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A

DISSERTATION REPORT
ON




Submitted By:-
Supervised By
Mr Anil Chauhan


UTTARANCHAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
DEHRADUN


EFFECT OF WORD OF MOUTH
COMMUNICATION IN PROMOTING SMART
PHONES


DECLARATION


I hereby that I have worked on the topic Performance Appraisal of BHEL ( BHARAT HEAVY
ELECTRICALS LIMITED) Hardwar, (Uttrakhand) from 24th June 2012 to 23rd Aug 2013.

All the information that has been collected, analyzed and documented for the project is
authentic possession to me.

I would like to categorically mention that the work here has neither been purchased nor
acquired by any other unfair means. The data and information existing in this report are
accurate and update to the current data, to the best of our knowledge.

However, for this purpose of the project, information already compiled in many sources have
been utilized. I extend my sincere thanks to GIRISH sir, HR Executive, Harpreet Singh SIR, N.P.
ROY Sir & Himanshu sir at BHEL for their support. All information in this report is true
representation of what I have experienced during the project.


Deeksha Chauhan



A AC C K K N NO OW WL L E E D DG GE E M ME E N NT T


I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to our respected mentor for his
valuable guidance.

I extend my sincere thanks to , MR.Gaurav Sobti HR Executive of BHEL and my internal guide Mrs.
Parampara thakur for their support and help in the completion of the project.

I would like to thanks almost everybody at the BHEL office for his/her friendliness and helpful
nature.

With sincere thanks











TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
No.
Topic
1. Introduction
1.1 Modern Smartphones
1.2 History
1.2.1 Early Years
1.2.1.1. IBM Simon
1.2.1.2. Nokia 9000
1.2.2 Symbian
1.2.2.1. Ericsson R380
1.2.2.2. Nokia 9210
1.2.2.3. Nokia N 95
1.2.3. Windows Mobile
1.2.4. Blackberry OS
1.2.5 iOS
1.2.5.1 iPhone
1.2.6. Android
1.2.6.1. Galaxy Nexus
1.2.7. Bada
2. Company Profile

2.1 Market Share
2.2. Samsung Telecommunication
2.3. Nokia
2.4. BlackBerry


2.5. Highest Selling Smartphones

3. Data Analysis & Interpretation

3.1. Scope of the project
3.2. Objectives of the project
3.3 What is research
3.4 What is research methodology
3.4.1 Types of research Methods
3.5. What is Data collection?
3.6. Qualitative Analysis
3.7 Research Method
3.8 What is a questionnaire
3.8.1 Types of questions
3.9. Data Source
3.10 What is research population
3.10.1 Relationship of sample population in research
3.10.2 Types of population in research
3.11 Target Population & Sampling Plan
3.12 Target Areas
3.13 Literature Review



4.

Suggestions & Findings
4.1 reasons for sucess
4.2 Major threats
4.3 Findings
5. Conclusion
5.1 Recommendations
5.2 Conclusions
6. Bibliography
Annexure I Questionnaire
Annexure II Reference










EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Marketing Research subject requires a written project assignment and a
presentation for us to submit at the end of the term. The marketing research project
that our group (6 members) is undertaking is on Marketing Research Project to
determine why iPhone 4 is so popular and Apples marketing strategies behind it.

We would be following the 11 steps in the marketing research process to fulfil the
project requirement (SIC, 2011). The goal of this marketing research project is to
identify and assess how the marketing strategy elements of Apple iPhone 4 influence
consumer behaviour. The objective of this study will be used to determine the impact
of Apples iPhone 4 marketing strategy on the consumers. We will test the
hypothesis using self-administered surveys as our primary data and further support
our hypothesis using secondary research data gathered from the internet.
As part of the project, we would be using exploratory research as our research
design (SIC, 2011). For this project, the primary data information will be gathered
from a group of 80 participants where they will be asked various questions about
their perception on the smartphone market and the iPhone4. The collected survey
data would then be analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007. We used the cross
tabulation method to analyze the surveyed data and developed charts to explain the
analyzed results.
The analysis part reveal that Apple as a company is very successful in their
marketing strategy in promoting and positioning iPhone 4 in Singapore market.
However there are areas of improvements that Apple can look into in such as
pricing, product features and designs, advertisement and others in order for Apples
future iPhone series to continue to be the leader in the market.







Chapter 1:
I ntroduction









1.1 - Modern Smartphones
A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with
more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a feature phone. The
first smartphones were devices that mainly combined the functions of a personal
digital assistant (PDA) and a mobile phone or camera phone. Today's models
also serve to combine the functions of portable media players, low-end
compactdigital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units.
Modern smartphones typically also include high-resolution touchscreens, web
browsers that can access and properly display standard web pages rather than
just mobile-optimized sites, Flash compatibility, and high-speed data access via
Wi-Fi and mobile broadband.
The most common mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones
include Apple'siOS, Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows Phone, Nokia's
Symbian, RIM'sBlackBerry OS, and embedded Linux distributions such as
Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different
phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software
updates over its lifetime.
The distinction between smartphones and feature phones can be vague and there
is no official definition for what constitutes the difference between them. One of
the most significant differences is that the advanced application programming
interfaces (APIs) on smartphones for running third-party applications can allow
those applications to have better integration with the phone's OS and hardware
than is typical with feature phones. In comparison, feature phones more
commonly run on proprietary firmware, with third-party software support
through platforms such as Java ME or BREW. An additional complication in
distinguishing between smartphones and feature phones is that over time the
capabilities of new models of feature phones can increase to exceed those of
phones that had been promoted as smartphones in the past.
Platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a feature
phone. The first smartphones were devices that mainly combined the functions
of a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a mobile phone or camera phone.
Today's models also serve to combine the functions of portable media players,
low-end compactdigital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation
units. Modern smartphones typically also include high-resolution touchscreens,
web browsers that can access and properly display standard web pages rather
than just mobile-optimized sites, Flash compatibility, and high-speed data
access via Wi-Fi and mobile broadband.



