4 views

Uploaded by seventhsensegroup

There are many applications for total station in the
civil and survey engineering, such as the observation of buildings
and moves Earth layers, therefore must be selected best
observation for the GPS\DGPS or total station using statistically
observation or using the Least-Squares Estimation Method
(LSEM) for the adjust of observation. In this study, twenty
points for two different stations in University of Baghdad, Iraq
are surveyed. The regression equations for these stations are
compared using LSEM. The results are found using MATLAB
language.

- High Speed Architecture Design Of Viterbi Decoder Using Verilog HDL
- Implementation of Single Stage Three Level Power Factor Correction AC-DC Converter with Phase Shift Modulation
- Fabrication Of High Speed Indication And Automatic Pneumatic Braking System
- Extended Kalman Filter based State Estimation of Wind Turbine
- Color Constancy for Light Sources
- The Utilization Of Underbalanced Drilling Technology May Minimize Tight Gas Reservoir Formation Damage: A Review Study
- Application of Sparse Matrix Converter for Microturbine-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator output Voltage Quality Enhancement
- A Simple Method For Operating The Three-Phase Induction Motor On Single Phase Supply (For Wye Connection Standard)
- Design, Development And Performance Evaluation Of Solar Dryer With Mirror Booster For Red Chilli (Capsicum Annum)
- FPGA Based Design and Implementation of Image Edge Detection Using Xilinx System Generator
- Comparison Of The Effects Of Monochloramine And Glutaraldehyde (Biocides) Against Biofilm Microorganisms In Produced Water
- Optimal Search Results Over Cloud with a Novel Ranking Approach
- Experimental Investigation On Performance, Combustion Characteristics Of Diesel Engine By Using Cotton Seed Oil
- An Efficient Model Of Detection And Filtering Technique Over Malicious And Spam E-Mails
- A Multi-Level Storage Tank Gauging And Monitoring System Using A Nanosecond Pulse
- An Efficient And Empirical Model Of Distributed Clustering
- Performance And Emissions Characteristics Of Diesel Engine Fuelled With Rice Bran Oil
- Non-Linear Static Analysis of Multi-Storied Building
- Design And Implementation Of Height Adjustable Sine (Has) Window-Based Fir Filter For Removing Powerline Noise In ECG Signal
- IJETT-V4I10P158

You are on page 1of 4

Comparison of the Regression Equations in

Different Places using Total Station

Ali K. Hussein

1, *

, H. A. Alshamarti

2

, B.A. Almayahi

3

1

College of Dentistry, University of Kufa

2

Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kufa

3

Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Kufa

Abstract There are many applications for total station in the

civil and survey engineering, such as the observation of buildings

and moves Earth layers, therefore must be selected best

observation for the GPS\DGPS or total station using statistically

observation or using the Least-Squares Estimation Method

(LSEM) for the adjust of observation. In this study, twenty

points for two different stations in University of Baghdad, Iraq

are surveyed. The regression equations for these stations are

compared using LSEM. The results are found using MATLAB

language.

Keywords total station, regression equations, Least-Squares

Method, GPS, MATLAB

I. INTRODUCTION

In this study the points for two different stations in

University of Baghdad in straight line are surveyed as shown

in Fig.1. The coordinates for these points are found using the

Garmine GPS (UTM projection, WGS-84 Datum) [1] and

total station Leica TPS 1200 [2]. In each station, the process

of mathematical and graphs for the configuration of points or

data may be not on the line exactly due to the experimental

errors. The points have been tested for each stations by

estimate the errors using LSEM then the prediction of

regression equations for each station. The adjustment of

observation is important in the geodesy and remote sensing

applications, therefore some time LSEM is used to the test of

values errors or to estimate best observation [3, 4].

Fig. 1 The study area

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The position of the sites was determined using a handheld

Global Positioning System (GPS) (Etrex vista Garmin

Navigator) with accuracy of 15 m to 100 m as shown in Fig. 2.

Total Station Leica TPS 1200 is used for extract the

coordinates of targets as shown in Fig. 3. The GPS was used

to navigate the total station coordinates and to measure the

point in the TS, where the TS used to estimate the target

coordinates. Tables 1 and 2 show the GPS and TS

specifications.

Fig. 2 Global Positioning System

Fig. 3 The Total Station Leica TPS

I nternational J ournal of Engineering Trends and Technology (I J ETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 33

TABLE I

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE GPS [1]

TABLE II

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE TS [2]

The mathematical model used for linear regression

equation model in each station is

Y = bX + a (1)

where Y is Northing coordinate, X is Easting coordinate, b is

the slope of the linear regression equation of Northing

coordinate and a is the intercept. LSEM is estimated the

parameters (a and b) as the values which minimize the sum of

the squares between the measurements and the model. These

amounts to minimize are expressed to [5]

(2)

where is standard errors.

