6 views

IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE) vol.16 issue.2 version.1

- Introduction to GA
- 14 Simulation Optimization
- Self-Tuning Mechanism for Genetic Algorithms Parameters, an Application to Data-Object Allocation in the Web
- This Paper is Partially Supported by Natural Science Foundation of AnHui Provin Ce Under Grant No. 1208085QF107 a Novel LSTM-RNN Decoding Algorithm in CAPTCHA Re
- Optimizing With Ga
- 2865031 Cryptography
- 3.pdf
- Koehn.encoding
- Optimal Building Envelope Design Based on Simulated Performance History Current Status and New Potentials
- Interconnect VR
- 04.3.1-ES-GA
- GRE Fens Tette 1986
- 2. Mathematics - Ijmcar - -Genetic Algorithm in Concentrating - Kavitha
- Articulo Ebs Co
- Drawing1 Model
- Male Final Exam Schedule of Second Semester 2010-2011-Engineering
- Microprocessors
- 30 bus
- SDP
- 1

You are on page 1of 6

e-ISSN: 2278-0661, p- ISSN: 2278-8727Volume 16, Issue 2, Ver. I (Mar-Apr. 2014), PP 14-19

www.iosrjournals.org

www.iosrjournals.org 14 | Page

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit

using Genetic Algorithm

Mr. Amarjit Singh, Ms. Harshit

AP, EIE (IET Bhaddal Technical Campus)

AP, ECE (DIET, Kharar)

Abstract: Genetic algorithms are implemented as a computer simulation in which a population of abstract

representations (called chromosomes or the genotype or the genome) of candidate solutions (called individuals,

creatures, or phenotypes) to an optimization problem evolves toward better solutions. In this paper Genetic

Algorithm has been implemented to reduce the area for integrated circuits. Different operators have been

implemented along with the proposed algorithm for area reduction of integrated circuits. It has been found that

the proposed algorithm gave better results as compared to other operators in order to minimize the area.

Genetic algorithm with proposed operator uses the least CPU time and the least number of iterations to reduce

the area of integrated circuit.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Integrated Chip

I. Introduction

Genetic algorithms are implemented as a computer simulation in which a population of abstract

representations (called chromosomes or the genotype or the genome) of candidate solutions (called individuals,

creatures, or phenotypes) to an optimization problem evolves toward better solutions. Traditionally, solutions

are represented in binary as strings of 0s and 1s, but other encodings are also possible. The evolution usually

starts from a population of randomly generated individuals and happens in generations. In each generation, the

fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated, multiple individuals are selected from the current

population based on their fitness, and modified (recombined and possibly randomly mutated) to form a new

population. The new population is then used in the next iteration of the algorithm. Commonly, the algorithm

terminates when either a maximum number of generations has been produced, or a satisfactory fitness level has

been reached for the population. If the algorithm has terminated due to a maximum number of generations, a

satisfactory solution may or may not have been reached [8].

This Paper describes the implementation of the Genetic Algorithm for the components placement. The

major concerns are chip area minimization and interconnection wire length minimization. Unlike the other

placement algorithm that applies transformations on the physical layout; the genetic algorithm applies

transformation on the chromosomal representation of the physical layout. The algorithm works on a set of

configurations constituting a constant size population. The transformations are performed through crossover

operators that generate new configurations assimilating the characteristics of the pair of configurations existing

in the current population. Mutation and Inversion operators are also used to increase the diversity of the

population, and avoid convergence at local optima. Due to the simultaneous optimization of a large population

of configurations, there is a logical concurrency in the search of the solution space which makes genetic

Algorithm an extremely efficient optimizer. Three efficient crossover techniques will be compared, and the

parameters, crossover rate have been optimized for the components placement problem.

Genetic algorithm is a powerful optimization algorithm, which starts with an initial set of random

configurations and uses a process similar to biological evolution to improve upon them. The set of

configurations the genetic algorithm operates upon is called the population. Each individual in the population is

a string of symbols, usually but not necessarily a binary bit string representing a solution to the optimization

problem. I will use alphabet symbols for the standard components placement problem. During each iteration

called a generariorz, the individuals in the current population are evaluated using some measure of fitness.

