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# Blasting

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General Information
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Blasting Principles
When you put things into motion, and you want to maintain control,
you need to have the energy in the right place at the right time.
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Powder Factor
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Powder Factor
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Blasting Terminology
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Blasting Terminology
Face
Bench
Top
Plan View
Energy Force Vector
Distribution
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Blasting Terminology
Holes too far apart!
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Blasting Terminology
Holes too close together!
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Blasting Terminology
Spacing just right!
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Blasting Terminology
Staggered rows with proper spacing and timing
help energy distribution within the rock mass!
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Hole spacing with respect to joints
Bench Top
Face
Un-broken
Ground
Segments
Holes spread too far apart !
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Hole spacing with respect to joints
Holes spaced to land within fracture blocks
Face
Un-broken
Ground
Segments
Un-broken
Ground
Segments
Bench Top
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Fragmentation vs. Hole Diameter
Big Holes
Little Holes
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Bench Heights as a function of Hole
Diameter
Hole Diameter (mm)
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Not Recommended
Not Recommended
Recommended
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Bench Heights as a function of Hole
Diameter
Hole Diameter (inches)
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1.5 2 2.5 3.5 3 4.5 4 5 6 5.5 6.5 1 7
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90
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100
110
Not Recommended
Not Recommended
Recommended
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Efficient Blasting
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Group Approach to Achieving
Optimum Blast Performance
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The Three Keys to Achieving Optimum
Explosive Performance
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Physical Rock Properties
Physical Rock Properties
Compressive Strength
Tensile Strength
Poissons Ratio
Youngs Modulus
Density
Longitudinal Wave Velocity
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Typical Rock Properties
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
Massive Rock
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
Blocky Jointed Rock
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
Adverse Effects of Bedding and Jointing on Wall Control
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
Field Evaluation of Rock Hardness
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
Cavities
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Geological Effects on Blast Performance
Rock Structure
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Rock Fragmentation by Blasting
Basic Rock Breakage Theory
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Rock Fragmentation by Blasting
Breakage Process
1. Explosive detonates and expands 1000 times its original volume.
2. High gas pressures crush the rock in compression for 2 to 3 times
charge diameters.
3. Stress within the rock causes tensile failure for 20 to 30 charge
diameters.
4. Gas expands into existing and newly formed cracks.
5. Cracks are extended.
6. Rockmass is displaced along the path of least resistance.
7. Gas pressure vents and the muckpile is formed by gravity.
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Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
1. Bench height.
2. Charge diameter.
3. Burden.
4. Burden stiffness ratio.
5. Spacing.
6. Pattern layout.
7. Subdrilling.
8. Stemming.
9. Decking.
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Bench Height vs. Hole Diameter
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Decoupling
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Burden Orientation
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Stiffness Ratio
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Relationship Between Stiffness Ratio and Energy Distribution
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Spacing Orientation
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Reduced Spacing for Ore Control
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Pattern Configurations
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Relationship Between Burden and Desired Displacement
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Pattern Layout and Energy Distribution
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Influence of Dipping Structures on Subdrill
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Stemming Confinement Factors for ANFO (Relative Bulk Strength 1.0)
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Stemming Confinement Factors for HANFO (Relative Bulk Strength 1.0)
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Decking
Efficient Blast Design
Blast Parameters
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Angle Drilling Considerations
a) Better energy distribution
b) Reduced overbreak
c) Better floor control
d) Improved highwall stability
e) Increased initial trajectory
a) Requires attention
b) Drill orientation to the free face must be at 90
c) Shorter bit life
d) Greater hole deviation
e) Higher cost
f) Requires expert drillers and wider benches
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Angle Drilling Considerations
Drilling 30-angled Blastholes
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Angle Drilling Considerations
Face Angles vs. Slope
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Average Design Parameters
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Initial Blast Design Guide - Example
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Initial Blast Design Cost Evaluation
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Current Blast Design Evaluation
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Current Blast Design Cost Evaluation
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Ground Vibration
Crater and Elastic Zones
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Ground Vibration
Elastic Waves
The blast energy beyond the crater zone takes the form of
elastic ground vibrations:
P wave Compressional wave 6000-20000 ft/sec
S wave Shear wave 3/5 the velocity of the P wave
R waves Surface waves lowest frequency and greatest
displacement.
The speed of the vibration waves through the ground is
known as the wave propagation velocity.
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Ground Vibration
Wave Propagation
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Ground Vibration
Vibration Time History
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Ground Vibration
Components of ground vibration
Amplitude
It can represent velocity, acceleration, or displacement.
Typically represents velocity.
Velocity
The speed the particles are moving back and forth.
The maximum rate that the particles are moving is known
as peak particle velocity (PPV) and it is recorded in in/sec.
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Ground Vibration
Relationship Between Velocity, Frequency,
Acceleration, and Displacement
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Ground Vibration
Relative Ground Motion
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Ground Vibration
Frequency considerations
Resonant or natural frequency
According to its physical characteristics any structure
will vibrate at a natural frequency (3-18 Hz).
The maximum response of a building to ground
vibrations occurs when the frequency of the ground
motion matches the natural frequency of the building.
Geological modification of vibration frequency
Blast induced modification of vibration frequency
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Ground Vibration
Residential Criteria and Effects (from Oriard)
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Office of Surface Mining Vibration
Regulations for Surface Coal Mining
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USBM Vibration Regulations
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Ground Vibration
Scaled Distance Equation
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Ground Vibration
Maximum Charge Weight
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Ground Vibration
Maximum Charge Weight Calculation
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Ground Vibration
Limit vibrations using scaled distance
0 300 ft away: minimum allowable SD is 50
301 5000 ft away: minimum allowable SD is 55
Over 5000 ft away: minimum allowable SD is 65
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Expected Vibration Based on Scaled
Distance
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Peak Particle Velocity Prediction
Formula
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Typical Vibration Attenuation Curves
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Typical Vibration Regression Analysis
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The End