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Technical University Gh.

Asachi from Iasi


Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
Master of Structural Engineering



REINFORCED CONCRETE
STRUCTURES FOR TALL
BUILDINGS

Student: Coordinator:
Irimia Cristian Radu Prof. dr. ing. Gosav Ionel



1. Project theme

It is required that each student to design one floor (n
th
=1) from the reinforced concrete
structure with the height of P+17E.
The used number of floor designed is: n=1
There are given the following data:
- The building is placed in city of Bucharest
- The structure is made of reinforced concrete frames, the infilling is made of B.C.A.
blocks
- The foundation system is realized by a general mat with foundation beams and piles.
- The buildings destination: Block of flats
- The 1
st
floor height is 4.8 m, current floors height is 3.45 m, and the floors 16
th
and
17
th
have a height of 4.95 m.
- In plan dimensions are: 32.45 by 29.6 m
The materials used are:
E
b
=30500 N/mm
2
(C25/30)
E
bg
=0.6E
b
for beams and floors
E
bs
=0.8E
b
for columns









2. Structure element pre-sizing and load computation

2.1.Load computation

2.1.1 Permanent loads
a. Thermo-insulation weight:


b. Floor self weight and leveling screed:


c. Infilling walls self weight:


d. Plaster self-weight:



2.1.2 Variable loads
a. Snow load:


Where:

- form factor for flat roofs

- exposure factor

- thermal coefficient for roofs with usual thermo-insulation

characteristic value for snow load from the soil level (CR 1-1-32005)
b. Live load






2.1.3 Exceptional loads (Seismic action)
According to P100/2006 we have the following coefficients:

corner period
behaviour factor

factor depending on the importance class

maximum dinamic amplify factor

ground acceleration factor


2.2.Element pre-sizing

2.2.1. Determining the beam dimensions (modulated to plus 50 mm)
(P-E5:)
h
g
=max(L;T)/8=max(825; 819) mm 850 mm
b
g
=(0,3 0,5)h
g
=0.5 h
g
=425 mm 450 mm
(E6-E11)
h
g
=max(L;T)/10=max(660; 655) mm 700 mm
b
g
=(0,3-0,5)h
g
= 0.5 h
g
=350 mm
(E12-E17)
h
g
=max(L;T)/12=max(550; 546) mm =550 mm
b
g
=(0,3-0,5)h
g
=0.5 h
g
=275mm 300 mm
L and T

maximum opening on longitudinal and transversal direction
L=6600 mm T=6550 mm


Ed
s
cd
N
h
f u
=

2.2.2. Determining the floor height (modulated to plus 10 mm)


h
p
=max(h
p1
; h
p2
)=max (156; 152.5) mm=156 mm 160 mm
h
p1
=20mm + P/180=20+24500/180=156 mm
P=2(L
0
+T
0
)=2(6100+6150)=24500 mm
L
0
and T
0
the maximum span on longitudinal and transversal direction
h
p2
= min (L
0
;T
0
)/40=min (154;152.5) mm =152.5 mm
L
0
=L- b
g
=6600-450=6150 mm
T
0
=T- b
g
=6550-450=6100 mm
2.2.3. Determining the secondary beam dimensions from the 16
th
and 17
th
floors (modulated
to plus 50 mm)
h
gs
=max(L;T)/15=max(6600; 6550)/15=max (440; 437) mm=440mm 450mm
b
gs
=(0,3-0,5)h
gs
=0.5 h
gs
=225mm 250 mm
2.2.4. Column pre-sizing (modulated to plus 50 mm)
The columns will have 3 steps in section variation (P-E5), (E6-E11) i (E12-E17)
The maximum axial forces from the columns will be determined using the data from the
combination: 1P+0.4U+0.4Z.
In order to determine the final dimensions for the columns we first impose an initial section
of 400X400 mm, after one run with a structural program we obtain the following axial forces
and we determined the actual section for each column:

Where:

-the section area of the column

- the column height


- normalized axial force coefficient
2 Ed
bs s s s
cd
N
A b h h
f u
= = >

=25/1.5=16.66 N/mm
2
- design compressive strength for concrete C25/30

- design axial force


a. P-E5
- Marginal column N
1m
=3902.22 kN


- Central column N
1c
=5947.13 kN


b. E6-E11
- Marginal column N
2m
=2449.59 kN


- Central column N
2c
=3511.11 kN


c. E12-E17
- Marginal column N
3m
=1112.56 kN


- Central column N
3c
=1768.28 kN








3. Static computation
With all element dimensions are determined we can now compute a final structural
analysis in order to obtain the final efforts, displacements, period of vibration and diagrams.