1.2 History
1.2.1 Early years

1.2.1.1 IBM Simon
The first smartphone was the IBM Simon; it was designed in 1992 and shown as
a concept product that year at COMDEX, the computer industry trade show
held in Las Vegas, Nevada. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by
BellSouth. Besides being a mobile phone, it also contained a calendar, address
book, world clock, calculator, note pad, e-mail client, the ability to send and
receive faxes, and games. It had no physical buttons, instead customers used a
touchscreen to select telephone numbers with a finger or create faxes and
memos with an optional stylus. Text was entered with a unique on-screen
"predictive" keyboard. By today's standards, the Simon would be a fairly low-
end product, lacking a camera and the ability to download third-party
applications. However, its feature set at the time was highly advanced.














1.2.1.2 The Nokia 9000



The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia's smartphones starting
with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style
smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and
costly personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett-Packard combined with
Nokia's best-selling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the
two devices fixed via a hinge. The Communicators are characterized by a
clamshell design, with a feature phone display, keyboard and user interface on
top of the phone, and a physical QWERTY keyboard, high-resolution display of
at least 640200 pixels and PDA user interface under the flip-top. The software
was based on the GEOS V3.0 operating system, featuring email communication
and text-based web browsing. In 1998, it was followed by Nokia 9110, and in
2000 by Nokia 9110i, with improved web browsing capability.
In 1997 the term 'smartphone' was used for the first time when Ericsson
unveiled the concept phone GS88, the first device labeled as 'smartphone'.






1.2.2. Symbian

1.2.2.1. Ericsson R380
In 2000, the touchscreen Ericsson R380
Smartphone was released. It was the first device
to use an open operating system, the Symbian
OS.It was the first device marketed as a
'smartphone'.It combined the functions of a
mobile phone and a personal digital assistant
(PDA). In December 1999 the magazine Popular
Science appointed the Ericsson R380 Smartphone
to one of the most important advances in science
and technology. It was a groundbreaking device
since it was as small and light as a normal mobile
phone. In 2002 it was followed up by P800.

1.2.2.2. Nokia 9210 communicator
Also in 2000, the Nokia 9210
communicator was introduced, which
was the first color screen model from the
Nokia Communicator line. It was a true
smartphone with an open operating
system, the Symbian OS. It was followed
by the 9500 Communicator, which also
was Nokia's first camera-phone and first
Wi-Fi phone. The 9300
Communicatorwas smaller, and the latest
E90 Communicator includes GPS. The
Nokia Communicator model is
remarkable for also having been the most
costly phone model sold by a major
brand for almost the full life of the
model series, costing easily 20% and
sometimes 40% more than the next most
expensive smartphone by any major producer.


1.2.2.3. Nokia N95
In 2007 Nokia launched the Nokia N95
which integrated a wide range of
multimedia features into a consumer-
oriented smartphone: GPS, a 5 megapixel
camera with autofocus and LED flash, 3G
and Wi-Fi connectivity and TV-out. In the
next few years these features would
become standard on high-end smartphones.
The Nokia 6110 Navigator is a Symbian
based dedicated GPS phone introduced in
June 2007.



In 2010 Nokia released the Nokia N8 smartphone with a stylus-free capacitive
touchscreen, the first device to use the new Symbian3 OS. It featured a 12
megapixel camera with Xenon flash able to record HD video in 720p, described
by Mobile Burn as the best camera in a phone, and satellite navigation that
Mobile Choice described as the best on any phone. It also featured a front-
facing VGA camera for videoconferencing.
Symbian was the number one smartphone platform by market share from 1996
until 2011 when it dropped to second place behind Google's Android OS. In
February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows
Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones. This transition
was completed in October 2011, when Nokia announced its first line of
Windows Phone 7.5 smartphones, Lumia 710 and 800.








1.2.3. Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for
smartphones and Pocket PCs. It is supplied with a suite of basic applications
developed with the Microsoft WindowsAPI, and is designed to have features
and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third
parties can develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed
by Microsoft. Some software applications can be purchased from Windows
Marketplace for Mobile until it is discontinued on 9 May 2012.
Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to
enter commands by tapping it on the screen. The primary touch input
technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens which did not
require a stylus and work with any pressed input method; later devices used
capacitive sensing. Along with touchscreens a large variety of form factors
existed for the platform. Some devices featured slide-out keyboards, while
others featured minimal face buttons.
In February 2010, Microsoft announced a new phone platform, Windows
Phone, to supersede Windows Mobile, incompatible with Windows Mobile
devices and software. The final version of Windows Mobile, released after the
announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. Phones running Windows Mobile
cannot run software for Windows Phone. Microsoft says that the Windows
Phone operating system is incompatible with devices designed for Windows
Mobile as "Windows Mobile 6.x devices do not meet Windows Phone hardware
requirements designed to ensure a consistent user and developer experience",
and software designed for Windows Mobile is incompatible with the new
operating system. However, Windows Phone 7 ROMs that are compatible with
some Windows Mobile devices have been developed and Microsoft, while not
supporting them, has taken no other action.











1.2.4. BlackBerry OS

BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating system, developed by
Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handheld devices.
The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input
devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds, particularly the
trackwheel, trackball, and most recently, the trackpad and touchscreen.
The BlackBerry platform is perhaps best known for its native support for
corporate email, through MIDP 1.0 and, more recently, a subset of MIDP 2.0,
which allows complete wireless activation and synchronization with Microsoft
Exchange, Lotus Domino, or Novell GroupWise email, calendar, tasks, notes,
and contacts, when used with BlackBerry Enterprise Server. The operating
system also supports WAP 1.2.
Updates to the operating system may be automatically available from wireless
carriers that support the BlackBerry over the air software loading (OTASL)
service.
Third-party developers can write software using the available BlackBerry API
classes, although applications that make use of certain functionality must be
digitally signed.
Research from June 2011 indicates that approximately 45% of mobile
developers were using the platform at the time of publication.










