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Warra

WELCOME TO TECHSTUFF!!
nty
1997 David C. Farthing
Revision
4.07
7
Accur
A Compilation of technical formula, solutions, and manufacturer's application notes.
Compiled by David C. Farthing as a service to those who need to know.
acy
Use Mouse to Click on Button to GO TO desired formulas.
Conta
Instructions
Fill in new data in yellow boxes.
Boiler
Pump
Gener
Refrig
Heatin
Burne
s ct
al
eratio
Valve
Contr
g
r
and
Info
Calcul
n
Sizing Produ

Compile January 14, 1997

Month

Year

Contents
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Date of Rev.
04.10.07

ols Loads Flow Electri


Calcul Revisio Hydro
ct
ations Steam Loads
-Trans
& ations
c
nics
n
Select
mitter Stuff Piping Motor
Notes
ion
s&
Data Data
General Calculations
Guide
Volu FluidVFD
Volumes in Cylindrical and Square Sided Tanks
me Water Content in an Air Stream
AIR
TEM
PRE
Temperature Conversions
P Pressure Conversions
SSU
ENE
Conversions BTU/KW KW/BTU
Fina
RE Energy
RGY
Financial Analysis of a Project
ncial
Heating Loads
BTU Load of liquid in Square & Cylindrical tanks
BTU Calculating
Fan
Steam Load Across Fan Coils
Coil Flowing Fluid Heating Loads
FHL
B&E Building + Equipment Heating Load Combination
Equi
Solid Materials & Equipment Heating Loads
p Ht
Refrigeration Loads
Refri Refrigeration loads of flowing liquids
g.
Boiler Calculations

BHP Boiler Horsepower from BTU and/or Pound Per Hour Steam Flow
Chi Fan Laws for Boiler Burner Applications
FAN
O2/C
mne Rite Boiler Index for Stack & Boiler, Atmospheric & Power Burner
Combustion Efficiency Savings with O2 Trim & CO influence
O
Tank
y Condensate & Feedwater Tank Sizing
Eco
Trim
Size Economizer Calculations
Com
FW
no Excess Air & Oxygen Analysis & Combustion Air Requirements
bTem
Air The effect of Feedwater Temperature on Boiler Horsepower
Syst
Syst The effect of Boiler Operating Pressure on System Design - Firetube Boilers
p
ems The effect of Boiler Operating Pressure on System Design - Watertube Boilers
emsSCA The effect of Scale & Soot Build-up on Heat Transfer in Boilers
DR.
W Dr. Mac Brockway's Boiler Water Chemistry Class
LE
CSD
BEN CSD-1 Fire & Water Side Control Requirements
MAC
BLD
1 Benchmarking a Boiler
CHM
Boiler Blowdown Calculations
OW
MKU
K Amount of Dissolved Oxygen in Make-up Feedwater vs. Temp.
N
P
O2 ValveProving Sequencing Test Calculation
VPS
Valve
Sizing CV Calculations
Gas
Liqu
Gas Flow Control Valve Sizing
Valv
Stea
Liquid Flow Control Valve Sizing
id
e Steam Flow Control Valve Sizing
m
Val
Pumps
Valand Hydronics
Pum
Pum
Centrifugal Pump Affinity Laws
p Pump NPSH Calculator
Exp
ps
Hydr
NPS
ansi Expansion Tank Sizing Calculations
PUM
onic
H Hydronic Zone Flow Calculations
on
Ps Pump VFD Affinity Laws & Curves
Electrical,
VFD Control and Instrumentation Stuff
Volt Controller Out Put Voltage v. Impedance and Transmitter Troubleshooter
OHM
OHMS Laws
age
IAS
S Instrument Application Selection Guide
G
VFD Variable Frequency Drive Calculations
Steam Stuff

Main
Leak
s
Hea
Reli
Tabl
Sup
s
t
ef
es
erhe
Rec
Val
at
Ste

Condensate Loads & Steam Main Trap Sizing


Cost of Leaking Steam Traps in Lost Steam and Revenue
Steam Tables
Calculating Superheat in Pressure Reducing Stations
Blowdown Heat Recovery

Relief Valves
over
Rec
Cost to Produce Steam in $/Kpph
am
Flow
yMeasurement & Piping Calculations
Flow
over
$$ Gas/Steam Flow & Steam Velocity
y
Frict
Calc Single Pipe Friction Loss Calculations

Bac
k
To
Cont
ents

Bac
k
To
Cont
ents

Bac
k
To
Cont
ents

Bac
k
To
Cont
ents

Pipe
ion
s Thermal Expansion of Pipe
Ham
Halli
T. Water Hammer Calculations
mer Halliburton Gas/Liquid Turbine Meter Calculations (Convert BTU to GPM #2 Diesel)
butr
Product Selection Guide
on
ASC
ASCO Solenoid Valves TOMSPAVE
Bac
Boil
O Boiler Application Guide
k
ers
FSG Flame Safety Control Selection Guide
Trap
Steam Trap Selection Guide
To
Pum
s Pump Applications
Cont
ps
Control & Recorders
M&C
DC3 Measurement,
UDC3000 Cross Reference (DC300#)
ents
DC3
00# UDC3000 Cross Reference (DC300X)
00X

Page 1

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Revision Notes

Rev #
1.102
2.103
6.103
8.0603
12.1.03
02.7.04
04.30.04
09.14.04
11.09.04
12.16.04
6.5.5
6.21.06
3.12.07
4.10.07

Date
1/31/2002
2/12/2003
6/30/2003
8/6/2003
12/1/2003
2/7/2004
4/30/2004
9/14/2004
11/09/04
12/16/04
6/5/2005
6/21/2005
3.12.07
4.10.07

Notes
Correct nomenclature in 02 trim calcs and add Revision Notes page.
Add VFD Drive Calcs and Motor Data.
Add Fan Laws for Burners data.
Enhanced Steam Flow Calculations with updated AGA material.
Add Dr. Mac Brochway's Boiler Water Charts
Enhanced Fan Laws for Burner data based on infor from Oneok evaluations.
Added Pitot Tube Flow Calculator
Added Effect of Co on OxyTrim Efficiency Calculations.
Cleaned up Motor Torque data in VFD calculations.
Added ABMA Boiler Water Chemcal Guidelines and Dr. Mac's pH Correction Table for TDS
National Standards Institue Heat Loss Due to Scale Deposits
BTU to #2 Diesel Conversion for Halliburton Turbine Meters
Add Oxygen Trim Calculator to O2 Trim Worksheet
Add VPS Volume & Time Calculator

Correction Table for TDS

Warranty of Accuracy Statement


1997 David C. Farthing
TECHSTUFF 1997
TechStuff is provided as a free service by the compilers. While the compilers have exercised great care
in compiling this data there is NO warranty of any kind on the accuracy of the calculations.
The user is warned that to use this service is at their own risk.
When in doubt it is always advisable to seek the services of a Professional Engineer.

The compilers assume no responsibility of liability for the use of this service.
Should you find an error in this application you are encouraged to notify the compilers at the following address.
David Farthing
Voice 800-239-7301
Fax 405-232-5438
dcfarthing@federalcorp.com
dfarthing@advancedtech.org
TECHSTUFF is a Microsoft Excel 5.0 application and may be ran on Windows 95 or newer versions.
It is recommended that the application be saved as a 95/5.0 application so that the user may readily
transfer the free upgrades from www.federalcorp.com. The application is saved as a 95 version to
allow the greatest number of users to use the service.

Compiled January 14, 1997

Tank Fluid Volumes


Data Printout 05/07/2014

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-239-7301

CAPACITY OF LIQUID IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS IN U.S. GALLONS


CAPACITY of CYLINDRICAL TANKS = D^2 * L * .0043
WHERE D = DIAMETER IN INCHES
L = LENGTH IN INCHES
.0043 = CONSTANT
INPUT DATA MAY BE IN EITHER INCHES OR FEET. NOTE APPROPRIATE DATA TABLE
Dimensions
INCHES
FEET
D=
12
1
L=
12
1
VOLUME =
5.88
5.88
Gallons U.S.
CAPACITY OF LIQUID IN SQUARE SIDED TANKS IN U.S. GALLONS
CAPACITY of SQUARE TANKS = (D-FB) * W * L * 7.5
Dimensions
Depth
Width
Length
Freeboard, inches Fluid Volume
INCHES
12
12
12
0
7.43
Gallons U.S.
FEET
1
1
1
0
7.43
Gallons U.S.

Page 5

Customer
Contact
Tank Name:
Load Calculations
No. of Tanks
1

Chromalloy
Tim Johnson
Plating

NOTE: CUSTOMERS TANKS MUST BE INSULATED


MINIMUM 2.0" FIBERGLASS BAT RECOMMENDED.
Open Top Tank Assumed. 0.5 F/Sec Air Velocity over top of tank.

Tank Configuration Type Letter S or C in box


Square/Cylinder
S

Tank Designations
RM1

Square Sided Tank Data


Depth
2

Width
2

Total Tank Surface Area

Cylindrical Tank Data


Dimensions
D=
L=
FLUID VOLUME =
Fluid Data:
Final Temperature
100

FEET
0
0
0.00
Product:
Sp./Gr.
1.23

Total Fluid Volume


All Cylindrical Tanks
0.00

Length
4

Freeboard, inches
6
Surface Square Feet

Fluid Volume
89.784
8.00

Total Fluid Volume


89.784

Open Top Area Sq./Ft.


0

Water
Sp./Ht
1
NOTE: PAGE DOWN FOR COMMON LIQUID DATA
Q=W X Sp./Ht. X (T2-T1)
Based on 80% Efficient Boiler
Cost to Operate Rise 8Hr. Cost to Maintain/Hr
Where
Q= Quantity of Heat in BTU
Energy Cost Gas/MMBTU
$5.66
$0.03
$0.03
W= Weight of Product to Be Heated
Energy Cost Electric/KW
$0.0480
$0.07
$0.07
Sp./Ht = Specific Heat of Product
T2= Ending Temperature
T2
100
OK
Ambient Losses
T1= Beginning Temperature
T1
96.5
Calculated Base Maintenance Loss.
Ambient Shop Temperature
TA
70
Solution for boiler loading
Per Tank Load
3,212 Maintenance Load ONLY
3,212
0
Open Top Loss
1,488 Tank radiance and surface losses.
180 Open Top Radiant Loss Factor
Total Tankage Load
4,700 Total Maintenance Load Btu per hour for all tanks combined.
Cold Start
30,590 Cold Heat-up Btu Required for all tanks from Cold Start of: (TA) w/ 10% Loss.
30,590
0
Note: 10% tank and process loss included.
Boiler BTU Required
1 Hr Rise
4Hr Rise
6 Hr Rise
8 Hr Rise
12 Hr. Rise
Assumed 80% Eff.
38,238
9,559
6,373
4,780
3,186
Boiler Horsepower 80% Eff.
1
0
0
0
0
Common Specific Gravity's & Specific Heats for Various Liquids.
First Number Sp.Gr. Second Number Sp.Ht.
Water
1/1
Castor Oil
1.2/.43
Kerosene
.86/.48
Acetone
.79/.51
Citron Oil
1.2/.44
Naphthalene
1.14/.41
Alcohol's
.79/.60
Diphenylamine
1.16/.46
Olive Oil
.93/.47
Ammonia
.62/1.16
Ethyl Ether
1.16/.53
Propane
.50/.59
Aniline
1.02/.52
Ethylene Glycol
1.16/.53
Pentane
.63/.54
Benzol
1.02/.42
Fuel Oils 2-6
.90/.45
Seawater
1.02/.94
Calcium Chloride
1.2/.43
Gasoline
.81/.53
Soybean Oil
.93/.47
Paraffin Wax
1.12/.69
Gypsum
1.21/.26
Sandstone
.93/.22
Plating Applications Diluted Solutions
Nickel
1.23/1
Acid
1.23/1
Chrome/Fluorides
1.23/1
Electro-Klean
1.12/1
Soak Clean
1.12/1

Data Compiled January 14, 1997

Refrigeration Loads
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Refrigeration of Liquids
Customer Name
Contact
Phone Number
Refrigeration Load = Mass expressed as G/Hr.;((Flow in Gallons / Hr. *8.31)*Specific Gravity* Specific Heat * (T1-T2))/12000
Flow =
1119
GPM
Flow =
67140 Gallons / Hour
Sp. Gr.
1
Sp. Ht.
1
T1 =
95
T2 =
85
Tons Refrigeration Required =
466.06
Common Specific Gravity's & Specific Heats for Various Liquids.
Water
1/1
Castor Oil
1.2/.43
Acetone
.79/.51 Citron Oil
1.2/.44
Alcohols
.79/.60 Diphenylamine
1.16/.46
Ammonia
.62/1.16 Ethyl Ether
1.16/.53
Aniline
1.02/.52 Ethylene Glycol 1.16/.53
Benzol
1.02/.42 Fuel Oils 2-6
.90/.45
Calcium Chloride
1.2/.43 Gasoline
.81/.53

First Number Sp.Gr. Second Number Sp.Ht.


Kerosene
.86/.48
Naphthalene 1.14/.41
Olive Oil
.93/.47
Propane
.50/.59
Pentane
.63/.54
Seawater
1.02/.94
Soybean Oil
.93/.47

Page 7

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Rite Boiler Chimney Effect


Data Printout 05/07/2014

Data Compiled January 14, 1997

Chimney / Stack Draft Effect Calculations


Use Boiler and Stack Index to find required stack diameter on Rite Stack Chart.
Instructions: Input current data in 'Input Data' Column. Solution is calculated as you go. All data
must be included for proper results.

Boiler Horsepower
Boiler Efficiency
BTU Input
Fuel

Gas / Oil

Draft / In. H2O = .52 X P X H X (( 1/460 + T1) - (1/460 + T2))


INPUT DATA
765
0.8
32,000,906
G

Final Calculated Boiler Index

32.99

Altitude Of Installation
Total Number of Turns
Total Length of Breech
Height of Stack (Ft.)
Total Stack Length+Breech
Stack Diameter (FT)
Stack Length/Diameter Index A
Degrees
Stack L/D + Turns Index B

774
2
24
20
44
2.33
18.88
80.00
2.09

LS
DS
LS/DS

Final Calculated Stack Index


Atmospheric PSIA
Ambient Temp.
Stack Temp.
Solution
Draft In. H20
Recommended Minimum Drafts

As Measured from exhaust outlet.


27.96

Calculated Stack Diameter in Inches

9.57
P
T1
T2

14.68
95
325

-0.0805981
Negative .09 on Power Burners measured at stack inlet.
Negative .04 on Atmospheric measured at stack inlet.

NOTE: A commonly accepted ruel of thumb states that for every 0.01"WC the excess draft rate can be reduced
a decrease of 1% in fuel consumption may be received.

