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Compliance with SSPC Hand/Power

Tool Cleaning Requirements (11/9/10)



Kenneth A. Trimber
KTA-Tator, Inc.

Compliance with SSPC Hand/Power
Tool Cleaning Requirements
Learning Objectives
Describe written SSPC
hand and power tool
cleaning standards, and
typical equipment used for
each
Describe the use of SSPC-
VIS 3, Guide and Reference
Photographs for Steel
Surfaces Prepared by
Power and Hand Tool
Cleaning

SSPC Surface Cleanliness Standards
SSPC-SP1, Solvent Cleaning
SSPC-SP2, Hand Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP3, Power Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP5/NACE 1, White Metal Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP6/NACE 3, Commercial Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP7/NACE 4, Brush-Off Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP8, Pickling
SSPC-SP10/NACE 2, Near-White Metal Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal
SSPC-SP12/NACE 5, Water Jetting
SSPC-SP13/NACE 6, Surface Preparation of Concrete
SSPC-SP14/NACE 8, Industrial Blast Cleaning
SSPC-SP15, Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP16, Brush-Off Blast Cleaning of Coated and Uncoated Galvanized
Steel, Stainless Steels, and Non-Ferrous Metals



SSPC-VIS 3 - Guide
Guide and Reference
Photographs
The photographs
supplement the written
SSPC standards
The written standards are
the means for determining
compliance
The photographs are not to
be used as a substitute for
the written standards

SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning
Wire brushes, scrapers,
sandpaper
Removes loose rust, loose
mill scale, and loose paint
Remaining material must
be tightly adhering
(cannot be lifted using
the blade of a dull putty
knife)
No surface profile
requirement
Dull Putty Knife
Proposed Definition
Commercially manufactured putty knife or scraper containing
a metal blade with the following characteristics: width of
blade 1-1/2 to 3; length of blade 3 to 5; thickness of
blade 30 to 50 mils.
The thickness at end of the blade shall not be less than 25
mils or 75% of its original thickness, whichever is greater.
It shall not be used if the edge is nicked or gouged, or if dry
paint or other material is present along the edge that would
prevent the blade from making intimate contact with the
surface.
The blade shall be held flat against the surface and at a
maximum of 45 degrees to the surface. The corners of the
blade shall not be used to dig at the residues.

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SSPC-SP 3, Power Tool Cleaning
Power grinders, power wire
brushes, power sanders
Removes loose rust, loose
mill scale, and loose paint
Remaining material must be
tightly adhering (dull putty
knife)
No surface profile
requirement
SSPC-SP 11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare
Metal
Rotary or reciprocating impact tools
(peening flaps, cutter bundles,
needle guns, wire flail, and hammer
flail assemblies)
Sometimes combinations of tools
are used
Removes all rust, all paint, and all
mill scale, but slight residues of
rust and paint can remain in the
bottoms of pits
Minimum 1.0 mil surface profile
requirement
Viewed without magnification
Developed at the request of the
nuclear industry (1987)
SSPC-SP 15, Commercial Grade Power
Tool Cleaning
Same equipment that is used for SSPC-SP 11
All paint, rust, and mill scale are removed
Staining from rust, paint and mill scale are permitted
to remain, but must not exceed 33% (one third) of
each 9 square inches of prepared surface
Slight residues of rust and paint can remain in the
bottoms of pits
Minimum 1.0 mil surface profile requirement
Viewed without magnification
Developed in 2002
Stain or Staining
Proposed Definition
Stain or Staining: (As related to abrasive blasting surface
preparation methods) An area of a surface which, when compared
to adjacent areas, has an equal surface profile but is discolored
(usually darker) with a material having no apparent volume. The
material cannot be removed by methods commonly used to remove
dust, but can be removed by more thorough abrasive blasting.

If the definition is approved in 2011, it needs to be modified to
include power tools (SSPC-SP15)

Suggested Field Test (note that this is not an SSPC test): Use a
utility knife to scrape the surface and to press into the residue. If
the residue is dislodged from the surface, it is not a stain.

