an adverb, for example, "l dld well on my exam."
- uouble-negauves
Scarcely and hardly are already negauve adverbs. 1o add anoLher negauve Lerm ls redundanL, because ln
Lngllsh only one negauve ls ever used aL a ume
1hey found scarcely any anlmals on Lhe lsland. (noL scarcely no...)
Pardly anyone came Lo Lhe parLy. (noL hardly no one...)
- Sure or Surely?
Sure ls an ad[ecuve, and surely ls an adverb. Sure ls also used ln Lhe ldlomauc expresslon sure Lo be.
Surely can be used as a senLence-adverb. Pere are some examples LhaL show dlerenL uses of sure and
surely. LlghL blue arrows lndlcaLe ad[ecuves and green arrows lndlcaLe adverbs.
l am sure LhaL you were Lhere.
Pere sure ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe pronoun l.
Pe ls surely ready Lo Lake on Lhe pro[ecL.
Pere surely ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe ad[ecuve ready.
She ls sure Lo be a greaL leader.
Pere sure Lo be ls an ldlomauc phrase LhaL funcuons as an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe pronoun she.
Surely, envlronmenLal desLrucuon has been one of Lhe worsL caLasLrophes broughL abouL by lndusLrlal
producuon.
Pere surely ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb has been.
- 8eal or 8eally?
8eal ls an ad[ecuve, and really ls an adverb. Pere are some examples LhaL demonsLraLe Lhe dlerence
beLween real and really.
She dld really well on LhaL LesL.
Pere really ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe adverb well.
ls she really golng ouL wlLh hlm?
Pere really ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb phrase golng ouL.
opular culLure proposes lmaglnary soluuons Lo real problems.
Pere real ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun problems.
- near or nearly?
near can funcuon as a verb, adverb, ad[ecuve, or preposluon. nearly ls used as an adverb Lo mean "ln a
close manner" or "almosL buL noL qulLe." Pere are some examples LhaL demonsLraLe Lhe dlerences
beLween varlous uses of near and nearly.
1he momenL of LruLh neared.
Pere neared ls a verb ln Lhe pasL Lense.
We are nearly nlshed wlLh Lhls pro[ecL.
Pere nearly ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb nlshed.
1he caL crepL near.
Pere near ls an adverb of place LhaL modles Lhe verb crepL.
llrsL couslns are more nearly relaLed Lhan second couslns.
Pere nearly ls an adverb LhaL modles Lhe verb relaLed.
1he deLecuve solves Lhe mysLery ln a scene near Lhe end of Lhe movle.
Pere near ls a preposluon. 1he preposluonal phrase near Lhe end of Lhe movle modles Lhe noun scene.
1radluonally, ad[ecuves are dened as words LhaL descrlbe nouns or pronouns. When Lhey descrlbe
nouns or pronouns, ad[ecuves Lyplcally answer Lhe followlng quesuons:
941@ A')BC 94'-4 %)#C D%E F1)GC

lor example, ln Lhe phrase - 1ALL MAn
1oll ls an ad[ecuve descrlblng Lhe noun moo.
1oll answers Lhe quesuon "whlch man?" or "whaL klnd of man?"

Slmllarly, ln Lhe phrase, - A5 A55lCNMN1
osy ls an ad[ecuve descrlblng Lhe noun osslqomeot.
osy answers Lhe quesuon, "whaL klnd of asslgnmenL?"

Ad[ecuves are usually placed before Lhe nouns Lhey descrlbe, as ln Lhe examples, toll moo and eosy
osslqomeot, above.

1hus, one may ldenufy an ad[ecuve by uslng Lhe followlng word-order LesL:

Ad[ecuves may also follow Lhe noun Lhey descrlbe.
Lxample: Suresh, colJ and ocby, wenL sLralghL Lo bed

llnally, ad[ecuves may follow a verb of belng or a llnklng verb, Lhus compleung Lhe noun sub[ecL
Lxamples
Llke nouns, ad[ecuves are oen recognlzable by Lhelr sumxes.
Lndlngs such as -oos -fol -lsb -oble usually deslgnaLe ad[ecuves.
Lxamples:

Comparanve and super|anve forms
Slngle-syllable ad[ecuves ose ?er and ?&'$ endlngs Lo deslgnaLe comparauve and superlauve forms:

Lxamples:

Ad[ecuves of Lwo or more syllables use :"(& and :"'$ for comparauve and superlauve forms.

Lxamples:


Note:

1wo-syllable ad[ecuves endlng ln -y may also use Lhe -et / -est endlngs Lo deslgnaLe
comparauve and superlauve.


Lxamples: Lxamples:


Note: Lhe followlng ad[ecuves do noL follow Lhe regular rules for formlng comparauve and superlauve
forms: qooJ, boJ, llule, lll.

1o creaLe negauve comparauve and superlauve forms, use 1o creaLe negauve comparauve and superlauve forms, use 1o creaLe negauve comparauve and superlauve forms, use
2&'' for @&(
and 2&-'$ for -&'$
Lxamples:


.9,#"-%
1he 8as|c ku|es: Adverbs
Adverbs modlfy verbs, ad[ecuves, and oLher adverbs. (?ou can recognlze adverbs easlly because many of
Lhem are formed by addlng -ly Lo an ad[ecuve, Lhough LhaL ls noL always Lhe case.) 1he mosL common
quesuon LhaL adverbs answer ls how.
LeL's look aL verbs rsL.
- "She sang beooufolly." 8eooufolly ls an adverb LhaL modles sooq. lL Lells us how she sang.
- "1he celllsL played cotelessly." cotelessly ls an adverb LhaL modles ployeJ. lL Lells us how Lhe
celllsL played.
Adverbs also modlfy ad[ecuves and oLher adverbs.
- "1haL woman ls exttemely nlce." Nlce ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun womoo. xttemely ls
an adverb LhaL modles olce, lL Lells us how nlce she ls. now nlce ls she? She's exLremely nlce.
- "lL was a tettlbly hoL aernoon." not ls an ad[ecuve LhaL modles Lhe noun ofetoooo. 1ettlbly ls
an adverb LhaL modles Lhe ad[ecuve bot. now hoL ls lL? 1errlbly hoL.
So, generally speaklng, adverbs answer Lhe quesuon how. (1hey can also answer Lhe quesuons when,
where, and why.)
Adverbs are Lradluonally dened as words LhaL descrlbe verbs.
Adverbs answer any of Lhe followlng quesuons abouL verbs:
how? when? where? why?

