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A Survey of the Explanatory Tantras and Commentaries of

the Guhyasamja Tantra


Introduction
This paper takes the form of a survey of the Explanatory tantras and some of the commentaries
to the Guhyasamja Root tantra. It provides a summary of their contents, discusses the
relationship beteen them and reassesses their datin! in li!ht of the recent reassessment of the
date of the Guhyasamja Root Tantra itself by "edemeyer #"edemeyer $%%&'.
#(ote) this author provided a revised assessment of this date in the paper) *The Guhyasamja
+i,-ik.ta/sdhana and its context0, $%1%'
Backround to the Guhyasamja !oot Tantra and related texts
Guhyasamj a Root Tantra
The Guhyasamja Root Tantra and its commentaries are thou!ht to have arisen durin! the
second half of the first millennium 2E. There is a specific discussion on the datin! later in this
paper. The Guhyasamja Root tantra itself is the subject of a critical edition and translation by
3remantle #3remantle 14&1'. The 5anskrit text is !iven in 6a!chi #6a!chi 1478', 3remantle and
9atsuna!a #9atsuna!a 14&:'. 3remantle and 9atsuna!a orked independently on their critical
editions. The Tibetan text is !iven in the ;er!e #6arber 144%, sec.T<<$' and +ekin! editions of
the Tibetan Tripitaka #5u=uki 1487, sec.+:1'. The 2hinese text is !iven in Taisho ::8 #Takakusu
> "atanabe 14$<'.
In the Tibetan traditional narrative, the Guhyasamja Root Tantra is held to be a ?5ubse@uent
Tantra? #uttaratantra' to the 5arvatath!ata/tattvasaA!raha/sBtra and is said to be ?the root of all
tantras? #5onam ;ra!pa #6sod/nams/!ra!s/pa' et al. 1447, pp.87/8&'. 9atsuna!a makes the
same point, expandin! it to say that the 5arvatath!ata/tattvasaA!raha/sBtra forms the basis of
all the subse@uent Ci!her Do!a Tantra #Enuttara/yo!a tantras' #9atsuna!a 14&&, p.111'.
Guhyasamj a 5ubse@uent Tantra
The Guhyasamja Root Tantra itself has a ?5ubse@uent Tantra?, sometimes referred to as an
?appendix tantra?, a ?completion tantra? a ?continuation tantra? or an ?uttaratantra?. This is
re!arded as a separate ork in the ;er!e Edition, T<<F, but is included as the ei!hteenth and
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final chapter of the Root Tantra in the +ekin! and Taisho editions. This chapter as not
addressed by 3remantle but the 5anskrit text may be found in 9atsuna!aGs edition.
The 2anoni cal Explanat ory t antras
In the Tibetan traditional narrative, there are said to be five Explanatory Tantras accordin! to
Tson!khapa #"ayman 14&&, p.:<' and six accordin! to +anchen 5onam ;ra!p!a #5onam
;ra!pa #6sod/nams/!ra!s/pa' et al. 1447, p.8&'. This ?confusion? is @uickly resolved hen it is
seen that Tson!khapa includes the Guhyasamja 5ubse@uent Tantra in his list, hich 5onam
;ra!pa does not, the lists bein! otherise the same. The Explanatory Tantras are !enerally
referred to as ?vykhytantra? and sometimes as ?khynatantra? by modern scholars. These
texts are re!arded as havin! the same canonical authority as the Root and 5ubse@uent TantraGs
and here translated into Tibetan, these orks are found in the ?r!yud? section of the ;er!e
Han!yur. If these five texts, four ere translated into Tibetan. The fifth text is only knon
from references to its name and from @uotations included in other orks. (one of the 5anskrit
ori!inals have so far been found and none of the Explanatory Tantras ere translated into
2hinese.
The texts available in Tibetan versions are, in the ;er!e edition)
T<<< sandhivykara,a/nma/tantra
d!on!s pa lun bstan pa
Revelation of the Intention Tantra
T<<8 JrKvajramlbhidhnamahyo!atantra/
sarvatantrah.dayahasyavibhaL!a/nma
rnal Gbyor chen poGi r!yud dpal rdo rje phren! ba mn!on par brjod pa r!yud thams
cad kyi snyin! po !san! la rnam par phye ba
The Majra Garland
T<<7 caturdevKparip.cch
lha mo b=his yon!s su =hus pa
Nuestions of the 3our Goddesses Tantra
T<<& vajrajOna/samuccaya/nma/tantra
ye shes rdo rje kun las btus pa
2ompendium of Majra "isdom Tantra
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The text that is lost and only knon from @uotations is called ?devendraparip.cch? P ?The
Nuestions of Indra?. In particular it is @uoted by 2andrakKrti in the +radKpoddyottana, as
explained by "ayman #"ayman 14&&, p.:8'.