Exhaust Gas Volumes for Typical Boiler Operating Conditions


Result is Cubic Feet/Minute Per 100 Hp.
Gas fuel based on 9% CO2, #2 Oil fuel based on 13% CO2 emissions.
Excess Air Volume=15%
Fuel
Gas=1/Oil=0
1
Enter 1 or 0
Flue Gas Temperature
425
Boiler Horsepower
107.5
Exhaust Volume
1591
Cubic Feet/Min.
Emissions Make-Up
Percent of FG
Excess Air = 15%
Mol Wt. by Volume
SCF/10^6 BTU
Lbs./10^6 BTU
PPM
CO2 =
44
10.10
1095.44
126.84
O2 =
32
3.00
306.12
25.78
CO =
28
0.0020
0.2
0.015
20
N2 =
28
86.900
8876.40
654.05
Nox=NO2
46
0.0025
0.25
0.03
25
Hydrocarbons
16
0.001
0.100
0.004
10
Sox=SO2
64
0.000
0
0.00
H2O =
18
2237
105.96
Particulates
0.00
Total
100
12515.52
912.68
Total Emissions this application =
45,024.43
3,283.37
NOTES:

Page 8

Compiled January 14, 1997

Boiler Horsepower
Data Printout 05/07/2014
Boiler Horsepower

When Pounds Per Hour Steam Flow are known.


BHP = #/Hr Steam Flow / 34.5
Steam Flow =
60000
Boiler Hp =
1739
At and From 212 deg. "F"
When BTU of Burner is Known.
Useful BHP = Fuel BTU Input/ 33,465 * Rated Efficiency
Fuel Input =
10,500,000
Boiler Hp =
254
at 81% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler Hp =
235
at 75% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
When Boiler Rated Horsepower is Known.
Steam Flow #/Hr = Boiler Rated Hp * 34.7
Boiler Hp =
250
Steam Flow =
8625.65 At and From 212 deg. "F"
When BTU Required by the Process is Known.
Process Input =
60,000,000
Boiler Hp =
2213
Fire Tube at 81% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler Hp =
2391
Water Tube at 75% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler Input =
74,074,074 Fire Tube at 81% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler Input =
80,000,000 Water Tube at 75% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
When Heating Surface area is Known.
Heating Surface =
10,750
Fire Tube at 81% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Fire Tube BHP =
2150.0
Fire Box BHP =
2087.4
Fire Box at 80% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Water Tube BHP =
2028.3
Water Tube at 75% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler BTU Output = 71,949,750 Fire Tube at 81% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"
Boiler BTU Output = 67,877,123 Water Tube at 75% Eff. At and From 212 deg. "F"

TURBINE to BOILER Horsepower Requirements


KW/Hr.
2200
Meg.W
2.2
BTU/Hr.
7,513,440
Efficiency
22.18%
Boiler Hp
1012.25
Steam Flow PPH
34,923
UNDER CONSTRUCTION DO NOT USE THIS CALCULATION

Page 9

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Boiler Horsepower
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Compiled January 14, 1997

Boiler HP from BTU Output


BTU Output=
12500000
Boiler HP =
373.524577917
KW/Hr.
BTU/Hr.
Boiler Hp
Meg.W

6000
20,491,200
612.32
6
Notes
1KW = 1,000 Watts
1 MW = 1,000,000 Watts
1 MW = 1,000 KW

Eletric Motor Hp
KW/Hr.
MegW/Hr
Boiler Hp

16000
11931.2
11.9312
1216.352

5.28
5.33
5.35
5.38
5.51
5.32
5.17
4.92

Page 10

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Data Source Sterling Radiator


05/07/2014 09:59:53

BUILDING HEAT LOSS CALCULATION


CLIENT
LOCATION
BUILDING NAME

BUILDING
BUILDING
BUILDING
BUILDING

LENGTH
WIDTH
HEIGHT EVE
HEIGHT RIDGE

Changeable data
St. Greg Unv.
Shawnee
MaBee Buldg

DATE 29:Sep:04

250
276
16
18

DOOR AREA (FT SQ.)

75

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE


INSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE

15
73

AIR CHANGES PER HR

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Building Machinery Heating/Cooling Loads

SLAB U FACTOR
WALL U FACTOR
PERCENT GLASS
GLASS U FACTOR
ROOF U FACTOR
DOOR U FACTOR
BUILDING VOLUME
DELTA TEMP

0.81
0.38
10%
0.69
0.067
1.22

WALLS
CONSTRUCTION
METAL
ROCK, GLASS BATT
EXPED STYROFOAM
WOOD OR PLYWOOD
1"
2"

0
1.2
1.2
0.56
0.38

BOILER HORSE POWER

1173000
58

0.11
0.1

4
0.067
0.059

5
0.054
0.048

6
0.046
0.04

WALL
0.00
0

INS PER IN.


3.50
4

0.081
0.076

0.063
0.060

0.052
0.050

0.044
0.042

0.040
1.880

3.500
3.500

"U" VALUES
OPEN CORE
0.64
0.51
0.47

FILLED CORE
0.36
0.38
0.38

4
0.067
0.06

5
0.054
0.048

6
0.046
0.04

WALL
0.00
0

INS PER IN.


3.50
4

0.51
0.39
0.37

0.18
0.16

1
1,224,612.00
413,407.30
268,162.16
5,307.00
49,422.96
1,960,911
58.5346690729

BTU
BTU
BTU
BTU
BTU
BTU

METAL AND TRANSITE

HP

HEATER CALC.S
BTU CAP @ 20 DEG DROP
CONVERSION FACTORS (1=Steam)(.6=Water)
HEATER GPM REQ
PRESSURE PROP FT. WATER
HEATER PIPE LENGTH
PIPE SIZE
FRICTION /100FT

0.19
0.16

CONCRETE BLOCK (NO INSULATION)


SAND / GRAVEL AGGREGATE
4" THICK (R=0.71)
8" THICK (R=1.11)
12" THICK (R=1.28)
CINDER AGGREGATE
4" THICK (R=1.11)
8" THICK (R=1.72)
12" THICK (R=1.89)
BRICK - COMMON

VOLUME REQUIREMENT
WALL HEAT LOSS
ROOF HEAT LOSS
DOOR HEAT LOSSES
SLAB LOSS
TOTAL BUILDING LOAD

INSULATION THICKNESS - INCHES


1
2
3
0.23
0.13
0.088
0.21
0.11
0.078

250000
0.6
40
2
600
4
2

HEATERS REQ 13.0727427596


GPM REQ
HEAD REQ 12

ROOFS
CONSTRUCTION
METAL W/O BUILDUP
ROCK, GLASS BATT
EXPED STYROFOAM
METAL W/ PREFORMED INSULATION

WOOD W/ PREFORMED INSULATION


1"
2"

0
1.3
1.3

NO INSULATION
4" THICK (R=0.8)
8" THICK (R=1.60)
12" THICK (R=2.40)

0.61
0.48
0.31

NO INSULATION
CORRUGATED METAL
COATED METAL
3/8" TRANSITE - FLAT
3/8" TRANSITE - CORRUG

1.5
0.9
1.1
1.3

INSULATION THICKNESS - INCHES


1
2
3
0.23
0.13
0.088
0.21
0.11
0.078

1.30

0.26

0.15

0.110

0.081

0.067

0.056

0.000

2.780

0.49
0.34

0.21
0.17

0.13
0.12

0.096
0.088

0.076
0.071

0.063
0.059

0.053
0.051

0.940
1.880

2.780
2.780

MISC. "U"
INTERIOR WALLS
SHEET METAL
1/2" PLYWOOD
8" CONCRETE BLOCK
3/8" GYP BOARD
GLASS - VERTICAL
SINGLE PANE
DOUBLE PANE
TRIPLE PANE
STORM WINDOW

0.74
0.05
0.32
0.6

1.13
0.69
0.47
0.56

GLASS - HORZ
SINGLE PANE
DOUBLE PANE

1.22
0.75

AIR LOSS= CFHX0.018XTD

EXTERIOR DOORS
FLAT METAL
1" WOOD
2" WOOD

1.2
0.64
0.43

FLOOR SLABS (BTUH/LN.FT. / DEG. F)


UNINSULATED
0.81
INSULATED
0.55

DILUTION AIR - PER 1,000 BTUH


NATURAL GAS - 4 CFM
PROPANE GAS - 5 CFM

TechStuf 'C' 1997 David Farthing

Tech Stuff
Heating Solid Materials
05/07/2014 09:59:53

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Heating Solid Materials and Equipment


Formula =
Where

Material =

Lbs/Hr = W*Cp*Delta T/(L*t)


W=
Weight of Material
Cp=
Specific Heat of Material
L=
Latent Heat of Steam (Btu/Lb)
t=
Time in Hours
Steel Part in Platen Heater

W=
Cp=
L=
Start Temp
Final Temp
Delta T=
t=
Lbs/hr=

58
Lbs.
0.12
From Charts
945
From Steam Charts
58
2000
1942
1
14.30298
BTU/Hr =
13,516.32
Boiler Hp
0.40
Common Specific Heats of Solid Materials
Water Cp = 1.0
Steel
0.12
Carbon-Coke
0.203
Glass, normal
0.2
Nickel Steel
Iron
0.12
Chalk
0.215
Gneiss
0.18
Paraffin Wax
Aluminum
0.22
Charcoal
0.2
Granite
0.2
Porcelain
Alumina
0.35
Cinders
0.18
Graphite
0.2
Quartz
Asbestos
0.2
Coal
0.3
Gypsum
0.26
Quicklime
Ashes
0.2
Concrete, Dry
0.156
Hornblend
0.2
Rose Metal
Bakelite
0.35
Constantine
0.098
Humus soil
0.44
Salt, rock
Basalt
0.2
Cork
0.485
India Rubber
0.37
Sand
Bell Metal
0.086
Corundum
0.198
Kaolin
0.224
Sandstone
Bismuth-tin
0.043
D'Arcet metal
0.05
Lead Oxide
0.055
Serpentine
Borax
0.229
Dolomite
0.222
Limestone
0.217
Silica
Brass, Y
0.088
Ebonite
0.33
Lipowitz Metal
0.04
Soda
Brass, R
0.09
German Silver
0.095
Magnesia
0.222
Sulfur
Bronze
0.104
Glass, Crown
0.16
Magnesite
0.168
Talc
Brick
0.22
Glass, flint
0.12
Marble
0.21
Tufa
Vulcanite
0.331
Wood (AVG)
0.63
Wood's metal
0.04
Type metal

0.109
0.69
0.22
0.23
0.217
0.05
0.21
0.195
0.22
0.25
0.191
0.231
0.18
0.209
0.33
0.039

Compiled January 15, 1997

Flowing Fluid Heating


Data Printout 05/07/2014

Flowing Fluid Heating Loads


You may use either GPH or GPM for your problem. Be sure to use the correct data box.
Heating Load = Flow #/hr * Sp.Gr.*Sp.Ht. * Delta "T" in deg. "F"
INPUT DATA
INPUT DATA
Gal/Hour
Gal/Minute
Flow =
175000
GPH
1600
GPM
Sp. Gr.
1
1
Sp.Ht.
1
1
T1 =
97.5
88
T2 =
120
Boiler Hp
Steam Flow
95
Boiler Hp Steam Flow
Load BTU/Hr. = 32,799,375.00
980.11
33,813.79
5,597,760.00
167.27
5,770.89
Common Specific Gravity's & Specific Heats for Various Liquids.
Water
1/1
Castor Oil
1.2/.43
Kerosene
Acetone
.79/.51
Citron Oil
1.2/.44
Naphthalene
Alcohols
.79/.60
Diphenylamine
1.16/.46
Olive Oil
Ammonia
.62/1.16
Ethyl Ether
1.16/.53
Propane
Anilin
1.02/.52
Ethylene Glycol
1.16/.53
Pentane
Benzol
1.02/.42
Fuel Oils 2-6
.90/.45
Seawater
Calcium Chloride
1.2/.43
Gasoline
.81/.53
Soybean Oil

Page 13

First Number Sp.Gr. Second Number Sp.Ht.


.86/.48
1.14/.41
.93/.47
.50/.59
.63/.54
1.02/.94
.93/.47

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Water Content In Air Stream

Water Content in Air Streams


Datum

1# of Air at 62 "F"=13.65 CF
1CFt of Air holds .0225# Water at 65"F" and 40% RH

CFM =
Total Water / Min. =
Lb./Hr Water =
Gallons/Hr. Water =

2500
56.25 in Lbs.
3375
406.1372

Page 14

David Farthing's
TechStuff Valves

Gas Valve

Courtesy of HONEYWELL, INC. - Modified by David Farthing


CITGO 725 BOILER
100%
75%
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
BASE FLOW
SCFH
32,350.00
24,262.00
SAFETY FACTOR
X
1.10
1.00
FLOW
SCFH
35,585.00
24,262.00
INLET PRESS
PSIG
10.00
11.00
OUTLET PRESSURE
PSIG
3.00
2.00
PRESS DROP
PSI
7.00
9.00
TEMPERATURE
DG.F
68
68
SPEC GRAV
0.63
0.63
REQUIRED Cv
38.964
23.429
V-Cut
Degrees Open
Degrees Open
V-Bal 900Rotation

60

CV of Installed Val

90

38.96
Percent Open
43.294%

23.43
Percent Open
26.032%

Page 15

Thanks to Honeywell for the basic CV calculator

GAS
50%
CONDITIONS
16,175.00
1.00
16,175.00
12.00
1.00
11.00
68
0.63
14.128
Degrees Open
14.13
Percent Open
15.698%

25%
CONDITIONS
8,088.00
1.00
8,088.00
14.00
0.50
13.50
68
0.63
6.267
Degrees Open
6.27
Percent Open
6.964%

David Farthing's
TechStuff Valves

Liquid Valve

Courtesy of HONEYWELL, INC. - Modified by David Farthing


OUHSC 2006
OUHSC@100%
OUHSC@75%
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
BASE FLOW
GPM
17.00
12.75
SAFETY FACTOR
X
1.25
1.00
ACTUAL FLOW
GPM
21.25
12.75
INLET PRESS
PSIG
200.00
350.00
OUTLET PRESSURE
PSIG
125.00
322.00
PRESS DROP
PSID
75.00
28.00
SPECIFIC GRAV
0.98
0.98
VISCOSITY
CS
0.96
0.96
TEMP(WATER)
DG.F
227
227
MAX ALLOW
P (WATER)
PSI
155.014
273.514
REQUIRED Cv
2.429
2.385
Linear V-Ball
V-Cut Degrees Open
Degrees Open
30
7.29
7.16
V-Bal Rotation
Percent Open
Percent Open
CV of Installed Val
10
24.291%
23.853%

Page 16

Thanks to Honeywell for the basic CV Calculator

OUHSC@50%
CONDITIONS
8.50
1.00
8.50
350.00
322.00
28.00
0.98
0.96
227

LIQUID
OUHSC@25%
CONDITIONS
4.25
1.00
4.25
350.00
322.00
28.00
0.98
0.96
227
|

273.514
1.590
Degrees Open
4.77
Percent Open
15.902%

273.514
0.795
Degrees Open
2.39
Percent Open
7.951%

David Farthing's
TechStuff Valves

Steam Valve

Thanks to Honeywell for the basic CV Calculator

Courtesy HONEYWELL, INC. - Modified by David Farthing


STEAM
TAG #
Original Design
Reduction #1
Reduction #2
(ENTER TAG #)
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
BASE FLOW
#/HR
7,300.00
5,800.00
16,000.00
12,000.00
SAFETY FACTOR
X
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
DESIGN FLOW
#/HR
7,300.00
5,800.00
16,000.00
12,000.00
INLET PRESS
PSIG
125.00
100.00
75.00
75.00
OUTLET PRESSURE PSIG
25.00
25.00
50.00
50.00
PRESS DROP
PSI
100.00
75.00
25.00
25.00
TEMPERATURE
DG.F
266
266
250
240
REQUIRED Cv
26.670
26.097
115.864
86.260
V-Cut Degrees Open
Degrees Open
Degrees Open
Degrees Open
V-Bal 900Rotation