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9 Square Inches
Prior to the start of publishing joint abrasive blast cleaning
standards in 1994, SSPC and NACE produced their own versions.
The percentages of allowable staining were the same, but the unit
area was different:
SSPC used square inch
NACE applied the percentage to the entire surface provided the staining
was evenly dispersed
In order to reconcile the differences when developing the joint blast
cleaning standards, 9 square inches was ultimately agreed upon,
which was based on the area of the reference photographs (SSPC)
and blast cleaned reference coupons (NACE)
Even though SP15 is not a joint standard and is unrelated to blast
cleaning, the same rationale for defining the unit area was used,
matching the approximate size of the VIS 3 photographs

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Vacuum-Shrouded Power Tool Cleaning
Vacuum-shrouding is
available for most power
tools
The vacuum-shrouding
collects the debris as it is
being generated
The vacuum system is
typically fitted with HEPA
filtration, enabling the
systems to be used for
removing paints that contain
toxic metals
SSPC Visual Guides and Reference
Photographs for Surface Cleanliness
SSPC-VIS 1 (Abrasive
Blast Cleaning)
SSPC-VIS 3 (Power and
Hand Tool Cleaning)
SSPC-VIS 4/NACE VIS 7
(Water Jetting)
SSPC-VIS 5/NACE VIS 9
(Wet Abrasive Blast
Cleaning)
SSPC-VIS 3 (1993; 2004)

Photographs represent the appearance of surfaces both prior
to and after hand and power tool cleaning
Surface conditions depicted prior to cleaning:
Previously unpainted (1993)
Condition A - Intact mill scale
Condition B - Rust and mill scale
Condition C - Totally rusted
Condition D - Totally rusted and pitted
Previously painted (added in 2004)
Condition E - Intact light colored paint with minimal rusting
Condition F - Zinc rich paint with rusting along a weld
Condition G - Heavy old coating with rust and mill scale
Degrees of cleaning depicted for each initial surface condition:
SSPC-SP2, Hand Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP3, Power Tool Cleaning
SSPC-SP11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal
SSPC-SP15, Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning (added 2004)

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SSPC-VIS 3 Initial Conditions
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition B Steel
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition D Steel
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition E Steel
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition G Steel
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition A Steel
SSPC-VIS 3 Appearance of Cleaning
Condition B Steel
Restoring an Existing Profile

Two photos show the use of
non-woven disks to restore
an existing profile
Condition E (light colored
coating with minimal rusting
Condition F (zinc-rich paint
with rusting along the weld
SSPC-VIS 3 Initial Condition Affects
Appearance of Cleaning (e.g., SP2)
SSPC-VIS 3 Initial Condition Affects
Appearance of Cleaning (e.g., SP11)
SSPC-VIS 3 Initial Condition Affects
Appearance of Cleaning (e.g., SP15)
SSPC-VIS 3 Initial Condition Affects
Appearance of Cleaning (e.g., SP11)
SSPC-VIS 3 Tool Used Affects
Appearance of Cleaning (e.g., SP3)
Jobsite Standards
Final appearance is dictated by
initial steel condition and the tools
used for cleaning
The existing coating/corrosion,
color, texture, lighting, tools used,
etc. will never be identical to the
conditions under which SSPC-VIS 3
photos were prepared therefore,
the prepared steel will not look the
same as the photographs
Preparation of jobsite standards
before work begins can help to
clarify cleaning expectations
Actual steel on the structure and/or
small steel samples

SSPC-VIS 2 can help to asses
percentages

SSPC-VIS 2, Standard Method
of Evaluating Degree of
Rusting on Painted Steel
Surface
Purpose standard means
for estimating percentage of
visible corrosion

SSPC-VIS 2 (cont)

Standard consists of
photographs showing
various percentages of
corrosion and
corresponding black and
white images of the same
percentages
The photographs depict
0.03% to 50% corrosion
in 9 increments for each
of :
Spot rusting
General rusting
Pinpoint rusting



SSPC-VIS 2 (cont)

The black and white
images can help to
train the eye to judge
percentages
Relevance is for SSPC-
SP15, Commercial
Grade Power Tool
Cleaning, which allows
staining on up to 33%
of the surface



Summary
SSPC-SP2, Hand Tool Cleaning
removes loose rust, paint, mill scale; tight material may remain
SSPC-SP3, Power Tool Cleaning
removes loose rust, paint, mill scale; tight material may remain
SSPC-SP15, Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning
Removes all rust, paint, mill scale except in bottom of pits;
stains can remain on up to 33% of each unit area; 1 mil
minimum surface profile
SSPC-SP11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal
Removes all rust, paint, mill scale except in bottom of pits; 1 mil
minimum surface profile
SSPC VIS 3, Guide and Reference Photographs for
Steel Surfaces Prepared by Power and Hand Tool
Cleaning
Supplements, but does not replace, the written standards



Compliance with SSPC Hand/Power
Tool Cleaning Requirements -
Questions