1he followlng examples lllusLraLe adverbs modlfylng verbs:
now dld he ll Lhe barbell?
E-';20 ls an adverb.
wbeo wlll we use lL?
!":"(("A funcuons as an adverb.
wbete dld she hlde Lhe key?
F&-(50 ls an adverb.


Adverbs are Lhe mosL moveable of all parLs of speech, Lherefore, lL ls someumes dlmculL Lo ldenufy an
adverb on Lhe basls of lLs posluon ln a senLence.
lor example, Lhe adverb '2"A20 wlll L lnLo Lhree places ln Lhe senLence 1& /2;:5&* $%& 2-**&(G



MosL adverbs end ln ?20. ln facL, mosL adverbs are formed by addlng ?20 Lo ad[ecuves:



Llke ad[ecuves of more Lhan one syllable, adverbs usually become comparauve and superlauve by
uslng mote and most.
Examples:



I|at adverbs
Ad[ecuves LhaL do noL change form (add -ly) Lo become adverbs are called "aL adverbs."
1yplcal aL adverbs are &-(20C 2-$&C %-(*C H-'$C 2"6.C %;.%C 2"AC *&&4C 6&-(8

1o deLermlne wheLher Lhese words are funcuonlng as ad[ecuves or adverbs, one musL deLermlne
1) whaL Lhe word ls descrlblng (noun or verb)
2) whaL quesuon Lhe word ls answerlng

1he followlng examples lllusLraLe Lhe dlsuncuon.
E-(20 as ad[ecuve:
E-(20 descrlbes Lhe noun ttolo and answers Lhe quesuon "whlch one?"
E-(20 as adverb:
E-(20 descrlbes Lhe verb ottlveJ and answers Lhe quesuon "when?"
1-(* as ad[ecuve:
1-(* descrlbes Lhe noun poss and answers Lhe quesuon "whaL klnd?"
1-(* as adverb:
1-(* descrlbes Lhe verb tbtew and answers Lhe quesuon "how?"

