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SYLLABUS

Complementary and Alternative medicine


INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS

This class will cover a wide spectrum of different types of Complementary and
Alternative medicine. What they are and how they are used and their benefits.
At the end of this course, you will
Know what Complementary and Alternative Medicine is.
Will have a better understanding of the types of CAM
Will be able to make an educated choice when it comes to choosing a CAM.

RESOURCES
Online Resources
http://www.healthandwellness.kaplan.edu/cam.html
http://www.holisticonline.com/herb_home.htm
http://nccam.nih.gov/

COURSE SCHEDULE

This is a 3-week class on Complementary and Alternative medicine. This will be free and
open to the public, and each of the 3 sessions will be 1 hours long
CONTACT I NFORMATI ON

Larissa Wetterling
Office hour: Monday Friday 8:00am 3:00 pm.
larissawetterling@gmail.com
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 2

Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Week 1:
Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health
What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)?
Complementary and alternative medicine, as defined by NCCAM, is a group of diverse medical
and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of
conventional medicine (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, n.d.).
While some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key
questions that are yet to be answered through well-designed scientific studiesquestions such as
whether these therapies are safe and whether they work for the diseases or medical conditions for
which they are used (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, n.d.).
Complementary Versus Alternative
Nearly 40 percent of Americans use health care approaches developed outside of mainstream
Western, or conventional, medicine for specific conditions or overall well-being.
Complementary generally refers to using a non-mainstream approach, together with conventional
medicine.
Alternative refers to using a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine.
Most people use non-mainstream approaches along with conventional treatments. The
boundaries between complementary and conventional medicine overlap and change with time.
For example, guided imagery and massage, both once considered complementary or alternative,
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 3
are used regularly in some hospitals to help with pain management (National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine, n.d.).
Integrative Medicine
One example of Integrative Medicine: Cancer treatment centers with integrative health care
programs may offer services such as acupuncture and meditation to help manage symptoms and
side effects for patients who are receiving conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy.
There are various definitions for integrative health care, but several facts about this growing
health trend are clear:
Many individuals, health care providers, and health care systems are integrating various
practices with origins outside of mainstream medicine into treatment and health promotion.
Driving factors include marketing of integrative care by health care providers to
consumers who perceive benefits to health or well-being, and emerging evidence that some of
the perceived benefits are real or meaningful.
In many instances, a lack of reliable data makes it difficult for people to make informed
decisions about using integrative health care.
Heath approaches generally falling into one of two subgroupsnatural products or
mind and body practices.
Natural Products
This group includes a variety of products, such as herbs (also known as botanicals), vitamins and
minerals, and probiotics. They are widely marketed, readily available to consumers, and often
sold as dietary supplements.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 4
Mind and Body Practices
Mind and body practices include a large and diverse group of procedures or techniques
administered or taught by a trained practitioner or teacher. For example,
Acupuncture is a technique in which practitioners stimulate specific points on the body
most often by inserting thin needles through the skin.
Massage therapy includes many different techniques in which practitioners manually
manipulate the soft tissues of the body.
Most meditation techniques, such as mindfulness meditation or transcendental
meditation, involve ways in which a person learns to focus attention.
Movement therapies include a broad range of Eastern and Western movement-based
approaches; examples include Feldenkrais method, Alexander technique, Pilates, Rolfing
Structural Integration, and Trager psychophysical integration.
Relaxation techniques, such as breathing exercises, guided imagery, and progressive
muscle relaxation, are designed to produce the bodys natural relaxation response.
Spinal manipulation is practiced by health care professionals such as chiropractors,
osteopathic physicians, naturopathic physicians, physical therapists, and some medical doctors.
Practitioners perform spinal manipulation by using their hands or a device to apply a controlled
force to a joint of the spine. The amount of force applied depends on the form of
manipulation used.
Tai chi and qi gong are practices from traditional Chinese medicine that combine specific
movements or postures, coordinated breathing, and mental focus.
The various styles of yoga used for health purposes typically combine physical postures
or movement, breathing techniques, and meditation.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 5
The Role of NCCAM
The mission of NCCAM is to define, through rigorous scientific investigation, the usefulness and
safety of complementary health approaches and their roles in improving health care. NCCAMs
vision is that scientific evidence will inform decision making by the public, by health care
professionals, and by health policymakers regarding use and integration of complementary health
approaches. To learn more, visit the NCCAM Facts-at-a-Glance and Mission page at
nccam.nih.gov/about/ataglance.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 6
Week 2:
Alternative medicine ancient and modern
There are more than 70 different types of alternative therapy. Some are so well known that they
are almost mainstream medicines, while others seem so bizarre as still to be on the very fringes
of fringe medicine. Acupuncture, herbal medicine, Homoeopathy, and Aromatherapy are already