60

CV of Installed Val

400

0.00
Percent Open
6.667%

0.00
Percent Open
6.524%

Page 17

0.00
Percent Open
28.966%

0.00
Percent Open
21.565%

VPS Calculations
05/07/2014

Complied by David Farthing

VALVE PROVING SEQUENCING TEST CALCULATIONS


V1= Upstream Valve Volume
V2= Downstream Valve Volume
D= Pipe Diameter (Inches Nominal-Schd. 40)
L= Pipe Length Between V1 & V2 (Feet)
P= Inlet Gas Pressure to V1
C= Burner Maximum Firing Capacity (CFH)
X= Calculated Test Valve Train Volume
T= Minimum Test Time in Seconds
Calculation of Valve Train Volume
X= V1+V2+((A x L)/144)
Calculation of Valve Proving Test Time
Test Time (Sec) = 187,000 X (P x X)/C
Is Inlet Gas Pressure in InWc or PSI (I or P)
i
Inlet Gas Pressure
40
P= 1.444043321
D=
2
Area Sq/In = 3.357236479
L=
0.25
V1=
0.0227
V2=
0.0245
Total Volume Cft (X)= 0.053028536
C=
2500
Min.Test Time Seconds (T) =
10.00

vps

GAS
V1

V2

Fan Coils

Steam Demand in a Fan Coil


Formula used for calculations
Q=( CFM X 1.08 X TD ) / 1000
Where
Q = Air flow across fan coil in cfm
TD = Temperature Differential across fan coil
1000 = Latent heat of 15 PSI Steam
1.08 = Correction factor for fouling of coils

CFM =
Inlet Air Temp =
Exhaust Air Temp =
Lbs/ Hr. Steam Load
BTU Load

INPUT DATA
6,000
60
180
777.6
777,600

Page 19

Calculating NPSHa (Available) for Centrifugal Pump Applications


ENTER "X" to Select Formula
Suction Lift Open Tank
NPSHa = Pb - (Vp + Ls + Hf)
Suction Lift Closed Tank
NPSHa = p - (Ls + Vp + Hf)
Suction Head Open Tank
NPSHa = Pb + Lh - (Vp + Hf)
X
Suction Head Closed Tank
NPSHa = p + Lh - (Vp + Hf)
Suction Head and Lift are meassured from the liquid surface to the pump centerline.
Where
Pb = Barometric pressure in feet absolute (Fa)
Vp = Vapor Pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute (Fa)
p = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed suction tank in feet absolute (Fa)
Ls = Maximum stactic suction lift in feet.
Lh = Maximum stactic suction head in feet
Hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity. (Go to
FrictionCalculator)
Feet Absolute Calculator - Enter Data in Guage Readings to get Feet Absolute
Guage Reading
Fa
Pb =
29
32.79
Vp =
10
57.03
p=
10
57.03
Input Data
Pb =
Vp =
p=
Ls =
Lh =
Hf =
NPSHa =

32.79
57.03
57.03
0.00
5.50
1.39
4.11

Pump must require an NPSHr less than or equal to this value.

Producers COOP
Peerless F21250AM
11.0" Impeller

05/07/2014

Pump Horsepower Requirements


Q=

1840

H=

60

PSIG =

25.97

Sp.Gr.=

Pump Eff.
Minimum Motor Hp BHP=

65.00%
42.8904428904

Cost to Operate Pump


$/KW/Hr =

0.044

Hours/Day =

24

Days/Month =

15

Cost Per Month =

$506.82

Page 21

Pump Affinity Laws

Burner Fan Laws


by David Farthing

05/07/2014

Fan Laws for ESTIMATING Boiler Burner Fan Performance

Enter known data in Yellow Boxes


OUHSC
CB Watertube
60,000 at 275 PSIG

CFM Estimates based on 950 But/ft^3 fuel, 9.67 ft^3 Air per 1 ft^3 Fuel at Sea Level and 100 deg "F" Combustion Air.
Q = Fan Volume Flow Rate CFM or ft^3/Min
Assumed Data
D = Fan Diameter in Inches
Air Density = 0.0584
N = Fan Shaft RPM
Air Temp = 100
H = Static Pressure of Fan at Design Point, Inch/WC
Elevation = <1700 Ft/ASL
Bhp = Fan Horsepower = Q X H / (6356* Eff)
Diff P = Differential Pressure Across Windbox at Firing Rate
Eff = (ft^3/min X H) / (5263 X Motor Hp)
Burner Input
65,800,000.00
BTU/Hr from Burner Data Plate

Max Gas Flow


65,800.00
Ft^3/Hr
Min Gas Flow
6,580.00
Ft^3/Hr
Max Air Flow @15% EA.
12,476.20
CFM base on 9.67 Ft^3 Air/1Ft^3 Gas at Sea Level & 80 deg "F". 15% Excess Air.
Min Air Flow
1,247.62
CFM at LOW (10%) FIRE.
Fan Motor HP
60.00
Taken from Fan Motor Data Plate
Fan Static Pressure H
18.00
*At Stall 0 Flow Fan Damper CLOSED taken at fan discharge ahead of dampers.
Calculated Fan Eff.
71.116%
As a check this number should be above 72-75% w/80% Average)
Calculated Fan HP
49.68
Check against actual Fan Motor Data Plate
Expected Fan Eff Performance? Within expected performance
Original Fan Speed
1770
RPM at Shaft
FAN LAWS
New Fan Speed
1150
RPM at Shaft
Q1/Q2 = N1/N2
New Fan Flow
8106
CFM
H1/H2 = (N1/N2)^2
New Fan Max SP
7.60
Inch WC
Bhp1/Bhp2 = (N1/N2)^3
New Fan Bhp
14.63
Bhp at the shaft.
Q1/Q2 = D1/D2
Original Boiler Output PPH
54,268.04
Saturated
H1/H2 = (D1/D2)^2
Original Boiler Output PPH
45,585.15
Superheated <700 Deg F
Bhp1/Bhp2 = (D1/D2)^3
New Boiler Output PPH
35,258.48
Saturated
New Boiler Output PPH
29,617.12
Superheated <700 Deg F

Note1 Data marked with an asterisk * may also be taken from manufacturer's data sheets.

David Farthing's
TechStuff

TechStuff C1997

Combustion Efficiency Calculations


Printout 05/07/2014 09:59:54

Data Compiled by
David Farthing

Combustion Efficiency Calculations


Boiler Type & Data
Fuel (Gas =1, Oil =2)
Rated Boiler Hp
Name Plate Efficiency
Current O2 % as found
Current Co2 % as found
Air Diluted CO ppm as found
CO in Flue Gas ppm Corrected
Approximate Fuel Loss out stack
Normal Firing Rate NFR (0-100)
Recommended O2% @ NFR
Average Hours/Day Run Time
Average Days/Month Run Time
Fuel Cost/Therm from billings
Average Combustion Air Temp
Stack Temp at Firing Rate
Net Flue Gas Temp Rise
Net Efficiency Loss to Wasted Fuel as Co
As Found Combustion Efficiency
New Calculated Combustion Efficiency
New Stack Temp
New Net Flue Gas Temp Rise
Net Combustion Efficiency Gain
Current Cost to Operate Per Month
New Cost to Operate Per Month
Current Fuel Dollars Wasted as Excess CO
Savings Per Month
Savings Per Year
NOTES

Kodak PolyGraphics
Minimum O2 Allowed This Fuel Type
1
2.00%
956
Steaming Rate PPH
78.00%
16491
7.80%
5.30%
45.00
71.79
0.02%
Cu/Ft Gas/Hr.@NFR@ As Found Eff.
50%
19,790
4.25%
Data from Ideal O2 Table
24
22
0.6
Equivalent Cost / 1000 Cu/Ft =
$6.00
80
390
310
Performance Data
0.0718%
36%
Present Excess Air Mass.
80.8%
20%
New Excess Air Mass.
82.5%
$7.20
OLD Fuel Cost per 1,000 Lb/Steam.
384
$7.05
NEW Fuel Cost Per 1,000 Lb/Steam.
304
2.05%
Percent Fuel Cost Savings.
2.03%
$62,696.16
$61,425.68
$12.56
$1,283.04
Controller Output=
45
$15,396.53
Raw Air Flow=
100
O2 Reading=
3
O2 Corrected Air Flow=
102.5

Voltage

#DIV/0!

CONTROLLER IMPEDANCE VS. VOLTAGE


Impedance of Device Controller is Controlling
Ma output of controlling Device
Out Put Voltage You Should Read at Controller Output
When Controller Out Put = Ma in Cell 'F6'.

250
20
5

OHMS

Common Control Device Impedance and their associated Voltage


Impedance Control Voltage
250 Ohms
5 VDC
120 Ohms
2.4 VDC
100 Ohms
2.0 VDC

TRANSMITTER TROUBLESHOOTER
HIGH SIDE
LOWSIDE
4/20 MA READING
RATIO
BIAS
DISPLAY READS

0
-22
12 (NOTE: Max Value = 19.99 otherwise DIV/0 Error)
1 This is any RATIO applied by the display device.
20 This is any BIAS applied by the display device.

NOTES:
1] IF TRANSMITTER IS 'DP' AND DISPLAY IS READING HIGH AND PROCESS IS LOW THEN CHECK LOW (REFERENCE
2] IF TRANSMITTER IS 'DP' AND DISPLAY IS READING LOW AND PROCESS IS HIGH THEN CHECK HIGH SIDE FOR PL
3] ATTACH A 'Ma' METER IN SERIES TO THE TRANSMIITER NEGITIVE SIGNAL LEG AND READ Ma. INCERT IN 4/20 MA

Page 24

Voltage

S. VOLTAGE

HECK LOW (REFERENCE) SIDE FOR PLUGGED LEG.


HECK HIGH SIDE FOR PLUGGED LEG.
D Ma. INCERT IN 4/20 MA CELL IN FORMULA

Page 25

Pipe Expansion

PIPE THERMAL EXPANSION CALCULATIONS


Calculations good for Carbon Steel and Carbon Molybdeum Steel Pipe.
Pipe Size
Pipe Run Length
Operating Temperature =
Thermal Expansion per 100 ft =
TOTAL Thermal Expansion =

361
347
9.99
36.08

Coeff.
2.88

212-250
1.61

Expansion Coefficients
251-359
360+
Temp.
2.02
2.88
Coeff. Factor

This calculation gives good practical results. It is not intended to provide exact data.
If exact data is required contact a registered professional engineer.

Page 26

Compiled October 10, 1997


Source: Skidmore/ASME

Condensate Tank Sizing


Data Printout 05/07/2014

Condensate & Feedwater Tank Sizing


Boiler Hp.
Evaporation Rate from and at 212 deg. F.
GPM Flow Rate Start/Stop Feedwater System
GPM Flow Rate Modulated Feedwater System
Storage Holding Time Desired, Minutes
Tank Size for Start/Stop Feedwater System
Tank Size for Modulated Feedwater System

1740
7223.827
300.9928
180.5957
7
3009.928
1805.957

Gallons Per Hour


Gallons Per Minute 2.5 Safety Factor
Gallons Per Minute 1.5 Safety Factor
Minutes Holding Time

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Compiler November 3, 1997


Source: Spirax Sarco

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
James W. Carr
Voice 405-728-6709

Steam Mains Trap Sizing


Data Printout 05/07/2014

Steam Mains Trap Sizing


Steam Main Data
Assumes 2.0" of Fiberglass Insulation
Pipe Diameter
6
Steam Header Pressure(PSIG)
20
Ambient Air Temperature
70
Warm-up Load / #Steam(Condensate) per 100 Ft. of Pipe
75
Running Load / #Steam (Condensate) per 100 ft. of Pipe.
31
Feet Between Trap Points
100
Total Trap Warm-up Load Per Trap Point
75
Total Trap Running Load Per Trap Point
30.75

From Spirax Sarco Look-up Tables below.

#/Hr Condensate Load


#/Hr Condensate Load

Pressure vs. Pipe Size Look-up Table


Steam Pressure (psi)

2.00

0.00

6.2
6.9
7.5
8.4
9.9
11
12
12.8
13.7
14.5
15.3
16
17.2
25
27.8
30.2
32.7
38
45
52
62
71
78
80

5.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
125.00
150.00
175.00
200.00
250.00
300.00
400.00
500.00
600.00
800.00
1000.00
1200.00
1400.00
1600.00
1750.00
1800.00

2.50
9.7
11
11.8
13.4
15.8
17.5
19
20.3
21.7
23
24.2
25.3
27.3
38.3
43
46
50
58
64
72
79
87
94
97

3.00
12.8
14.4
15.5
17.5
20.6
22.9
24.9
26.6
28.4
30
31.7
33.1
35.8
51
57
62
67
77
86
96
106
117
126
129

4.00
18.2
20.4
22
24.9
29.3
32.6
35.3
37.8
40
43
45
47
51
75
83
91
98
113
126
140
155
171
184
189

5.00
24.6
27.7
29.9
33.8
39.7
44
48
51
55
58
61
64
69
104
116
126
136
203
227
253
280
309
333
341

6.00
31.9
35.9
38.8
44
52
57
62
67
71
75
79
83
89
143
159
173
187
274
305
340
376
415
448
459

8.00
48
48
58
66
78
86
93
100
107
113
119
125
134
217
241
262
284
455
508
566
626
692
746
764

10.00
68
77
83
93
110
122
132
142
152
160
169
177
191
322
358
389
421
670
748
833
922
1018
1098
1125

12.00
90
101
109
124
145
162
175
188
200
212
224
234
252
443
493
535
579
943
1052
1172
1297
1432
1544
1584

14.00
107
120
130
146
172
192
208
222
238
251
265
277
299
531
590
642
694
1132
1263
1407
1558
1720
1855
1902

16.00
140
157
169
191
225
250
271
290
310
328
347
362
390
682
759
825
893
1445
1612
1796
1988
2194
2367
2427

18.00
176
198
213
241
284
316
342
366
391
414
437
456
492
854
971
1033
1118
1835
2047
2280
2524
2786
3006
3082

20.00
207
233
251
284
334
372
403
431
461
487
514
537
579
1045
1163
1263
1367
2227
2485
2767
3064
3382
3648
3741

24.00
208
324
350
396
465
518
561
600
642
679
716
748
807
1182
1650
1793
1939
3227
3601
4010
4440
4901
5285
5420

0F Correction Factor *
1.5
1.44
1.41
1.37
1.32
1.29
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.24
1.23
1.22
1.21
1.2
1.18
1.17
1.16
1.156
1.147
1.14
1.135
1.13
1.128
1.127

So urces Marks 7 th Ed .
GPSA 9 th Ed .