5i!ni fi cant 2omment aries of the t o Guhyasamja Tradi ti ons
To traditions, also called schools or ?linea!es?, can be found in the commentaries of the
Guhyasamja tantra, both of hich survive in present day Tibetan 6uddhist practice.
The to traditions are named from abbreviations of the names of their founders) the ?QOnapda
tradition?, named after 6uddhaJrKjOna and the ?Rrya tradition? also knon as the ?(oble
tradition? or the ?5aint tradition?, named after Rrya (!rjuna. "hether this ?(!rjuna? should
be re!arded as the same person ho rote the 9Blamadhyamakakrik #3undamental Treatise
on the 9iddle "ay' ill be discussed later.
The to traditions are differentiated in to main ays. The form of the ma,-ala used in their
practices is different, ith nineteen deities for the QOnapda and thirty/to for the Rrya
tradition, as described by 9eise=ahl #9eise=ahl 14&7, p.$$1' and "ayman #"ayman 14&&,
pp.1$$/1$<'. The method for interpretin! the arcane vocabulary used in the tantra is different,
ith the QOnapda tradition placin! a !reater emphasis on the literary @uality of their
commentaries and reservin! the explanation to oral teachin!s #"ayman 14&&, p.48', hilst the
Rrya tradition rely on the Explanatory Tantras to explain such matters. The QOnapda tradition
does not @uote from these texts, a point hich ill be examined further belo.
2omment ari es of t he QOnapda Tradit ion
These be!in ith the orks of 6uddhaJrKjOna himself, after hom the tradition is named. "e
kno from the 6lue Ennals that 6uddhaJrKjOna studied under Caribhadra for a time #Roerich
14&7, p.F7&' and from Rue!! that Caribhadra as alive at the same time as the +la kin!
;harmapla, ho rei!ned &&%/:1%2E #Rue!! 14:1, p.1%1'. "e also kno from the 6lue Ennals
that 6uddha!uhya as a disciple of 6uddhaJrKjOna #Roerich 14&7, p.F8$'and from 5nell!rove
that 6uddha!uhya as invited to Tibet by the Tibetan kin! Hhri 5ron!/lde/brtsan ho rei!ned
&8</&4&2E #5nell!rove 14:&, pp.<<7, F:F'. This ould allo the earlier part of the period &&%/
:%%2E to be identified as the likely time hen 6uddhaJrKjOna as obtainin! his experience in
the Guhyasamja tradition.
In the 6lue Ennals, 6uddhaJrKjOna has a variety of human and divine teachers. Inly one of
these teachers, Salitavajra, is credited ith authorship of any extant ork related to
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Guhyasamja, althou!h Tucci has doubts about hether this text as actually composed by
6uddhaJrKjOnaGs teacher or a later person of the same name #Tucci 1487, p.$8$'. This ork is)
Salitavajra
T141% !uhyasamjatantra/nidna/!urBpadeJa/bhTya
!san! ba Gdus paGi r!yud kyi !len! !=hi bla maGi man n!a! !is bshad pa
Explanation of the GuruGs Iral Instructions on the Introduction to the 5ecret
Essembly Tantra
6uddhaJrKjOna is credited as the author of a number of orks on Guhyasamja)
6uddhaJrKjOna
T1:88 samantabhadra/nma/sdhana
kun tu b=an! po =hes bya baGi s!rub paGi thabs
T1:8F mukh!ama
rim pa !nyis paGi de kho na nyid bs!om pa =hes bya baGi =hal !yi lun!
