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Microprocessors & Microcontrollers

Code: CS502


Module -1

1) Introduction to Microcomputer based system. History of evolution of Microprocessor and
Microcontrollers and their advantages and disadvantages . [1L]
2) Architecture of 8085 Microprocessor, Pin description of 8085. [2L]
3) Address/data bus Demultiplexing , Status Signals and the control signals. [1L]
4)Instruction set of 8085 microprocessor, Addressing modes, [3L]
5) Timing diagram of the instructions (a few examples). [1L]


1) Introduction to Microcomputer based system.

History of evolution of Microprocessor and Microcontrollers and their advantages and disadvantages


Definition of microprocessor
The microprocessor is a programmable device that takes in numbers, performs on them
arithmetic or logical operations according to the program stored in memory and then produces
other numbers as a result.


History of microprocessor

Year Name of processor Clock frequency
1971 Intel 4004 400KHz
1972 Intel 8008 500-800KHz
1974 Intel 8080 2MHz
1976 Intel 8085 5 MHz
1978 Intel 8086 5, 8 & 10 MHz
1979 Intel 8088 5,8Mhz
1982 Intel 80816 12,10,6 Mhz


1996 Intel Pentium 200MHZ
1997 Intel Pentium II 300MHz
2000 Intel Pentium III 750Mhz
2001 Intel Pentium 4 1.70GHZ
2002 Intel Celeron 2.20GHz
2003 Intel Xeon 3.20 GHZ
2006 Dual core intel 1.86GHz
2006 Quad Core 2.66 Ghz
2008 Intel core i7 2.66GHz
Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502

2008 Intel core 2 extreme q9000 2 GHZ

Microcontroller : A microcontroller is a highly integrated chip, which includes on single chip, all or
most of the parts needed for a controller. The microcontroller typically includes: CPU
(Central Processing Unit), RAM (Random Access Memory), EPROM/PROM/ROM
(Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), I/O (input/output) serial and parallel,
timers, interrupt controller. For example, Intel 8051 is 8-bit microcontroller and Intel
8096 is 16-bit microcontroller.

COMPARING MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS

Microprocessor is a single chip CPU, microcontroller contains, a CPU and much
of the remaining circuitry of a complete microcomputer system in a single chip.
Microcontroller includes RAM, ROM, serial and parallel interface, timer, interrupt
schedule circuitry (in addition to CPU) in a single chip.
RAM is smaller than that of even an ordinary microcomputer, but enough
for its applications.
Interrupt system is an important feature, as microcontrollers have to respond
to control oriented devices in real time. E.g., opening of microwave ovens
door cause an interrupt to stop the operation. (Most microprocessors can also
implement powerful interrupt schemes, but external components are usually
needed).
Microprocessors are most commonly used as the CPU in microcomputer systems.
Microcontrollers are used in small, minimum component designs performing
control-oriented activities.
Microprocessor instruction sets are processing intensive, implying powerful
addressing modes with instructions catering to large volumes of data. Their
instructions operate on nibbles, bytes, etc. Microcontrollers have instruction
sets catering to the control of inputs and outputs. Their instructions operate
also on a single bit. E.g., a motor may be turned ON and OFF by a 1-bit
output port.




Advantage of microcontroller over microprocessor

Microcontroller is an integrated chip with all valuable components including RAM, ROM, I/O
Ports which Microprocessor has to hire from outside.

Microcontrollers serves very specific function of controlling electronic automation with a
consummate budget in contrast with Microprocessor that only maintains the general processing
function of CPU in a costly operations.
Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502








Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502


2) Architecture of 8085 Microprocessor, Pin description of 8085. [2L]


8085 MicroprocessorArchitecture
8-bit general purpose p
Capable of addressing 64 k of memory
Has 40 pins
Requires +5 v power supply
Can operate with 3 MHz clock
8085 upward compatible

Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502




Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502






Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502



Buses of 8085

Name of bus Size of bus direction function
Address bus 16bit Unidirectional connecting memory & I/O to microprocessor Address
Bus
Data bus 8bit Bidirectional Transferring data
Control bus * * Synchronization signals, Timing signals ,Control signal






Microprocessor consists of:Control unit: control microprocessor operations.
ALU: performs data processing function.
Registers: provide storage internal to CPU.
Interrupts
Internal data bus




The ALU
In addition to the arithmetic & logic circuits, the ALU includes the accumulator, which is part of every
arithmetic & logic operation. Also, the ALU includes a temporary register used for holding data
temporarily during the execution of the operation. This temporary register is not accessible by the
programmer.

Registers:

Microprocessors & Microcontrollers
Code: CS502