1.2.5. iOS
iOS (formerly iPhone OS prior to June 2010) is Apple Inc.'s mobile operating
system. Originally developed for the iPhone, it has since been extended to
support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch, iPad, and Apple TV.
Unlike Windows CE (Mobile and Phone) and Android, Apple does not license
iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. As of March 6, 2012, Apple's App
Store contained more than 550,000 iOS applications, which have collectively
been downloaded more than 25 billion times. It had a 16% share of the
smartphone operating system units sold in the last quarter of 2010, behind both
Google's Android and Nokia's Symbian. In May 2010 in the United States, it
accounted for 59% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the
iPod Touch and the iPad).
The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using
multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and
buttons. The response to user input is immediate and provides a fluid interface.
Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse
pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS
operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used
by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is
the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is
switching from portrait to landscape mode).
iOS is derived from Mac OS X, with which it shares the Darwin foundation, and
is therefore a Unix operating system.
In iOS, there are four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer, the Core Services
layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. The current version of the
operating system (iOS 5.1) uses roughly 770 megabytes of the device's storage,
varying for each model.












1.2.5.1. The iPhone
In 2007, Apple Inc. introduced its first iPhone. It was initially costly, priced at
$499 for the cheaper of two models on top of a two year contract. The first
mobile phone to use a multi-touch interface, the iPhone was notable for its use
of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction,
instead of having a stylus, keyboard, and/or keypad, which were the typical
input methods for other smartphones at the time. The iPhone featured a web
browser that Ars Technica then described as "far superior" to anything offered
by that of its competitors. Initially lacking the capability to install native
applications beyond the ones built-in to its OS, at WWDC in June 2007 Apple
announced that the iPhone would support third-party "web 2.0 applications"
running in its web browser that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface.
As a result of the iPhone's initial inability to install third-party native
applications, some reviewers did not consider the originally released device to
accurately fit the definition of a smartphone "by conventional terms." A process
called jailbreaking emerged quickly to provide unofficial third-party native
applications. The different functions of the iPhone (including a GPS unit,
kitchen timer, radio, map book, calendar, notepad, and many others) allowed
consumers to replace all of these items.
In July 2008, Apple introduced its second generation iPhone with a lower list
price starting at $199 and 3G support. Released with it, Apple also created the
App Store, adding the capability for any iPhone or iPod Touch to officially
execute additional native applications (both free and paid) installed directly over
a Wi-Fi or cellular network, without the more typical process at the time of
requiring a PC for installation. Applications could additionally be browsed
through and downloaded directly via the iTunes software client on Macintosh
and Windows PCs, rather than by searching through multiple sites across the
Internet. Featuring over 500 applications at launch, Apple's App Store was
immediately very popular, quickly growing to become a huge success.
In June 2010, Apple introduced iOS 4, which included APIs to allow third-party
applications to multitask, and the iPhone 4, which included a 960640 pixel
display with a pixel density of 326 pixels per inch (ppi), a 5 megapixel camera
with LED flash capable of recording HD video in 720p at 30 frames per second,
a front-facing VGA camera for videoconferencing, a 1 GHz processor, and
other improvements. In early 2011 the iPhone 4 became available through
Verizon Wireless, ending AT&T's exclusivity of the handset in the U.S.,and
allowing the handset's 3G connection to be used as a wireless Wi-Fi hotspot for


the first time, to up to 5 other devices.Software updates subsequently added this
capability to other iPhones running iOS 4.
The iPhone 4S was announced on October 4, 2011, improving upon the iPhone
4 with a dual core A5 processor, an 8 megapixel camera capable of recording
1080p video at 30 frames per second, World phone capability allowing it to
work on both GSM & CDMA networks, and the Siri automated voice assistant.
On October 10, Apple announced that over one million iPhone 4Ss had been
pre-ordered within the first 24 hours of it being on sale, beating the 600,000
device record set by the iPhone 4, despite the iPhone 4S failing to impress some
critics at the announcement due to their expectations of an "iPhone 5" with
rumored drastic changes compared to the iPhone 4 such as a new case design
and larger screen. Along with the iPhone 4S Apple also released iOS 5 and
iCloud, untethering iOS devices from Macintosh or Windows PCs for device
activation, backup, and synchronization, along with additional new and
improved features.
There are about 35 percent of Americans that have some sort of smartphone.
This shows that the market is spreading fast and there are also more capabilities
for smartphones because of this spread.
Smartphones are also mainly valuable based on the operating system. For
example, the iPhone runs on the iOS and other devices run different operating
systems which makes the functionality of these systems different.




1.2.6. Android
Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as
smartphones and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset
Alliance led by Google.
Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005.
The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the
founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software,
and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for
mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the
Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the
maintenance and further development of Android.
Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that
extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a
customized version of Java. Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or
through online stores such as Google Play (formerly Android Market), the app
store run by Google. As of February 2012 there were more than 450,000 apps
available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded
from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion.


Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide in Q4
2010 by Canalys with over 300 million Android devices in use by February
2012. According to Google's Andy Rubin, as of February 2012 there are over
850,000 Android devices activated every day.
















1.2.6.1. Galaxy Nexus, the latest "Google phone"
The Android operating system for smartphones was released in 2008. Android
is an open-source platform backed by Google, along with major hardware and
software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM, Motorola and Samsung, to
name a few), that form the Open Handset Alliance. The first phone to use
Android was the HTC Dream, branded for distribution by T-Mobile as the G1.
The software suite included on the phone consists of integration with Google's
proprietary applications, such as Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML
web browser. Android supports the execution of native applications and a
preemptive multitasking capability (in the form of services). Third-party apps
are available via Google Play (released October 2008), including both free and
paid apps.
In January 2010, Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android
OS. Although Android has multi-touch abilities, Google initially removed that
feature from the Nexus One, but it was added through a firmware update on
February 2, 2010.
Concerning the Xperia Play smartphone, an analyst at CCS Insight said in
March 2011 that "Console wars are moving to the mobile platform". In the same
month, the HTC EVO 3D was announced by HTC Corporation, which can


produce 3D effects with no need for special glasses (autostereoscopy). The HTC
EVO 3D was officially released on June 24, 2011.