T1:84 muktitilaka
!rol baGi thi! le
To other orks from around the same time are mentioned in the 6lue Ennals as bein! ?old
translations? made prior to the rei!n of Ral/pa/can from :182E #Roerich > Gos So/ts/ba
GUon/nu/dpal 14&7, p.1%FV 9atsuna!a 14&&, p.11<')
MiJvamitra
T1:<< dpal !san! ba Gdus paGi r!yud kyi man n!a! !i r!ya mtsho thi!s pa
;rop from the Icean of Iral Instructions on the Glorious 5ecret Essembly Tantra
Majrahsa
T14%4 tantrarja/JrK/!uhyasamja/WKk
r!yud kyi r!yal po dpal !san! ba Gdus paGi rnam par bshad pa
2ommentary on the Glorious 5ecret Essembly, the Hin! of Tantra
Eccordin! to Cod!e, Majrahsa as a contemporary of r9a rin/chen/mcho! and they are both
listed as translators of the first seventeen chapters of the Guhyasamja Root Tantra in the
r(yin!/maGi rGyud/Gbum #Cod!e $%%F, p.1$'. "hilst preparin! this paper, this could not be
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verified upon examination, but it as found that they are both listed as the translators of the Ce/
ru/ka Xhes 6ya/baGi sGrub/paGi Thabs, T17&8 in the ;er!e edition. In contrast, the translation of
the first seventeen chapters of the Root Tantra in the !Tin!/skyes edition of the r(yin!/maGi
rGyud/Gbum is attributed to Mimalaprabh and Ha/a d+al/brtse!s #Germano et al. $%%4'. This
ill be discussed further belo. Coever, r9a rin/chen/mcho! as one of the ori!inal !roup of
Tibetans ordained at the foundin! of b5am/yas monastery by Hhri 5ron!/lde/brtsan in about
&&42E #5nell!rove 14:&, pp.F:4, <8%' and he as later killed shortly after Glan!/dar/ma
became kin! in :F72E #5hakabpa 147&, p.81'. Elloin! for a fe years of trainin! to become
proficient in translation, these relationships and dates ould make it likely that Majrahsa rote
his commentary no more than ten to tenty years after the period &&%/:%%2E hen
6uddhaJrKjOna as active, say about &:8/:1%2E.
MiJvamitraGs ork as translated into Tibetan by Mairocana and QOna!arbha accordin! to its
coda. "hereas a variety of persons called QOna!arbha existed beteen &%%/4%%2E #Rue!!
14:1, p.74n$$<', Mairocana as also one of the ori!inal !roup of monks ordained at b5am/yas
and as later exiled by Hhri 5ron!/lde/brtsan folloin! accusations of sexual misconduct by the
Nueen Tshe/s+on! bXaG. This ould place the translation beteen, say, &:8 and &4&2E, usin!
the same approach as above. The actual ork itself mi!ht be a little earlier.
The ork by Majrahsa is a commentary on the Root Tantra and Cod!e says that it only
addresses the seventeen chapters of that, excludin! the ei!hteenth chapter, the 5ubse@uent Tantra
#Cod!e $%%F, p.1$', hilst MiJvamitraGs ork is a commentary solely on the 5ubse@uent Tantra
#9atsuna!a 14&&, p.11<'.
2omment ari es of t he Rrya Tradi ti on
These be!in ith the orks of Rrya (!rjuna after hom the Rrya Tradition is named. Ither
major commentaries in this tradition are attributed to Rryadeva and 2andrakKrti.
The traditional Tibetan vie of these orks is that they are attributed to the same people as the
founder and folloers of the 9dhyamika school. This ?attribution? is not strai!htforard and
althou!h sometimes stated to be because these persons lived miraculously lon! lives, it is more
often stated that the later texts ere composed at the earlier period and hidden, later to be
discovered, or ere revealed in visions by the earlier masters. 6oth these explanations are related
in TranthaGs Cistory of 6uddhism #Trantha 17%:, lines.8$aF/8, 1%1b</7' and are related by
"edemeyer #"edemeyer $%%&, pp.$%, $F'.
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Trantha proposes either that these texts ere like the later !ter/ma of the r(yin!/ma tradition
and ere revealed to the appropriate later linea!e holders hen the time as appropriate, or that
the earlier teachers appeared in a vidydhara/form and !ave teachin!s to the later linea!e holders
via visions. In neither case does he propose the explanation of modern scholars that the actual
authors of these texts named themselves after the earlier 9dhyamika masters, as has been
proposed by Rue!!, Sindtner and others. This mi!ht su!!est that the first person in the linea!e
!iven after each of the earlier teachers ould represent the first person to produce each specific
text attributed to that earlier teacher. Trantha relates that 9taL!ipa received these teachin!s
from Rryadeva and (!rjuna, hilst RakTitapda received them from 2andrakKrti and
RhulaJrKbhadra from (!abodhi. The linea!e throu!h 9taL!ipa is also !iven in the Sinea!e
Coma!e section of the present/day Son! Guhyasamja 5dhana of Ganden Qan!tse, hilst the
linea!e after 2andrakKrti passes to YiTyvajra and then to HaLhapa #Ganden Qan!tse, lines.&%a.7/
&%b.7'.
