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This research is purposed to establish a new method
is good and simple to operate the 3-phase induction motor on
single-phase power by using the capacitors. The research was
conducted at the Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering of the
Padang Institute of Technology. The object used in this research
was the 3-phase induction motor that has the standard of 2 HP,
380 V, Wye connection, 4 pole, 50 Hz, 1400 RPM, 3.6 A. The
results of this research showed that the method could work well
to control the motor to operate properly to load 85% of the 3-
phase rating. In general, the motor has a better performance
when operating on 1-phase power system in all load cases (low
and high load). The motor could operate with power factor close
to unity, higher speed and better efficiency. The motor operated
with higher current harmonic distortion at low loads but lower
current harmonic distortion at high loads. Therefore, it is very
good to operate the motor at high load up to 85% of the 3-phase
rating.

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You are on page 1of 4

2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 13

A Simple Method For Operating The Three-Phase

Induction Motor On Single Phase Supply (For Wye

Connection Standard)

Zuriman Anthony

#1

#1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Padang Institute of Technology (Institut Teknologi Padang)

JL. Gajah Mada Kandis Nanggalo Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Abstract This research is purposed to establish a new method

is good and simple to operate the 3-phase induction motor on

single-phase power by using the capacitors. The research was

conducted at the Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering of the

Padang Institute of Technology. The object used in this research

was the 3-phase induction motor that has the standard of 2 HP,

380 V, Wye connection, 4 pole, 50 Hz, 1400 RPM, 3.6 A. The

results of this research showed that the method could work well

to control the motor to operate properly to load 85% of the 3-

phase rating. In general, the motor has a better performance

when operating on 1-phase power system in all load cases (low

and high load). The motor could operate with power factor close

to unity, higher speed and better efficiency. The motor operated

with higher current harmonic distortion at low loads but lower

current harmonic distortion at high loads. Therefore, it is very

good to operate the motor at high load up to 85% of the 3-phase

rating.

Keywords Capacitor circuit, capacitance of the start capacitor,

capacitance of the run capacitor, Apparent power of the motor,

power factor.

I. INTRODUCTION

The 3-phase induction motor has 3 coils identities

are separated from each other across 120

o

electricity

that powered by a 3-phase power system. They will

produce a resultant magnetic flux that rotates like

poles actual magnet spinning mechanism.

Relationships coil of the 3-phase induction motor

with two poles of the stator in the Wye connection

system is as shown in Fig. 1.

The 3-phase induction motors of squirrel cage

rotor normally operate on a 3-phase power system.

To improve the starting torque of the motors, they

can operate on a single phase supply as shown in

Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 shows some methods of installation the

capacitor circuit to the coil of the motor to operate

the motor on single phase power. Another methods

for operating the 3-phase induction motor on a

single phase power also as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig.

4. The Fig. 4 is a form of development from the Fig.

3 that provide the best solution to control the motor.

The Fig. 5 shows the control circuit used in the Fig.

4.

Fig. 1 Relationships coil of the 3-phase induction motor with two poles of the

stator in Wye connection system

Rot or

||

C-start

C-run

SW

Main

windi ng

Auxi liary

wi nding

Singl e

phase

T3

T6

C

T4 + T5

T1

T2 T3

T6

C1

T4 + T5

T1

T2

Si ngle

phase

CS2 C2

CS3

CS4

CS1

CS6

D

M

T

c) b)

a)

Singl e

phase

Fig. 2 Induction motors operating on single phase supply: a) single phase

capacitor motor: b) 3-phase induction motor according to Scheda

9

: c) 3-phase

induction motor according to Smith

10

.

From Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 can be explained that Cs is

start capacitor, Cr1 is run capacitor when the motor

is given a low load up to 70%, and Cr2 is run

capacitor when the motor load of 70% to 85%.

N

L1

L2

L3

F

S

F

F

S

S

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov. 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 14

.