1.2.7.
Bada
The Bada operating system for smartphones was announced by Samsung on 10
November 2009. The first Bada-based phone was the Samsung Wave S8500,
released on June 1, 2010, which sold one million handsets in its first 4 weeks on
the market.
Samsung shipped 3.5 million phones running Bada in Q1 of 2011. This rose to
4.5 million phones in Q2 of 2011























Chapter I I :
Company Profile












2.1.Market Share


Samsung became the biggest smartphone vendor in the world during the third
quarter, and Android's market share has surpassed 50 percent for the first time,
market research company Gartner said on Tuesday as it reported on phone sales
to end-users.
Worldwide smartphone sales totalled 115 million units in the third quarter of
2011, up 42 percent from the third quarter of 2010. However, smartphone sales
slowed compared to the second quarter, a consequence of the economic
situation and of consumers holding out for new models, including the iPhone
4S, according to Roberta Cozza, principal analyst at Gartner.
Android and Samsung were the big winners among smartphone operating
systems and vendors, respectively.
Samsung became the worldwide number one for the first time, selling 24
million smartphones, three times as many as it sold during the third quarter last
year.
Samsung's support for Android, and the availability of a wide variety of low-
cost smartphones running the OS, helped Android grab a 52.5 percent share of
the market: 60.5 million smartphones based on the various versions of the OS
were sold, according to Cozza.


Worldwide, Nokia is still the second biggest smartphone vendor and Symbian
the second most popular smartphone OS. Consumers bought 19.5 million
Symbian-based smartphones, giving the OS a 17 percent market share.
Smartphones based on Symbian are still popular in Eastern Europe and the
Middle East.
Nokia's first smartphone running Microsoft's Windows Phone OS, the Lumia
800, has gone on sale in Germany, and will go on sale France, Italy, the
Netherlands, Spain and the UK later this month. Microsoft reached a new low
during the third quarter as its operating system software now only has a 1.5
percent share of the smartphone market.
To compete with the Google camp and Apple, Nokia needs to expand its
product portfolio and work with Microsoft on more ways to differentiate from
the competition, according to Cozza. At the same time, Microsoft needs to add
support for hardware features like LTE (Long-Term Evolution), which is
becoming increasingly important.
"We don't expect to see a major impact on sales until the second half of 2012,"
said Cozza.
Apple sold about 17 million iPhones in the third quarter, an annual increase of
21 percent, but down nearly 3 million units from the second quarter of 2011,
perhaps because potential buyers were waiting for the launch of the iPhone 4S,
which came in the fourth quarter. That makes iOS still the third most popular
OS, with a 15 percent market share, and Apple the third biggest smartphone
vendor.
Now that the iPhone 4S has been released and is doing well, Cozza expects
Apple to bounce back during the last three months of 2011. With the iPhone 4S
and the lower pricing of older iPhone models, Apple is a formidable competitor,
according to Cozza.
During the fourth quarter, the battle between the Android camp and Apple will
be especially cutthroat in the U.S. HTC won the top spot during the third
quarter, but Apple in second place and Samsung in third place are just behind,
Cozza said.
Microsoft wasn't the only OS vendor heading downward: Research In Motion
(RIM) recorded new market share lows in both the U.S. and worldwide, at 10
percent and 11 percent, respectively. It sold 12.7 million units, enough to make
RIM the fourth-largest smartphone maker, and BlackBerry OS the fourth largest
OS, according to Gartner's data.


HTC may the biggest smartphone vendor in the U.S, but the company is only
the fifth-largest vendor worldwide. It sold about 12 million smartphones.
Beyond smartphones, worldwide sales of all types of phones totaled 440.5
million units in the third quarter, up 5.6 percent from the same period last year.
The five biggest vendors are Nokia, Samsung, LG Electronics, Apple and ZTE.





















2.2. Samsung Telecommunications
Samsung Telecommunications is one of five business units within Samsung
Electronics, belonging to the Samsung Group, and consists of the Mobile
Communications Division, Telecommunication Systems Division, Computer
Division, MP3 Business Team, Mobile Solution Centre and Telecommunication
R&D Centre. Telecommunication Business produces a full spectrum of
products from mobiles and other mobile devices such as MP3 players and
laptop computers to telecommunication network infrastructure. Headquarters is
located in Suwon, South Korea.
In 2007 Samsung Telecommunication Business reported over 40% growth and
became the second largest mobile device manufacturer in the world. Its market
share was 14% in Q4 2007, growing up from 11.3% in Q4 2006. At the end of
November 2011, Samsung sold more than 300 million mobile devices and set
still in second after Nokia with 300.6 million mobile devices sold in the first
three quarter of 2011