Based on this value, individuals are selected from the population two at a time as parents. The fitter individuals

have a higher probability of being selected. A number of genetic operators are applied to the parents to generate

new individuals, called offspring, by combining the features of both parents. The three genetic operators

commonly used by the genetic algorithm are crossover, mutation, and inversion, which are derived by analogy

from the biological process of evolution. The offspring are next evaluated, and a new generation is formed by

selecting some of the parents and offspring and rejecting others so as to keep the population size constant [8] .

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit using Genetic Algorithm

www.iosrjournals.org 15 | Page

I ntroduction to I ntegrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip)

is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. This can be

made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent components. Integrated circuits are used in

virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile

phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made

possible by the low cost of producing integrated circuits.ICs can be made very compact, having up to several

billion transistors and other electronic components in an area the size of a fingernail. The width of each

conducting line in a circuit (the line width) can be made smaller and smaller as the technology advances; in

2008 it dropped below 100 nanometers and many manufacturers have been attempting to reduce it to tens of

nanometers. ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could

perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor

device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous

improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's

mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption

of standardized Integrated Circuits in place of designs using discrete transistors. There are two main advantages

of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are

printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much

less material is needed to construct a packaged IC die than to construct a discrete circuit. Performance is also

high because the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts)

as a result of the small size and close proximity of the components. As of 2012, typical chip areas range from a

few square millimeters to around 450 mm

2

, with up to 9 million transistors per Mm square.

II. Literature Review

Goldberg, Genetic algorithms (GAS) are biologically inspired search heuristics that have been applied to a wide

variety of problems in science, engineering, business and other fields. Genetic algorithms start with a population

of randomly (or heuristically) generated candidate points in the search space. Each candidate solution is coded

(following some predetermined encoding scheme) to rep resent some underlying parameter set. (Binary coding

is one of the most popular encoding strategies.) The algorithm operates in a number of iterations, in an attempt

to improve upon the trial solutions. In each iteration (an iteration is called a "generation" in the GA parlance),

several probabilistic operators are applied to the trial solutions with a view to creating (possibly) better

solutions. The algorithm terminates when either an optimal / near-optimal solution has been found or a specified

number of generations have been completed. It is to be noted that the genetic algorithm is a "weak" method,

with no guarantee of finding the optimum solution n a particular run [4, 5].

Shahookar, K.; Mazumder, P, The genetic algorithm that was originally invented by Holland for adaptive

searching in AI has been employed in this research for the placement of standard cells. Unlike simulated

annealing that uses pair wise exchange for evolving a new configuration from the current one, the genetic

algorithm uses three powerful operators to guide its search through the solution space concurrently, by

considering a set of configurations at a time. The placement problem is represented in the form of a genetic

code, which is progressively refined, and improved by the operators. This is a major deviation from the

conventional placement algorithms that directly apply the transformations to the physical layout. However, this

feature of the genetic algorithm is also a potential problem, and unless clever representation is devised, the

algorithm may prove inefficient. In this research, the standard components placement problem has been

represented as an effective genetic code, and three powerful crossover operators have been applied to generate

new configurations. Two other genetic operators- inversion and mutation-have also been applied to obtain a

highly efficient placement algorithm which requires less iteration to converge to a high quality placement. This

has been made possible by applying a Meta genetic process which optimizes the controlling parameters of the

genetic algorithm. At the same time we are also experimenting with ways to further improve the search

efficiency of the genetic algorithm by improving the algorithm used for crossover, and by varying crossover and

mutation rates during the optimization. With these improvements we expect to speedup the algorithm

considerably. We are also developing an efficient genetic representation of the standard cell routing problem.

The overall objective will be to develop theoretical understanding of genetic algorithms for CAD applications

and specifically to design a highly efficient tool for standard cell placement and routing [8].

Marcus Hutter and Shane Legg, In evolutionary algorithms, the fitness of a population increases with time by

mutating and recombining individuals and by a biased selection of fitter individuals. The right selection pressure

is critical in ensuring sufficient optimization progress on the one hand and in preserving genetic diversity to be

able to escape from local optima on the other hand. Motivated by a universal similarity relation on the

individuals, we propose a new selection scheme, which is uniform in the fitness values. It generates selection

pressure toward sparsely populated fitness regions, not necessarily toward higher fitness, as is the case for all

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit using Genetic Algorithm

www.iosrjournals.org 16 | Page

other selection schemes. We show analytically on a simple example that the new selection scheme can be much

more effective than standard selection schemes. We also propose a new deletion scheme which achieves a

similar result via deletion and show how such a scheme preserves genetic diversity more effectively than

standard approaches. We compare the performance of the new schemes to tournament selection and random

deletion on an artificial deceptive problem and a range of NP hard problems: traveling salesman, set covering,

and satisfiable [7].