Fig. 3 A method for operating the 3-phase induction motors on single-phase

power

5

Fig. 4 A new method that is developed fromfigure 3 to provide the best

performance to operatethemotor

M1

M1

OL

TD

TD

M2

L3

L2

L1

L N

TD

Fig. 5 Control circuit used in Fig. 4

II. START CAPACITOR

Referring to Fig. 4 can be explained that the start

capacitor Cs accidentally placed in series with the

coil R and S is to get the highest value of the

capacitive reactance of the start capacitor. If

referring to the theory of the 'Torque start

maximum per ampere, the formula then can be

obtained as follow

5

:

Rm

Rm Ra Ra Zm Ra Xm

Xa X

PU C

) .( .

) (

(1)

X

C(PU)

is the capacitive reactance of the start

capacitor to be used (in Pu), Xa is inductive

reactance of the coil R and S (in Pu), Ra is the

resistance of the coil R and S (in Pu), Xm is the

inductive reactance of the coil T (in Pu), Rm is the

resistance of the coil T (in Pu) and Zm is

impedance of the coil T (in Pu). To obtain the true

value of Xc, it must be sought from the base

impedance values used in induction motor by using

the following formula

3

.

VA

V

Zb

2

(2)

V is a single phase voltage source (V

LN

), VA is

apparent power of the 3-phase induction and Zb is

the base impedance of the motor. Furthermore, we

will obtain the actual value of the capacitive

reactance X

C

becomes.

) ).( (

) (

Zb X X

pu C C

(3)

The value of the capacitance of start capacitor Cs'

than can be obtained using the following equation.

C

X f

Cs

. . . 2

1

(Farad) (4)

The best solution for starting the 3-phase

induction motor on a single phase supply (for Wye

connection standard), Cs must be at setting about

92% of the formula (4). This formula then is

changed to be the following.

) (

) ).( (

) ).( 1757 , 0 (

Farad

V f

I

Cs

LN

L

y

(5)

Cs

y

is the capacitance of start capacitor (Farad), I

L

is nominal current of the motor (A), f is frequency

(Hz), V

LN

is the amplitude of the single phase

voltage source (Volt).

III. RUN CAPACITORS

Referring to Fig. 4, for best performance of the

motor, the run capacitor must be at setting as follow.

) (

) ).( )( 5664 , 12 (

Farad

V f

I

k Cr

LN

L

y

(6)

The k is 0.7679 for the motors that operate from

low load to 70% of its 3-phase load rating, and k

is 1 for the motors that operate from 70% load to

85% of its 3-phase load rating.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov. 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 15

Because of capacitors in series with the coil R

and S, thus the total impedance of the coil R and S

is become 2 times of the coil T, then the voltage on

the capacitor V

C

is becomes 2 times of the source

voltage V, or can be made as follows:

V

C

=2 . V (7)

The amount of reactive power (VARC) which

donated the capacitor is:

2 2

. . . 4 . . V C V C VAR

C C

(8)

C is referred to Cs

y

and Cr

y

from the Fig. 4. VAR

C

will become apparent power of the 3-phase

induction motor when it started in 1-phase power. If

VAR

3ph

is a reactive power while the motor

operates at 3-phase supply, the amount of reactive

power induction motor in a single phase supply

(VAR

M

) becomes

10

:

VAR

M

=VAR

3ph

VAR

C

(9)

The magnitude of the starting current (I

ST

), power

factor (cos ) and input power (P

L

) of the motor in

a single phase supply become

10

:

V

VAR

I

C

ST

(10)

C

M

VAR

VAR

sin (11)

1

sin cos cos

(12)

cos .

C L

VAR P (13)

IV. TEST RESULT

The motor used in this research is the 3-phase

induction motor of 2 HP, 380V, Wye-connection,

3.6A,1400 RPM, power factor 0.84 lagging, and

class B. Test result of this research about power

factor and speed of the motor are given in Fig 6 and

Fig. 7. Control box with all components for the

motor is given in Fig. 8.

The blue line in the Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 are the

characteristics of the motor during operation on 3-

phase system, while the red and black lines are

during operation on a single phase system using a

capacitor 20 F (red) and 25.55 F (black). From

the figures can be seen that in general the motor can

operate with better performance on single phase

power compared to operating on three-phase power.

The figures show that with the same load conditions

the motor can operate on single phase supply with

higher power factor and higher speed.