Co mpil ed by Da vid Farthin g

West Instruments Delta-Tube Flow Calculator


dp= (Lb/H/(359.12*Cf*(D^2)*(wf^.5)))^2
Lb/h = (dp^.5)*(((359.12*Cf*(D^2)*(wf^.5))^2)^.5)
Cf =
Cf' =
D=
Fp =
wf =
Lb/h
dp=
Lb/H =
dp =

Dp
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Flow
32982
46643
57126
65964
73750
80789
87262
93287
98946
104298

0.651 from Manufacturer's Model 301


233.78712 Cf' = (359.12 * cf)
8.385 Inside Pipe Diameter
150 Flowing Pressure in PSIG used to look up "wf" from Steam Tables
0.282 Specific Weight at Flowing Conditions from Steam Tables
50000 Flow Rate Expected
32.8123602194 Calculated dp from formula
50142.7604459098 Proofing #
error = 0.285%
33.000

Dp
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Flow
109389
114253
118918
123407
127739
131928
135988
139931
143765
147500

Dp
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
27.5

Flow
151142
154699
158176
161578
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

HC900 Math Block Assignments


a = dp
32.8123602
b = Cf'
233.78712
c = D^2
70.308225
d = wf^.5
0.53103672
e= 2
f = 0.5
g = off
h = off
(a^f)*(((b*c*d)^e)^f)
Math Block Function Proof =
50000.00 PPH

05/07/2014 09:59:54

Co mpil ed by Da vid Farthin g

So urces Marks 7 th Ed .
GPSA 9 th Ed .

05/07/2014 09:59:54

Co mpil ed by Da vid Farthin g

So urces Marks 7 th Ed .
GPSA 9 th Ed .

05/07/2014 09:59:54

Fan Laws for ESTIMATING Boiler Burner Fan Pressures/Flows


Q=
Volume Flow Rate
D=
Fan Diameter
N=
RPM
P=
Pressure
Diff P =
Differential Pressure Across Fan at Firing Rate
H=
Fan Horsepower
Eff =
ft^3/min X P (in H20)/(6356 X Motor Hp)
Burner Input
29,400,000.00 MMBTU
Max Gas Flow
29,400.00 Ft^3/Hr
Min Gas Flow
2,940.00 Ft^3/Hr
Max Air Flow
4,738.30 CFM base on 9.67 Ft^3 Air/1Ft^3 Gas.
Min Air Flow
473.83 CFM at LOW (10%) FIRE.
Fan Motor HP
30.00 Taken from Fan Motor Data Plate
Fan Stall Pressure
29.00 At Stall 0 Flow Fan Damper CLOSED
Calculated Fan Eff.
72.064% As a check this number should be 72-75% w/72% A
Calculated Fan HP
30.03 Check against actual Fan Motor Data Plate
Fan Performance OK
Q = C' * (P^.5)
C' =
2940
Diff P =
100
Q=
29400.000
% Flow
100%
DP =
99
Q=
29252.631
% Flow
99.499%
DP =
98
Q=
29104.515
% Flow
98.995%
DP =
97
Q=
28955.642
% Flow
98.489%
DP =
96
Q=
28805.999
% Flow
97.980%
DP =
95
Q=
28655.575
% Flow
97.468%
DP =
94
Q=
28504.358
% Flow
96.954%
DP =
93
Q=
28352.333
% Flow
96.437%
DP =
92
Q=
28199.489
% Flow
95.917%
DP =
91
Q=
28045.813

Air Flow at varying pressures measured down stream of damper vanes


Arbitrary C' to reach necessary air flow shown in Max Air Flow in above cell.
Differential Inches H20 Across Fan At Maximum Flow High Fire Position of Fan Damper
Must Equal MAX AIR FLOW!! Adjust C' as needed to correct.
88
27579.645
93.808%
87
27422.494
93.274%
86
27264.438
92.736%
85
27105.461
92.195%
84
26945.545
91.652%
83
26784.675
91.104%
82
26622.832
90.554%
81
26460.000
90.000%
80
26296.159

77
25798.395
87.750%
76
25630.326
87.178%
75
25461.147
86.603%
74
25290.836
86.023%
73
25119.371
85.440%
72
24946.727
84.853%
71
24772.880
84.261%
70
24597.805
83.666%
69
24421.474

66
23884.673
81.240%
65
23703.038
80.623%
64
23520.000
80.000%
63
23335.527
79.373%
62
23149.583
78.740%
61
22962.134
78.102%
60
22773.142
77.460%
59
22582.568
76.811%
58
22390.373

55
21803.624
74.162%
54
21604.500
73.485%
53
21403.523
72.801%
52
21200.641
72.111%
51
20995.800
71.414%
49
20580.000
70.000%
12.5
10394.470
35.355%
5
6574.040
22.361%
2
4157.788

0.137

% Flow
DP =
Q=
% Flow
DP =
Q=
% Flow

95.394%
89.443%
90
79
27891.289 26131.292
94.868%
88.882%
89
78
27735.905 25965.377
94.340%
88.318%

83.066%
68
24243.861
82.462%
67
24064.937
81.854%

76.158%
57
22196.513
75.498%
56
22000.945
74.833%

14.142%
1
2940.000
10.000%
0.025
464.855
1.581%

1.49

t Firing Rate

7 Ft^3 Air/1Ft^3 Gas.

Motor Data Plate


an Damper CLOSED
umber should be 72-75% w/72% Average)
tual Fan Motor Data Plate

sition of Fan Damper

Compiled November 4, 1997


Source: Simple Math Context

Revenue Loss
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Cost of Leaking Steam Traps in Lost Steam and Revenue

Total Number of Traps Surveyed


Number of Traps Leaking
Number of Traps Plugged
Capacity of Traps in #/Hr.
Steam Line Pressure
Condensate Return Line PSI
Temperature of Condensate at Traps
Temperature of Condensate in Tank
Hours per Day of Production
Days per Year of Production
Rated Boiler Horsepower
Cost of Fuel/Therm
Cost of Steam Production / 1,000#
Results of Survey
Percent Traps Leaking
Percent Traps Plugged
Percent of Traps Operational
# Lost Steam To Leaking Traps
BTU Lost to Flash Steam Venting
Lost Revenue to Wasted Steam

Customer
Site
INPUT DATA
226
60
1
370
100
12
245
190
24
340
700
$5.50
$6.59
26.55%
0.44%
73.01%
18,543,600
Annually
1,019,898,000 Annually
$127,745.37 Annually

Trap Type Surveyed


1/2" TD

Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Back to
Cost of Leaks

Steam Trap Survey Form


Customer Name
Location
Plant Contact
Contacts Phone
Contacts e-mail

Location Trap # Trap Style Temp IN Temp OUT Status Test Means Comments and Notes

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Ohms Law
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Compiled January 16, 1998

OHMS Laws of Electricity


Fill in any TWO (2) known pieces of data under the factor you are looking for.

E = Voltage

I = Current/Amps

R = Ohms Resistance

Input the known data from your application.


AMPS =
0.04
To Find
Voltage
24
OHMS
330
Watts
1

WATTS =
Voltage
OHMS
Amps

To Find

VOLTS =
Watts
OHMS
Amps

OHMS =
Voltage
Amps
Watts

To Find

KVA =
# of Phases
Amps
Voltage

To Find

1
1
1
1
0.00
1
1
1

To Find

W = Watts
17280
480
1
36

1.00
1
1
1

Kw=

Compiled January 16, 1998

ctor you are looking for.

17.28

Ohms Law
Data Printout 05/07/2014

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

INPUT DATA
Degrees C =
Degrees K =
Degrees R =
Degrees F=

Degree F
60
15.56
288.71
519.69

Temperature Conversions
Enter Known Temperature in 'F' or 'C' for results.
Degree C
15.56

60.01

Calculated Total Cost to Produce Steam-Natural Gas Fired Plant w/ Possible Seconda
Rated Boiler Output in Kpph
Thermal Efficiency of Boiler
MMBTU/Hr Input
Total Operating Electric Horsepower
Hours Per Year Operation
Cost of Fuel per MMBTU
Fuel Cost per Kpph
Contribution of Secondary Waste Fuel Stream
Fuel Cost per Kpph w/ Contributed Waste Fuel
Cost of Electricity per KWH
Electrical Cost per Kpph
Cost of Water per 10,000 Gal
Percent Make-up to Boiler
Calculated Water Treatment Cost per 1000 Pounds
Operators Annual Salary
Overhead and Benefits of Operator
Percentage of Operator Cost to Operation of Boiler
Annual Maintenance & Inspection
Cost to Produce 1Kpph
Depreciation on Equipment as %
Cost to Produce 1Kpph w/ Depreciation
Cost of Purchased Steam from Outside source
Saving(+)/Cost(-) to Operate Owners On-Site Plant

75
82
91.46
at Stated Boiler Thermal E
130
Fan and Feedwater Pump
8000
$6.66
$8.12
30%
$5.69
$0.14
$0.18
$2.33
100%
$0.23
$40,000.00
$14,400.00
12%
$1,165.00
$7.06
20.00%
$8.47
$9.65
$706,065.47

Plant w/ Possible Secondary Waste Fuel Stream

at Stated Boiler Thermal Efficiency


Fan and Feedwater Pumps

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM

IN VAC

Gauge
Pressure
PSIG
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

Temperature
Deg F
134
162
179
192
203
212
215
219
222
224
227
230
232
233
237
239
244
248
252
256
259
262
265

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
102
1017
1119
129
1001
1130
147
990
1137
160
982
1142
171
976
1147
180
970
1150
183
968
1151
187
966
1153
190
964
1154
192
962
1154
195
960
1155
198
959
1157
200
957
1157
201
956
1157
205
954
1159
207
953
1160
212
949
1161
216
947
1163
220
944
1164
224
941
1165
227
939
1166
230
937
1167
233
934
1167

Specific
Volume Gauge
Cu. ft. Pressure
per lb.
PSIG
142
185
73.90
190
51.30
195
39.40
200
31.80
205
26.80
210
25.20
215
23.50
220
22.30
225
21.40
230
20.10
235
19.40
240
18.70
245
18.40
250
17.10
255
16.50
260
15.30
265
14.30
270
13.40
275
12.60
280
11.90
285
11.30
290
10.80
295

Temperature
Deg F
382
384
386
388
390
392
394
396
397
399
401
403
404
406
408
409
411
413
414
416
417
418
420

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
355
843
1198
358
841
1199
360
839
1199
362
837
1199
364
836
1200
366
834
1200
368
832
1200
370
830
1200
372
828
1200
374
827
1201
376
825
1201
378
823
1201
380
822
1202
382
820
1202
383
819
1202
385
817
1202
387
815
1202
389
814
1203
391
812
1203
392
811
1203
394
809
1203
395
808
1203
397
806
1203

Gauge
Pressure
PSIG
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110

Temperature
Deg F
268
271
274
277
279
282
284
286
289
291
293
295
298
300
307
312
316
320
324
328
331
335
338
341
344

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
236
933
1169
239
930
1169
243
929
1172
246
927
1173
248
925
1173
251
923
1174
253
922
1175
256
920
1176
258
918
1176
260
917
1177
262
915
1177
264
914
1178
267
912
1179
271
909
1180
277
906
1183
282
901
1183
286
898
1184
290
895
1185
294
891
1185
298
889
1187
302
886
1188
305
883
1188
309
880
1189
312
878
1190
316
875
1191

Specific
Volume Gauge
Cu. ft. Pressure
per lb.
PSIG
10.30
300
9.85
305
9.46
310
9.10
315
8.75
320
8.42
325
8.08
330
7.82
335
7.57
340
7.31
345
7.14
350
6.94
355
6.68
360
6.27
365
5.84
370
5.49
375
5.18
380
4.91
385
4.67
390
4.44
395
4.24
400
4.05
450
3.89
500
3.74
550
3.59
600

Temperature
Deg F
421
423
425
426
427
429
430
432
433
434
435
437
438
440
441
442
443
445
446
447
448
460
470
479
489

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
398
805
1203
400
803
1203
402
802
1204
404
800
1204
405
799
1204
407
797
1204
408
796
1204
410
794
1204
411
793
1204
413
791
1204
414
790
1204
416
789
1205
417
788
1205
419
786
1205
420
785
1205
421
784
1205
422
783
1205
424
781
1205
425
780
1205
427
778
1205
428
777
1205
439
766
1205
453
751
1204
464
740
1204
473
730
1203

Gauge
Pressure
PSIG
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180

Temperature
Deg F
347
350
353
356
358
361
363
366
368
371
373
375
377
380

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
319
873
1192
322
871
1193
325
868
1193
328
866
1194
330
864
1194
333
861
1194
336
859
1195
339
857
1196
341
855
1196
344
853
1197
346
851
1197
348
849
1197
351
847
1198
353
845
1198

Specific
Volume Gauge
Cu. ft. Pressure
per lb.
PSIG
3.46
650
3.34
700
3.23
750
3.12
800
3.02
900
2.92
1000
2.84
1250
2.74
1500
2.68
1750
2.60
2000
2.54
2250
2.47
2500
2.41
2750
2.34
3000

Temperature
Deg F
497
505
513
520
534
546
574
597
618
636
654
669
683
696

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible Latent
Total
483
719
1202
491
710
1201
504
696
1200
512
686
1198
529
666
1195
544
647
1191
580
600
1180
610
557
1167
642
509
1151
672
462
1134
701
413
1114
733
358
1091
764
295
1059
804
213
1017

Total per lb.


Calculating Superheat in Pressure Reducing Stations
High Pressure Point
250
Reduced Pressure
14
High Pressure Volume/CuFt
1.75 From Tabels above
Reduced Pressure Volume/CuFt
14.3 From Tabels above
High Pressure Temperature
406 From Tabels above
Reduce Pressure Normal Temperature
248 From Tabels above
Resultant Superheat
19.33566
Temperature of Reduced Pressure Steam
267.3357

Specific
Volume
Cu. ft.
per lb.
2.29
2.24
2.19
2.14
2.09
2.05
2.00
1.96
1.92
1.89
1.85
1.81
1.78
1.75
1.72
1.69
1.66
1.63
1.60
1.57
1.55
1.53
1.49

Specific
Volume
Cu. ft.
per lb.
1.47
1.45
1.43
1.41
1.38
1.36
1.34
1.33
1.31
1.29
1.28
1.26
1.24
1.22
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.13
1.12
1.00
0.89
0.82
0.75

Specific
Volume
Cu. ft.
per lb.
0.69
0.64
0.60
0.56
0.49
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.22
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.11
0.08

Technical Source
National Hydraulic Inst.

Compiled by:
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Piping Friction Loss Analysis

68 Degree Water Data!!


Piping Friction Loss and Velocity Analysis
Single pipe system. For multiple pipe sizes in a single run calculate each section and add
all section total losses together to get Total Head Loss for system.
Lookup Tables are available from most any pump/pipe manufacturer.

IS this calculation for Suction or Discharge Pipe S or D ?

Lookup Table >


Federal Catalog
Pages 265-266

System Size
Linear Feet Pipe
Number of 90 Ells
Number of 45 Ells
Number of Valves
Flow Rate Required
Pipe Schd
Friction Loss/100 Ft
Velocity
Effective Reynolds Number
K Factor 90 Ells
K Factor 45 Ells
K Factor Valves
Head Velocity V2/2G
Total Loss Line Pipe
Total Loss from 90 Ells
Total Loss from 45 Ells
Total Loss from Valves
Back Pressure Valve Setting
Total Head Loss

Pump NPSH

Short
Short
Globe

2.064
6.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
35.00
40.00
1.00
3.33
53027.89
0.98
0.31
6.75
0.17
0.06
0.17
0.00
1.16
0.00
1.39

It is helpful to input actual pipe ID.