3.1.Static combinations
We will use the following combinations:
A. ULS:
i. 1.35P+1.5U+1.05Z
ii. 1.35P+1.05U+1.5Z
iii. P+0.4U+0.4Z+1.2S
x
+
iv. P+0.4U+0.4Z+1.2S
x
-
v. P+0.4U+0.4Z+1.2S
y
+
vi. P+0.4U+0.4Z+1.2S
y
-
B. SLS:
i. P+0.4U+0.4Z+0.72S
x
+
ii. P+0.4U+0.4Z+0.72S
x
-
iii. P+0.4U+0.4Z+0.72S
y
+
iv. P+0.4U+0.4Z+0.72S
y
-





3.2.Diagrams

3.2.1. Vibration modes
a. Mode 1 of vibration: T=1.410 s b. Mode 2 of vibrations: T=1.352 s








c. Mode 3 of vibration: T=1.132 s


3.2.2. Effort diagrams for columns Fx, Fy, Fz, My, Mz (SLU1-4, envelope min-max)
i. Fx:
a. Marginal column



b. Central column

ii. Fy:
a. Marginal column

b. Central column

iii. Fz:
a. Marginal column

b. Central column


iv. My:
a. Marginal column

b. Central column


v. Mz:
a. Marginal column

b. Central column

3.2.3. Bending moment diagram for beams My (kNm) (SLU1-4, envelope min-max)

a. Beam on x direction

b. Beam on y direction








3.2.4. Bending moment diagram for floor m
xx
(kNm/m) (SLU1 or SLU2-E3)


3.2.5. Bending moment diagram for floor m
yy
(kNm/m) (SLU1 or SLU2-E3)

4. Floor design


Determining the reinforcement area for direction x


Panel
Mxx (kNm) b d fcd
Reinforcement
area (mm2)
Support Span mm mm N/mm2 Support Span Support Span Support Span
p1 28.34 26.69 1000 130 16.66 0.1007 0.0948 0.1063 0.0998 767.46 720.29
p2 13.27 17.39 1000 130 16.66 0.0471 0.0618 0.0483 0.0638 348.68 460.59
p3 25.96 24.49 1000 130 16.66 0.0922 0.0870 0.0969 0.0911 699.53 657.93
p4 27.49 23.93 1000 130 16.66 0.0976 0.0850 0.1029 0.0889 743.12 642.15
p5 36.11 36.27 1000 130 16.66 0.1283 0.1288 0.1377 0.1384 994.38 999.14
p6 31.74 27.95 1000 130 16.66 0.1127 0.0993 0.1199 0.1048 865.76 756.28
p7 23.04 31.24 1000 130 16.66 0.0818 0.1110 0.0855 0.1179 617.15 851.21
p8 30.04 27.33 1000 130 16.66 0.1067 0.0971 0.1131 0.1023 816.42 738.55
p9 33.68 31.18 1000 130 16.66 0.1196 0.1107 0.1278 0.1177 922.53 849.46
p10 39.67 38.7 1000 130 16.66 0.1409 0.1375 0.1525 0.1485 1101.16 1071.88
p11 30.06 27.71 1000 130 16.66 0.1068 0.0984 0.1132 0.1038 817.00 749.41
p12 20.86 34.71 1000 130 16.66 0.0741 0.1233 0.0771 0.1320 556.31 952.89
p13 11.57 5.64 1000 130 16.66 0.0411 0.0200 0.0420 0.0202 303.03 146.09
p14 30.26 29.05 1000 130 16.66 0.1075 0.1032 0.1140 0.1091 822.78 787.86
p15 39.35 38.45 1000 130 16.66 0.1398 0.1366 0.1512 0.1474 1091.48 1064.36
p16 33.75 30.16 1000 130 16.66 0.1199 0.1071 0.1281 0.1136 924.59 819.89
p17 25.58 35.54 1000 130 16.66 0.0909 0.1262 0.0954 0.1354 688.75 977.45
p18 25.72 24.86 1000 130 16.66 0.0914 0.0883 0.0960 0.0926 692.72 668.38
p19 29.14 24.15 1000 130 16.66 0.1035 0.0858 0.1095 0.0898 790.45 648.34
p20 38.39 38.86 1000 130 16.66 0.1364 0.1380 0.1472 0.1491 1062.55 1076.70
p21 31.52 28.88 1000 130 16.66 0.1120 0.1026 0.1190 0.1085 859.35 782.97
p22 19.36 30.06 1000 130 16.66 0.0688 0.1068 0.0713 0.1132 514.76 817.00
p23 32.37 26.81 1000 130 16.66 0.1150 0.0952 0.1225 0.1002 884.14 723.71
p24 30.06 35.58 1000 130 16.66 0.1068 0.1264 0.1132 0.1356 817.00 978.64
p25 37.67 37.31 1000 130 16.66 0.1338 0.1325 0.1442 0.1427 1040.94 1030.17