The estimation of the parameters is obtained using

basic results and the property of a quadratic expression

reaches its minimum value when its vanish derivatives.

The derivative of with respect to a, b and set it equal to

zero gives the following:

=2Na +2b 2 = 0 (3)

=2b +2a 2 = 0 (4)

Solving the normal equations give the following

least square estimates of a, b as:

a =MY b MX (5)

with MY and MX denoting the mean of X and Y and

(6)

where, i represents the number of points and N is the

number of points captured by total station [6, 7].

Accuracy 15 m to 100 m

Unit dimensions, WxHxD 2.0" x 4.4" x 1.2" (5.1 x 11.2 x 3.0 cm)

Display size, WxH 1.1" x 2.1" (2.8 x 5.4 cm)

Display resolution, WxH 160 x 288 pixels

Display type 4 level gray LCD

Weight 5.3 oz (150 g) with batteries

1 Accuracy Hz, V

0.1 (0.1 mgon) Display resolution (standard deviation,

ISO 17123-3)

4 (0.07 gon) Compensator Working range

0.5 (0.2 mgon) Setting accuracy

3000 m Range Round prism (GPR1):

1500 m Range 360 reflector (GRZ4):

1200 m Range Mini prism (GMP101)

1.5 m Shortest measurable distance

~ 1.5 s Measurement Time

I nternational J ournal of Engineering Trends and Technology (I J ETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 34

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 3 shows the coordinates for A and B stations

for all sampling points.

TABLE III

SAMPLING POINTS COORDINATES.

Points

Station A Station B

Easting,

x(m)

Northing, y

(m)

Easting, x

(m)

Northing, y

(m)

1 442270.000 3681940.999 442270.036 3681943.059

2 442271.001 3681944.009 442271.001 3681943.572

3 0442272.002 3681947.018 442271.964 3681949.097

4 442273.003 3681950.007 442272.909 3681949.603

5 442275.004 3681953.13 442273.866 681950.125

6 442275.005 3681956.008 442274.82 3681953.633

7 442276.007 3681956.997 442274.767 3681958.151

8 442277.009 3681962.996 442275.767 3681959.667

9 442278.005 3681963.001 442276.679 3681960.186

10 442279.007 3681968.012 442277.648 3681961.694

First and second coulombs for each station in Table 3

represent Easting and Northing coordinates for same points,

which have configuration as a straight line as shown in Fig. 4.

Table 4 shows the results using MATLAB program and

equations (1, 2, 5, and 6). The line of best fit for data in A and

B stations is illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6.

Fig. 4 Configuration of Points for total station (A) and (B).

TABLE IV

THE RESULTS FOR EACH STATION.

Fig. 5 The line of best fit for station (A)

The statistical data for coordinates in each station are

compared as shown in Table 5.

Station (B) Station (A)

2.4988 e

+006

2.4201 e

+006

Parameter of a

2.6753 2.8530 Parameter of b

y)x)= 2.6753

x+2.4988 e

+006

y(x)= 2.8530

x+2.4201 e

+006

Regression

equation (m)

5.4210 e

-018

2.1684 e

-019

Error (m

2

)

I nternational J ournal of Engineering Trends and Technology (I J ETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 35

TABLE V

COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO STATIONS.

Fig. 6 The line of best fit for station (B)

Conclusions

The The errors in station (A) less than station (B),

then minimum error ( ) gives of a and b this means the data

or ground points in total station (A) have configuration as

straight line batter than in total station (B).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Financial support was provided by the University of Kufa.

REFERENCES

[1] Etrex Vista Garmin Navigator, 2007. User manual, Garmin International,

Inc. 1200 East 151

st

, USA.

[2] Canary Systems, Inc., TPS 1200 Total Station USERS GUIDE, 75

Newport Road, Suite 211, New London, NH 03257 USA, 2006.

[3] Ghilani, C., Walf, P., 2006. Adjustment computation: spatial data analysis,

4

th

edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New Jersey, USA.

[4] Dawod, G, 1991. Some considerations in the adjustment of GPS-derived

baselines in the network mode, M.SC. Thesis, Geodetic science and

surveying department, the Ohio state University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

[5] Abdi, H., Valentin D., Edelman, B.E. (1999). Neural networks. Thousand

Oaks: Sage.

[6] Bates, D.M., Watts D.G. (1988). Nonlinear regression analysis and its

applications. New York: Wiley.

[7] Greene, W.H. (2002). Econometric analysis. New York: Prentice Hall.