."'&:;#%
Us|ng Arnc|es
WhaL ls an arucle? 8aslcally, an arucle ls an ad[ecuve. Llke ad[ecuves, arucles modlfy nouns.
Lngllsh has Lwo arucles: the and a]an. 1he ls used Lo refer Lo speclc or parucular nouns, a]an ls used Lo
modlfy non-speclc or non-parucular nouns. We call the Lhe Jefolte arucle and a]an Lhe loJefolte
arucle.
Lhe = denlLe arucle
a/an = lndenlLe arucle
lor example, lf l say, "LeL's read the book," l mean a speclfc book. lf l say, "LeL's read a book," l mean ooy
book raLher Lhan a speclc book.
Pere's anoLher way Lo explaln lL: 1he ls used Lo refer Lo a speclfc or potucolot member of a group. lor
example, "l [usL saw the mosL popular movle of Lhe year." 1here are many movles, buL only one
parucular movle ls Lhe mosL popular. 1herefore, we use the.
"A/an" ls used Lo refer Lo a ooo-speclfc or ooo-potucolot member of Lhe group. lor example, "l would
llke Lo go see a movle." Pere, we're noL Lalklng abouL a speclfc movle. We're Lalklng abouL ooy movle.
1here are many movles, and l wanL Lo see ooy movle. l don'L have a speclc one ln mlnd.
LeL's look aL each klnd of arucle a llule more closely.
Indehn|te Arnc|es: a and an
"A" and "an" slgnal LhaL Lhe noun modled ls lndenlLe, referrlng Lo ooy member of a group. lor
example:
- "My daughLer really wanLs a dog for ChrlsLmas." 1hls refers Lo ooy dog. We don'L know whlch
dog because we haven'L found Lhe dog yeL.
- "Somebody call a pollceman!" 1hls refers Lo ooy pollceman. We don'L need a speclc pollceman,
we need any pollceman who ls avallable.
- "When l was aL Lhe zoo, l saw an elephanL!" Pere, we're Lalklng abouL a slngle, non-speclc
Lhlng, ln Lhls case an elephanL. 1here are probably several elephanLs aL Lhe zoo, buL Lhere's only
ooe we're Lalklng abouL here.
kemember, us|ng a or an depends on the sound that beg|ns the next word. So...
- a + slngular noun beglnnlng wlLh a consonanL: - boy, - cot, - blke, - zoo, - Joq
- an + slngular noun beglnnlng wlLh a vowel: -6 elepboot, -6 eqq, -6 opple, -6 lJlot, -6 otpboo
- a + slngular noun beglnnlng wlLh a consonanL sound: - oset (sounds llke 'yoo-zer,' l.e. beglns
wlLh a consonanL 'y' sound, so 'a' ls used), - oolvetslty, - oolcycle
- an + nouns sLarung wlLh sllenL "h": -6 boot
- a + nouns sLarung wlLh a pronounced "h": - botse
# ln some cases where "h" ls pronounced, such as "hlsLorlcal," you can use an. Powever, a
ls more commonly used and preferred.
A hlsLorlcal evenL ls worLh recordlng.
kemember that these ru|es a|so app|y when you use acronyms:
lnLroducLory Composluon aL urdue (lCa) handles rsL-year wrlung aL Lhe unlverslLy. 1herefore, an lCa
memo generally dlscusses lssues concernlng Lngllsh 106 lnsLrucLors.
AnoLher case where Lhls rule applles ls when acronyms sLarL wlLh consonanL leuers buL have vowel
sounds:
An MSuS (maLerlal safeLy daLa sheeL) was used Lo record Lhe daLa. An SCC plan (Splll revenuon ConLrol
and CounLermeasures plan) wlll help us prepare for Lhe worsL.
lf Lhe noun ls modled by an ad[ecuve, Lhe cholce beLween a and an depends on Lhe lnlual sound of Lhe
ad[ecuve LhaL lmmedlaLely follows Lhe arucle:
- a broken egg
- an unusual problem
- a Luropean counLry (sounds llke 'yer-o-pl-an,' l.e. beglns wlLh consonanL 'y' sound)
8emember, Loo, LhaL ln Lngllsh, Lhe lndenlLe arucles are used Lo lndlcaLe membershlp ln a group:
- l am a Leacher. (l am a member of a large group known as Leachers.)
- 8rlan ls an lrlshman. (8rlan ls a member of Lhe people known as lrlsh.)
- Selko ls a pracuclng 8uddhlsL. (Selko ls a member of Lhe group of people known as 8uddhlsLs.)
Dehn|te Arnc|e: the
1he denlLe arucle ls used before slngular and plural nouns when Lhe noun ls speclc or parucular. 1he
slgnals LhaL Lhe noun ls denlLe, LhaL lL refers Lo a parucular member of a group. lor example:
"1he dog LhaL blL me ran away." Pere, we're Lalklng abouL a speclfc dog, Lhe dog LhaL blL me.
"l was happy Lo see the pollceman who saved my caL!" Pere, we're Lalklng abouL a potucolot pollceman.
Lven lf we don'L know Lhe pollceman's name, lL's sull a parucular pollceman because lL ls Lhe one who
saved Lhe caL.
"l saw the elephanL aL Lhe zoo." Pere, we're Lalklng abouL a speclfc noun. robably Lhere ls only one
elephanL aL Lhe zoo.
Count and Noncount Nouns
1he can be used wlLh noncounL nouns, or Lhe arucle can be omlued enurely.
- "l love Lo sall over the waLer" (some speclc body of waLer) or "l love Lo sall over waLer" (any
waLer).
- "Pe spllled the mllk all over Lhe oor" (some speclc mllk, perhaps Lhe mllk you boughL earller
LhaL day) or "Pe spllled mllk all over Lhe oor" (any mllk).
"A/an" can be used only wlLh counL nouns.
- "l need a boule of waLer."
- "l need a new glass of mllk."
MosL of Lhe ume, you can'L say, "She wanLs a waLer," unless you're lmplylng, say, a boule of waLer.
Geograph|ca| use of 1nL
1here are some speclc rules for uslng the wlLh geographlcal nouns.
uo noL use the before:
- names of mosL counLrles/LerrlLorles: ltoly, Mexlco, 8ollvlo, however, tbe neLherlands, tbe
uomlnlcan 8epubllc, tbe hlllpplnes, tbe unlLed SLaLes
- names of clues, Lowns, or sLaLes: 5eool, Mooltobo, Mloml
- names of sLreeLs: wosbloqtoo 8lvJ., Molo 5t.
- names of lakes and bays: loke 1lucoco, loke tle excepL wlLh a group of lakes llke tbe Cteot lokes
- names of mounLalns: Mooot vetest, Mooot lojl excepL wlLh ranges of mounLalns llke $%& AoJes
or $%& kockles or unusual names llke $%& Mouetboto
- names of conunenLs (Asla, Lurope)
- names of lslands (LasLer lsland, Maul, key WesL) excepL wlLh lsland chalns llke the Aleuuans, the
Pebrldes, or the Canary lslands
uo use the before:
- names of rlvers, oceans and seas: $%& Nlle, $%& loclfc
- polnLs on Lhe globe: $%& pootot, $%& Nottb lole
- geographlcal areas: $%& MlJJle ost, $%& west
- deserLs, foresLs, gulfs, and penlnsulas: $%& 5oboto, $%& letsloo Colf, $%& 8lock lotest, $%& lbetloo
leolosolo
Cm|ss|on of Arnc|es
Some common Lypes of nouns LhaL don'L Lake an arucle are:
- names of languages and nauonallues: cbloese, oqllsb, 5poolsb, kossloo (unless you are
referrlng Lo Lhe populauon of Lhe nauon: "1he Spanlsh are known for Lhelr warm hosplLallLy.")
- names of sporLs: volleyboll, bockey, boseboll