Determining the effective reinforcement area on x direction
Panel
Effective
reinforcement
Number of bar/m
area (mm2)
Support Span Support Span
p1 1017 904 9 8
p2 565 565 5 5
p3 904 904 8 8
p4 904 791 8 7
p5 1243 1243 11 11
p6 1130 1017 10 9
p7 791 1130 7 10
p8 1017 904 9 8
p9 1130 1130 10 10
p10 1356 1356 12 12
p11 1017 1017 9 9
p12 678 1243 6 11
p13 565 565 5 5
p14 1017 1017 9 9
p15 1356 1356 12 12
p16 1130 1017 10 9
p17 904 1243 8 11
p18 904 904 8 8
p19 1017 791 9 7
p20 1356 1356 12 12
p21 1130 1017 10 9
p22 678 1017 6 9
p23 1130 904 10 8
p24 1017 1017 9 9
p25 1356 1356 12 12

Determining the reinforcement on y direction


Panel
Myy (kNm) b d fcd
Reinforcement
area (mm2)
Support Span mm mm N/mm2 Support Span Support Span Support Span
p1 19.90 12.49 1000 118 16.66 0.0858 0.0538 0.0898 0.0554 588.58 362.87
p2 13.49 7.87 1000 118 16.66 0.0582 0.0339 0.0600 0.0345 392.85 226.22
p3 14.07 7.93 1000 118 16.66 0.0607 0.0342 0.0626 0.0348 410.30 227.98
p4 17.36 7.77 1000 118 16.66 0.0748 0.0335 0.0779 0.0341 510.26 223.30
p5 22.93 17.09 1000 118 16.66 0.0988 0.0737 0.1043 0.0766 683.37 502.00
p6 32.94 31.48 1000 118 16.66 0.1420 0.1357 0.1538 0.1464 1008.04 959.51
p7 31.96 31.37 1000 118 16.66 0.1378 0.1352 0.1489 0.1459 975.42 955.87
p8 37.21 33.09 1000 118 16.66 0.1604 0.1426 0.1759 0.1546 1152.47 1013.05
p9 42.14 35.52 1000 118 16.66 0.1817 0.1531 0.2021 0.1671 1324.19 1094.85
p10 42.06 35.06 1000 118 16.66 0.1813 0.1511 0.2016 0.1647 1321.36 1079.27
p11 22.83 17.46 1000 118 16.66 0.0984 0.0753 0.1038 0.0783 680.22 513.33
p12 15.26 20.28 1000 118 16.66 0.0658 0.0874 0.0681 0.0916 446.27 600.39
p13 11.23 14.97 1000 118 16.66 0.0484 0.0645 0.0496 0.0668 325.31 437.48
p14 16.35 15.65 1000 118 16.66 0.0705 0.0675 0.0732 0.0699 479.40 458.10
p15 28.38 19.81 1000 118 16.66 0.1223 0.0854 0.1309 0.0894 857.85 585.79
p16 40.52 38.97 1000 118 16.66 0.1747 0.1680 0.1934 0.1851 1267.15 1213.14
p17 39.49 38.48 1000 118 16.66 0.1702 0.1659 0.1879 0.1825 1231.20 1196.18
p18 13.64 9.45 1000 118 16.66 0.0588 0.0407 0.0606 0.0416 397.36 272.62
p19 36.18 33.31 1000 118 16.66 0.1560 0.1436 0.1705 0.1557 1117.28 1020.41
p20 37.09 35.18 1000 118 16.66 0.1599 0.1517 0.1752 0.1653 1148.36 1083.33
p21 20.07 20.80 1000 118 16.66 0.0865 0.0897 0.0906 0.0941 593.86 616.58
p22 22.09 30.13 1000 118 16.66 0.0952 0.1299 0.1003 0.1396 656.94 915.01
p23 38.98 40.28 1000 118 16.66 0.1680 0.1736 0.1852 0.1921 1213.49 1258.75
p24 39.59 39.68 1000 118 16.66 0.1707 0.1711 0.1884 0.1889 1234.68 1237.81
p25
22.43 19.88 1000 118 16.66 0.0967 0.0857 0.1019 0.0897 667.63 587.96