GADO explores the space of all possible configurations (of a set of building blocks) given only a behavioral

description of the circuit. The search space includes all possible electrical connectivity and layout and was

accomplished in 3 hours on a single processor. The same result may be obtained in a fraction of the time by

adding multiple processors since genetic algorithms are easily implemented on parallel architectures or a

network of workstations [1,2,3].Optimization occurs across placement, routing and compaction phases and the

GA converges on the simplest design that satisfies all constraints as well as the optimization criterion.

Ray-I Gang and Pei-Yung Hsiao describes a new self-organizing map called force directed self-organizing

map (FDSOM) which can be used in VLSI cell placement with various constraints on their connection and

dimension such that the total wire length and area of the resulting placement are minimized. This procedure

combines ideas from a force directed relaxation and the self organization algorithm proposed by Kohonen. It is

specially suited for such a self-organization problem that those (input) sample vectors arc not easily available.

With this property, it CM therefore be used in CAM or any other computational task. All these processes arc

convergent in a reasonable number of iterations. It was found that the proposed approach is competitive with the

state-of-the-art algorithms and uses fewer nodes and connection weights [6].

III. Problem Formulation

The design of electronic device is a process of making consecutive specification, functional design, physical

design, and fabrication. The layout defines the positions of the components.

As every fourteen to twenty-four months technology is being doubled. So there is requirement of high

rate of expansion of electronic circuits. Which leads to change in chip design?

The demand for smaller, faster, and lower cost electronics miniaturization integrated circuit increases

everywhere.

Chip Area Minimization leads to minimization inter connection wire length so that components are

placed optimally with respect to each other.

For the compact devices minimization of inter connection wire length is needed to place components

optimally on chip.

IV. Objectives

The major objectives are:-

Insertion of components and there details as width, length and area.

Implementation of existing Genetic Algorithms crossover operator examples (PMX, Order, Cyclic)

Implementation of proposed crossover operator

Comparison of result obtained from existing crossover operators and proposed on bases of Parameters

such as CPU time, Area, Number of iteration

V. Proposed Methodology

Genetic algorithms are a class of search techniques inspired from the biological process of evolution by

means of natural selection. GA is an iterative procedure that consists of a constant-size population of

individuals, each one represented by a finite string of symbols, known as the genome, encoding a possible

solution in a given problem space. This space, referred to as the search space, comprises all possible solutions to

the problem at hand. Generally speaking, the genetic algorithm is applied to spaces w hich are too large to be

exhaustively searched

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit using Genetic Algorithm

www.iosrjournals.org 17 | Page

Figure:1 Genetic Optimization Algorithms

Steps to proceed for Genetic Algorithm:

1. Initial generation of population.

2. Selection of population for reproduction based on Fitness Function.

3. Creation of new population by using Crossover and mutation.

4. Evaluation of new population.

5. Replacement of old population by new generation.

VI. Results And Discussions

The analysis has been done for three different values of number of population and number of components. The

results for four operators with respect to area of chip, number of iterations and CPU time are as follow:

For Population = 2100 and number of components = 132

Figure:2 Area of Chip vs. Operators

Figure:3 No. of Iteration vs. Operators

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit using Genetic Algorithm

www.iosrjournals.org 18 | Page

Figure:4 CPU Time vs. Operators

These results can be tabulated as shown in table1. Similarly the results for population = 200, components =80

and for population = 10000 and component = 50 are tabulated as shown in table 2&3 respectively.

Here we can see that the proposed algorithm is far much better as compare to other operators, as far as area of

chip, no. of iterations and CPU time is concerned. This algorithm provides the least area of chip along with least

no. of iterations and also the least CPU time for processing, as analyzed in every case.

Table1. Results for population=2100 and components=132.

Table2. Results for population=200 and components=80.

Table3. Results for population=10000 and components=50.

VII. Conclusion

In this paper Genetic Algorithm is used for reducing the area of integrated chip by proposed cross-over

operator. We can conclude that, if the circuit configuration is pre-determined the software can optimize the

device sizes in order meet a vector of objectives. However this is a general method and can be used for any

analog circuit.