- names of academlc sub[ecLs: motbemoucs, bloloqy, blstoty, compotet scleoce
Summary: 1hls handouL dlscusses Lhe dlerences beLween lndenlLe arucles (a/an) and denlLe arucles
(Lhe).
Contr|butors:aul Lynch, Allen 8rlzee, LllzabeLh Angell
Last Ld|ted: 2011-03-03 10:04:28
Arnc|es: A versus An
Summary: 1hls shorL handouL deals wlLh whlch arucle Lo use before a noun -- "a" or "an."
Contr|butors:Chrls 8erry, Allen 8rlzee
Last Ld|ted: 2010-04-17 03:33:10
now do you know when to use the |ndehn|te arnc|es?
"A" goes before all words LhaL begln wlLh consonanLs.
- a caL
- a dog
- a purple onlon
- a bualo
- a blg apple
WlLh one excepuon: use "an" before unsounded h.
- an honorable peace
- an honesL error
"An" goes before all words LhaL begln wlLh vowels:
- an aprlcoL
- an egg
- an lndlan
- an orblL
- an uprlslng
WlLh Lwo excepuons: When u makes Lhe same sound as Lhe y ln you, or o makes Lhe same sound as w ln
won, Lhen a ls used.
- a unlon
- a unlLed fronL
- a unlcorn
- a used napkln
- a u.S. shlp
- a one-legged man
noLe: 1he cholce of arucle ls acLually based upon Lhe phoneuc (sound) quallLy of Lhe rsL leuer ln a
word, noL on Lhe orLhographlc (wrluen) represenLauon of Lhe leuer. lf Lhe rsL leuer makes a vowel-Lype
sound, you use "an", lf Lhe rsL leuer would make a consonanL-Lype sound, you use "a." So, lf you
conslder Lhe rule from a phoneuc perspecuve, Lhere aren'L any excepuons. Slnce Lhe 'h' hasn'L any
phoneuc represenLauon, no audlble sound, ln Lhe rsL excepuon, Lhe sound LhaL follows Lhe arucle ls a
vowel, consequenLly, 'an' ls used. ln Lhe second excepuon, Lhe word-lnlual 'y' sound (unlcorn) ls acLually
a gllde [ phoneucally, whlch has consonanLal properues, consequenLly, lL ls LreaLed as a consonanL,
requlrlng 'a'.
A & AN
(a) l have " peocll.
(b) ( llve ln ", opottmeot.
(.c .) l have " smou oooto
(d) l llve ln ", old bollJ
! and ", "-' <=1/ ;6 fronL of a slngular noun (e.g., peocll,
opottmeot). '>1? mean "one."
lf a slngular noun ls modled by an ad[ecuve (e.g., smoll, olJ), "
or ", comes ln fronL of Lhe ad[ecuve, as ln (c) and (d).
! ls used ;6 fronL of words LhaL beg|n wlLh a consonanL (21, c, J,f,
q, etc.). o ./%0 o boJ Joy, o cot, o cote boby.
!, ls used ln fronL of words LhaL begln wlLh Lhe vowels "0 e, )C "+2
12 oo opottmeot, oo ooqty moo, oo elepboot, oo 1@AB? mom, etc.
(e) l have ", ombtello.
(f) ( saw ", oqly plctote.
CDE E auend " ooloetslty.
(h) ( had " oolpoe
expetleoce.
lor words LhaL begln wlLh Lhe leuer u:
(1) !, ls used lf Lhe 1 ls a vowel sound, as ln oo ombtello, oo
oocle, oo ooosool Joy.
(2) ! ls used #3 Lhe 1 ls a consonanL sound, as ln o oolvetslty,
o oolt, o osool eveot.
(l) Pe w||| arrlve ln ", boot.
C0E newyear's uay ls " bollJoy
lor words LhaL begln wlLh Lhe leuer b.
(1) !, ls used lf Lhe 7 ls sllenL: oo hour, oo booot, oo booest
petsoo.
(2) ! ls used #3 Lhe 7 ls pronounced: o bollJoy, o botel, o blqb
polot.
1nkLL GCLDLN kULLS CI Ak1ICLLS
1here are loLs of rules abouL Lhe use of arucles. Pere we'll concenLraLe on 3 golden rules. MosL mlsLakes
wlLh arucles are made Lhrough breaklng one of Lhese rules.
1. eople's [obs have a/an. nes oo otcbltect.
2. Slngular counLable nouns have an arucle. 1bots tbe womoo l met lost week.
3. 1hlngs ln general - no arnc|e. cots llke mlce.
1. When we say whaL people's [obs are, we use a/an
- 5bes oo otcbltect.
- nes o Joctot.
- My qtooJfotbet wos o teocbet.
2. Slngular, counLable nouns always have an arucle - a/an or the - or anoLher deLermlner (my, your, Lhls,
LhaL eLc.)
8emember LhaL we use Lhe lndenlLe arucle - a/an - when we Lalk abouL someLhlng LhaL ls noL denlLe.
- l sow o qooJ flm yestetJoy. 1be llsteoet Joesot koow wblcb flm.
- 1betes o moo ot tbe Joot. we Joot koow wbo tbe moo ls.
- uo yoo woot o Jtlok? lts oot o potucolot Jtlok.
and we use Lhe denlLe arucle - the - when we Lalk abouL someLhlng more cerLaln.
- lm qoloq to toke tbe Joq fot o wolk. 1be Joq ls o pet - lts oot jost ooy Joq.
- nove yoo seeo tbe cot key? 5peoket ooJ llsteoet koow wblcb cot. lts oot jost ooy cot.
- 1bey llve lo tbe boose opposlte oots. 1betes ooly ooe boose opposlte. lts oot ooy boose.
3. When we Lalk abouL Lhlngs ln general we usually use a plural noun or an uncounLable noun wlLh no
arnc|e.
- 8ltJs eot wotms. NO1 1be bltJs eot tbe wotms.
- wotet fows Jowoblll.
- kooqotoos llve lo Aosttollo.
8u1 we weot to tbe zoo ooJ sow tbe kooqotoos. 1hese are parucular kangaroos - noL kangaroos ln
general.
1here are many oLher rules abouL arucles buL rememberlng Lhese 3 golden rules wlll reduce Lhe number
of mlsLakes you make.
Pere we look aL some oLher rules for Lhe use of arucles.
Spec|a| p|aces
- My soos ot oolvetslty bot my Jooqbtet sull qoes to scbool.
- ne wos seot to ptlsoo fot 10 yeots.
- Now tbot wlotets bete l foJ lt Jl[colt to qet oot of beJ.
- l qo to wotk by bos bot l qo bome oo foot.
ln expresslons wlLh a number of places Lhere ls no arnc|e aer a preposluon.
1hese places lnclude: to/ot scbool, to/ot oolvetslty/colleqe, to/lo cbotcb, to/lo/oot of ptlsoo, to/lo
bospltol, to/lo/oot of beJ, to/ot wotk, ot bome.
nC1L: Whlle we say qo to scbool' and qo to wotk' eLc, Lhe expresslon go home' has nelLher tbe' nor
to'.
1ransport
- l qo to wotk by bos bot l qo bome oo foot.
- l bote ttovellloq by ttolo.
Modes of LransporL (by bos, by ttolo, by cot, by plooe, by blcycle) don'L have an arucle. nouce LhaL on
foot ls dlerenL.
Geography
No arnc|e - connnents (Afrlca, Asla eLc.) countr|es (lrance, Cermany, Slovakla eLc - buL Lhe Slovak
8epubllc, Lhe unlLed SLaLes, Lhe unlLed klngdom) towns & c|nes (8rauslava, London eLc.) |akes (Lake
vlcLorla, Lake 8alaLon eLc.) un|vers|nes (Cxford unlverslLy, nlLra unlverslLy eLc.)
WlLh the' - seas & oceans (Lhe ALlanuc, Lhe MedlLerranean eLc.) mounta|n ranges (Lhe Plmalayas, Lhe
1aLras) r|vers (Lhe Amazon, Lhe uanube eLc.)
Cther express|ons
- l Joot wotcb televlsloo vety ofeo bot l llsteo to tbe toJlo oll tbe ume.
- lve qot o beoJocbe.
- lve qot o stomocb-ocbe
- lve qot o colJ.
8u1
- lve qot fo.
- lve qot eotocbe.
- lve qot tootbocbe.
CLher lllnesses have no arucle.
!"$($F(%
ronouns are words LhaL subsuLuLe for nouns.
Lvery pronoun musL have a clear anLecedenL (Lhe word for whlch Lhe pronoun sLands).
kINDS CI kCNCUNS