Determining the effective reinforcement area on y direction
Panel
Effective
reinforcement
Number of bar/m
area (mm2)
Support Span Support Span
p1 1017 904 9.00 8.00
p2 565 565 5.00 5.00
p3 904 904 8.00 8.00
p4 904 791 8.00 7.00
p5 1243 1243 11.00 11.00
p6 1130 1017 10.00 9.00
p7 791 1130 7.00 10.00
p8 1017 904 9.00 8.00
p9 1130 1130 10.00 10.00
p10 1356 1356 12.00 12.00
p11 1017 1017 9.00 9.00
p12 678 1243 6.00 11.00
p13 565 565 5.00 5.00
p14 1017 1017 9.00 9.00
p15 1356 1356 12.00 12.00
p16 1130 1017 10.00 9.00
p17 904 1243 8.00 11.00
p18 904 904 8.00 8.00
p19 1017 791 9.00 7.00
p20 1356 1356 12.00 12.00
p21 1130 1017 10.00 9.00
p22 678 1017 6.00 9.00
p23 1130 904 10.00 8.00
p24 1017 1017 9.00 9.00
p25
1356 1356 12.00 12.00








5. Beam design
5.1.Determining the design bending moment on x direction



5.1.1. Determining the longitudinal reinforcement in the supports







d= h
w
-a-/2 (mm)=850-30-20/2=810mm
2
14 13 14 13
(0.5 )
14 0.5 ( )
2
c
Ed MAX c
q h
M M R h kNm

= +
14 13 13 14
14 ( )
2
MAX SLU
M M qL
R kN
L

+
= +
2
Ed
w cd
M
b d f
=

(1 1 2 ) x d =
2
2 2
( )
w cd
w cd s yd s w
yd
x b f
x b f A f A b d mm
f


= = >
0.5
ctm
yk
f
f


=
f
cd
= 16,66

(N/mm
2
) C25/30
f
yd
= f
yk
/
s
=345/1,15=300

(N/mm
2
) PC52
f
ctm
= 2,6

(N/mm
2
) C25/30
M
rb2
=A
s2r
f
yd
(d-0,5x
r
) (kNm)


Support A:



( ) ( )

=520

) ( )




Support B:



( ) ( )

=520

) ( )







2
( )
s r yd
r
w cd
A f
x mm
b f
=
Support C:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support D:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support E:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support F:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )





5.1.2. Determining the longitudinal reinforcement in mid span








-if the beam connects with marginal column
-if the beam connects with central column
Span 1:



2
Ed
eff cd
M
b d f
=

2
1 1 2
0.5 ( )
eff cd
eff cd s yd s w s r
yd
x b f
x b f A f A b d A mm
f


= = > >
1
( )
s r yd
r
f cd
A f
x mm
b f
=
eff s
b h =
2
eff s f
b h h = +
( ) ( )

=522




Span 2:



( ) ( )

=420




Span 3:



( ) ( )

=420




Span 4:



( ) ( )

=420





Span 5:



( ) ( )

=420









5.2.Determining the design bending moment on y direction



5.2.1. Determining the longitudinal reinforcement in the supports







d= h
w
-a-/2 (mm)=850-30-20/2=810mm
f
cd
= 16,66

(N/mm
2
) C25/30
f
yd
= f
yk
/
s
=345/1,15=300

(N/mm
2
) PC52
2
14 13 14 13
(0.5 )
14 0.5 ( )
2
c
Ed MAX c
q h
M M R h kNm

= +
14 13 13 14
14 ( )
2
MAX SLU
M M qL
R kN
L

+
= +
2
Ed
w cd
M
b d f
=

(1 1 2 ) x d =
2
2 2
( )
w cd
w cd s yd s w
yd
x b f
x b f A f A b d mm
f


= = >
0.5
ctm
yk
f
f


=
f
ctm
= 2,6

(N/mm
2
) C25/30
M
rb2
=A
s2r
f
yd
(d-0,5x
r
) (kNm)


Support A:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support B:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support C:



( ) ( )
2
( )
s r yd
r
w cd
A f
x mm
b f
=

=420

) ( )




Support D:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support E:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




Support F:



( ) ( )

=420

) ( )




5.2.2. Determining the longitudinal reinforcement in mid span








-if the beam connects with marginal column
-if the beam connects with central column
Span 1:



( ) ( )

=520


2
Ed
eff cd
M
b d f
=

2
1 1 2
0.5 ( )
eff cd
eff cd s yd s w s r
yd
x b f
x b f A f A b d A mm
f


= = > >
1
( )
s r yd
r
f cd
A f
x mm
b f
=
eff s
b h =
2
eff s f
b h h = +




Span 2:



( ) ( )

=420




Span 3:



