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Lecture-3

Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project

Internal Combustion Engines

Lecture-3 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Internal Combustion Engines Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical
Lecture-3 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Internal Combustion Engines Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical

Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Background

Background

Classifications

1. Engine Cycle

Four Stroke Cycle Experiences 4 strokes of the Piston movements over 2 revolutions of the crankshaft

Two Stroke Cycle Experiences 2 strokes of the Piston movements over 1 revolution of the crankshaft

Classifications – Contd.

2. Fuel Used

Using volatile fuels like gasoline, alcohol, kerosene Using gaseous fuels like natural gas, biogas Using solid fuels like charcoal, powdered coke

(converted to gaseous fuel outside the engine in a gas producer)

Using viscous fuels like diesel Using dual fuel

– methanol (suction stroke) + diesel (comp. stroke) – CI Engine – gasoline + alcohol (gasohol)

Fuel Used - at a Glance

Gasoline Diesel Gas, Natural gas, Methane

Liquid Petroleum Gas Alcohol, Methanol

Hydrogen Dual Fuel

Classifications – Contd.

3. Method of Ignition

Spark Ignition: An SI engine starts the combustion process in each cycle by use of a spark plug. In early engine development, before the invention of the electric spark plug, many forms of torch of torch holes were used to initiate combustion form an external flame.

Compression

Ignition: The combustion

process in a CI engine starts when the air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to high temperature in the combustion chamber caused by high

compression.

Classifications – Contd.

4. Position & Number of Cylinders

Single Cylinder Inline Cylinders V Engine Opposed Cylinder Engine W Engine Opposed Piston Engine Radial Engine

(g) (b) (d) (e) (a) (c) (f)
(g)
(b)
(d)
(e)
(a)
(c)
(f)

Cylinder Arrangement

Single cylinder: Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft.

In-Line: Cylinders are positioned in a straight line, one behind the other along the length of the crankshaft. Number of cylinders may vary from 2 to 11 or even more. In- line four-cylinder engines are very common for automobiles. In-line engines are also referred to as straight such as straight six or straight eight.

Cylinder Arrangement Single cylinder: Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft. In-Line: Cylinders
Cylinder Arrangement Single cylinder: Engine has one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft. In-Line: Cylinders

V Engine: Two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single crankshaft. The angle between the banks of cylinders is usually within 60-90. V engines have even numbers of cylinders ranging from 2 to 20 or more. V6 and V8 are the common engines with six and eight cylinders respectively.

V Engine: Two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single
V Engine: Two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single

Opposed Cylinder Engine:

Two

banks of

cylinders opposite to each

other

on

a

single

crankshaft. These are mostly used in small aircraft and some automobiles with an even number of cylinders from two to eight or more. These engines are also called flat engines such as flat

four.

Opposed Cylinder Engine: Two banks of cylinders opposite to each other on a single crankshaft.
Opposed Cylinder Engine: Two banks of cylinders opposite to each other on a single crankshaft.

W Engine: Similar to that of V engine except

with

three

banks

of

cylinders on the same

crankshaft. This type of arrangement has been used in some racing cars.

Opposed Piston Engine: Two pistons in each cylinder with the combustion chamber located centrally between the pistons. A single- combustion process causes two power strokes at the same time, with each piston being pushed away from the center and delivering power to a separate crankshaft at each end of the cylinder Engine output is either on two rotating crankshafts or on one crankshaft incorporating a complex mechanic linkage.

Radial Engine: Engine with pistons positioned in a circular plane around the central crankshaft. The connecting rods of the pistons are connected to the crankshaft through a master rod. A bank of cylinders on a radial engine always has an odd number of cylinders ranging from 3 to 13 or more.

Many medium-and large- size propeller-driven aircraft use radial engines. For large aircraft, two or more banks of cylinders are mounted together, one behind the other on a single crankshaft, making a powerful and smooth engine.

Radial Engine: Engine with pistons positioned in a circular plane around the central crankshaft. The

Cylinder Arrangement

Cylinder Arrangement
Cylinder Arrangement

Single Cylinder Engine

Single-cylinder engine gives one power stroke per crank revolution (360 CA) for 2 stroke, or every two revolutions for 4 stroke.

The torque pulses on the crank shaft are widely spaced, and engine vibration and smoothness are significant problems.

