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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The insulation of components of a power transmission system is stressed not only by the normal
operating voltage but in a higher extent by overvoltage from lightning discharges, switching
operations and faults. The level of transient overvoltage has a strong effect to power system. This
problem covers wide area of practical applications such as co-ordination of the overvoltage;
overcurrent with their permissible values electromagnetic compatibility relay protection systems
etc. When the voltage in a circuit or part of it is raised above its upper design limit, this is known
as overvoltage. The condition maybe can hazardous. Depending on its duration, the overvoltage
event can be transient, a voltage spike or permanent, leading to a power surge.
Transients are momentary changes in voltage or current that occurs over a short period of time.
Transient overvoltage caused by switching operations or lightning strikes to electric facilities
have significant potential to damage equipment or disrupt operation. In order to design and select
the proper insulation level for transmission systems, it is necessary to analyze the different kinds
of overvoltages, especially the transient overvoltage thats a short phenomenon of power system
initiated by action of switches by fault.
Switching overvoltage is among the important factors to be considered in the design of
transmission lines, particularly in the system with the rated voltage above 300 kV. Switching
overvoltage is one of the internal overvoltages which generate many changes in the operating
conditions of network. There are a great variety of events that would initiate a switching surge in
a power network, whenever a switch in an electric circuit is opened or closed; this is true for
transmission as well as distribution circuits. The interruption by switching operations of a circuit
having inductance and capacitance may result in transient oscillations that can cause overvoltage
on the systems. The main operations that can produce switching overvoltages are line
energization and re-energization, switching off of small capacitive and inductive currents, fault
initiation and fault clearing. During energization of a transmission line the main concerns of the
system operators are the length of the line to be energized, the size of the underlying load and the
thermal limits of the transmission line. Energizing small sections will prolong the restoration
time and energizing a large section can lead to overvoltage. The difference between re-
energization and energization study are the initial conditions of the system, especially for the
transmission line.
1.2 Project Objective
1. To understanding switching transient overvoltage occurrences in power system
2. To study and conduct research on developing transient switching overvoltage circuit in
ATP by other researchers
3. To develop line energization, re-energization and capacitor switching circuit in ATP
draw.
1.3 Problem Statement
When an overhead line is energized by closing the line circuit breaker, some switching transients
are generated not only on the line, but also in the supply network. Transmission line switching
transient and its severity depends on the difference between the supply and the line voltages at
the instant of energization. If energization occurs at an instant when the difference between
supply voltage and the line voltage is high, a large travelling wave would be injected on the
transmission line. At the time, the wave reaches the open far end of the line, it reflected and a
high transient overvoltage is experienced. The operation in this level is necessary to study the
internal overvoltage such as switching overvoltage. Switching transients are concern for many
EHV transmission networks, especially for long transmission lines. According to the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) recommendation, all equipments designed for
operating voltage above 300kV should be tested under switching impulses, withstand voltage of
the system and the equipment is about 2 -3 p.u. Therefore switching overvoltage have to be kept
control.
The quality of electric power has been a constant topic of study, mainly because poor power
quality can lead to economic losses, especially in industrial processes, due to loss production.
Due to increasing installations of power electronics based equipment, the power system
disturbances has become a common phenomenon. The main common power quality problems
for consumer are transient voltages in the system that results from line energization and re-
energization. The energization transient for a power quality issue is important because it is one of
the most frequent system switching operations and is the phenomenon that this thesis addresses.
These switching transients have the ability to adversely affect industrial customers power
electronic and no linear loads.
1.4 Scope of Research
The purpose of this project is to study and conduct research on developing the transient
switching overvoltage circuit in ATP Draw. Firstly study publicly available reports and articles
pertaining to switching transient overvoltage. The main operations that can produce switching
overvoltage are line energization and re-energization, capacitor and reactor switching,
occurrences of fault and breaker openings. Such switching transients are of concern for many
extra high voltage transmission networks, especially for long transmission lines.
The line energization, re-energization to single line to ground fault and capacitor bank switching
were model in ATP Draw. From the obtained results discussion were done compared with article
and journals.
1.5 Layout of thesis.
Chapter 1 presents general introduction of transient switching overvoltage, objective and
methodology.
Chapter 2 describes in detail about transient switching overvoltage and literature review.
Chapter 3 discusses the about the modeling line energization and re-energization in ATP draw.
Chapter 4 presents the simulation results and discussion.
Chapter 5 presents summary of the result, discussion, the conclusion and suggestion for further
research.