practiced in several countries. But others such as color therapy, Dowsing and Radiesthesia are
still to be introduced to potentially skeptical public. Some are used as alternatives, to replace
standard practices, while others are complementary and used in addition to the conventional
treatments (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, n.d.).
Acupuncture
The term acupuncture describes a family of procedures involving the stimulation of points on
the body using a variety of techniques. The acupuncture technique that has been most often
studied scientifically involves penetrating the skin with thin, solid, metallic needles that are
manipulated by the hands or by electrical stimulation. Practiced in China and other Asian
countries for thousands of years, acupuncture is one of the key components of traditional
Chinese medicine (NCCAM, n.d.).
Although millions of Americans use acupuncture each year, often for chronic pain, there has
been considerable controversy surrounding its value as a therapy and whether it is anything more
than placebo. Research exploring a number of possible mechanisms for acupunctures pain-
relieving effects is ongoing (NCCAM, n.d.).
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands
of years. TCM practitioners use herbal medicines and various mind and body practices, such as
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 7
acupuncture and tai chi, to treat or prevent health problems. In the United States, people use
TCM primarily as a complementary health approach. This fact sheet provides a general overview
of TCM and suggests sources for additional information (NCCAM, n.d.).
Homeopathy
Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is an alternative medical system that was
developed in Germany more than 200 years ago. This fact sheet provides a general overview of
homeopathy and suggests sources for additional information (NCCAM, n.d.).
Key Points
There is little evidence to support homeopathy as an effective treatment for any
specific condition.
Although people sometimes assume that all homeopathic remedies are highly diluted and
therefore unlikely to cause harm, some products labeled as homeopathic can contain substantial
amounts of active ingredients and therefore could cause side effects and drug interactions.
Homeopathic remedies are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
However, FDA does not evaluate the remedies for safety or effectiveness.
Several key concepts of homeopathy are inconsistent with fundamental concepts of
chemistry and physics. There are significant challenges in carrying out rigorous clinical research
on homeopathic remedies.
Tell all your health care providers about any complementary health practices you use.
Give them a full picture of all you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated
and safe care (NCCAM, n.d.).
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 8
Overview
The alternative medical system of homeopathy was developed in Germany at the end of the 18th
century. Supporters of homeopathy point to two unconventional theories: "like cures like"the
notion that a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy
people; and "law of minimum dose"the notion that the lower the dose of the medication, the
greater its effectiveness. Many homeopathic remedies are so diluted that no molecules of the
original substance remain (NCCAM, n.d.).
Homeopathic remedies are derived from substances that come from plants, minerals, or animals,
such as red onion, arnica (mountain herb), crushed whole bees, white arsenic, poison ivy,
belladonna (deadly nightshade), and stinging nettle. Homeopathic remedies are often formulated
as sugar pellets to be placed under the tongue; they may also be in other forms, such as
ointments, gels, drops, creams, and tablets. Treatments are "individualized" or tailored to each
personit is not uncommon for different people with the same condition to receive
different treatments (NCCAM, n.d.).
Use in the United States
According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, which included a comprehensive
survey of the use of complementary health practices by Americans, an estimated 3.9 million
adults and 910,000 children used homeopathy in the previous year. These estimates include use
of over-the-counter products labeled as "homeopathic," as well as visits with a homeopathic
practitioner. Out-of-pocket costs for adults were $2.9 billion for homeopathic medicines and
$170 million for visits to homeopathic practitioners (NCCAM, n.d.).
http://nccam.nih.gov/health/homeopathy
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 9
Aromatherapy
Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs, or trees) as therapy to
improve physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Patients with cancer use aromatherapy mainly to improve their quality of life, such as reducing
stress and anxiety (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Essential oils like Roman chamomile, geranium, lavender, or cedar wood are the basic materials
of aromatherapy (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Interest in aromatherapy grew in the late 20th century as a form of complementary medicine.
Aromatherapy may work by sending chemical messages to the part of the brain that affects
moods and emotions (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Essential oils are most often used by inhaling them or by applying them in diluted form to the
skin (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Laboratory studies and animal studies have shown that certain essential oils have antibacterial,
antiviral, antifungal, calming, or energizing effects (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Aromatherapy research with cancer patients has mainly studied its effect on other health
conditions and quality-of-life issues such as cancer-related symptoms, stress, and anxiety. There
are no studies discussing aromatherapy as a treatment for cancer (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Safety testing on essential oils has found very few bad side effects. Lavender and tea tree oils
have been found to have some hormone -like effects (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
Aromatherapy products do not need approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration because
no specific medical claims are made (National Cancer Institute, n.d.).
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/aromatherapy/patient

Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 10
Week 3
What is Holistic Medicine?
There are many alternative health practices pay attention to the mental, emotional, and spiritual
aspects of health, in addition to the physical body (Holisticonline.com, n.d. ). Therapies like
hypnosis and visualization claims to be able to change physical conditions through purely mental
interventions. They believe that our bodies are remarkably resilient machines, capable, with
some occasional prodding or intervention, of healing themselves. The name "holistic medicine"
came from this unification of the mind and the body (Holisticonline.com, n.d. ). Holistic
practitioners treat the "whole person" as opposed to the individual organs of the body where
symptoms occur. The importance of self-care and preventing illness are stressed by holistic
practitioners (Holisticonline.com, n.d. ).
Integrative Medicine Treatment Approaches for Common Health Complaints
Health Problems knowledgebase is the best place to start to get a brief overview of the treatments
available for common health conditions by conventional and alternative approaches. For more
detailed coverage of any specific topic look under the appropriate subjects in Holisticonline.com.
Humor Therapy
Finding humor in a situation and laughing freely with others can be a powerful antidote to stress.
It is also a very good coping mechanism when you are suffering from deadly diseases such as
cancer. Many people find that maintaining a sense of humor at such occasions are useful for
good quality of life. Our sense of humor gives us the ability to find delight, experience joy, and
to release tension. This can be an effective self-care tool. Scientific evidence on the effectiveness
of humor as a therapy is now overwhelming (Holisticonline.com, n.d.).
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 11
Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter
Dr. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. Stanley Tan of Loma Linda University in California have
been studying the effects of laughter on the immune system (Holisticonline.com, n.d.). To date
their published studies have shown that laughing lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones,
increases muscle flexion, and boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-
cells, disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and B-cells, which produce disease-
destroying antibodies (Holisticonline.com, n.d.). Laughter also triggers the release of endorphins,
the body's natural painkillers, and produces a general sense of well-being (Holisticonline.com,
n.d.).
Laughter Activates the Immune System
In Berk's study, the physiological response produced by belly laughter was opposite of what is
seen in classical stress, supporting the conclusion that mirthful laughter is a eustress state -- a
state that produces healthy or positive emotions (Holisticonline.com, n.d.).
Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter
Dr. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. Stanley Tan of Loma Linda University in California have
been studying the effects of laughter on the immune system. To date their published studies have
shown that laughing lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, increases muscle flexion,
and boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells, disease-fighting
proteins called Gamma-interferon and B-cells, which produce disease-destroying antibodies.
Laughter also triggers the release of endorphins, the body's natural painkillers, and produces a
general sense of well-being (Holisticonline.com, n.d.).
Following is a summary of his research, taken from an interview published in the
September/October 1996 issue of the Humor and Health Journal.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 12
Laughter Activates the Immune System
In Berk's study, the physiological response produced by belly laughter was opposite of what is
seen in classical stress, supporting the conclusion that mirthful laughter is a eustress state -- a
state that produces healthy or positive emotions (Holisticonline.com, n.d.).
Research results indicate that, after exposure to humor, there is a general increase in activity
within the immune system, including: An increase in the number and activity level of natural
killer cells that attack viral infected cells and some types of cancer and tumor cells. An increase
in activated T cells (T lymphocytes). There are many T cells that await activation. Laughter
appears to tell the immune system to "turn it up a notch." An increase in the antibody IgA
(immunoglobulin A), which fights upper respiratory tract insults and infections. Laughter also