9ajor commentaries of the Rrya tradition include)
(!rjuna
T1&:< JrK/!uhyasamaj/tantrasya tantra/tKka
dpal !san! ba Gdus paGi r!yud kyi r!yud G!rel
2ommentary on the Glorious 5ecret Essembly Tantra
This ork also includes)
aTWdaJa/paWala/vistara/vykhy
leGu bco br!yad paGi r!ya cher G!rel pa
Extensive 2ommentary on the Ei!hteenth 2hapter #of the Glorious 5ecret
Essembly Tantra'
This is a separate ork in the +ekin! edition.
T1&47 pi,-Kk.ta/sdhana
s!rub paGi thabs mdor byas pa
2ondensed 5dhana #of the Glorious 5ecret Essembly'
5anskrit text by de la MallZe +oussin #de la MallZe +oussin 1:47'
T1&4& JrK/!uhyasamja/mahyo!atantra/utpadakrama/sdhana/sBtra/melpaka
rnal Gbyor chen poGi r!yud dpal !san! ba Gdus paGi bskyed paGi rim pa bs!om paGi
thabs mdo dan! bsres pa
Generation 5ta!e 9editation of the Great Do!a Tantra of the Glorious 5ecret
Essembly Tantra, combined ith 5Btra
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T1&4: JrK/!uhyasamja/ma,-ala/vidhi
dpal !san! ba Gdus paGi dkyil Gkhor !yi cho !a
9a,-ala Ritual of the Glorious 5ecret Essembly
T1:%$ paOcakrama
rim pa ln!a pa
3ive 5ta!es
5anskrit text by de la MallZe +oussin #de la MallZe +oussin 1:47'
Rryadeva
T1:%F carymelpaka/pradKpa
spyod pa bsdus paGi s!ron ma
Samp that combines the +ractices
5anskrit text by "edemeyer #"edemeyer $%%&'
2andrakKrti
T1&:8 Guhyasamja/tantra/pradKpoddyotana/tKk/saWkoWK/vykhy
s!ron ma !sal bar byed pa =hes bya baGi r!ya cher bshad pa
The 2ommentary ?The Illuminatin! Samp? of the 5ecret Essembly Tantra ith
extensive explanation of the six +ositions
5anskrit text by 2akravarti #2akravarti 14:<'
;atin! these texts and authors is more difficult than for the QOnapda authors as they are, for the
most part, clearly identified individuals, rather than fi!ures ith the same names as the earlier
9dhyamika masters.
There seems to be little in the orks of (!rjuna as above hich allo them to be dated P they
only refer to the Root and 5ubse@uent Tantras and the Explanatory Tantras but not other orks,
accordin! to "ayman and "edemeyer. Coever, both Trantha, as above, and the Ganden
Qan!tse linea!e homa!e relate that (!rjuna and Rryadeva !ave Guhyasamja teachin!s to
9taL!ipa and the Ganden Qan!tse linea!e homa!e and the 5on! of Tilopa, from The Rain of
"isdom #(alanda Translation 2ommittee 14:%', both relate that 9taL!ipa passed the linea!e
on to Tilopa. Tilopa has the dates 4::/1%742E in the traditional Ha!yu chronolo!y #Gyaltsen
144%, p.$&%', so 9taL!ipa ould most likely have ?received? the teachin!s in visions of
(!rjuna and Rryadeva around 48%/1%8%2E. "edemeyer relates that Tucci dates the
RakTitapda mentioned above to beteen 48%/1%&82E, bein! a contemporary of Rin/chen
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bXan!/po #"edemeyer $%%&, p.$8n8F' and so his ?receivin!? the teachin!s from 2andrakKrti
ould also be ithin this ran!e. "edemeyer himself derives a ran!e of dates for the ork of
Rryadeva usin! a literary approach, hich !ives :8%/1%%%2E #"edemeyer $%%&, p.1<'.