2.3. Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that
is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital
Helsinki. Nokia manufactures mobile electronic devices, mostly mobile
telephones and other devices related to communications, and in converging
Internet and communications industries, with 130,000 employees in 120
countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of over
38 billion and operating loss of 1 billion as of 2011. It was the world's largest
manufacturer of mobile phones in 2011, with global device market share of
23% in the second quarter. Nokia produces mobile devices for every major
market segment and protocol, including GSM, CDMA, and W-CDMA
(UMTS). Nokia offers Internet services such as applications, games, music,
maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform. Nokia's joint venture with
Siemens, Nokia Siemens Networks produces telecommunications network
equipment, solutions and services. Nokia also provides free-of-charge digital
map information and navigation services through its wholly owned subsidiary
Navteq.
Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki, Frankfurt,
and New York stock exchanges, and plays a very large role in the economy of
Finland, accounting for about a third of the market capitalization of the Helsinki
Stock Exchange in 2007.
The Nokia brand, valued at $25 billion, is listed as the 14th most valuable
global brand in the Interbrand/BusinessWeek Best Global Brands list of 2011. It
is the 14th ranked brand corporation in Europe (as of 2011), the 8th most
admirable Network and Other Communications Equipment company worldwide
in Fortune's World's Most Admired Companies list of 2011, and the world's
143th largest company as measured by revenue in Fortune Global 500 list of
2011. In July 2010, Nokia reported a drop in profits by 40%, which turned into
an operating loss of 487 million in Q2 2011. In the global smartphone rivalry,
Nokia held the 3rd place in 2Q2011, trailing behind Samsung and Apple.
On 11 February 2011 Nokia announced a partnership with Microsoft; all Nokia
smartphones introduced since then were to run under Microsoft's Windows
Phone (WP) operating system. On 26 October 2011 Nokia unveiled its first
Windows Phone handsets, the WP7.5 Lumia 710 and 800.





2.4. BlackBerry
BlackBerry is a line of mobile email and smartphone devices developed and
designed by Canadian company Research In Motion (RIM) since 1999.
BlackBerry devices are smartphones, designed to function as personal digital
assistants, portable media players, internet browsers, gaming devices, and much
more. They are primarily known for their ability to send and receive (push)
email and instant messages while maintaining a high level of security through
on-device message encryption. BlackBerry devices support a large variety of
instant messaging features, including BlackBerry Messenger.
BlackBerry accounts for 3% of mobile device sales worldwide in 2011, making
its manufacturer RIM the sixth most popular device maker (25% of mobile
device sales are smartphones). The consumer BlackBerry Internet Service is
available in 91 countries worldwide on over 500 mobile service operators using
various mobile technologies. As of October 2011, there were seventy million
subscribers worldwide to BlackBerry. At present the Caribbean and Latin
America, have the highest penetrations of BlackBerry smartphones worldwide
with up to about 45 per cent in the region having a RIM device.
Modern GSM-based BlackBerry handhelds incorporate an ARM 7, 9 or ARM
11 processor, while older BlackBerry 950 and 957 handhelds used Intel 80386
processors. The latest BlackBerry models called "Torch" (Torch 9850/9860,
Torch 9810, and Bold 9900/9930) have a 1.2 GHz MSM8255 Snapdragon
Processor, 768 MB system memory), and 8 GB of on-board storage. All
BlackBerrys after OS 5 support up to 32 GB microSD cards.









2.5. Highest Selling Smartphones by Samsung


Samsung Wave S5253

Price 5,190
OS Bada






Samsung Galaxy Ace
Price 12,000
OS Google Android 2.2
(Upgradeable to 2.3)






Samsung Omnia W
Price 14,100
OS Windows
(7.5 Mango)




Samsung Galaxy R
Price 22,739
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Price 31,500
OS Google Android 4.0







Chapter I I I :
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY








3.1 Scope Of The Project:
i. A detailed study of the smart phone and its effect of market .
ii. A brief study about how the word of communication effect the sale of the
product.
iii. Understanding the customer profile for the Smartphones.
iv. Understanding and analysing the reasons of success of
Telecommunications in the Smartphone industry.
3.2 Objectives Of The Project:
a) To explore and the effect of word of mouth communication promoting smart
phone .
b) To evaluate the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the customers of
Samsung Smartphones& the reasons for the same.
In order to achieve the above stated objectives the researcher found it necessary
to gather information pertaining to the following:
i. I ndian smart phone industry,
ii. Samsung telecommunications and
iii. I ts rivals.







RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
Our hypothesis in this study is that todays smartphone users are increasingly
getting less demanding on the technicality details of the phone when considering the
purchase of a new smartphone. Using Smart phone as a case study, we will
investigate the various factors that drive consumers to purchase Smart phone , (i.e.
features of phone, social hype, design of phone, availability of support apps in the
phone).
The objective of this study will be used to determine the impact of smart phone
marketing strategy on the consumers. We will test the hypothesis using self-
administered surveys as our primary data and further support our hypothesis using
secondary research data gathered from the web.













3.3 What is Research?
Research is the systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge. It is
used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve
new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A
research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. In order to
test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may
replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary
purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation,
discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and
systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research
depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between
humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic,
social, business, etc.

A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttleworth - "In the
broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of
data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge."


3.4 What is Research Methodology?
The system of collecting data for research projects is known as research
methodology. The data may be collected for either theoretical or practical
research for example management research may be strategically conceptualized
along with operational planning methods and change management.
Some important factors in research methodology include validity of research
data, Ethics and the reliability of measures most of your work is finished by the
time you finish the analysis of your data.



Formulating of research questions along with sampling weather probable or
non-probable is followed by measurement that includes surveys and scaling.
This is followed by research design, which may be either experimental or quasi-
experimental. The last two stages are data analysis and finally writing the
research paper, which is organised carefully into graphs and tables so that only
important relevant data is shown.
3.4.1 Types of Research Methods
Qualitative
Quantitaive
Mixed
Critical and action oriented

3.5 What is Data collection?
Data collection depends on the research design (quantitative or qualitative
design). Tutors India helps in a survey tool validation and also online and face
to face data collection process. We help you to conduct surveys [in person
Interviews: Formal to informal; structured to unstructured; focus group
discussion, observations, self-administered questionnaire, diaries, citizen report
cards, Delphi techniques, expert judgement, online surveys, secondary sources
such as journals, newspaper articles, annual reports, government sources such
as census, budgets, policies, procedures, etc.