GPM
Head Friction Loss/100 Feet of Pipe
Feet Per Second
Flow is no longer laminar!
Averaged for pipe size range
Averaged for pipe size range
Averaged for pipe size range
Feet Head
Feet Head
Feet Head
Feet Head
Feet Head
Feet of Head Loss

Formula
h=K*(V2/2G)
h=K*(V2/2G)
h=K*(V2/2G)

Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Financial Analysis
05/07/2014
Financial Analysis of a Project

Project Name

Kodak PolyGraphics
Boiler Combustion Control EXAMPLE #1

Initial Cost of Investment Materials


Initial Cost of Investment Installation
Annual Pay Back Expected from this investment
Base Line Years to Payout
Fixed Cost of Money in percent to be used for this exercise
How many Years will the Project be Amortized over?
First Year Cost of Money
Second Year Cost of Money
Third Year Cost of Money
Fourth Year Cost of Money
Fifth Year Cost of Money
Estimated Cost of Perishables during first five years of ownership
NET Years to Payout
Expected Life Span of Investment
*Total Dollars Returned Over Life of Investment

$19,295.00
$19,285.00
$15,396.00
2.51
6.85%
3
$1,588.10
$707.19
$(173.72)
$$$2.64
20.00
$267,218.42

*Note: Return on investment includes paying off original equipment investment.


Original Investment
$38,580.00 Interest Rate
6.85%
Interest Paid

$2,121.58

Hydronic Load Calculations


Process Recovery v Tank Size
Heater Size Selected
Time
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00

Load
300
255
365
255
365

1825
Usage
In-Temp Out-Temp Time Rate
50
165
0.083
50
165
50
165
50
165
50
165

Tank Size
Recovery
Heat
3,454,157
243,691
348,812
243,691
348,812

3000
Percent
Heater Recovery of Tank Vol.
1,460,000
10%
1,460,000
9%
1,460,000
12%
1,460,000
9%
1,460,000
12%

Recovery Time
Minutes
874,518.37
10.01
14.33
10.01
14.33
874,567.07

Instrument Application Selection Guide


A guide to help you select the equipment needed to
accomplish an instrumentation application.
What is the Application?
Heating = 1
Level = 2
Pressure = 3
Flow = 4
Vaccum = 5
Cooling = 6
Equipment Needed

Under Construction Do Not Use This Pa

Controller Reverse Action - Thermal element RTD or Thermocouple - Control Valve and ther

Controller
Reverse Action
Transmitter
Use a Thermocouple or RTD for Temperature Measurement
Control Valve
Special Equipment

Do Not Use This Page.

ouple - Control Valve and thermal extionsion wire

Water Flow Through an Orifice


Qh=C' X (Hw*Pf)^.5
Qh= Lbs/Hr Mass Flow
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
C' = Flow Constant
DO NOT USE FOR DEFINITIVE DATA!!
Hw = Differential in Inches Water
Pf = Static Gauge Pressure in PSIA
Assumed Factors for Water
Fb Orifice Factor
Fr Reynolds Number
Y Expansion Factor
CV = GPM / DP^.5 x SG.
Inlet Pressure, PSIG
Discharge Pressure
Calculated HW
ID of Orifice
ID of Pipe
GPM=

60
74.65 Calculated Pf
10
24.65 Corrected to PSIA
1386 Inches Water Differential
1.55
4
299.82
Average Orifice Size

GPM
Pressure Drop
Specific Gravity
CV=
Orifice Size
1.80

These Values are ONLY Approximate and are not to be used for custody transfer calculations.

M / DP^.5 x SG.
300
50
1
42.43
2.05

er calculations.

David Farthing's TechStuff

05/07/2014

Helpful Boiler Burner Calculations

Combustion Air Requirements in Sq./Ft for Atmospheric and Power Burners

IN PUT DATA
400
80%
16,738,462
13.9
Square Feet Free Air Flow Area

Boiler Horsepower
Boiler Eff.
Boiler Input BTUH
Combustion Air Area Requirements

Authority Oklahoma Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Act 1982, Edition 1993
Table 380:25-7-18(b)
Combustion Analysis
Stack Temperature
Ambient Temperature
Net Temperature Rise
Excess O2 Reading
Calculated Efficiency
Calculated Excess Air

This section under construction DO NOT USE THIS FUNCTION!


525
90
435
4%
79.1
Examples Only!
21.1
Examples Only!
Gas Analysis for Natural Gas
%O2
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
% Excess Air
0.0
2.1
4.5
7.1
9.8
% Co2
11.9
11.6
11.3
11.0
10.7

2.5
12.2
10.5

3.0
15.1
10.2

%O2
% Excess Air
% Co2

3.5
18.1
9.9

4.0
21.2
9.6

4.5
24.5
9.3

5.0
28.2
9.0

5.5
32.0
8.7

6.0
36.1
8.5

6.5
40.4
8.2

%O2
% Excess Air
% Co2

7.0
45.0
7.9

7.5
50.2
7.6

8.0
55.5
7.3

8.5
61.2
7.0

9.0
67.8
6.8

9.5
74.6
6.5

10.0
82.0
6.2

%O2
% Excess Air
% Co2

10.5
90.4
5.9

11.0
100.4
5.6

11.5
109.2
5.3

12.0
120.6
5.1

12.5
133.0
4.8

13.0
146.8
4.5

13.5
163.1
4.2

General Notes
High "C" Carbon (soot) need more air.
High "CO" Carbon Monoxide, need more air.
High "CO2" Carbon Dioxide, need LESS air.
Typical Safe Oxygen Standards
High Fire 2.0-4.5% Excess O2
Mid Fire 3.5-5.0% Excess O2
Low Fire 6.0-8.0% Excess O2

Ideal Excess Oxygen Curve for Natural Gas


Firing Rate
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Ideal Excess Oxygen Natural Gas

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
20

Excess Oxygen %

Ideal O2
6
5.75
4.75
3.6
3.3
3.05
2.8
2.5
2.3

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Firing Rate

Fuel Oil
Molectular Make-up
Carbon %
Hydrogen %
Oxygen %
Sulfur %
Specific Gravity
Heating Val/Gal
Heating Val/Lb
Air Density @ 70F Lb/Ft^3

2
87.30
12.50
0.00
0.20
0.865
136952
18981.6583
0.0765

Ideal Air = 144*(8.01*Carbon+23.86*(Hydrogen-(Ox/8)+3*Sulfur)/HV/Lb


Ideal Air for this fuel oil per 10,000 Btu =
7.572031
Ideal Combustion Air Ft^3/Gallon =
1355.562
Gallon/Min @ High Fire =
2.037023
Combustion Air for this Oil CFM =
3248.601 at 15% EA
Combustion Air for Gas CFM =
3124.513 at 15% EA
Controller Ratio Factor Oil/Gas Bias = 1.039714

100

Economizer Heat Recovery Calculations

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Federal Corporation

05/07/2014 09:59:55

Economizer Energy Calculations


Customer
Boiler Type Watertube/Firetube
Fuel Type Gas or Oil
Boiler Rated Horsepower
Boiler Rated Efficiency
Normal Firing Rate (NFR)
Boiler Operating Pressure PSIG
Combustion Make-up Air Temperature
Entering Feedwater Temperature
Fuel Cost per Therm
Hours/Day Operation
Days/Month Operation
Operating Steam Temperature (Saturated)
Firing Boiler Horsepower @ NFR
Boiler Fuel Input @ NFR
BTU Output @ NFR
Net Operating Efficiencies as found
Theoretical Entering Stack Temperature
Actual Observed Stack Temperature
Temperature Rise Across Econ.
Water Flow #/Hr
Gross BTU to Feedwater/Hr
Exiting Feedwater Temperature "F"
Exiting Stack Temperature
Gain in Efficiency
New Net Calculated Thermal Efficiency
Fuel Savings/Hr
Annual Current Cost of Operation
Total Annual Savings w/ Economizer
Annual Cost of Operation w/ Economizer
Economizer Equipment Cost
Economizer Estimated Installation
Actual Economizer Installation Quote
Simple Pay-Back in Years

Xerox OKC
Watertube

W
G
1623
76.00%
36.0%
120
80
240
$0.640
24
28
350.00
584.28
25,727,539.74
19,552,930.20
78.19%
405.00
380.00
140.00
20,157.66
1,101,640.70
294.65
275.00
1.54%
79.74%
$7.05
$1,327,788.03
$56,855.24
$1,270,932.80
$18,700.00
$14,960.00

Equivalent Fuel Cost/1000 CF


$6.40 Per 1000 CF

Fuel

Default

Acid Dewpoint Tables


Dewpoint
Minimum
Stack Temp

Natural Gas

150

250

Minimum
Feedwater
Inlet Temp.
210

#2 Diesel Fuel
Low Sulfur Oil

180
200

275
300

210
220

Application OK, Stack Temp Above Dew Point.


.

0.59

Economizer Efficiencies

Condensing Economizers

80%

85%

85%

77%

75%

70%
60%

Conventional

50%
40%
30%
20%

90%
Condensing

80%

75%
Condensing
68% Efficiency
85%
60%
85%
80%
75%
65%
60%
57%

Vertical
Firetube
65%
77%
75%
55%
68%
60%
55%
50%
45%

80%
70%
Firing Rate
20 60%
60%
4057%
50%
50 50%
6045%
40%
75
90 30%
100
20%

10%

10%

0%
20

40

50

60
Firing Rate

75

90

0%
100

Non-Condensing Economizers

90%

Water Flow Characteristics - Water Hammer


PVC and CPVC Pipe Calculation
Pressure Surge = aV/ 2.31g = Shock Pressure pipe is exposed to.
a=
4660/ (((1+ (Kdi/Et))^.5)
Where
a=
wave velocity, ft/Sec Calculated factor see results below.
p=
pressure surge caused by the sudden change in velocity
V=
maximum velocity change, ft/Sec (V= Q/A) Pipe Area =0.785398 * d^2
g=
acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ft/Sec ^2
k=
fluid bulk modulus, 300,000 psi for water
di=
inside pipe diameter in inches
E=
modulus of elasticity of the pipe,
420,000 psi PVC, 360,000 psi CPVC,
t=
pipe wall thickness, inches
Q=
Flow Through Pipe, GPM
INPUT DATA
Q=
450
di=
4.025
Results for "a"
a=
1021.10
V=
11.26
Results for Pressure Surge
155
PSIG
K=
300000
NOTE: Maximum safe Pressure Surge for PVC pipe = 98 PSIG.
E=
420000
t=
0.145

Steel Pipe Water Hammer Calculations


Source Tube-Turn
Pressure Surge = P + (60V)
Where
P=
Flowing Pressure in PSIG
V=
Flowing Velocity in ft/Sec.
INPUT DATA
Q=
450
P=
100
Results for Pressure Surge
di=
4.025
V=
11.26

775.4471 PSIG

ASCO Solenoid Valve Application Guide


Application
T

Type of Valve
2-Way, 3-Way, 4-Way
Operation of Valve
Universal, NC, NO
Media
Liquid. Gas, Steam
Size of Flowing Pipe

Pressure

O
M

A
V
E

2
NC
L
1

Minimum
10
Atmosphere Valve will Operate In.
Voltage Requirements
24 VDC, 115 VAC
Extras for this application.
Fluid Temperature
Ambient Temperature

TOMSPAVE
25 degree f chiller service

Go to Liquid Valve Sizing Guide


CV From Valve Sizing Guide
2.43
Maximum
15
Clean

Drop Across Valve


5

115

25
90

http://www.ascovalve.com/products/html/valve_selector.htm

STEAM TRAP SELECTION GUIDE

The chart below lists various steam trapping applications and enables the correct choice of trap to be made.
A = First choice
B = Alternate choice

Spirax Sarco

F & T Range
(Float/
Thermostatic)
Application

CANTEEN EQUIPMENT
Boiling Pans-Fixed
Boiling Pens-Tilting
Boiling Pans-Pedestal
Steaming Ovens
Hot Plates

Spirax Sarco

FT/TV/SLR

Spirax Sarco Spirax Sarco

FT/SLR

TD Range

(Float/Thermo- (Float/Steam (Thermostatic with


Lock Release)dynamic)
Steam Lock
Release)

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

B1
B
B1

B1

B
A
B

B1

FUEL OIL HEATING


Bulk Oil Storage Tanks
Line Heaters
Outtlom Heaters
Tracer Lines & Jacketed Pipes

A
A

HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

B1

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR
B1

Autoclaves and Sterilizers

INDUSTRIAL DRYERS

TD Range
TD Range

Drying Coils (continuous)


Drying Coils (grid)
Drying Cylinders
Multi Bank Pipe Dryers
Multi Cylinder Sizing Machines

B
A
B

A
A

B1

LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range
A
B1
B

Garment Presses
Ironers and Calendars
Solvent Recovery Units
Tumbler Dryers

PRESSES

B
B
A
A

B1

B1

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

Multi Platan Presses


(parallel connections)
Multi Platen Presses
(series connections)
Tire Molds

PROCESS EQUIPMENT
Boiling Pans-Fixed
Boiling Pan-Tilted
Brewing Coppers
Digesters
Evaporators
Hot Tables
Retorts
Bulk Storage Tanks
Vulcanizers

SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT


Shell & tube Heat Exchangers
Heating Coils & Unit Heaters
Radiant Panels & Strips
Radiators & Convection Cabinet Heaters
Overhead Pipe Coils

STEAM MAINS
Horizontal Runs
Separators
Terminal Ends
Shut Down Drain
(Frost Protection)

TANKS AND VATS


Process Vats
(Rising Discharge Pipe)
Process Vats
(Discharge Pipe at Base)
Small Coil Heated Tanks
(quick boiling)
Small Coil Heated Tanks
(slow boiling)

A1
A

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

B
A
B

B1
B
B1

B1

B1

A
A
A

B1
B

A
A1
A

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

A
A
A
B
B

B
B
B

B1
B1
B1

B1

F & T Range

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

B
A
B

F & T Range

A
B
A1

FT/TV/SLR

FT/SLR

TD Range

1. With air vent in parallel 2. At end cooling leg Minimum length 3 ft (1m)
3. Use special traps which offer fixed temperature discharge option.

e of trap to be made.

Spirax Sarco Spirax Sarco Spirax Sarco

BPT

SM

(Balanced
(Bimetallic)
Pressure
Thermostatic)

BPT

SM

Thermoton
(Liquid
Expansion)

Thermoton

Spirax Sarco

lB Range
(Inverted
Bucket)

lB Range

B
B
A2
A2
A2
B1
B1
B1
A3

BPT

SM

Thermoton

BPT
B
B

SM

Thermoton

B
A

SM

Thermoton

lB Range
B
B1
B
B1

BPT

lB Range
B
B1
B1
B1
B1

BPT

lB Range

SM

Thermoton

lB Range

B
B1
B

BPT

SM

Thermoton

lB Range

B
B1
B1
B1
A
B1
B1
B1

BPT

SM

Thermoton

lB Range
B1
B1
B1

A
A

BPT

B
B1

SM

Thermoton

B2
B2
B2

B
B
B1

B3

BPT

lB Range

SM

Thermoton

lB Range

B
A

Courtesy of Spirax-Sarco

Boiler Application Guide


This application helps you select the vender and type of boiler you might use.
Do you need Steam = S or Water = W
Operating Pressure
Is the load Continuous or Cyclic? Cont./ Cyc.
How Much Steam or Hot Water is needed?
Water Applications
BTU
Operating Temperature (Water)
Steam Flow #/Hr.
Burner Type Power or Atmospheric
Fuel
Oil/Gas or Oil & Gas
What pressure is the Primary fuel
Feed Water System desired?
Boiler Hp Required
Steam
Water
Net BTU Output

s
12
Cont.