A. ersona| ronouns:


SINGULAk SINGULAk SINGULAk SINGULAk LUkAL LUkAL LUkAL
sub[ecuve ob[ecuve possesslve sub[ecuve ob[ecuve possesslve
1
sL
person l me my, mloe we os oot, oots
2
nd
person yoo yoo yoot, yoots yoo yoo yoot, yoots
3
rd
person be
sbe
lt
blm
bet
lt
bls
bet, bets
lts
tbey

tbem tbelt, tbelts

ersona| pronouns have the fo||ow|ng character|sncs:
1. 1hree persons (polnLs of vlew)
1sL person - Lhe one(s) speaklng (l me my mloe we os oot oots)
2nd person - Lhe one(s) spoken Lo (yoo yoot yoots)
3rd person - Lhe one(s) spoken abouL (be blm bls sbe bet bets lt lts tbey tbelt tbelts)
Lxamples

2. Lhree genders
femlnlne (sbe bet bets)
mascullne (be blm bls)
neuLer (lt lts tbey tbem tbelt tbelts)
Lxamples
8. Demonstranve ronouns:

uemonsLrauve pronouns can also be used as deLermlners.
Lxample:
Pand me LhaL hammer. (LhaL descrlbes Lhe noun hammer)
uemonsLrauve pronouns can also be used as quallers:
Lxample:
She wanLed LhaL much money? (LhaL descrlbes Lhe ad[ecuve much)

C. keex|ve ] Intens|ve ronouns : Lhe "self" pronouns
1hese pronouns can be used only Lo reecL or lnLenslfy a word already Lhere ln Lhe senLence.
8eexlve / lnLenslve pronouns CAnnC1 8LLACL personal pronouns.
Lxamples:
l saw myself ln Lhe mlrror. (Myself ls a reexlve pronoun, reecung Lhe pronoun l.)
l'll do lL myself. (Myself ls an lnLenslve pronoun, lnLenslfylng Lhe pronoun l.)
Note: 1he followlng words are subsLandard and shou|d not be used:
$%&;('&2+&' $%&;('&2H %;''&2H "3('&2H

D. Indehn|te ronouns:
S|ngu|ar:

ooe someooe ooyooe oo ooe evetyooe
eocb someboJy ooyboJy ooboJy evetyboJy
(o)eltbet sometbloq ooytbloq ootbloq evetytbloq

Lxample:
Somebody ls comlng Lo dlnner.
Ne|ther of us belleves a word Parry says.
|ura|:
Lxamples:
8oth are expecLed aL Lhe alrporL aL Lhe same ume.
Severa| have suggesLed cancellng Lhe meeung.
Slngular wlLh non-counLables / lural wlLh counLables:
Lxamples:
Some of Lhe dlrL has become a permanenL parL of Lhe rug.
Some of Lhe Lrees have been weakened by Lhe sLorm.
lndenlLe pronouns use aposLrophes Lo lndlcaLe possesslve case.
Lxamples:
1he accldenL ls 6"5"*0I' faulL.
Pow wlll Lhe roadwork aecL "6&J' dally commuLe?
Some lndenlLe pronouns may also be used as deLermlners.
ooe, eocb, eltbet, oeltbet, some, ooy, ooe, oll, botb, few, sevetol, mooy, most
noLe Lhe dlerences:
E-/% person has a chance.
(E-/% ls a deLermlner descrlblng petsoo.)
E-/% has a chance.
(E-/% ls an lndenlLe pronoun replaclng a noun.)
K"$% lawyers pled Lhelr cases well.
(K"$% ls a deLermlner descrlblng lowyets.)
K"$% were ln Lhe room.
(8oth ls an lndenlLe pronoun replaclng a noun.)
L. Interroganve ronouns:
lnLerrogauve pronouns produce lnformauon quesuons LhaL requlre more Lhan a yes" or no" answer.
Lxamples:
L%-$ do you wanL? L%" ls Lhere?
I. ke|anve ronouns:
8elauve pronouns lnLroduce relauve (ad[ecuval) clauses.


noLe: use wbo, wbom, and wbose Lo refer Lo people.
use tbot and wblcb Lo refer Lo Lhlngs.
SU8ILC1 VLk8 AGkLLMLN1
Mak|ng Sub[ects and Verbs Agree
Sub[ecL comes before Lhe word Cl". Someumes Lhere ls no AC1lCn. Pe ls here. lS' ls Lhe verb - noL an
acuve verb.

