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Chapter 1 Biology

Section 1 Objectives
Relate the relevance of biology into your everyday _______
Describe the importance of _________in human society
Summarize the ____________of organization within complex organisms
Distinguish between ______________ and ______________ and between growth,
development, and reproduction
What is Biology?
_______________is the study of life. Biologist study how living things work, interact with the
_______________, and how they change over time.
Characteristics of Life
What does it mean to be __________?
Biologists have established that living things share _______ characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life
1. Organization and _________
2. ________ to Stimuli
3. Homeostasis
4. Metabolism
5. Growth and __________
6. Reproduction
7. Change through _________
1. Organization and Cells
________________ is the high degree of order within an organisms internal and
external parts and its interaction with the living world.
All living organisms are composed of ________ (some may even be only one cell)
__________________ -- single-celled organisms
__________________ composed of many cells
Multicellular organisms have the highest level of organization.
Levels of multicellular organization:
Biological molecules:
Chemical ________________ that provide foundation for cellular functions
(atoms, molecules, _____________)
_____________________:
Tiny structures that carry out the functions of a cell (mitochondria,
ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum)
Cells
Basic unit of _________. Cells contain all _________________
information of the organism
________________:
Groups of cells that have _______________ abilities and allow the
organism to function (epithelial ____________, connective tissue,
muscular tissue)
Organs:
Groups of different _______________ that carry out specialized functions
(stomach, ________________, lungs)
___________________ _____________:
Groups of ___________ that act together to carry out specific functions
(digestive, respiratory, ____________________)
Organism:
Most ________________ of the levels of organization
2. Response to Stimuli
______________ physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment

Trees ____________ leaves in the Fall


Earthworms surfacing during _________
___________ flying toward a light
3. __________________
Homeostasis is the _____________ of stable internal conditions even though the
external environment is constantly changing (__________ __________, temperature)
4. Metabolism
Living organisms use ____________ to power all the life processes (______,
movement, growth)
___________________ is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in and
transform energy and materials from the environment
5. Growth and Development
All living things ______ and increase in ______.
Growth of living things results from the __________ and ______________ of existing
cells
___________________ is the process by which an organisms becomes an adult
6. Reproduction
___________________ is the process by which organisms produce new organisms like
themselves.
During ___________________, organisms transmit hereditary information to their
offspring.
Hereditary information is encoded in a large molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid
(__________)
_____________ are short segments of DNA that codes for a single trait
7. _______________________________ (Evolution)
The ability of a population of organisms to __________ over time is important for
survival in a changing world.
This _________________________ is also important in explaining the diversity of lifeforms on the earth today.

Section 2
Themes in ______________
Section Objectives
1. Identify _____ important themes that help explain the ___________ world
2. Explain how ______ can be diverse yet unified
3. Describe how living __________________ are interdependent
4. Summarize why _______________ is an important theme in biology
5. Unifying ______________

Three unifying themes help to explain the living world:


1. _____________ and Unity of Life
2. Interdependence of __________________
3. ____________ of Life

Diversity and Unity


Despite the diversity of _____, all living things have certain features in common:
1. ___________________________: governs how cells use the hereditary information in
______
2. Presence of _________________ that carry out cellular activities
3. Possibility of common ________________________

_________ Domains of Life


The three domains (super categories) are:
1. __________________
2. __________________
3. __________________

_____ Kingdom Classification

Kingdoms
______________
Archea
Protista
_____________
Plantae
_____________
Domains
________________
Archea
________________
Eukarya
________________
Eukarya

Interdependence of ______________
___________ is the branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other
and with the environment
Ecologists study ___________ species as well as ecosystems
Ecosystems are communities of _________ species and their ______________
environment
Studies have revealed the all living things depend on each other as well as
________________
Nutrients
________________
Gases
________________
Etc
____________ have had a major impact on the worlds environment
__________________
__________________
Habitat Destruction
Exploitation of _____________

______________ of Life
Evolution is the process in which the ________________ _____________ within populations
change over _______________________
_________________ helps to explain:
The diversity in the _____________________:
The way ___________________ look and behave
_______________ ____________________
Organisms that have certain __________ traits are better able to survive in their
environment
________________ are traits that improve an individuals ability to survive and
reproduce.
Chapter 1: Section 3

Methods of Science
Section Objectives
__________________________________________________________
Summarize how _________________ are used to form hypotheses
List the elements of a ___________________ _____________________
Describe how scientists use data to draw ___________________
Compare a scientific ______________ to a scientific theory
State how communication in ____________ helps prevent dishonesty and bias.
__________ as a Process
_____________ is characterized by an organized approach called the
_____________________.
Methods of science are based on ____ important principles:
___________________________________________________________
________________ is the idea that the fundamental laws of nature operate the
same way at a places and times
Steps of the _______________________________
1. ____________________
2. Hypothesis (must be ______________)
3. _________________
4. Experiment
5. Gather and analyze _________
6. Draw ____________________

Observation/____________:
How does an owl _________ prey in the dark
Hypothesis:
___________________
Superb ____________
Detection of preys body _________
Prediction:
If x is true then..
_____________________ allow scientist to begin reject hypothesis
Experiment:
A _______________ experiment compares a _________ groups and an
_____________ groups
The control only has 1 variable and provides a normal _________ against which the
biologists can compare the _____________ of the experiment
The experimental groups is identical to the control groups except for the changing of the
____________________________________
___________ Example
The _____________________ variable can be manipulated by the scientists
Dependent ______________: variable that changes in response to the independent
variable.
____________________________: independent
Distance to mouses head: dependent
______________ Example
Scientists must collect enough ____________ to be meaningful
Scientists usually conduct ___________ experiments in order to remove bias from the
experiment.
Researchers do not know whether or not they are observing the ___________ group or
the _____________________ group.
Collecting and Analyzing ____________

__________________ data- given in numbers


Scientists usually analyze __________ by constructing tables and graphs
Drawing __________________
An experiment can only disprove and not prove a ________________.
Example: superb vision was ______________, hearing was supported but not proven.
Drawing ______________________
____________________ a conclusion based on the facts and previous knowledge rather
than on direct observation (not directly testable)
Scientists often use ____________ because they can adjust the variables in an experiment
more easily.
Constructing a ____________
_______________ Highly tested, generally accepted principle
Communicating ____________
All ____________________ must be able to be retested by other scientist.
Scientists communicate by:
_________________________
Publishing ______________ which describe their experiment.