Coever, "edemeyer uses a date of 1%<%2E for the death of (ropa, the student of Tilopa, as
proposed by "ylie #"ylie 14:$, p.741', rather than the date from the traditional chronolo!y,
hich ould move back the dates of Tilopa and hence 9taL!ipa, !ivin! a ran!e of about 4$8/
1%$82E for the teachin!s from (!rjuna and Rryadeva and 48%/1%&82E for those from
2andrakKrti.
"atin the !oot and Su#se$uent Tantras
The earliest datable mention of the Guhyasamja tantra occurs in the orks of Emo!havajra ho
visited Yri Sanka and 5outh India by ship from 2hina beteen &<< and &<72E. ;urin! his
travels, he received extensive teachin!s on the TattvasaA!raha sutra and produced an outline of
it in ei!hteen sections #Takakusu > "atanabe 14$<, sec.T:74'. 5ection fifteen describes a
?Guhyasamja/yo!a?, ith some similar features to the extant Tantra, but ith many notable
items not mentioned. 9ost of hat is described corresponds to the present chapter five
#9atsuna!a 14&&, p.11$'.
In the discussions of the ork of Majrahsa and MiJvamitra above, e see that the seventeen
chapters of the Root Tantra ere extant by about &:8/:1%2E and the 5ubse@uent Tantra by
:%%2E. These considerations lead 9atsuna!a to propose that the Root Tantra as bein!
?developed? durin! the first half of the :
th
century 2E, from &%%2E, and ?completed? durin! the
second half, by :%%2E.
It is interestin! to note that there appears to be a (orth[5outh divide beteen the early linea!e of
the QOnapda and Rrya traditions. 6uddhaJrKjOna and his folloers are all based in (orth India,
hereas 9taL!ipa is situated in the 5outh India, accordin! to the 5on! of Tilopa #(alanda
Translation 2ommittee 14:%, p.1$7', RakTitapda receives his teachin!s from 2andrakKrti in
HoLkana and it is in the south here Emo!havajra !ives the first account of Guhyasamja.
"atin the Explanatory Tantras
9atsuna!a addresses the difficulties of datin! the Explanatory Tantras in ?E doubt to Euthority
of the Guhyasamja/Rkhyna/tantras? #9atsuna!a 147<'. There are no survivin! 5anskrit
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versions of them and they ere not translated into 2hinese. (or ere any of them @uoted by the
?Ild Translation? texts on Guhyasamja of the QOnapda tradition.
9atsuna!a points out anomalies in the structure of the vajramla and vajrajOna/samuccaya
vykhytantras hich su!!est that they ere not finali=ed before some of the orks of
(!rjuna and 2andrakKrti ere produced. This is unusual as 2anonical Explanatory Tantras are
taken to have the same ?authority? as Root and 5ubse@uent Tantras as 6uddhavacana.
9atsuna!a su!!ests that part of the vajramla vykhytantra as composed after a version of the
+aOcakrama of (!rjuna as produced and that there ere some additions to the +aOcakrama
after that. Ce also shos that the vajrajOna/samuccaya vykhytantra as produced in to
sta!es, the second part bein! produced after the +radKpoddyotana of 2andrakKrti as produced.
Es a result of his analysis, 9atsuna!a proposes that the Explanatory Tantras date from around
the same time as the ?revelations? of the orks of (!rjuna, Rryadeva and 2andrakKrti, startin!
somehat earlier, but only bein! completed around the same times.
%riin of the Explanatory Tantras & a hypothesis also linkin
the oriins of the '(napda and )rya traditions
9atsuna!a proposes that the Explanatory Tantras ere deliberately composed by the scholars of
the Rrya tradition to le!itimi=e their on radical compositions, hose features ere not actually
supported by the Root and 5ubse@uent Tantras, unlike the orks of the QOnapda tradition
#9atsuna!a 14&&, p.:F8'.
9atsuna!aGs proposal seems to be based on the idea that there ere actual individuals carryin!
the names of (!rjuna, Rryadeva and 2andrakKrti and that they and their folloers needed to
establish the le!itimacy of their ne teachin!s.
