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ANT300 Study Guide Final, SCC, Fall 2013

Be able to discuss: Natural Selection, Evolution, Adaptations, and what Anthropology is



Primate Evolution
True Primates when, what? Adapids, Omomyids
Anthropoids and Catarrhines when, what? - Aegyptopithecus
Hominoids when, what? Proconsul, Sivapithecus, gigantopithecus, Ouranopithecus
What happened in the Mesozoic? What kinds of mammals?
What happened in the Paleocene epoch? What kinds of mammals?

Our Earliest Ancestors
How do humans differ from other apes physically?
Earliest evidence of our tribe Hominini = Sahelanthropus tchadensis how old? Where was it found?
Why was it considered a hominin? Do you think it is a hominin? Why/why not?
Synapomorphies vs. convergent evolution be able to define and give examples of each as discussed in
class (remember that overall resemblance does not necessarily imply a close phylogenetic
relationship!)
Be able to define shared, primitive, and derived characteristics.
Should we expect to see more derived or primitive traits in a species that is close in time to a common
ancestor? Why? You can use Sahelanthropus tchadensis as an example to discuss this.
Orrorin tugenensis - possibly the earliest hominin why/why not? How old? What was found and
where? Why is it significant?
Adripithecus ramidus possible early hominin why/why not? How old? What was found and where?
Why is it significant?
Australopithecus anamensis what is really important about this species? What was found and where?
How old? Why is it significant?
What are some key bipedal traits? (think of the foot, femur, and pelvis when you answer this question)

Our Familys First Steps
Australopithecus afarensis - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the
family tree?
Who is Lucy? What is so significant about this fossil?
Be able to list some primitive and derived characteristics of Australopithecus afarensis - what does their
teeth tell us? What is a diastama? What is chimp-like about it and what is human-like?
How do we know they were bipedal?
What are the Laetoli Footprints? How old, what ancestor do they belong to, why are they significant?
Convergent big toe vs. divergent big toe
What is meant by mosaic nature of human evolution? Use Lucy as an example when describing this.
Australopithecus africanus - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the
family tree?
How does africanus differ from Australopithecus afarensis? Derived vs. primitive characteristics.
Why is it difficult to date fossils found in South Africa? How can biostratigraphy help?
How has climate change affected human evolution? Think of how we went from living in trees to
becoming bipedal how might climate change have contributed to this? Think of mosaic habitats as
discussed in class.


Hominin Diversification
What is the idea of Progressive Evolution? What is problematic about the idea of a missing-link? (think
of a ladder vs. a climbing vine)
Kenyanthropus platyops, Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba - how old, where was it
found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the family tree?
Australopithecus/Paranthropus robustus - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where
does if fit on the family tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
Australopithecus/Paranthropus aethiopicus - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where
does if fit on the family tree? What makes it more ape-like?
Australopithecus/Paranthropus boisei - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does
if fit on the family tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
Why would a hominin evolve to have such significant chewing adaptations?

Origin of Homo
Homo habilis - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the family tree?
List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
Oldowon Tool Technology who is it associated with, what does it look like, what was it used for, when
was it in use?
Homo ergaster & Homo erectus - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on
the family tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
Acheulean Tool Technology - who is it associated with, what does it look like, what was it used for, when
was it in use?
How is the climate changing? How might this have played in to the long limbs associated with ergaster?
Homo floresiensis - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the family
tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.

The Evolution of Homo
Homo heidelbergensis - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the
family tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
How can we tell that heidelbergensis gave rise to Neandertals in Europe? (discuss the physical traits).
Homo neanderthalensis - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the
family tree? List some of its primitive and derived characteristics.
When did we last share a common ancestor with Neandertals and who was it?
Homo sapiens - how old, where was it found, why is it significant? Where does if fit on the family tree?
List some derived characteristics (basically what makes us human?) Have we maintained any primitive
characteristics?
How did the earliest sapiens differ from modern humans?
Mousterian Tool Tradition - who is it associated with, what does it look like, what was it used for, when
was it in use?
Middle Stone Age (MSA) Tool Tradition - who is it associated with, what does it look like, what was it
used for, when was it in use?
Middle Paleolithic Behavior when? What sorts of activities are associated with Neandertal and early
human behavior?
The Upper Paleolithic & modern humans when? Where? what behavioral changes are associated with
this time period?
Cro-Magnon who, what, where, when?
Good luck!