Steam Boiler Application


Low Pressure System

0
210
10,000
p
g
1
m

NO ENTRY REQUIRED Water applications only


Please enter Steam Load
Power Burner Selected
Gas
I
Inches/PSI
Start/Stop or Modulating

289.86
0.00
9,700,000

Special Note 1
None
Boiler Types To Look At
Steam Boilers Kewanee Rite or Peerless
Application Note 1
Steam Application
Application Note 2
Low Pressure Steam Application
Application Note 3
none
Application Note 4
Modulating Feedwater System Selected, Price Boiler Accordingly
Application Note 5
IRI Fuel Train Required
Application Note 6
Gas Fired Burner
Application Note 7
Low Pressure Gas Train Required, Check Pressure Drops in Gas Train
15 PSIG
Select a boiler shell with a minimum working pressure of

0
1
1
2
1
6

0
0

0
1
1
2
0
1

Flame Safety Selection Guide


This application helps you answer the questions that need to be answered to select FSG.
Application
Boiler, Oven, Furnace
BTU Input
Operation
Automatic, Semi-Automatic, Manual
Pre-Purge Required
Yes / No
Purge Time Specified By Manufacturer
Purge Time Recommended if not specified.
Pilot Style
Interrupted, InTermittent, Standing

B
3,465,000
A

IRI Codes Required


You have selected Automatic Operation

2.31
I

This Application guide uses gas flow to determine purg


Minutes

Results of your questions.


Use Programming Controller such as a RM7800 or RM7840
Use RM 7800 or 7840 series Programmers on Automatic Boiler Applications
Purging Relay required, RM7800 / 7840 on automatcis, and RM7895 on Semi-Automatics
Use Interupted Amplifier & Relay Combinations

d to select FSG.

as flow to determine purge time.

Suction Piping Calculations

Lookup Table
Federal Catalog
Pages 265-266

68 Degree Water Data!!


Piping Friction Loss and Velocity Analysis
Single pipe system. For multiple pipe sizes in a single run calculate each section and add
all section total losses together to get Total Head Loss for system.
Lookup Tables are available from most any pump/pipe manufacturer.
System Size
3.068
It is helpful to input actual pipe ID.
Specific Gravity for other than 68 deg Water
1.000
1.0 is default for 68 degree water.
Linear Feet Suction Pipe
6.00
Number of 90 Ells
1.00
Number of 45 Ells
0.00
Number of Valves
0.00
Flow Rate Required
GPM
330.00
From Pump work sheet
Pipe Schd
40.00
Friction Loss/100 Ft from look-up tables
26.30
Head Friction Loss/100 Feet of Pipe
Velocity
14.32
Feet Per Second
Effective Reynolds Number
339025.26 Flow is no longer laminar!
K Factor 90 Ells
Short
0.8
Averaged for pipe size range
K Factor 45 Ells
Short
0.25
Averaged for pipe size range
K Factor Valves
Globe
5.25
Averaged for pipe size range
Head Velocity V2/2G
3.19
Total Loss Line Pipe
1.58
Feet Head
Formula
Total Loss from 90 Ells
2.55
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Total Loss from 45 Ells
0.00
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Total Loss from Valves
0.00
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Total Head Loss
4.13
Feet of Head Loss
Total Head loss corrected for Specific Gravity
4.13

Discharge Piping Calculations

Lookup Table
Federal Catalog
Pages 265-266

68 Degree Water Data!!


Piping Friction Loss and Velocity Analysis
Single pipe system. For multiple pipe sizes in a single run calculate each section and add
all section total losses together to get Total Head Loss for system.
Lookup Tables are available from most any pump/pipe manufacturer.
System Size
3.068
It is helpful to input actual pipe ID.
Linear Feet Discharge Pipe
100.00
Number of 90 Ells
4.00
Number of 45 Ells
0.00
Number of Valves
1.00
Flow Rate Required
330.00
GPM
Pipe Schd
40.00
Friction Loss/100 Ft
26.30
Head Friction Loss/100 Feet of Pipe
Velocity
14.32
Feet Per Second
Effective Reynolds Number
339025.26 Flow is no longer laminar!
K Factor 90 Ells
Short
0.8
Averaged for pipe size range
K Factor 45 Ells
Short
0.25
Averaged for pipe size range
K Factor Valves
Globe
5.25
Averaged for pipe size range
Head Velocity V2/2G
3.19
Total Loss Line Pipe
26.30
Feet Head
Formula
Total Loss from 90 Ells
10.20
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Total Loss from 45 Ells
0.00
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Total Loss from Valves
16.74
Feet Head
h=K*(V2/2G)
Back Pressure Valve Setting
0
0.00
Feet Head
Total Head Loss
53.24
Feet of Head Loss
Total Head loss corrected for Specific Gravity
53.24

Halliburton Turbin Gas Flow Meter Calculations


Flowing Pressure
Flowing Temperature
Observed Flow Rate
Corrected SCF Flow

15
60
19250
38852.851

Totalizer Divisor
Factory Calibration Factor
Set Totalizer Read Out Divisor to =
Set Totalizer Read Out Divisor to =

Actual Cubic Feet


Standard Cubic Feet

123.42
Actual
61.147
Registers in Standard Cubic Feet
611.472128 Registers in TENTHS of a Standard Cubic Foot

Flow Rate Indicator Full Sacle Frequency Factor


Full Scale Flow Rate
38800
SCF/ Time Base
Factory Calibration Factor
123.42
Time Base Conversion Factor
3600
Seconds Per Time Base (86400/day, 3600/Hr, 60/Min)
Full Scale Frequency =
659.056
K-Factor
Factory Calibration Factor
K-Factor =

123.42
61.147

Temperature Effects
Plus or Minus Temperature Change
Calculation for Plus
Percent Effect
Calculation for Minus
Percent Effect

22
Degree F
37274.838
4.062
40570.380
-4.421

Presure Effects
Plus or Minus Presure Change
Calculation for Plus
Percent Effect
Calculation for Minus
Percent Effect

5
PSIG
45387.135
16.818
32318.568
-16.818

BTU Input
Btu/Lb/Oil
Total Lbs/Oil
Total Gal Oil
GPM FLOW

Halliburton Oil Meter Calculator for known Btu Input


#2 Diesel Oil
72000000
136000
529.4118
75.66268
1.261045

ASME formula
Ref: Marks9th, p12-69/12.4.2

Vt=
Vs=
T=
Pa=
Pf=
Po=
NOTE

T=
Vs=
Pf=
Po=
Vt=

05/07/2014 09:59:55
Hot Water Boiler Expansion Tank Sizing Non-Bladder Air Charged Steel Tank
International Mechanical Code 1009.2 and ASME
All Calculations based on 14.73 PSIA Sea Level 40 degree make-up water.
Vt=((0.00041T-0.0466) X Vs) / (Pa/Pf)-(Pa/Po)
Minimum volume of expansion tank, gallons
Volume of water in system less expansion tank, gallons
Maximum Average Operating Temperature of system, degrees 'F'
Atmospheric pressure fixed at 14.73 in this calculation.
Filling pressure (psig).
Maximum operating pressure (psig).
Calculations correct Pa,Pf, and Po to Feet Absolute for you.
System Temperatures between 160 to 280 degrees 'F'.

Average System Operating Temperature, Degrees F


Volume of Water in System, Gallons
Make-up Fill Water Pressure PSIG
Maximum Operating Pressure of System PSIG
Minimum Volume Expansion Tank Required
Boyle's Law Acceptance Factor
Minimum Tank Volume using Boyle's Factor

160
200
45
75
46.09
1.33
62

Plain Steel Tank


This is a Safety Factor used by many Engineers

Measurement, Controllers & Recorders


UNDER CONSTRUCTION - APPLICATION NOT YET AVAILABLE

Measurement
Level, Pressure, Temperature or Flow?
F
L,P,T,F
Flow Measurement uses either a Differential Pressure Transmitter or Flow Meter
Areyou using a Differential Transmitter or a Meter? Selece DT or M in the yellow box below
DT
Differential Transmitters meassure flow in inches water pressure across an orifice plate

AVAILABLE

VFD Pump Affiniity Laws and Curve Effect


Variable Speed Pump Curves
Enter Data in "Yellow Boxes"
Enter Pump Speeds Desired (HZ)
Speed 1
60
RPM 1800
Speed 3
50
RPM 1500
Speed 5
40
RPM 1200
Speed 1

60
Flow

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC
Speed 3

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC
Speed 5

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC

Hz.

50

HP

0
140
118
86
300
260
200

RPM
RPM
RPM

1650
1350
1050
Speed 2

Eff
0
60
75
95
105
111
115

0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

Hz.
Head

HP

0
4.166667
8.333333
12.5
916.6667
1166.667
1333.333

0
97.22222
81.94444
59.72222
208.3333
180.5556
138.8889

0
34.722222
43.402778
54.976852
60.763889
64.236111
66.550926

Eff
0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

Hz.
Head

HP

0
3.333333
6.666667
10
733.3333
933.3333
1066.667

0
62.22222
52.44444
38.22222
133.3333
115.5556
88.88889

0
10.288066
12.860082
16.289438
18.004115
19.032922
19.718793

Eff
0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

0
4.583333
9.166667
13.75
1008.333
1283.333
1466.667
45
Flow

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC
Speed 6

Flow

55
Flow

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC
Speed 4

Flow

40

55
45
35

Original Pump Curve Data

Head

0
5
10
15
1100
1400
1600

Speed 2
Speed 4
Speed 6

0
3.75
7.5
11.25
825
1050
1200
35
Flow

Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5 BEP
Point 6
Point 7 EOC

0
2.916667
5.833333
8.75
641.6667
816.6667
933.3333

Hz.
Head

HP

0
117.6389
99.15278
72.26389
252.0833
218.4722
168.0556

0
46.21528
57.7691
73.17419
80.87674
85.49826
88.57928

Eff
0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

Hz.
Head
0
78.75
66.375
48.375
168.75
146.25
112.5

HP
0
25.3125
31.64063
40.07813
44.29688
46.82813
48.51563

Eff
0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

Hz.
Head

HP

0
47.63889
40.15278
29.26389
102.0833
88.47222
68.05556

0
11.90972
14.88715
18.85706
20.84201
22.03299
22.82697

Eff
0
45
66
77.5
81
80
70

Larrs Hydronic Zone Loads Calculation


Source: Laars Technical Data

All data based on 20 degree 'F' temperature drop across coil.


Minimum 140 degree supply.
Calculating Required Flow Rate in GPM through the Zone.
NET BTU Load of Zone =
27,000
Total Flow Rate to Zone in GPM
2.7
Calculating Pump Head Required to Circulate Loop. (Closed Loop Application)
Longest pipe run in Feet =
250
Total Estimated pumping head required =
15
Calculated Copper Pipe Size Required for Heating Capacity
Copper Pipe Size Required for Zone
0.75

Application)

Boiler Heat Recovery Calculations


Printout 05/07/2014 09:59:55

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
voice 405-728-6709

Blowdown Heat Recovery


Using waste heat from surface blowdown to pre-heat make-up water to DA or boiler.
Boiler Type FT or WT
Steam Boiler Flow PPH at Capacity
TDS of Make-up Water
Desired TDS in Boiler Water
Operating Pressure
Operating Temperature
Boiler Rated Efficiency
Normal Firing Rate
Hours/Day Run Time
Days/Month Run
Make-up as % of Steaming Rate
Blowdown as % of Steaming Rate
Make-up + Blowdown as % of Steaming Rate
Fuel Cost per Therm include transport cost
Deaerator Operating Temperature
Calculated Boiler Horsepower
Fuel Input at rated efficiency & firing rate
Therms per hour at efficiency & firing rate
Calculated Cost to Operate per 30 day billing
Blowdown in PPH
Equivalent Boiler Horsepower Loss
Total Heat Available for Recovery
Equivalent Boiler Horsepower Recovered

FT=Fire Tube, WT=Water Tube


1449 Calculated Boiler Hp.

Total Annual Cost for Blowdown & Make-up


BTU Heat for Recovery to Make-Up

wt
50000
125
4500
165
341
75%
60%
24
30
100%
2.86%
102.86%
$0.67
227
870
38,800.00
388.00
$186,053.76
30,857.14
894.41
6,202,286
185.34
148,854,857
4,465,645,714
53,587,748,571
$356,894.41
3,710,262,857

Total Monthly Savings for Recovery


Total Annual Savings for Recovery

$24,710.35
$296,524.21

Per Billing Period

Cost for Recovery Equipment


Cost for Installation L&M

Months to Payback

$23,000.00
$12,365.00

1.43

Blowdown within normal limits


Equivalent Fuel Cost per 1000 CF

$6.66

At Operating Firing Rate


Cubic Feet/Hr

BTU/Hr.
BTU/Day
BTU/Billing Period
BTU/Year
Per Billing Period

Estimates Only Actual Cost must be quoted.


Estimates Only Actual Cost must be quoted.
Project Payback within normal limits.

David Farthing's Tech Stuff

05/07/2014 09:59:55

Relief Valve Sizing and Selection


User Data ABC Company
1234 Powerhouse Lane
Smokin, PA 123456
Boiler Data
Steam (S) or Hot Water (W)?
MAWP
Operating Pressure
Btu Input
Steam PPH Output
USE STEAM DATA ONLY
How Many Safety Valves
Safety Valve Port Size
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Steam Recommendations
Safety Valve #1
Safety Valve #2
Safety Valve #3
Hot Water Recommendations
Relief Valve #1
Relief Valve #2
Relief Valve #3

S
250
160
12,500,000
10,309
10,000,000
3
2
2
2
PPH Set Pressure
3,402
192
3,402
192
3,402
192
Btu/Hr
-

Set Pressure
192
192
192

NOTES:
1] Use only water or steam input data.
2] MAWP is the Maximum Allowable Vessel Pressure NOT the Operating Pressure
3] Recommended "Set Pressure" is 20% Above Operating Pressure.
4] Always use a Drip-Pan Ell on Steam Safety Valve discharge piping.

Relief Valve Data

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Printout
05/07/2014 / 09:59:55

David Farthing's TechStuff

The effect of Boiler Operating Pressure on System Performance


Firetube Boiers - Saturated Steam
Designed Velocity Across the Boiler Outlet
Rated Boiler Horsepower

Design Velocity in the distribution line


1739

Boiler Outlet Diameter

Distribution line Diameter

Current Operating Pressure

260

Feedwater Temperature

227

Steam Volume Cft/#

1.69

Boiler Outlet Velocity

8608.0777

Distribution Velocity Ft./Min.

8
4842.0437

Distibution Velocity OK

Ft./Min.