The preparation of a sucessful dissertation involves conducting effective
research, analysing data and results presentation all which require a high level
of statistcal expertise. We at tutorsindia provide solution from formulating
methodology to the results presentation. You can approach statswork with any
or all of the following steps:
Framing your Research Methodology
Study design
Sample size calculation and justification
Development of questionnaire


Statistical techniques
3.6 What is Qualitative Analysis?
Understanding some aspects of social life and its methods through text rather
than numbers, as data for analysis. Although there are criticism for such
methodology, you need such methdology that the survey can't answer very well.
Some common criticism include:
Findings lack rigour
Small sample size
Not necessarily representative of the broader population




Common Qualitative research methodology include
Focus Group discussion
Interview techniques

3.7 Research Method:
For this particular study, the method of acquiring information from the customer
needed to be both easy to use and understand. Therefore the researcher decided
to use the written survey method. Under this method, the information was
collected from the customers using a research instrument called a
Questionnaire (which was prepared by the researcher himself). This
questionnaire was a structured questionnaire, which had definite, concrete and
predetermined questions. These questions were presented with exactly the same


wording and in the same order to all the respondents. The questionnaire
consisted of both closed ended&open ended questions.

3.8 What is a Questionnaire?
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and
other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is
not always the case. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton.
Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they
are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or
telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to
compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users.
Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able
to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some demographic groups
conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical.
As a type of survey, questionnaires also have many of the same problems
relating to question construction and wording that exist in other types of opinion
polls.



3.8.1 Question types
Usually, a questionnaire consists of a number of questions that the respondent
has to answer in a set format. A distinction is made between open-ended and
closed-ended questions. An open-ended question asks the respondent to
formulate his own answer, whereas a closed-ended question has the respondent
pick an answer from a given number of options. The response options for a
closed-ended question should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Four types
of response scales for closed-ended questions are distinguished:
Dichotomous, where the respondent has two options


Nominal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two unordered
options
Ordinal-polytomous, where the respondent has more than two ordered
options
(Bounded)Continuous, where the respondent is presented with a
continuous scale
A respondent's answer to an open-ended question is coded into a response scale
afterwards. An example of an open-ended question is a question where the
testee has to complete a sentence (sentence completion item).





3.9 Data Source
The research makes use of both Primary & Secondary Data.
a. Primary Data: The customer survey was based on the primary data
which was collected by the researcher through one to one interaction with
the customers, using the questionnaire.
b. Secondary Data: use of secondary data was also made in the research.
The purpose was to gather information as to who is a customer, what is
customer satisfaction, information pertaining to four-wheelers market,
company profile & research papers on customer satisfaction. This
secondary data was collected from various websites, Magazines &
broachers, management books and articles.



3.10 What is Research Population?
A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects
that is the main focus of a scientific query. It is for the benefit of the population
that researches are done. However, due to the large sizes of populations,
researchers often cannot test every individual in the population because it is too
expensive and time-consuming. This is the reason why researchers rely
on sampling techniques.
A research population is also known as a well-defined collection of individuals
or objects known to have similar characteristics. All individuals or objects
within a certain population usually have a common, binding characteristic or
trait.
Usually, the description of the population and the common binding
characteristic of its members are the same. "Government officials" is a well-
defined group of individuals which can be considered as a population and all the
members of this population are indeed officials of the government.

3.10.1Relationship of sample and population in research
A sample is simply a subset of the population. The concept of sample arises
from the inability of the researchers to test all the individuals in a given
population. The sample must be representative of the population from which it
was drawn and it must have good size to warrant statistical analysis.
The main function of the sample is to allow the researchers to conduct the study
to individuals from the population so that the results of their study can be used
to derive conclusions that will apply to the entire population. It is much like a
give-and-take process. The population gives the sample, and then it
takes conclusions from the results obtained from the sample.
3.10.2 Types of population in research
TARGET POPULATION
Target population refers to the ENTIRE group of individuals or objects to which
researchers are interested in generalizing the conclusions. The target population
usually has varying characteristics and it is also known as the theoretical
population.



ACCESSIBLE POPULATION
The accessible population is the population in research to which the researchers
can apply their conclusions. This population is a subset of the target population
and is also known as the study population. It is from the accessible population
that researchers draw their samples.

3.11 Target population & Sampling plan:
The target population consisted of all the existing customers of smartphones
(any make) and the research area was Dehradun.



3.12 Target Areas:
In order to conduct the survey and meet the targeted audience the researcher
visited various places.
These places included:
1)Major cell phone shops,
2)Major cell phone review website,
3)College Campus,
4) Social networking websites.















Chapter I V
Suggestions & Findings







4.1 Major reasons for the success of Samsung mobile are:-

Its design concepts are impeccable
Just like Apple, Samsung knows how to create a clean gadget and its gadgets
have some of the best designs in the market. The Galaxy Tab 8.9/10.1 tablets
for example, come with a prominent display and slick footprint. Its high-end
smartphone, the Galaxy SII offers a neat design and also an excellent Super-
AMOLED display that rivals even the IPS display of the iPhone 4. Consumer
appreciates quality and many are turning to latest Samsungs products.

It has a strong brand
An essential element of Apples success over the decades has been its strong
brand. Consumers everywhere trust a manufacturer that offers high quality
products and services with each passing years. Samsung also has a strong brand
reputation in consumer electronic industry, from refrigerator to TV to air
conditioning to smartphone. Many loyal consumers purchase a host of Samsung
electronic products for most of their needs. Samsung products are well-received
for decades and the trust helps Samsung in selling smartphone and tablets.

Better features


When we compare mobile devices released by both companies, it is rather tough
to find things that make the iPhone stands out. Samsungs latest devices, the
Galaxy S2 offers a huge 4.3 display, faster processor and 4G connectivity,
while the Galaxy Tab 10.1 also has bigger display, HSPA+ connectivity and
built-in social features. On almost all fronts, Samsung offers more capable
devices at better pricing.