Operators

Height

(cm)

Width

(cm)

Area of Chip

(cm

2

)

No. of

Iteration

CPU Time

(s)

Ordered 124 1924 238576 41000 412

PMX 124 1859 230516 41000 296

Cyclic 130 1765 229450 40800 307

Proposed 104 1765 183560 40600 289

No. of Populations=2100

No. of Components=132

Operators

Height

(cm)

Width

(cm)

Area of Chip

(cm

2

)

No. of

Iteration

CPU Time

(s)

Ordered 121 1159 140239 4010000 295

PMX 121 1147 138787 4010000 247

Cyclic 130 1097 142610 4008000 284

Proposed 92 1097 100924 4006000 207

No. of Populations=200

No. of Components=80

Operators

Height

(cm)

Width

(cm)

Area of Chip

(cm

2

)

No. of

Iteration

CPU Time

(s)

Ordered 104 603 62712 100050000 115

PMX 104 628 65312 100050000 124

Cyclic 130 664 86320 100040000 117

Proposed 92 603 55476 100030000 110

No. of Populations=10000

No. of Components=50

An Enhanced Area Reduction Technique for Integrated Circuit using Genetic Algorithm

www.iosrjournals.org 19 | Page

References

[1] F. Darema, S. Kirkpatrick, and V. A. Norton Parallel techniques for chip placement by simulated annealing on shared memory

systems, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Design, pp. 87-90, 2007.

[2] L. Davis Job shop scheduling with genetic algorithms, in Proc.Int. Conf. on Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications, pp. 136-

140, 2006.

[3] J. J. Grefenstette, R. Gopal, B. Rosmaita, and D. Van Gucht Genetic algorithms for the traveling salesman problem. in Proc. Inr.

Con$ on Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications, pp. 160-168. 2006.

[4] Goldberg, D.E. (2008): Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

[5] Holland, J.H. (2006): Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, University of Michigan Pres, Ann Arbor, , pp. 70-80 .

[6] Ray-I Gang and Pei-Yung Hsiao Force Directed Self-organizing Map and its Application to VLSI Cell Placement in Proc. IEEE

Int. Conf. on Computer Design pp. 103 - 109 vol.1, 2012.

[7] Marcus Hutter and Shane Legg Fitness Uniform Optimization IEEE Transaction on evolutionary computation, VOL. 10, NO. 5,

OCTOBER 2006

[8] Shahookar, K.; Mazumder, P. A genetic approach to standard cell placement using meta-genetic parameter optimization in Proc.

IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems pp. 500 - 511 , 2010

[9] Mahmood R. Minhas An Evolutionary Algorithm for Low Power VLSI Cell placement in Proc. IEEE International Symposium

on. on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, 1540- 1543 ,2005

[10] Youssef, H.; Sait, S.M.; Nassar, K.; Benten, M.S.T. Performance driven standard-cell placement using the genetic algorithm Fifth

Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI pp. 124 127, 2008.

[11] Shane Legg, Marcus Hutter, Akshat Kumar Tournament versus Fitness Uniform Selection Conf. on Evolutionary Computation,

pp. 2144- 2151 Vol.2 ,2009.

[12] Feng Wang; Yuan-Xiang Li Analog Circuit Design Automation Using Neural Network-Based Two-Level Genetic Programming

Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Machine Learning and Cybernetics , Pp.2087 2092,2012,

[13] J.D. Lohn, S.P. Colombano, Automated Analog Circuit Synthesis using a Linear Representation," Proc. of the Second Int'l Conf on

Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007, pp. 125-133.

[14] Synthesis of low-power DSP systems using a genetic algorithm Bright, M.S.; Arslan, T., IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary

Computation Volume 5, 2001, Pp. 27 40

[15] A. Rangel-Merino, J. L. Lpez-Bonilla, R. Linares y Miranda, Optimization Method based on Genetic Algorithms, Apeiron, Vol.

12, No. 4, October 2005.

[16] R.A. Fisher, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon press, Oxford 2000.

[17] Carlos D. Toledo, Genetic Algorithms for the numerical solutions of variational problems without analytic trial functions,

arXiv:Physics/0506188, pp. 1-3, June 2009.

[18] J. Holland, Genetic Algorithms, Sci. Am. pp.114-116, 2004.