Station (A) Station (B)

x y x y

Mean 442274.604 3681954.2177 442273.9456 3681952.87

Standard

deviation

3.0284 8.8514 3.0284 6.8411

Variation 9.1709 78.3464 9.1709 46.8010

Minimum 442270 3681940.999 442270 3681943.059

Maximum 442279 3681968.012 442277.64 3681961.694

- High Speed Architecture Design Of Viterbi Decoder Using Verilog HDLUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Implementation of Single Stage Three Level Power Factor Correction AC-DC Converter with Phase Shift ModulationUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Fabrication Of High Speed Indication And Automatic Pneumatic Braking SystemUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Extended Kalman Filter based State Estimation of Wind TurbineUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Color Constancy for Light SourcesUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- The Utilization Of Underbalanced Drilling Technology May Minimize Tight Gas Reservoir Formation Damage: A Review StudyUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Application of Sparse Matrix Converter for Microturbine-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator output Voltage Quality EnhancementUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- A Simple Method For Operating The Three-Phase Induction Motor On Single Phase Supply (For Wye Connection Standard)Uploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Design, Development And Performance Evaluation Of Solar Dryer With Mirror Booster For Red Chilli (Capsicum Annum)Uploaded byseventhsensegroup
- FPGA Based Design and Implementation of Image Edge Detection Using Xilinx System GeneratorUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Comparison Of The Effects Of Monochloramine And Glutaraldehyde (Biocides) Against Biofilm Microorganisms In Produced WaterUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Optimal Search Results Over Cloud with a Novel Ranking ApproachUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Experimental Investigation On Performance, Combustion Characteristics Of Diesel Engine By Using Cotton Seed OilUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- An Efficient Model Of Detection And Filtering Technique Over Malicious And Spam E-MailsUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- A Multi-Level Storage Tank Gauging And Monitoring System Using A Nanosecond PulseUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- An Efficient And Empirical Model Of Distributed ClusteringUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Performance And Emissions Characteristics Of Diesel Engine Fuelled With Rice Bran OilUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Non-Linear Static Analysis of Multi-Storied BuildingUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Design And Implementation Of Height Adjustable Sine (Has) Window-Based Fir Filter For Removing Powerline Noise In ECG SignalUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- IJETT-V4I10P158Uploaded bypradeepjoshi007
- Separation Of , , & Activities In EEG To Measure The Depth Of Sleep And Mental StatusUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Key Drivers For Building Quality In Design PhaseUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- An Efficient Expert System For Diabetes By Naïve Bayesian ClassifierUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- An Efficient Encrypted Data Searching Over Out Sourced DataUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- A Review On Energy Efficient Secure Routing For Data Aggregation In Wireless Sensor NetworksUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- A Comparative Study Of Impulse Noise Reduction In Digital Images For Classical And Fuzzy FiltersUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Review On Different Types Of Router Architecture And Flow ControlUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Study On Fly Ash Based Geo-Polymer Concrete Using AdmixturesUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Free Vibration Characteristics of Edge Cracked Functionally Graded Beams by Using Finite Element MethodUploaded byseventhsensegroup

- Core Mantle Change Impact Oil WellUploaded byVincent J. Cataldi
- Magix Movie Edit Pro 2013Uploaded byRobert Kristiano
- Samsara Dog S3Uploaded byS TANCRED
- Emperor PenguinUploaded byYogesh Arasu
- Bilayer TabletUploaded byAnne-Claire
- DETERGENTS Technical Report 3.0Uploaded bySampath
- pmckids-montessori-school-prospectus.pdfUploaded byHamza Shabbri
- ophthalmologyUploaded byepeprihastika
- ASTM D3262-96Uploaded byanish_am2005
- Human Resource ManagementUploaded bymahalakshmi9
- Chap 011Uploaded byLi Yichao
- mmetexUploaded bybellobeva
- AutoSimSport_Magazine_Volume5Issue3_R1_Full.pdfUploaded byBcorgan
- physics notes fbise fsc2 CHAPTER – 20 NUCLEAR RADIATIONSUploaded byflyfalcon
- DOT BLOCKED WEB SITE ADDRESSUploaded byprathinam3
- Spine MyelopathyUploaded byririn selagalas
- April 2016 Curriculum Syllabus Cse m.tech 2015 16 (1)Uploaded bySucheta Biswas
- 2014CustomerTrainingCatalog-TrainingPrograms(TransmissionNetwork)Uploaded byAnwar Snied
- Practice Directive 1-20172Uploaded bySYED FADZIL SYED MOHAMED
- Role Play DmUploaded byAryani DwiRagupti Yuwono
- Air Cadet Gliding Program ManualUploaded byDylan McKenzie
- Presentation Intro SurveyUploaded byHalina Hamid
- SimplifyUploaded byMulangira Mulangira
- Upgrade a DDR Cab With StepmaniaUploaded byDan
- Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952Uploaded byAkhil Kamra
- Dete C - Partial Replacement of Course Aggregate With Waste GlassUploaded by1man1book
- Turkish dictionary, in two parts (1880)Uploaded byCristina Frutos
- Csm 20130430Uploaded byGeeta Ramsingh
- Facility+Layout(1)Uploaded bygawadesx
- 163133655-Jet-EtihadUploaded byShobhit Aggarwal