Danger Outlet Nozzle Velocity Above Safety Limits - Priming and Carry Over Will Occur!
New Velocity Across the Boiler Outlet

New Velocity in the distribution line

New Operating Pressure

200

Distribution line Diameter

Steam Volume Cft/#

2.14

Distribution Velocity Ft./Min.

New Boiler Outlet Velocity

10900.1694

Ft./Min.

8
6131.3453

Caution Distribution Velocity Abnormally High!

Danger Outlet Nozzle Velocity Above Safety Limits - Priming and Carry Over Will Occur!
Additional or Reduction Btu/Bhp Required to Raise Pressure above 0 PSIG

Theoretical Savings from Lowering Operating Pressure

6,422

BTU @ Current Pressure

Btu Differential

621

5,801

BTU @ New Pressure

Boiler Horsepower

1739

621

Btu @ Horsepower/Hr Differential

Cost of Fuel (Decatherm)

$5.56

Hrs/Day Operation
Days/Month/Operation
$$ Saved or Expended/Mth.
Feedwater Pump vs. Relief Valve Performance Requirements
Design

$$ Saved or Expended/Yr.

At New

Boiler Horsepower

1739

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

350

Normal Operating Pressure

260

200

Minimum Safety Relief Valve Setting

299

230

732

563

Minimum Pump Head Requirements


Feet Head
Pressure Drop Across Feed Valve

50

See Liquid Valve Calcs.

Feedwater Piping Losses - PSI

12

See Friction Losses in Piping.

Economizer Losses-PSI

Pump Discharge Pressure PSI


Minimum Pump Flow Capacity

GPM

384

See Manufacturer's Data sheet.


311

150.41

Danger Outlet Nozzle Velocity Above Safety Limits - Priming and Carry Over Will Occur!
Minimum Pump Head Requirements are based on Minimum Safety Relief Valve Setting
ADD SYSTEM LOSSES TO MINIMUM HEAD TO GET TOAL DYNAMIC HEAD PUMP MUST PRODUCE.

20
22
Misapplication
Misapplication

The effect of Boiler Operating Pressure on System Performance


Watertube Boiler - Saturated Steam
Designed Velocity Across the Boiler Outlet
Pounds/Hr Steam Flow

Design Velocity in the distribution line

30000

Rated Boiler Horsepower

870

Boiler Outlet Diameter

Distribution line Diameter

Current Operating Pressure

275

Feedwater Temperature

227

Steam Volume Cft/#

1.6

Boiler Outlet Velocity

4075.1353

Distribution Velocity Ft./Min.


Distribution Velosity OK

Ft./Min.

Nozzle Velocity OK
New Velocity Across the Boiler Outlet

New Velocity in the distribution line

New Operating Pressure

125

Distribution line Diameter

Steam Volume Cft/#

3.23

Distribution Velocity Ft./Min.

New Boiler Outlet Velocity

8226.6794

Ft./Min.

Distribution Velosity OK

Caution Outlet Nozzel Velocity Above 8000 Ft/Min - Priming May Occur!
Additional or Reduction Btu/Bhp Required to Raise Pressure above 0 PSIG

Theoretical Savings f

6,422

BTU @ Current Pressure

Btu Differential

4,593

BTU @ New Pressure

Boiler Horsepower

1,829

Btu @ Horsepower/Hr Differential

Cost of Fuel (Decather


Hrs/Day Operation

Days/Month/Operation

$$ Saved or Expended

$$ Saved or Expended
Feedwater Pump vs. Relief Valve Performance Requirements
Design

At New

Boiler Horsepower

870

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

350

Normal Operating Pressure

275

125

Minimum Safety Relief Valve Setting

316

144

Safety Valve RequirementFeet Head

774

352

Pressure Drop Across Feed Valve

28

See Liquid Valve Calcs.

Feedwater Piping Losses - PSI

10

See Friction Losses in Piping.

Minimum Pump Head Requirements

Economizer Losses-PSI

Pump Discharge Pressure - PSI


Minimum Pump Flow Capacity
Distibution Velocity OK

377
GPM

75.21

See Manufacturer's Data sheet.


194

Minimum Pump Head Requirements are based on Minimum Safety Relief Valve Setting
ADD SYSTEM LOSSES TO MINIMUM HEAD TO GET TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD PUMP MUST PRODUCE.

Additional BTU Required to Develop 1 Boiler Horsepower vs. Feedwater Temperature


Feedwater
Temperature

Boiler Operating Pressure


0

25

50

75

100

125

150

Additional BTU Input Required to Bring Feedwater to Steami


50

5,766

7,664

8,733

9,492

10,113

10,631 11,079

100

4,041

5,939

7,008

7,767

8,388

8,906

9,354

125

3,179

5,076

6,146

6,905

7,526

8,043

8,492

150

2,316

4,214

5,283

6,042

6,663

7,181

7,629

175

1,454

3,351

4,421

5,180

5,801

6,318

6,767

200

591

2,489

3,558

4,317

4,938

5,456

5,904

212

177

2,075

3,144

3,903

4,524

5,042

5,490

225

1,626

2,696

3,455

4,076

4,593

5,042

230

1,454

2,523

3,282

3,903

4,421

4,869

240

1,109

2,178

2,937

3,558

4,076

4,524

250

764

1,833

2,592

3,213

3,731

4,179

260

419

1,488

2,247

2,868

3,386

3,834

270

74

1,143

1,902

2,523

3,041

3,489

275

971

1,730

2,351

2,868

3,317

280

798

1,557

2,178

2,696

3,144

Gauge
Pressure
PSIG
25
IN VAC

n the distribution line


14
748.4942

the distribution line


14
1511.0227

Theoretical Savings from Lowering Operating Pressure


Btu Differential
Boiler Horsepower
Cost of Fuel (Decatherm)

1,829
869.5652174
$5.29

Hrs/Day Operation

20

Days/Month/Operation

22

$$ Saved or Expended/Mth.

$3,700.88

$$ Saved or Expended/Yr.

$44,410.61

Temperature
Deg F
134

Heat in Btu/lb.
Sensible
102

20
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

162
179
192
203
212
215
219
222
224
227
230
232
233
237
239
244
248
252
256
259
262

129
147
160
171
180
183
187
190
192
195
198
200
201
205
207
212
216
220
224
227
230

24
26
28
30
32
34

265
268
271
274
277
279

233
236
239
243
246
248

36
38
40
42

282
284
286
289

251
253
256
258

ater Temperature

ng Pressure
175

200

225

250

Bring Feedwater to Steaming Temperature


11,459

11,838

12,149

12,459

9,734

10,113

10,424

10,734

8,871

9,251

9,561

9,872

8,009

8,388

8,699

9,009

7,146

7,526

7,836

8,147

6,284

6,663

6,974

7,284

5,870

6,249

6,560

6,870

5,421

5,801

6,111

6,422

5,249

5,628

5,939

6,249

4,904

5,283

5,594

5,904

4,559

4,938

5,249

5,559

4,214

4,593

4,904

5,214

3,869

4,248

4,559

4,869

3,696

4,076

4,386

4,697

3,524

3,903

4,214

4,524

44
46
48
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235

291
293
295
298
300
307
312
316
320
324
328
331
335
338
341
344
347
350
353
356
358
361
363
366
368
371
373
375
377
380
382
384
386
388
390
392
394
396
397
399
401

260
262
264
267
271
277
282
286
290
294
298
302
305
309
312
316
319
322
325
328
330
333
336
339
341
344
346
348
351
353
355
358
360
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
376

240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
335
340
345
350
355
360
365
370
375
380
385
390
395
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800

403
404
406
408
409
411
413
414
416
417
418
420
421
423
425
426
427
429
430
432
433
434
435
437
438
440
441
442
443
445
446
447
448
460
470
479
489
497
505
513
520

378
380
382
383
385
387
389
391
392
394
395
397
398
400
402
404
405
407
408
410
411
413
414
416
417
419
420
421
422
424
425
427
428
439
453
464
473
483
491
504
512

900
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000

534
546
574
597
618
636
654
669
683
696

529
544
580
610
642
672
701
733
764
804

Heat in Btu/lb.
Latent
Total
1017
1119

Specific
Volume
Cu. ft.
per lb.
142

1001
990
982
976
970
968
966
964
962
960
959
957
956
954
953
949
947
944
941
939
937

1130
1137
1142
1147
1150
1151
1153
1154
1154
1155
1157
1157
1157
1159
1160
1161
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167

73.90
51.30
39.40
31.80
26.80
25.20
23.50
22.30
21.40
20.10
19.40
18.70
18.40
17.10
16.50
15.30
14.30
13.40
12.60
11.90
11.30

934
933
930
929
927
925

1167
1169
1169
1172
1173
1173

10.80
10.30
9.85
9.46
9.10
8.75

923
922
920
918

1174
1175
1176
1176

8.42
8.08
7.82
7.57

917
915
914
912
909
906
901
898
895
891
889
886
883
880
878
875
873
871
868
866
864
861
859
857
855
853
851
849
847
845
843
841
839
837
836
834
832
830
828
827
825

1177
1177
1178
1179
1180
1183
1183
1184
1185
1185
1187
1188
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1193
1194
1194
1194
1195
1196
1196
1197
1197
1197
1198
1198
1198
1199
1199
1199
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1201
1201

7.31
7.14
6.94
6.68
6.27
5.84
5.49
5.18
4.91
4.67
4.44
4.24
4.05
3.89
3.74
3.59
3.46
3.34
3.23
3.12
3.02
2.92
2.84
2.74
2.68
2.60
2.54
2.47
2.41
2.34
2.29
2.24
2.19
2.14
2.09
2.05
2.00
1.96
1.92
1.89
1.85

823
822
820
819
817
815
814
812
811
809
808
806
805
803
802
800
799
797
796
794
793
791
790
789
788
786
785
784
783
781
780
778
777
766
751
740
730
719
710
696
686

1201
1202
1202
1202
1202
1202
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1203
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1204
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1205
1204
1204
1203
1202
1201
1200
1198

1.81
1.78
1.75
1.72
1.69
1.66
1.63
1.60
1.57
1.55
1.53
1.49
1.47
1.45
1.43
1.41
1.38
1.36
1.34
1.33
1.31
1.29
1.28
1.26
1.24
1.22
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.16
1.14
1.13
1.12
1.00
0.89
0.82
0.75
0.69
0.64
0.60
0.56

666
647
600
557
509
462
413
358
295
213

1195
1191
1180
1167
1151
1134
1114
1091
1059
1017

0.49
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.22
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.11
0.08

05/07/2014 / 09:59:56

'c' Federal Corporation

The effect of Feedwater Temperature on Boiler Horsepower


Customer
Contact
Plant Location
Boiler Mfg
Boiler Type

Boiler Type Watertube/Firetube


Name Plate Rated Boiler BHP
Normal Operating Pressure
Calculated BTU Input for boiler type
Observed Feedwater Temp
Hours Day Operated
Days per Month
Calculated Bhp BTU Output Bhp
Calculated Efficiency (Input/Output)
Calculated Bhp
Rated Steam PPH at 100% Firing
BTU addition for Operating Pressure
BTU Lost/Gained Per Hour
Boiler HP Lost or Gained/ Hr.
Net Boiler Horsepower
Net Steam Output
Net Efficiency
Percent Increase/Decrease Energy Use
Percent Increase/Decrease BHP

My Boiler Plant
Plant Eng
Chickasha, OK
Kewanee H3S500G
Fire Tube
Factory Design
F.
500
125
20,968,470.92
212
10
22
16,732,500.00
79.80
500.00
17250
2,520,750
0.00
0.00
500
17250.0
79.80
0.00
0.000%

FW Temp
Deaerator or
As Observed First Recovery
180
227
10
10
22
22

3,159,000
-552,000.00
(16.49)
484
16680.9
77.17
-2.63%
-3.299%

2,296,500
258,750.00
7.73
508
17516.8
81.03
1.23%
1.546%

Typical
Economizer
252
10
22

1,865,250
690,000.00
20.62
521
17961.3
83.09
3.29%
4.124%

Data Compiled by
David C. Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Additional BTU Required to Develop 1 Boiler Horsepower vs. Feedwater Temperature


Feedwater
Boiler Operating Pressure
Temperature
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
Additional BTU Input Required to Bring Feedwater to Steaming Temperature
50
6,559 7,664 8,733 9,492 10,113 10,631 11,079 11,459 11,838 12,149
12,459
100
4,834 5,939 7,008 7,767 8,388 8,906 9,354 9,734 10,113 10,424
10,734
125
3,972 5,076 6,146 6,905 7,526 8,043 8,492 8,871 9,251 9,561
9,872
150
3,109 4,214 5,283 6,042 6,663 7,181 7,629 8,009 8,388 8,699
9,009
175
2,247 3,351 4,421 5,180 5,801 6,318 6,767 7,146 7,526 7,836
8,147
200
1,384 2,489 3,558 4,317 4,938 5,456 5,904 6,284 6,663 6,974
7,284
212
970 2,075 3,144 3,903 4,524 5,042 5,490 5,870 6,249 6,560
6,870
225
1,626 2,696 3,455 4,076 4,593 5,042 5,421 5,801 6,111
6,422
230
1,454 2,523 3,282 3,903 4,421 4,869 5,249 5,628 5,939
6,249
240
1,109 2,178 2,937 3,558 4,076 4,524 4,904 5,283 5,594
5,904
250
764 1,833 2,592 3,213 3,731 4,179 4,559 4,938 5,249
5,559
260
419 1,488 2,247 2,868 3,386 3,834 4,214 4,593 4,904
5,214
270
74 1,143 1,902 2,523 3,041 3,489 3,869 4,248 4,559
4,869
275
971 1,730 2,351 2,868 3,317 3,696 4,076 4,386
4,697
280
798 1,557 2,178 2,696 3,144 3,524 3,903 4,214
4,524

D ata Co mpil ed by
D avid Farthi ng
Voi ce 405 -72 8-67 09

05/07/2014 09:59:56

The effect of Scale on Heat Transfer in Boilers


Ad ditio nal Heat In pu t Req uired Du e to C alciu m Salt Scale
Watertub e B oiler F ull Circum ferance T ub e C on tact

Ca lc ium Sca le Thickne ss = Inch

0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
5%

10%A dditiona l Hea t Input


15% Reqired to Ma ke
30%
Boile r Horsepowe r66%
Sourc e: Cooper Tool Mfg.

150%

Sca le vs. H eat Tra nsfer

05/07/2014 09:59:56

D ata Co mpil ed by
D avid Farthi ng
Voi ce 405 -72 8-67 09

Sca le vs. H eat Tra nsfer

05/07/2014 09:59:56

D ata Co mpil ed by
D avid Farthi ng
Voi ce 405 -72 8-67 09

Sca le vs. H eat Tra nsfer

1 Grain = 17 PPM of soluable hardness


Principle

Benefit

Eliminate
Hardness

No
Scale

Hardness Test
SOAP TEST
1 Drop = Soft (<1 Grain)
2 Drops = Hard (1-2 Grains)
3 Drops = Hard (2-3 Grains)
Run Sample COLD
Eliminate
Oxygen

HACH 5B REAGENT
Pink = Hard
Blue = Soft <1 Grain
Each drop of reagent = 1 Grain
No
Corrosion

Sulfite Residual Test


1 Drop = 10 ppm
Desired 30-60 ppm
Run Sample HOT
Run this TEST FIRST!
Add
Alkalinity

Soft
Solids

Add
Polymer

Soft
Solids

Control TDS
"Total
Disolved Solids"

Pure Steam

Boost
Condensate pH

Eliminate
Steam Line and
Condensate Line
Corrosion

Dr. Mac Brockway's Boiler Water Chemistry

(Contact Dr Mac at 405-737-3740 for the Companion White Paper that accompanies this char
(Dr. Brockway is a Phd Chemical Engineer specializing in water chemistry.)