This paper proposes an alternative, hich has not been found elsehere)
3irstly, if e consider the alternative idea that there ere not actual persons carryin! the names
of (!rjuna, Rryadeva and 2andrakKrti, but that other individuals, such as 9taL!ipa, claimed
to have received teachin!s from these !reat masters of the past in visions, as recorded by
Trantha, then it is possible to suppose that the same or other similar persons mi!ht @uite likely
claim to have received these Explanatory Tantras in visions as ell. This ould not impute any
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deliberate acts of le!itimation to them and ould accord ith the tradition surroundin! the orks
received from the ?named? teachers of the past.
5econdly, takin! the spatial dimension into account as ell as the temporal as 9atsuna!a did, e
can see the ori!in and practical development to the Guhyasamja teachin!s bein! situated in the
5outh of India. This accounts for the earliest mention by Emo!havajra and the later revelations
of the Rrya school. In fact, e also find that 6uddhaJrKjOna spends nine years in the 5outh of
India in HaA Ho/na and studies under the crya b5run!/baGi Xhabs ho claims to be disciple of
the crya (!rjuna #Roerich 14&7, p.F7:'.
?HaA Ho/na? sounds @uite like HoLkana and b5run!/baGi Xhabs can be ?back/translated? into
5anskrit usin! the standards of the 9ahvyutpatti as b5run!/ba \ rakTa or rakTita] and Xhabs \
pda, hence RakTitapda. Trantha uses b5un!/baGi Xhabs for this name also. This can hardly be
a co/incidence and provides a concrete link beteen the QOnapda and Rrya traditions, both
no bein! shon to arise in 5outh India. ;emonstration of such a link has not been found in the
literature up to no P the to traditions have someho been supposed to have arisen
independently, in some ay not explained. This ould re@uire the dates of the orks of
(!rjuna and 2andrakKrti to be put back to around :%%2E and calls into doubt the datin! of
RakTitapda @uoted by "edemeyer. Ce does mention some doubt about this in a footnote
#"edemeyer $%%&, p.$8n8F'.
Efter the nine years, 6uddhaJrKjOna returns to (orth India and then teaches Guhyasamja to a
variety of folloers, settin! the QOnapda tradition in motion.
Coever, there is no reason to suppose that development of the tradition stopped then and the
Rrya school, based on the Explanatory tantras and orks of (!rjuna, Rryadeva and
2andrakKrti, develops, finally bein! translated into Tibetan by Rin/chen bXan!/po et. al. from the
mid/tenth century.
Contents of the Explanatory Tantras
#from "ayman, "edemeyer and 5onam ;ra!pa'
T<<8 vaj raml ) The Majra Garl and
T<<7 caturdevK parip.cch) Nuesti ons of t he 3our Goddesses
Tantra
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These to texts explain elements of the yo!a techni@ue of the Guhyasamja. The Majra Garland
teaches the !eneration sta!e ith six yo!as, four yo!as and three samdhis and explains the
completion sta!e by means of five sta!es. The Nuestions of the 3our Goddesses explains the
drops of the 5ubtle 6ody, the yo!a of Mital Eir, the dhra,K ma,-ala and the meanin! of the five
colours.
T<<< sandhi vykara,a/nma/tant ra) Revelat ion of t he Intent i on
Tantra
T<<& vaj raj Ona/samuccaya) 2ompendium of Maj ra "i sdom
Tantra
The Revelation of the Intention is a commentary on the first telve chapters of the Root Tantra,
settin! out the ?proper interpretation? of the text accordin! to the Rrya tradition. It is thou!ht to
be the earliest of the four Explanatory Tantras. The 2ompendium of Majra "isdom sets out the
method used by the Rrya tradition to interpret texts, describin! the six positions and four
procedures to be used in analysis.
Concludin remarks
3rom reviein! the Guhyasamja tantras and commentaries and considerin! the supposed
authors, approaches to the creation of the orks and their chronolo!ies, a proposal on the linka!e
beteen the QOnapda and Rrya traditions has been made and on ho the to traditions
developed separately after that, alloin! the Explanatory Tantras and texts of the Rrya tradition
masters to arise. This proposal provides an earlier commencement date for the Rrya tradition and
allos more time for the evolution of the complex relationships beteen the Explanatory Tantras
and the orks of (!rjuna, Rryadeva and 2andrakKrti, hich ith the previously proposed
datin! ould all have had to have happened in the last half of the tenth century 2E.
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Bi#lioraphy
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