[19] T. Bck and H. P. Schwefel, An Overview of Evolutionary Algorithms, Evolutionary Comput. 1: pp. 1-23, 2004.

[20] Allen B. Tucker (Jr.), The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, USA, pp. 557-571, 2007.

[21] J.H. Holland, Adaptive in Natural and Artificial Systems. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2008.

[22] D.E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms, in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning. Addison Wesley, 2008.

[23] T. Bck, Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice: Evolution Strategies, Evolutionary Programming, Genetic Algorithms.

Oxford University Press, N.Y., 2010.

[24] Sankar K. Pal, Varun Talwar and Pabitra Mitra, Web Mining in Soft Computing Framework: Relevance, State of the Art and Future

Directions, IEEE Transactions On Neural Networks, Vol.13, No. 5, September 2002.

[25] O. Etzioni. The World Wide Web: Quagmire or gold mine. Communications of the ACM, 39(11):6568, 2010.

[26] Raymond Kosala, Hendrik Blockeel, Web Mining Research: A Survey, SIGKDD Explorations, Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2011.

[27] Design of Analog Integrated Circuits by Using Genetic Algorithm, 2010 Second International Conference on Computer

Engineering and Applications

- Introduction to GAUploaded bytienanh_08
- 14 Simulation OptimizationUploaded bySaurabh Meena
- Self-Tuning Mechanism for Genetic Algorithms Parameters, an Application to Data-Object Allocation in the WebUploaded bycruzreyeslaura
- This Paper is Partially Supported by Natural Science Foundation of AnHui Provin Ce Under Grant No. 1208085QF107 a Novel LSTM-RNN Decoding Algorithm in CAPTCHA ReUploaded byNeev Tighnavard
- Optimizing With GaUploaded byArjun Shende
- 2865031 CryptographyUploaded byPraveen Kumar Reddy
- 3.pdfUploaded byitzgaya
- Koehn.encodingUploaded byqazxcde321
- Optimal Building Envelope Design Based on Simulated Performance History Current Status and New PotentialsUploaded byParametric House
- Interconnect VRUploaded byRohan Kelkar
- 04.3.1-ES-GAUploaded bysumitverma1990
- GRE Fens Tette 1986Uploaded bylovelyosmile253
- 2. Mathematics - Ijmcar - -Genetic Algorithm in Concentrating - KavithaUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Articulo Ebs CoUploaded byKokeGallegos
- Drawing1 ModelUploaded byShashank Madaria
- Male Final Exam Schedule of Second Semester 2010-2011-EngineeringUploaded byOmar Ayad
- MicroprocessorsUploaded bysaif_69
- 30 busUploaded byDrVikas Singh Bhadoria
- SDPUploaded byJay Suguitan
- 1Uploaded byapi-240912278
- NEW APPROACH FOR SOLVING SOFTWARE PROJECT SCHEDULING PROBLEM USING DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION ALGORITHMUploaded byijfcstjournal
- 1 1 7 a datasheets 1Uploaded byapi-367492471
- Meeting 1_What is a Computer [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byRizka Amalia Kusuma
- MentorUploaded byiC60
- 01 Intelligent Agents.en.EsUploaded byNancy Mendoza
- Optimal Placement of Multi DG Unit in Distribution Systems Using Evolutionary AlgorithmsUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- A Parallel Hybrid Implementation Using Genetic Algorithms, GRASP and Reinforcement Learning for the Salesman Traveling ProblemUploaded byRafael Magalhães
- Fundamentals of Computer for BusinessUploaded bysudhakar12aug8457
- ac.els-cdn.com_S221282711300262X_1-s2.0-S221282711300262X-mainUploaded byrodrigoferre
- Samiksha DasUploaded byRationallyIrrationalSamiksha