( ) ( )

=420




Span 4:



( ) ( )

=420





Span 5:



( ) ( )

=420





5.3. Determining the transversal reinforcement
5.3.1. Determining the transversal reinforcement for beam on x direction



1
,max
( )
( )
cw w cd
Rd Ed
b z v f
V V kN
ctg tg
o
u u

= >
+
ctgu

cw
=1 coefficient that takes into account the efforts from compressed fiber
z=0.9d
v
1
=0,6 coefficient of strength reduction for cracked concrete due to shear force
max (ctg
1
; ctg
2
)1 (if the condition is not satisfied, the section must be modified)
ctg2.5 (if results a greater value, it is taken into account ctg =2.5)


s=100 mm
f
ywd
=0.8f
ywk
=0.8255=204 (N/mm
2
) OB37

]
[ ( )

- it is required transversal reinforcement


Propose for transversal reinforcement bar 10
,
( )
SW
Rd s ywd Ed
A
V z f ctg V kN
s
u = s
2
4
bw
SW r
d
A n
t
=


the transversal reinforcement will be placed by construction reasons
5.3.2. Determining the transversal reinforcement for beam on y direction

]
[ ( )

- it is required transversal reinforcement


Propose for transversal reinforcement bar 10


the transversal reinforcement will be placed by construction reasons


6. Column design

6.1.Marginal columns

6.1.1. Determining the design bending moments
Establish of external bending moments is made on each direction (x and y) with the
relation:
, ,max
Rb
Ed y Rd y
Eb
M
M M
M
= - -


Where:
I direction (x or y)

- designing moment on I direction

- over strength factor

- maximum bending moment on column from structural analysis (seismic


combination)

- actual resisting moment on girder disposed in I direction who intersect the node

- bending moment on girder disposed in I direction who intersect the node resulted from
structural analysis


Evaluation of slenderness is obtained according with relation:


the slenderness can be ignored.
6.1.2. Longitudinal reinforcement






a. Direction x

) ( )


the concrete doesnt crack and the column is reinforced by using the minimum
reinforcement percent.

( )



b. Direction y

) ( )


the concrete doesnt crack and the column is reinforced by using the minimum
reinforcement percent.

( )


6.1.3. Checking the biaxial moment
(


6.1.4. Determining the shear force design value
,1 ,2 db db
Ed
level
M M
V
H
+
=

, ,
min(1, )
Rb
db i Rd Rb i
Rc
M
M M
M
= - -

Rd
over strength factor with value 1.2;
M
Rb,i
actual bending moments of the girder that enter the node
M
Rb,i
actual bending moments of the column that enter the node
(

) (

) ( )
(

) (

) ( )




Maximum shear stress level



Constructive reinforcement is needed.

6.1.5. Checking of the relative displacements
ULS checking:

()


SLS checking:










6.2.Central columns

6.2.1. Determining the design bending moments
Establish of external bending moments is made on each direction( x and y) with the
relation:
, ,max
Rb
Ed y Rd y
Eb
M
M M
M
= - -


slenderness can be ignored.
6.2.2. Longitudinal reinforcement
a. Direction x

) ( )


the concrete doesnt crack and the column is reinforced by using the minimum
reinforcement percent.

( )


b. Direction y


6.2.3. Checking the biaxial moment
(


6.2.4. Determining the shear force design value
,1 ,2 db db
Ed
level
M M
V
H
+
=

, ,
min(1, )
Rb
db i Rd Rb i
Rc
M
M M
M
= - -

) (

) ( )
(

) (

) ( )


Maximum shear stress level



Constructive reinforcement is needed
6.2.5. Checking of the relative displacements
ULS checking:

()


SLS checking:



7. Node checking

7.1.Horizontal shear force design

a. Central node

( )

Rd
=1.2 over resisting factor
A
s1
, A
s2
the reinforcement areas from supperior and inferior part of the beams
V
Ed
shear force from the column beneath the node


b. Marginal node



7.2. Checking the horizontal shear force
a. Central node

) (

) ( )

b. Marginal node




7.3.Checking the transversal reinforcement
a. Central node

)
( ) ( )


A
sh


- total area of horizontal stirrups in the node
n
e


- the number of horizontal stirrups in the node
b. Marginal node

)
( )


7.4.Checking the longitudinal reinforcement from the node


A
sv
=8157+4928=6184mm
2


- the vertical reinforcement that pass through the node
A
sh


- the total stirrup area from the node
h
jc
=d-a=890-20=870 mm inter-ax distance between the column reinforcement
h
jw
=d-a=740-20=720 mm inter-ax distance between the beam reinforcement