1he sub[ecL and verb musL agree ln number: boLh musL be slngular, or boLh musL be plural. roblems
occur ln Lhe presenL Lense because one musL add an -s or -es aL Lhe end of Lhe verb when Lhe sub[ecLs or
Lhe enuLy performlng Lhe acuon ls a slngular Lhlrd person: he, she, |t, or words for whlch Lhese pronouns
could subsuLuLe.
nouce Lhe dlerence beLween slngular and plural forms ln Lhe followlng examples:
S|ngu|ar |ura|
1he sLudenL slngs. (Pe or she slngs) ?our chlldren slng. (1hey slng)
1he blrd does mlgraLe. (lL does) 1hose blrds do mlgraLe. (1hey do)
ln order Lo nd ouL lf your sub[ecL and verb agree, you need Lo be able Lo ldenufy Lhe sub[ecL of your
senLence. Pere are some helpful hlnLs LhaL wlll help you Lo declpher where your sub[ecL ls and where lL
ls noL.
Where |s my sub[ect?
- MosL llkely, your verb w||| agree w|th the hrst noun to the |eh of Lhe verb:
- 1he Supreme CourL [udge decldes Lhe approprlaLe penalLy. - 1he Supreme CourL [udge decldes Lhe approprlaLe penalLy.
- Sub[ect: [udge - Verb: decldes
- 1he commluee members were saused wlLh Lhe resoluuon. - 1he commluee members were saused wlLh Lhe resoluuon.
- Sub[ect: members - Verb: were
- Cccaslonally, a senLence has Lhe sub[ect aher the verb lnsLead of before lL. 1hls sLraLegy ls oen
used for poeuc eecL.
- Cver Lhe rlpples glldes a small canoe. - Cver Lhe rlpples glldes a small canoe.
- Sub[ect: a small canoe - Verb: glldes
- 1here was a well-known wrlLer aL Lhe meeung. - 1here was a well-known wrlLer aL Lhe meeung.
- Sub[ect: a well-known wrlLer - Verb: was

- ?ou wlll not hnd the sub[ect |n a mod|fy|ng phrase (M), a phrase LhaL sLarLs wlLh a preposluon,
a gerund, or a relauve pronoun and LhaL modles Lhe meanlng of Lhe noun or sub[ecL under
dlscusslon.
- 1he group of sLudenLs ls golng on a eld Lrlp. - 1he group of sLudenLs ls golng on a eld Lrlp. - 1he group of sLudenLs ls golng on a eld Lrlp.
- Sub[ect: Lhe group - M: of sLudenLs - Verb: ls
- 1he survey coverlng seven colleges reveals a growLh ln enrollmenL. - 1he survey coverlng seven colleges reveals a growLh ln enrollmenL. - 1he survey coverlng seven colleges reveals a growLh ln enrollmenL.
Sub[ect: Lhe survey M: coverlng seven colleges Verb: reveals
- 1he speaker whom you saw aL Lhe lecLure ls one of Lhe sLaLe senaLors
from MlnnesoLa.
- 1he speaker whom you saw aL Lhe lecLure ls one of Lhe sLaLe senaLors
from MlnnesoLa.
- 1he speaker whom you saw aL Lhe lecLure ls one of Lhe sLaLe senaLors
from MlnnesoLa.
Sub[ect: Lhe speaker M: whom you saw aL Lhe lecLure Verb: ls
- lf sub[ecLs are [olned by and, Lhey are consldered p|ura|.
- 1he quarLerback and Lhe coach are havlng a conference. - 1he quarLerback and Lhe coach are havlng a conference.
Sub[ect: Lhe quarLerback and Lhe coach Verb: are havlng
-
- lf sub[ecLs are [olned by or or nor, Lhe verb should agree wlLh Lhe c|oser sub[ect.
LlLher Lhe acLors or Lhe dlrecLor ls aL faulL. LlLher Lhe acLors or Lhe dlrecLor ls aL faulL.
Sub[ects: acLors, dlrecLor Verb: ls
- LlLher Lhe dlrecLor or Lhe acLors are aL faulL. - LlLher Lhe dlrecLor or Lhe acLors are aL faulL.
Sub[ects: dlrecLor, acLors Verb: are
8as|c ku|e.
1he baslc rule sLaLes LhaL a slngular sub[ecL Lakes a slngular verb, whlle a plural sub[ecL Lakes a plural
verb.
nC1L: 1he Lrlck ls ln knowlng wheLher Lhe sub[ecL ls slngular or plural. 1he nexL Lrlck ls recognlzlng a
slngular or plural verb.
1;6$. verbs do noL form Lhelr plurals by addlng an s as nouns do. ln order Lo deLermlne whlch verb ls
slngular and whlch one ls plural, Lhlnk of whlch verb you would use wlLh be or sbe and whlch verb you
would use wlLh tbey.