Bigger display
As noted previously, Samsung devices offer more screen area. The Samsung
Galaxy SII has 4.3 display while the iPhone 4 has 3.5 display. On the other
hand, the Galaxy Tab 10.1 has 10.1 display, which is slightly bigger than iPad
2s 9.7 display. The difference may be insignificant but the extra real estate can
make gaming, web browsing and movie playback better. It is speculated that the
iPad 3 will offer a bigger display, however, for now; Samsung offers a more
capable tablet and bigger screen than the iPad 2 at lower price.

Android is gaining converts
Although the iOS is a better mobile platform than the Android, it is still
debatable whether it justifies the significantly higher prices. Whats more,
Googles OS is the most commonly used in the mobile industry and it will
continue to be so. Android will significantly dominate the mobile marketplace,
just like Microsoft Windows in the computing market. Samsung knows that
and it is capitalizing on that prediction

It focuses on consumers
Some manufacturers in mobile space, like Nokia and Sony Ericsson are trying
to do a little bit too much. They seek to appeal both the general consumers and
the enterprise and in the process they cant maintain or achieve a strong
presence on both areas. Apple and Samsung appeal mainly to consumers, but
they still accommodate corporate customers if they want to join the fun.


Samsung products including its home appliances and mobile gadgets are
focused on consumers, which makes it a more formidable opponent to Apple.
More options
Apple has been panned repeatedly by critics due to its reluctance in introducing
more devices, which gives users very limited options. Samsung on the other
hand, tend to flood the smartphone market. From the lowly Galaxy Mini to the
very powerful Galaxy SII, Samsungs Android devices can easily reach many
market segments. It is also rumored that Samsung will release seven more
Android phones. Samsung is ostensibly aware that by offering a wide range of
phones and tablets, price-conscious customers can have more options. Should
Apple release a cheaper 3 phone or 7 tablet?
Better consumer awareness
When the manufacturers began to release its early Android devices, there was
very little awareness of their products. It appeared that all the rage was around
Apples products and competitors were left out in the cold. However, by
copying some of Apple concepts and providing things that consumers want,
Samsung devices are gaining fame gradually in many parts of the world. Thats
a bad news for Apple. Cupertino seems to cling on the assumption that its
design appeal will always enthrall the consumers, but Apple might find it hard
to leverage on that advantage for too long.

Nokias outdated operating OS
Nokias Operating System, Symbian operating system virtually became
obsolete with the launch of Android. Symbian OS didnt have even a fraction of
applications available on the Android market. This led to a major downfall in
the sales of the previous market leader Nokia. Samsung immediately cashed on
this opportunity and introduced a variety of handsets in all price ranges.

Blackberry Messenger Controversy:-


In 2002, a Canadian company Research in Motion (RIM) released a smartphone
BlackBerry, which supported push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging,
internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services as well as
a multi-touch interface. One of the most significant features of this smartphone
was its extreme security in messaging through advanced encryption techniques.
This extreme security implemented by BlackBerry services is now in news for
risking national security in some of its fastest growing markets like UAE, Saudi
Arabia and India.
UAE, Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan have all voiced similar concerns over
wanting to be able to monitor Blackberrys encrypted text messaging for
national security reasons. Western critics have been hammering these countries
for infringing citizens rights.
With Blackberry being regularly in controversies, the sale chart took a major
blow. As an immediate corrective method, Blackberry slashed their prices. With
Blackberry prices being cut down by a major margin, Blackberry no longer had
the image of being a premium smartphone maker. This meant that people would
now consider another brands in the high end smartphone market.
Samsung was one of the first brands to realize this opportunity and cashed it in
with its handsets like Galaxy S, SII, etc.

Pricing Strategy:-
Samsung always made sure their handsets were not overpriced and the
competitors could not offer a cheaper better alternative. This was one of the
major reasons for success of Samsung Mobile.

Focus on the Youth:-
Samsung mobiles always focused on the youths requirements while adding
features to its cellphone. They launched the Corby series specifically for the
young college going generation. They realized the potential customers in the
young generation of a country.












4.2MAJOR THREATS:-

1. Entrance of new global players:-
With the entrance of new global players like HTC, Apple, Dell, Acer, etc,
Samsung faces an entirely new nature of threat. These brands have a reputation
of specializing in portable gadgets like laptops, cellphones, etc. whereas
Samsung has an image of being a manufacturer of home appliances. It brings
down the brand appeal of Samsung and might make the consumers think of
considering the alternatives available.

2. Battery Life:-
One of the major reasons of dissatisfaction among the owners of Samsung
smartphones was the extremely poor battery life. A few people even switched to
different companies due to the extremely poor battery back-up.

3. Unexciting Design:-
Maximum composition of the interviewed lot complained about the plain,
monotonous and unexciting design of the handsets. Although they had no issues
with the fit & finish or quality of the product, they did complain about how
almost all their handsets looked extremely alike. They also said that this


reduced the appeal of the high priced handsets as they looked like their cheaper
siblings.

4. Same Product Name:-
As Samsung uses only 3 names, Galaxy, Omnia and Wave, it makes
distinguishing their products from each other a very a daunting task. A lot of
people were unaware of the various handsets Samsung had to offer as they
Galaxy alone has over 10 models. Although Samsung has a huge product range,
consumers find it very hard to distinguish a handset from another. This is a huge
disadvantage as consumers end up complaining about lack of variety in
handsets.
5. No consumer focused handset:-
Samsung has no handset which is focused on a specific lot of consumer. For
example, Acer launched a limited edition Ferrari handset which sported a huge
Ferrari logo. Sony Ericsson, HTC, Nokia, Blackberry introduced their handsets
in a wide range of colors and textures. This lured a big chunk of female
consumers. The fact that most of the handsets by Samsung are available in black
& white is eating away a major chunk of their potential sales figure.