provides an increase in the gamma interferon, which tells various components of the immune
system to "turn on." An increase in IgB, the immunoglobulin produced in the greatest quantity
in body, as well as an increase in Complement 3, which helps antibodies to pierce dysfunctional
or infected cells. The increase in both substances was not only present while subjects watched a
humor video; there also was a lingering effect that continued to show increased levels the next
day.
Laughter Decreases "Stress" Hormones
The results of the study also supported research indicating a general decrease in stress hormones
that constrict blood vessels and suppress immune activity. These were shown to decrease in the
study group exposed to humor.
For example, levels of epinephrine were lower in the group both in anticipation of humor and
after exposure to humor. Epinephrine levels remained down throughout the experiment.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 13
In addition, dopamine levels (as measured by dopac) were also decreased. Dopamine is involved
in the "fight or flight response" and is associated with elevated blood pressure.
Laughing is aerobic, providing a workout for the diaphragm and increasing the body's ability to
use oxygen.
Laughter brings in positive emotions that can enhance not replace -- conventional treatments.
Hence it is another tool available to help fight the disease. Experts believe that, when used as an
adjunct to conventional care, laughter can reduce pain and aid the healing process. For one thing,
laughter offers a powerful distraction from pain. In a study published in the Journal of Holistic
Nursing patients were told one-liners after surgery and before painful medication were
administered; those exposed to humor perceived less pain when compared to patients who didn't
get a dose of humor as part of their therapy.
Perhaps, the biggest benefit of laughter is that it is free and has no known negative side effects.
So, here is a summary of how humor contributes to physical health by Paul McGhee
Muscle Relaxation - Belly laugh results in muscle relaxation. While you laugh, the muscles that
do not participate in the belly laugh, relaxes. After you finish laughing those muscles involved in
the laughter start to relax. So, the action takes place in two stages.
Reduction of Stress Hormones - Laughter reduces at least four of neuroendocrine hormones
associated with stress response. These are epinephrine, cortisol, dopac, and growth hormone.
Immune System Enhancement - Clinical studies have shown that humor strengthens the immune
system.
Pain Reduction - Humor allows a person to "forget" about pains such as aches, arthritis, etc.
Cardiac Exercise - A belly laugh is equivalent to "an internal jogging." Laughter can provide
good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercises.
Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 14
Blood Pressure - Women seem to benefit more than men in preventing hypertension.
Respiration - Frequent belly laughter empties your lungs of more air than it takes in resulting in a
cleansing effect - similar to deep breathing. This is especially beneficial for patients who are
suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments.

Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 15
References:
Holisticonline.com. (n.d. ). Alternative Medicine: Definitions. Retrieved from
Holisticonline.com:
http://www.holisticonline.com/Alt_Medicine/altmed_definitions.htm#HolisticMedicine
Holisticonline.com. (n.d.). Humor Therapy. Retrieved from Holisticonline.com:
http://holisticonline.com/Humor_Therapy/humor_therapy_introduction.htm
National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Aromatherapy and Essential Oils. Retrieved from National
Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Health:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/aromatherapy/patient
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (n.d.). What is Complementary
and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from Get the Facts:
http://cim.ucdavis.edu/clubs/camsig/whatiscam.pdf
NCCAM. (n.d.). Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Heath: What's In a Name. Retrieved
from National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM:
http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam#integrative
NCCAM. (n.d.). Homeopathy: An Introduction. Retrieved from National Center for
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM):
http://nccam.nih.gov/health/homeopathy
NCCAM. (n.d.). Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction . Retrieved from National
Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM):
http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/chinesemed.htm

Assignment | Unit 5 Lesson Plan 16