EM-:42&G
tolks, tolk
Whlch one ls Lhe slngular form? Whlch word would you use wlLh be? We say, "Pe Lalks." 1herefore, tolks
ls slngular. We say, "1hey Lalk." 1herefore, tolk ls plural.
ku|e 1.
1wo slngular sub[ecLs connecLed by ot or oot requlre a slngular verb.
EM-:42&G
My ooot ot my oocle ls ottlvloq by ttolo toJoy.
ku|e 2.
1wo slngular sub[ecLs connecLed by eltbet/ot or oeltbet/oot requlre a slngular verb as ln 8ule 1.
EM-:42&'G
Neltbet Iooo oot cotmeo ls ovolloble.
ltbet klooo ot cosey ls belploq toJoy wltb stoqe Jecotouoos.
ku|e 3.
When l ls one of Lhe Lwo sub[ecLs connecLed by eltbet/ot or oeltbet/oot, puL lL second and follow lL wlLh
Lhe slngular verb om.
EM-:42&G
Neltbet sbe oot l om qoloq to tbe fesuvol.
ku|e 4.
When a slngular sub[ecL ls connecLed by ot or oot Lo a plural sub[ecL, puL Lhe plural sub[ecL lasL and use a
plural verb.
EM-:42&G
1be setvloq bowl ot tbe plotes qo oo tbot sbelf.
ku|e S.
When a slngular and plural sub[ecL are connecLed by eltbet/ot or oeltbet/oot, puL Lhe plural sub[ecL lasL
and use a plural verb.
EM-:42&G
Neltbet Ieooy oot tbe otbets ote ovolloble.
ku|e 6.
As a general rule, use a plural verb wlLh Lwo or more sub[ecLs when Lhey are connecLed by ooJ.
EM-:42&G
A cot ooJ o blke ote my meoos of ttoospottouoo.
ku|e 7.
Someumes Lhe sub[ecL ls separaLed from Lhe verb by words such as olooq wltb, os well os, beslJes, or
oot. lgnore Lhese expresslons when deLermlnlng wheLher Lo use a slngular or plural verb.
EM-:42&'G
1be pollucloo, olooq wltb tbe oewsmeo, ls expecteJ sbottly.
xcltemeot, os well os oetvoosoess, ls tbe coose of bet sbokloq.
ku|e 8.
1he pronouns eocb, evetyooe, evety ooe, evetyboJy, ooyooe, ooyboJy, someooe, and someboJy are
slngular and requlre slngular verbs. uo noL be mlsled by whaL follows of.
EM-:42&'G
ocb of tbe qltls sloqs well.
vety ooe of tbe cokes ls qooe.
nC1L: vetyooe ls one word when lL means evetyboJy. vety ooe ls Lwo words when Lhe meanlng ls
eocb ooe.
ku|e 9.
WlLh words LhaL lndlcaLe poruonspetceot, ftocuoo, pott, mojotlty, some, oll, oooe, temoloJet, and so
forLh look aL Lhe noun ln your of phrase (ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon) Lo deLermlne wheLher Lo use a
slngular or plural verb. lf Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon ls slngular, use a slngular verb. lf Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe
preposluon ls plural, use a plural verb.
EM-:42&'G
llfy petceot of tbe ple bos JlsoppeoteJ.
lle ls Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon of.
llfy petceot of tbe ples bove JlsoppeoteJ.
lles ls Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe preposluon.
Ooe-tbltJ of tbe clty ls ooemployeJ.
Ooe-tbltJ of tbe people ote ooemployeJ.
nC1L: PyphenaLe all spelled-ouL fracuons.
All of tbe ple ls qooe.
All of tbe ples ote qooe.
5ome of tbe ple ls mlssloq.
5ome of tbe ples ote mlssloq.
none of Lhe garbage was plcked up.
none of Lhe senLences were puncLuaLed correcLly.
Cf all her books, none have sold as well as Lhe rsL one.
nC1L: ApparenLly, Lhe SA1 Lesung servlce conslders oooe as a slngular word only. Powever, accordlng Lo
Mettlom webstet's ulcuoooty of oqllsb usoqe, "Clearly oooe has been boLh slngular and plural slnce
Cld Lngllsh and sull ls. 1he nouon LhaL lL ls slngular only ls a myLh of unknown orlgln LhaL appears Lo
have arlsen ln Lhe 19Lh cenLury. lf ln conLexL lL seems llke a slngular Lo you, use a slngular verb, lf lL
seems llke a plural, use a plural verb. 8oLh are accepLable beyond serlous crluclsm" (p. 664).
ku|e 10.
1he expresslon tbe oombet ls followed by a slngular verb whlle Lhe expresslon o oombet ls followed by a
plural verb.
EM-:42&'G
1be oombet of people we oeeJ to blte ls tbltteeo.
A oombet of people bove wtlueo lo oboot tbls sobject.
ku|e 11.
When eltbet and oeltbet are sub[ecLs, Lhey always Lake slngular verbs
EM-:42&'G
Neltbet of tbem ls ovolloble to speok tlqbt oow.
ltbet of os ls copoble of Joloq tbe job.
ku|e 12.
1he words bete and tbete have generally been labeled as adverbs even Lhough Lhey lndlcaLe place. ln
senLences beglnnlng wlLh bete or tbete, Lhe sub[ecL follows Lhe verb.
EM-:42&'G
1bete ote foot botJles to jomp.
1bete ls o blqb botJle to jomp.
ku|e 13.
use a slngular verb wlLh sums of money or perlods of ume.
EM-:42&'G
1eo Jollots ls o blqb ptlce to poy.
llve yeots ls tbe moxlmom seoteoce fot tbot o[eose.
ku|e 14.
Someumes Lhe pronoun wbo, tbot, or wblcb ls Lhe sub[ecL of a verb ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe senLence. 1he
pronouns wbo, tbot, and wblcb become slngular or plural accordlng Lo Lhe noun dlrecLly ln fronL of Lhem.