6.Faulty OS:-
One of the major reasons for the success of Samsung mobiles was that their
handsets supported Googles Android operating system. Although that is a
cause of concern as well. As the operating system is extremely new, it still has a
lot of flaws. It is a normal thing for the phone to stop responding, crash and get
infected by virus. Making their operating system crash proof like BlackBerry
OS or iOS is very important for their survival.

7. Average Audio Quality:-
Samsungs handsets come bundled with headphones which the consumers
found extremely average and not better than what the competition had to offer.
HTC paired up with Beats Audio, Sony Ericsson drew music components from
Sonys Audio division, Nokia paired up with Sennheiser.





DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. Did you actively seek advice and guidance from people you know when choosing
your smart phone ?
Yes 65
No 35




yes
no




2. When looking around for and choosing your smart phone was your choice
influenced by any of the ..
a) Your children 2 your friend 20
b) Your collegue 4 your parent 40
c) Your partner 6 other 40












Your children 2 your
friend
your collegue 4 your
parent
your partner to other




3. How would you rate your experience getting guidance from other people when
looking around for and choosing your smart phone
a) Poor 10
b) Fair 30
c) Good 30
d) Very good 20
e) Dont know 10
















Poor
Fair
Good
Very good
Dont Know




4. How did you seek advice and guidance
a) Free to face 30
b) Over planes 20
c) Only why social media 10
d) By email 20
e) Online why instant 10
f) Other 10















Free to face
Over planes
Only why social media
By email
Online why instant
Others






5. Is word of mouth better than advertisement

Yes () NO ()








Yes
No



6. Do you use or own a smartphone as your primary mobile phone?
Yes () No ()







yes
No







Chapter V:
Conclusions












Conclusions:-

Samsung has successfully cashed in every opportunity available.

As Samsung was flexible to the changing trends in the market and its ability
to react quickly made it possible for the manufacturer to be one of the early
adopters of Android and acquire a major chunk of market.

Samsung cleverly bagged in every opportunity its competitors missed or they
themselves gave to Samsung.

Samsung quickly took advantage of Nokias(the previous market leader)
rigid policy towards leaving Symbian OS and adopting another OS.

Samsung timely recognized the potential of growth in Googles Android OS
which is one of the major reasons of its success.

Samsung also took advantage of the controversy Blackberry was dragged
into and established itself as one of the major players of the high-end market.

Samsung now has a huge lot of loyal consumers who would not even
consider a BlackBerry, Nokia or Apple as an alternative to their existing
handset.


Samsung needs to continuously innovate their product as that is their key to
market domination.

Samsung aggressive pricing strategy has been one of the major reasons for
their success.

Samsungs separate brand ambassador, Bollywood actor, Aamir Khan for its
mobile division is a step taken by Samsung towards making it clear that
Samsung mobile and home appliance division are separate yet owned by the
same house.














Recommendations:-

Samsung needs to pay attention to the aesthetic front of their handsets as
they are losing a lot of consumers only because of the dull, monotonous looks
of their handsets.

Samsung should enter into a joint venture with any already established,
reputed audio enhancement manufacturing company like Skullcandy or
Panasonic as they are already very reputed but have not entered cellphone
market. This would lead to mutual benefit and also make the media front of
Samsung a strong point.

Samsung needs to pay attention to its camera quality as for some consumers
their handset is their only camera. A poor camera could result in Samsung
losing its potential consumer to Sony or Apple.

Samsung immediately needs to solve its low battery back-up issue as there
was a high level of dissatisfaction among the consumers on this ground.

Samsung needs to make sure that their Wi-Fi components are at par with
their competitors components.

Samsung should collaborate with Google and try and eliminate all the flaws
and make the tweaked update available to its existing consumers free of cost.


Samsung needs to provide some kind of loyalty rewards to their existing
consumers who while upgrading their handset stick to Samsung like exchange
bonus, etc. so that they can retain their loyal consumers.

Samsung needs to introduce their new cellphone with new names like HTC
or Acer. Too many handsets with the name of Galaxy confuse the consumers.

Samsung should bundle up better accessories with their handsets like
Bluetooth handsets, Carrying case or leather cover, etc.

Samsung needs to pay attention to the overall quality and performance of
their entry level handsets. Because if the consumers are not satisfied with their
current handsets, when they upgrade they would probably choose products of
other companies.

Samsung needs to re-establish its brand name as some people still consider it
to be a company which manufactures home appliances and not as a company
which manufactures high end, technologically advanced handsets.








Annexure





QUESTIONNAIRE
7. Did you actively seek advice and guidance from people you know when choosing
your smart phone ?
Yes () No ()



8. When looking around for and choosing your smart phone was your choice
influenced by any of the
d) Your children 2 your friend
e) Your collegue 4 your parent
f) Your partner 6 other
9. How would you rate your experience getting guidance from other people when
looking around for and choosing your smart phone
f) Poor
g) Fair
h) Good
i) Very good
j) Dont know
10. How did you seek advice and guidance
g) Free to face
h) Over planes
i) Only why social media
j) By email
k) Online why instant
l) Other
11. Is word of mouth better than advertisement
Yes () NO ()
12. Do you use or own a smartphone as your primary mobile phone?
Yes () No ()









BI BLI OGRAPHY

References & guidance for the dissertation topic from the following
links and directories:-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodology
http://www.ihmctan.edu/PDF/notes/Research_Methodology.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samsung_S8500
http://www.tutorsindia.com/research-methodology-help.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bada
http://www.ktl.fi/publications/ehrm/product3/section2_1.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Questionnaire#Question_types
http://www.nokia.com/in-en/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bada
http://www.htc.com/in/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bada
http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-population.html
http://www.apple.com/iphone/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm,_Inc.
http://www.apple.com/
http://www.samsung.com/in/consumer/mobile-phone/mobile-phone
The Economic Times, 26
th
August 2010.
Mobile (Monthly magazine) December 2011-March 2012 Editions.
Digit, October, 2011.