Fig. 6 Power factor characteristic when operating on a 3-phase (3-fs) and a

single phase (1-fs)

Fig. 7 Speed responds characteristic of the 3-phase induction motor when

operating on a 3-phase (3-fs) and a single phase (1-fs)

Fig. 8 Control box with all components for operating the 3-phase induction

motor on single-phase power

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 number 1 Nov. 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 16

V. CONCLUSIONS

From the research that has been done can be

summarized as follows.

1. A simple method for operating the 3-phase

induction motor on single phase supply (for

Wye-connection Standard) is to operate the

motor by using the capacitors that are

installed in series with the two coils of the

motor (R and S) and the circuit is then

installed in parallel with the other one (T).

2. This method can operate the 3-phase

induction motor at low to high loads up to

85% of the 3-phase nominal load rating.

3. This method could work well to operate the

2 HP 3-phase induction motor at low to high

loads up to 70% by using the run capacitor

20 F and the load from 70% to 85% by

using the run capacitor 25.55 F

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I extend a thank you to the team at the laboratory

of electrical engineering of the Padang Institute of

Technology who have helped this research run

smoothly. I would also like to thank for the

Kopertis Wilayah X of Indonesia that has funded

this research.

REFERENCES

[1] Anthony, Z, Tumiran, and Berahim, H, The performance of the 3-

phase induction motor while operating on single phase supply (Kinerja

pengoperasian motor induksi 3-fasa pada sistem tenaga 1-fasa dengan

menggunakan kapasitor), Journal of Teknosain UGM , vol. 16 no. 1,

pp. 1-12, J an. 2003.

[2] Anthony, Z, 2004, Analysis of the run capacitor circuit of the

Semihex

TM

motors method (Analisa kapasitor jalan pada metode

Semihex

TM

motor), in Proc. SNVMS 2004 Conference, 2004, pp. 637-

641.

[3] Anthony, Z, The design of thestart capacitor circuit to operate the 3-

phase induction motors on single phase power (Perencanaan kapasitor

start untuk mengoperasikan motor induksi 3-fase pada sistem tenaga 1-

fase), Journal of Momentum ITP , vol. 2 no. 2, pp. 9-13, Aug. 2004.

[4] Anthony Z, The Dual function control systemdesign for operating the

3-phase induction motor (Perancangan sistem kendali dual fungsi

pengoperasian motor induksi 3-fasa), Journal of Momentum ITP, vol.

3 no. 2, pp. 58-63, Aug. 2005.

[5] Anthony, Z, The design of the run capacitor circuit to operate the 3-

phase induction motors on single phase power (Perancangan kapasitor

jalan untuk pengoperasian motor induksi 3-fasa pada sistem tenaga 1-

fasa), Journal of Teknik Elektro UK Petra, vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 46-51,

March 2008.

[6] Anthony, Z, Capacitor bank Effect to the starting current of the 3-

phase induction motor (Pengaruh penggunaan kapasitor perbaikan

faktor daya terhadap arus start motor induksi 3-fasa), J ournal of

Teknik Elektro ITP, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 26 32, J an. 2013.

[7] Badr M.A, Alolah A.I and HalimAbdul M.A, A capacitor start three

phase induction motor, IEEE transaction on energy conversion, vol.

10 no. 4, pp. 675-680, Dec. 1995.

[8] Huang H, Fuchs EF and White J .C, Optimal placement of the run

capacitor in single phase induction motor designs, IEEE transactions

on energy conversion, Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 647-652, Sep. 1988.

[9] Scheda, F. A, Operating 3-phase motors on 1-phase power, EC&M,

J anuary 1985, pp. 40-41.

[10] Smith, O.J , Large Low-Cost Single-phase Semihex

TM

Motor , IEEE

Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 14 no. 4, pp. 1353-1358, 1999,.

Zuriman Anthony is a lecturer

in the Padang Institute of

Technology (Institut Teknolgi

Padang) on Department of

Electrical Engineering. His

research interest in Electrical

Machines and control. He

received an M. Eng from

Gadjah Mada University,

Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2002. He always active in

many researches about the three phase induction

motors.

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