So, lf LhaL noun ls slngular, use a slngular verb. lf lL ls plural, use a plural verb.
EM-:42&'G
5olmo ls tbe scleoust wbo wtltes/wtlte tbe tepotts.
1he word ln fronL of wbo ls scleoust, whlch ls slngular. 1herefore, use Lhe slngular verb wtltes.
ne ls ooe of tbe meo wbo Joes/Jo tbe wotk.
1he word ln fronL of wbo ls meo, whlch ls plural. 1herefore, use Lhe plural verb Jo.
ku|e 1S.
Collecuve nouns such as teom and sto[ may be elLher slngular or plural dependlng on Lhelr use ln Lhe
senLence.
EM-:42&'G
1be sto[ ls lo o meeuoq.
5to[ ls acung as a unlL here.
1be sto[ ote lo Jlsoqteemeot oboot tbe foJloqs.
1be sto[ are acung as separaLe lndlvlduals ln Lhls example.
1he senLence would read even beuer as:
1be sto[ membets ote lo Jlsoqteemeot oboot tbe foJloqs.
SLN1LNCL S1kUC1UkL
8as|c Sentence Structure
ln order Lo be a compleLe senLence, a group of words needs Lo conLaln a sub[ecL and a verb, and lL needs
Lo express a compleLe LhoughL.
1here are ve baslc pauerns around whlch mosL Lngllsh senLences are bullL. 1hey are as follows:
S-V Sub[ecL-verb !ohn sleeps.
!lll ls eaung.
!ack wlll arrlve nexL week.
S-V-C Sub[ecL-verb-Cb[ecL l llke rlce.
She loves her [ob.
Pe's eaung an orange.
S-V-Ad[ Sub[ecL-verb-Ad[ecuve Pe ls funny.
1he workers are lazy.
karen seems angry.
S-V-Adv Sub[ecL-verb-Adverb !lm ls here.
llowers are everywhere.
no one was Lhere.
S-V-N Sub[ecL-verb-noun She ls my mom.
1he men are docLors.
Mr. !ones ls Lhe Leacher.
AL Lhe hearL of every Lngllsh senLence ls Lhe Sub[ecL-verb relauonshlp. CLher elemenLs can be added Lo
make a senLence more lnLeresung, buL Lhey are noL essenual Lo lLs formauon.
1he followlng senLences are examples of Lhe S-V pauern.
She sleeps. Core senLence
She sleeps soundly. An adverb ls added Lo descrlbe how she sleeps.
She sleeps on Lhe sofa. A preposluonal phrase ls added Lo Lell where she sleeps.
She sleeps every
aernoon.
A ume expresslon ls added Lo Lell when she sleeps.
She ls sleeplng rlghL now. verb Lense ls changed, buL S-v relauonshlp remalns Lhe same.
Mary wlll sleep laLer. Sub[ecL ls named and anoLher Lense ls used.
1he dogs are sleeplng ln
Lhe garage.
new sub[ecL may requlre a dlerenL form of Lhe verb.
Note: Any acuon verb can be used wlLh Lhls senLence pauern.
1he followlng senLences are examples of Lhe S-V-C pauern.
1hey llke rlce. Core senLence
1he people llke rlce. Speclc sub[ecL
1he frlendly people llke rlce. Sub[ecL modled wlLh an ad[ecuve
1he people ln Lhe resLauranL llke rlce. Sub[ecL modled wlLh an ad[ecuve
1he people llke bolled rlce. Cb[ecL modled wlLh an ad[ecuve
1he people llke hoL, whlLe rlce. Cb[ecL modled wlLh more Lhan one ad[ecuve
Note: Cnly Lransluve acuon verbs can be used wlLh Lhls senLence pauern.
1he followlng senLences are examples of Lhe S-V-Ad[ pauern.
Pe ls ne. 8aslc senLence wlLh "be" verb
Pe seems happy. 8aslc senLence wlLh anoLher llnklng verb
!ordan ls Lall, dark and handsome. Serles of ad[ecuves
Pe appears very comforLable. Adverb or lnLensler added
Ceorge became slck lasL nlghL. ulerenL Lense and llnklng verb
Note: Cnly llnklng verbs can be used wlLh Lhls senLence pauern.
1he followlng senLences are examples of Lhe S-V-Adv pauern.
1he Leacher ls here. 8aslc senLence
1he Leacher ls over Lhere. uslng an adverb phrase
1eachers are everywhere. lural noun and verb used
1he Leachers are ln Lhe
lobby.
reposluonal phrase funcuonlng as adverb
Note: Cnly llnklng verbs can be used wlLh Lhls senLence pauern.
1he followlng senLences are examples of Lhe S-V-N pauern.
1he man ls a docLor. 8aslc senLence
1he women are docLors. uslng plural noun and verb
My faLher ls a nlce guy. Modled sub[ecL and complemenL
My grandparenLs are
senlor cluzens.
Modled plural sub[ecL and complemenL
Note: Cnly llnklng verbs can be used wlLh Lhls senLence pauern.
1he Iour Sentence Structures
1. A s|mp|e sentence has only one lndependenL clause.
l Jtlok co[ee.
- An lndependenL clause ls a group of words (wlLh a sub[ecL and a verb) LhaL expresses a compleLe
LhoughL.

2. A compound sentence has aL leasL Lwo lndependenL clauses. 1hese clauses are [olned by a
coordlnaung con[uncuon or a semlcolon.
l eot ootmeol, ooJ 1lm eots Jooqboots.
- A coordlnaung con[uncuon ls a word LhaL glues words, phrases, or clauses LogeLher.
3. A comp|ex sentence has a subordlnaLe clause [olned Lo an lndependenL clause wlLh a subordlnaung
con[uncuon.
l wosbeJ tbe Jlsbes ofet l ote my ootmeol.
- A subordlnaLe clause ls a group of words wlLh a sub[ecL and a verb LhaL cannoL sLand alone.
4. A compound-comp|ex sentence has a Lwo or more lndependenL clauses and one or more subordlnaLe
clauses.
kocboel koy exploloeJ bow cookles ote moJe, ooJ we ptocuceJ bet tecbolpoes ot bome.