- Study the Changes in Al-ahwaz Marshal using Principal Component Analysis and Classification TechniqueUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Youth Entrepreneurship: Opportunities and Challenges in IndiaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Psychological Variables within different positions of players of the state Junior boys ball Badminton players of ManipurUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Necessary Evils of Private Tuition: A Case StudyUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Geohydrological study of weathered basement aquifers in Oban Massif and environs Southeastern Nigeria: using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System TechniquesUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Philosophical Analysis of the Theories of Punishment in the Context of Nigerian Educational SystemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Development of Dacum as Identification Technique on Job Competence Based-Curriculum in High Vocational EducationUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Child Mortality among Teenage Mothers in OJU MetropolisUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Need of Non- Technical Content in Engineering EducationUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Effects of Formative Assessment on Mathematics Test Anxiety and Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Jos, NigeriaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- The Effect of Instructional Methods and Locus of Control on Students’ Speaking Ability (An Experimental Study in State Senior High School 01, Cibinong Bogor, West Java)Uploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Enhancing Pupils’ Knowledge of Mathematical Concepts through Game and PoemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Project Based Learning Tools Development on Salt Hydrolysis Materials through Scientific ApproachUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Selected Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables between Offencive and Defencive Players of Kho-KhoUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Students’ Perceptions of Grammar Teaching and Learning in English Language Classrooms in LibyaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Core Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Nonalcohlic Fatty Liver DiseaseUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Investigation of Wear Loss in Aluminium Silicon Carbide Mica Hybrid Metal Matrix CompositeUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Explosive Strength between Football and Volley Ball Players of Jamboni BlockUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Factors Affecting Success of Construction ProjectUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Research Analysis on Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of Bio-Fuels Industry in IndiaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Parametric Optimization of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Specific Fuel Consumption Using Palm Seed Oil as a BlendUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- A Review on Refrigerants, And Effects on Global Warming For Making Green EnvironmentUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Advancing Statistical Education using Technology and Mobile DevicesUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Microencapsulation for Textile FinishingUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparative Effect of Daily Administration of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Extracts on Alloxan Induced Diabetic RatsUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Application of Xylanase produced by Bacillus megaterium in Saccharification, Juice clarification and oil extraction from Jatropha seed kernelUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Study of Effect of Rotor Speed, Combing-Roll Speed and Type of Recycled Waste on Rotor Yarn Quality Using Response Surface MethodologyUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Auxin induced germination and plantlet regeneration via Rhizome section culture in Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames: A Vulnerable medicinal Orchid of Kashmir HimalayaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Lipoproteins and Lipid Peroxidation in Thyroid disordersUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Mathematical Modeling of SFC Using RSM for CI Engine Fuled with Soybean Biodiesel and Diesel BlendUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)

- EPRI-DOE Handbook of Energy Storage for TransmissionUploaded bySAEIDKIAN
- Mathematics Notes and Formula for Class 12 Chapter 1. Relations and FunctionsUploaded byVed Gazta
- Fathi HabashiUploaded byJavier Antahuara Lazo
- Results and Discussion Exp 3Uploaded byjaamartinez
- A Creep-properties Evaluation of p91 SteelUploaded bymahmoud_allam3
- Glycolysis and GlyconeogenesisUploaded byAnastasia Moysoglou
- growth igdis-instructors-guideUploaded byapi-378198603
- 50865375-9-1-Leontief-Paradox-and-Development-of-Trade-Theory-1.pdfUploaded byAlperenler44
- Flow Rotating DiskUploaded bygimmyhead_69
- IEC81346-2-2009Uploaded byPalo Žofka
- 14_FDWK-C4-ISM-07Uploaded byAndy Gao
- K-factor Measurement of CablesUploaded byAhmed Hamzeh
- Prosthetic Treatment of the Edentulous PatientUploaded byVlad Iliescu
- Facial Expressions Are Contagious Lundqvist 1995Uploaded byPaula Santos Garrido
- 08 Design DensitiesUploaded byRavi Shankar
- HVDC Ground ElectrodeUploaded byHeather Carter
- Burndy Hyground Reference GuideUploaded bywilmanzito
- aaUploaded byAtul Garg
- cigre summary.pdfUploaded bysumantharaveti
- Modeling and simulation of a telephone call center.pdfUploaded byFreddy Pino
- WaukeshaUploaded byOmar Alexander Cañon Ortegon
- Faun Atf 360g-6Uploaded byForomaquinas
- Ti Nspire Cx CasUploaded byols3d
- hardness-preheat.pdfUploaded bydanghp
- Intermediate Micro With Calc. ProblemsUploaded byDunbar Anders
- 1_LF.pdfUploaded byLuis Muñoz
- Morococha Technical ReportUploaded byEdwin Rafael BC
- Stilling BasinUploaded byale hopeju2009
- Lecture06 Synchronization 1Uploaded byMai Sakura Lê
- Question BankUploaded byRachit Shah