4-stroke 2-stroke 0 CA 540 CA 360 CA 720 CA 180 CA 180 CA (TC) (TC)
4-stroke
2-stroke
0 CA
540 CA
360 CA
720 CA
180 CA
180 CA
(TC)
(TC)
(TC)

Used in small engine applications where engine size is more important

Multi-cylinder Engines

Multi-cylinder engines spread out the displacement volume amongst multiple smaller cylinders. Increased frequency of power strokes produces smoother torque characteristics.

Most common cylinder arrangements are in-line 4 and V-6:

Multi-cylinder Engines Multi-cylinder engines spread out the displacement volume amongst multiple smaller cylinder s. Increased frequency
Multi-cylinder Engines Multi-cylinder engines spread out the displacement volume amongst multiple smaller cylinder s. Increased frequency
Multi-cylinder Engines Multi-cylinder engines spread out the displacement volume amongst multiple smaller cylinder s. Increased frequency

Engine balance (inertia forces associated with accelerating and decelerating piston) better for in-line versus V configuration.

V-6 Engine

runner Inlet Air intake manifold
runner
Inlet
Air intake
manifold

Classifications – Contd.

5. Valve Locations

Valves in head (overhead valve), also called I-head engine.

Valves in block (flat head), also called L-head

engine.

Some

historic

engines

valves

with

in

block had the intake valve on one side of the

cylinder,

and

exhaust valve on the

other

the

side. These were called T-head engines.

One valve in head (usually intake) and one in block, also called F-head engine.

(c ) (d ) (b ) (a )
(c )
(d )
(b )
(a )

Classifications – Contd.

6. Air Intake process

Naturally

Aspirated:

boost system.

No

intake

air

pressure

Supercharged: Intake air pressure increased with the compressor driven off the engine crankshaft.

Turbocharged: Intake air pressure increased with the turbine-compressor driven by the engine exhaust gases

Crankcase Compressed: Two-stroke cycle engine that uses the crankcase as the intake air compressor.

Air Intake
Air Intake
Comp r e s s or Ai r In t a k e Aft e r
Comp r e s s or
Ai r In t a k e
Aft e r c o o l e r
Tu r b i n e

E x haust

Air Intake Comp r e s s or Ai r In t a k e Aft
Where the turbocharger is located in the car
Where the turbocharger is located in the car

Where the turbocharger is located in the car

How a turbocharger is plumbed (including the charge air cooler)

How a turbocharger is plumbed (including the charge air cooler)

Roots Blower
Roots Blower

Roots Blower

Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor
Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor

Vane Compressor

Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor
Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor

Screw Comp ress or

Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor

Radial compressor

Roots Blower Screw Comp ress or Radial compressor Axial compressor

Axial compressor

Classifications – Contd.

7. Method of Fuel supply for SI Engines

Carbureted

Multi

Point

Fuel

Injection

-

One

or

more

injectors at each cylinder intake.

Throttle Body Fuel Injection - Injectors upstream in intake manifold.

Inlet

Air Throttle Fuel from Valve Choke supply Fuel discharge nozzle Float Chamber Fuel metering jet lip,
Air
Throttle
Fuel
from
Valve
Choke
supply
Fuel discharge
nozzle
Float
Chamber
Fuel metering
jet lip, h
Vent
Float
Fuel

Carbureted System

Multi Point Fuel Injection System Throttle Body Injection System

Multi Point Fuel Injection System

Multi Point Fuel Injection System Throttle Body Injection System

Throttle Body Injection System

Classifications – Contd.

8. Combustion Chamber Design

Open chamber (disc, wedge, hemispherical, bowl-in-piston)

Divided chamber (small and large auxiliary chambers like swirl chamber, pre-chambers)

Classifications – Contd. 8. Combustion Chamber Design Open chamber (disc, wedge, hemispherical, bowl-in-piston) Divided chamber (small
Classifications – Contd. 8. Combustion Chamber Design Open chamber (disc, wedge, hemispherical, bowl-in-piston) Divided chamber (small

Classifications – Contd.

9. Type of Cooling

Air Cooled Liquid Cooled/Water Cooled

Classifications – Contd. 9. Type of Cooling Air Cooled Liquid Cooled/Water Cooled C y l i
C y l i nder R adi at or
C y l i nder
R adi at or

P i s t o n

The cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the radiator to cool it off.

The cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates

Classifications – Contd.

10. Applications

Car, buses, two-wheelers, trucks Locomotives Stationary

Marine Light Aircraft Portable Power Systems Lawnmowers

References

TD, and

1.

1.

for

Applied

Crouse

Eastop Eastop

and Ang

WH, and

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Ganesan

 

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