Steam Boiler (<300 PSI) Water Treatment


PreTreatment
Water
Softner
Removes Calcium
and Magnesium
salts only

Deareate
or
Hot Feedwater

Internal
Treatment
Phosphate (PO4)

Testing
What You Want

Precipitation
or
Chelant
Solubilizer
Treat at the Feedwater Tank

Hardness = 0
PO4 =30-60 ppm Great!

Sulfite

Oxygen = 0
SO3 = 30-60 ppm Great!

or
Chelant = 10-30 ppm

Treat at the Feedwater Tank


May be injected directly into the boiler
but don't forget the feedwater tank

N/A

NaOH
Sodium
Hydroxide

OH = 300-600 ppm
pH = 11.0 - 12.0
pH = 11.56 Perfect

N/A

Polymer

Normal
Poly = 10-50 ppm

Reverse Osmosis
or
De-Ionizer

Blowdown
Manual
and/or
Automatic
Nutralizing
Amine
Volatile Chemical
travels with steam

TDS = 3,000 - 5,000ppm


TDS <= 3,000 Great!
uMhos = 4,000 - 6,0000

De-Alkalizer
or
Reverse Osmosis

Condensate
pH = 8 - 9.0 Great!
Iron Test <0.1ppm

Water Chemistry

White Paper that accompanies this chart)


specializing in water chemistry.)

Water Treatment

Ca++

Want to Prevent
Chemistry
HARDNESS
+CO3 =

CaCO3

Calcium + Carbonate = Calcium Carbonate


Slow Reaction results in hard formation

Fe + 1/2O2 = FeO
Iron Metal + Oxygen = Rust

Hard Crystalline solids


Avoid runing pH too low this
will result in Hard Calcium Phosphate
Hard Crystalline solids

Prevent Boiler Water Carry Over


Priming and Impure or Wet Steam
Wet Steam robs energy from your
steam line!
CO2 + H20 = H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid! pH=4-6)
H2CO3 + Fe = FeCO3 (Iron Scale!)
Rot out distribution and condensate lines!

Action
Chemistry YOU WANT
SOFT
3Ca++ + 2PO4 = Cay(PO4)2
Calcium + Phosphate = Soft Sludge
Fast reaction results in a soft formation

2SO3

+ O2

Comment
Good Heat Transfer
Lower Energy Cost
Longer Boiler life

= 2SO4

Sulfite + Oxygen = Sulfate

Longer Boiler Life

Elevate pH
OH = Elevated Alkalinity
Result Soft Solids

Save Fuel $$
Clean Boiler
Good Heat
Transfer

Polymer + Hard Soild = Soft Sludge

Clean Boiler

Pure Steam
and
Solids Removal

Clean Boiler
Good Heat Treansfer
Saved Fuel $$$

Amine(A) + H2CO3 = A~H+HCO3 (pH=8-9)


Amine(A) + H2O = A~H+OH (pH = 8-9)
Amine combines with H2CO3 to nutralize

No Rust or iron
brought back to boiler
by condensate.
Longer distribution
line life.

the acid and raise the pH to 8-9 and


protects condensate lines.

ABMA Water Chemistry Guidelines

Go Back To
DR.MAC

05/07/2014

American Boiler Manufacturers Association **


Boiler Water Chemistry Guidelines
** As adopted from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Boiler Water Chemical Limits
Boiler Operating Pressure (psig)
15
150
300
600
900
1200
1500
Parameter
Chemical Concentration (mg/liter) PPM
TDS (Unnutralized) 700-2800 700-3500 700-3500 500-2500 150-750 150-500 150-300
Phosphate (PO4)
30-60
30-60
30-60
20-40
15-20
10-15
5-10
Hydroxide (CaCO3)
300-400
300-400
250-300 150-200 120-150 100-120 80-100
Sulfite
30-60
30-60
30-40
20-30
15-20
10-15
5-10
Silica (SiO2)
150
100
50
30
10
5
3
Total Iron (Fe)
10
10
5
3
2
2
1
Organics
70-100
70-100
70-100
70-100
50-70
50-70
50-70

NOTES:

TDS - Unnutralized TDS readings are affected by pH. Use the pH Correction table below to correct TDS to sample pH.
The Higher number in the TDS column represents the maximum limits for safe boiler operation at the indicated operating pressure.
Depending on publication some authorities allow for upto 4000 TDS in Water Tube boilers operating from 0-150 psig.
TDS Error due to High pH
If Nutralizing Agents are not available then Subtract the 'Error' number from the TDS reading to arrive at 'Neutralized TDS' number.
pH
Error (High)
9.0
0
9.5
10
10.0
25
10.5
60
11.0
150
11.2
220
11.4
310
11.6
460
11.8
700
12.0
1050
12.2
1500
12.4
2400
12.6
3800
12.8
6100
13.0
10,000

EXAMPLE 1] TDS Reading of 2850 and an operating pH of 11.56 (normal) would be corrected to 2390 (I.e. 2850-460=2390)
2] TDS Reading of 2850 and an operating pH of 9.0* (low) would be corrected to 2850 (I.e. 2850-0=2850)
* NOTE a pH of 9.0 is considered LOW. Normal Operating pH is recommended to be at 11.56.

Compiled by
David Farthing
405-249-9324

Boiler / Burner Data Sheet Print Out 05/07/2014


Today's Date
12/6/2004
Certificate Exp. Date
Company Name
SW Medical
Location
4401 S. Western
City
State OK
Zip
Oklahoma City
73109
Boiler MFG Name Burnham
Model No.
LN5P-400-GO-IC
Serial No.
72566/ NB#28696 Yr Blt 2004
Hot Water
Steam 150 PSI
Operating Pressure (PSI)
80
Date Installed
11/20/2004

Insurance Carrier

FM Global

Inspector No.

Burner MFG Name


Industrial Combustion
Model No.
LNDLG-210P-30
Serial No.
41966-1
Atmosperic (Natural Draft)
NA
Power/Mechanical Draft
30 HP w/ FGR
BTU/Hr. Input
16738 MMBTU/Hr
Power & Mechanical Draft Burners

Atmospheric (Natural Draft) Burners

120 East Main Street -- Post Office Box 26408


Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma 73126
(800) 289-3331 (405) 239-7301
Fax (405) 232-5438

INPUT in BTU/HOUR
ASME SAFETY STANDARDS No. CSD-1

Less Than
400,000
400,000
to
CONTROL & SAFETY DEVICES GUIDELINES
(Including
2,500,000
Modular Boilers
FOR AUTOMATICALLY GAS FIRED BURNERS
w/ max. input of
NOT
400,000)
INSTALLED
NOT INSTALLED
System Control Specifications
REQUIRED

2,500,000
to
5,000,000

INPUT in BTU/HOUR
5,000,000
to
12,500,000

Less Than
400,000
400,000
to
(Including
2,500,000
Modular Boilers
w/ max. input of
400,000)

2,500,000
to
5,000,000

5,000,000
to
12,500,000

Associated
Standard
Paragraph

INTERLOCKS / LIMITS
NEXUS
NX1030150PSI
Transmitter

Approved Operating
Controllers Steam Boilers
(Pressure)

NR

Hot Water Boilers


(Temp)
High Limits
Steam boiler (Pressure)
(Manual Reset)

Honeywell
L404C1162

NR
NEXUS
NX1030 Gas
PSI
Transmitter

Hot Water Boilers


(Temp)
(Manual Reset)

Required
(Note 1)

Required (Note
Required (Note 1)
1)

Required
(Note 1)

Required
(Note 1)

Required
(Note 1)

Required
(Note 1)

Required
(Note 1)

CR-220(a)(1)(2) CW310(b)
CW620(b)

Required
(Note 2)

Required (Note
Required (Note 2)
2)

Required
(Note 2)

Required
(Note 2)

Required
(Note 2)

Required
(Note 2)

Required
(Note 2)

CR-220(b)(1)(2) CW410(b)
CW-640(b)

Required
(Note 3)

Required (Note
Required (Note 3)
3)

Required
(Note 3)

Required
(Note 3)

Required
(Note 3)

Required
(Note 3)

Required
(Note 3)

CR-220(a)(1)(3) CW310(c)
CW-620(a)

Required
(Note 4)

Required (Note
Required (Note 4)
4)

Required
(Note 4)

Required
(Note 4)

Required
(Note 4)

Required
(Note 4)

Required
(Note 4)

CR-220(b)(1)(3) CW410(c)
CW-640(a)
CF-162(a), CF-910,
CR-410 Table CF1,CF-2

High Gas Pressure


(MANUAL RESET)

NEXUS
NX1030 Gas
PSI
Transmitter

Low Gas Pressure


(Manual Reset)

ASCO
T300417-22
Valvew/OTS

Valve Seal Overtravel


Interlocks

NEXUS 4100
w/NX20-1 Air
Position
Indicator

High Fire Switch

NEXUS 4100
w/NX10-1
Gas/Oil
Position
Indicator

Low Fire Switch

NEXUS 4100
w/Antun
SMD8024 Dual
Point Air
Switch

Supervised Purge Air

NEXUS 4100
w/Antun
SMD8024 Dual
Point Air
Switch

Proven Combustion Air

Action on Loss of Combustion


Air

LOCKOUT

(Note 5)

Required

Required

Required

Required

(Note 5)

Required

Required

Required

Required

(Note 6)

(Note 7)

(Note 10)

(Note 10)

CF-210(a)(2)
CF910, CR-410,
Tables CF-1, CF-2

Required

Required

CF-610

Required
(Note 10)

Required
(Note 10)

CR210(a)(b)(c)
Tables CF-1, CF-2

(Note 6)

(Note 8)

(Note 10)

CF-162(a), CF-910,
CR-410 Table CF1,CF-2 CF-180(b)(2)
(3)

(Note 9)

(Note 9)

Required

Required

Required
(Note 9)

Required (Note 9)

Required
(Note 9)

Required

Required

Required

Required

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

(Note 17)

(Note 18)

Safety Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Tables CF-1,
CR-1, CR-2

Required
(Note 10)

11361 East 61st. Street, Broken Arrow, Oklahoma


74012
(800)955-1918,
Tulsa (918) 955-1918
Fax (918)249-9014

Low Water Fuel Cutoffs


MM 193-D First
LWCO Recycle
MM750-MT
LWCO MR

NR
NR

(2) Required
(Note 11)

Hot Water Boilers


(MANUAL RESET)

(1) Required
(Notes
14
& 15)

(1) Required

(1) Required

Forced Circulation
(MANUAL RESET)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

PILOT VALVE TRAIN


ASCO 8211
DBB

Ball
MAXATROL
325-3

(2)
(2) Required (Note
Required
11)
(Note 11)

(2) Required
(Notes
11,12, 13)

(2)
Required
(Note 11)

(2) Required (2) Required


(Note 11)
(Note 11)

CE-120(a)(b) CR210(a)(b), CW610(a)(b)

(1)
Required

(1) Required
(Notes
14
& 15)

(1)
Required

(1) Required (1) Required

CR-210(c),
CW130(a),
CW630(a)(b)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

(Note 16)

CR-210(e),
CW210(a)(b)

CR-180(C)

(Note 12)

Approved Safety Shutoff


Valve(s)

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Manual Shutoff Valve(s)

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

CF-150(C)
CF-110(a)(1), UL79525 15,
CF180, cf-161(b) Figs B1, 2,3,4

Gas Pressure Regulator

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

(1) Required

(2) Required
(Note 19)

(1) or (2) Required


(Note 20)

(2)
Required
(Note 21)

(1) Required

(2)
Required
(Note 19)

(1) or (2)
Required
(Note 20)

(2) Required
(Note 21)

(1) or (2)
(1) or (2) Required
Required (Note
(Note 22)
22)

(1) or (2)
Required
(Note 22)

(1) or (2)
Required
(Note 22)

(1) or (2)
Required
(Note 22)

(1) or (2)
Required
(Note 22)

MAIN VALVE TRAIN


ASCO
V762LCA DBB

YES
YES
MAXATROL
210G

Approved Safety Shutoff


Valve(s)
Manually Operated Leak Test
Valve(s)
Manual Shutoff Valve(s)
Gas Pressure Regulator

(1) Required
Required

(2) Required
Required

(2) Required
Required

(2)
Required

(1) Required

(2)
Required

(2) Required (2) Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Required

Not Permitted

Not
Permitted

Not
Permitted

Not
Permitted

(Note 10)

(Note 10)

(Note 10)

CF-180(b)
(1)(2)(3)

CF-150(d)
CF-150(b)(d)
ANSI221.13 1114
CF-160, CF-161(b),
ANSI221.13 1.15.1
Fig. B-1, 2,3, 4

APPROVED SAFETY CONTROL SPECIFICATIONS


NO
90 Sec

ion

(2) Required
(Notes 11,12,
13)

Low Water 2 Required


(1
w/MANUAL RESET)

Rebuilt Flame Safeguard /


Burner Control
Prepurge Timing

Not Permitted

Not Permitted

Not Permitted

Not
Permitted

90 Seconds
(Note 8)

(Note 9)

(Note 9)

CF-210(a)(1)(2)(c)
Tables CF-1, CF-2
CR-1, CR-2

Federal Corporation

4
YES
YES

High Fire Purge Proving


Circuit

4 Changes

4 Changes

4 Changes

(Note 8)

Required

Required

Required

Required

Low Fire Start Circuit

CF-210(a)(1)(2)(c)
Tables CF-1, CF-2
CR-1, CR-2
(Note 10)

CF-210(a)(1)(2)(c)
Tables CF-1, CF-2

(Note 10)

(Note 10)

Required

Required

CF-610

NO

Continuous Pilot

Optional

Optional

Not Permitted

Not
Permitted

Optional

Optional

Not
Permitted

Not Permitted

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

NO

Intermittent Pilot

Optional

Optional

Not Permitted

Required

Optional

Optional

Optional

Optional

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

YES
YES

10 Sec

Interrupted Pilot

Optional

Optional

Not Permitted

Not
Permitted

Optional

Optional

Optional

Optional

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

Proved Pilot

Required
(Note 25)

Required (Note
25)

Required (Note
25)

Required
(Note 25)

Required
(Note 25)

Required
(Note 25)

Required
(Note 25)

Required
(Note 25)

CF-320(a)(1)

15 Seconds
(Note 26)

Not Permitted

10
Seconds
Maximum
(Note 31)

None

10 Seconds

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

15 Seconds

Not Permitted

Not
Permitted

15
Seconds

10 Seconds

10
Seconds

Pilot Flame Establishment


Period (PFEP)
Continuous Pilot
Intermittent Pilot
Interrupted Pilot

10 SEC

Main Flame Establishment


Period (MFEP)
Continuous Pilot

None

15
15

Seconds
Seconds
None

15 Seconds
(Note 27)

10
Seconds

10
Seconds
Maximum
(Note 31)

Intermittent Pilot

Interrupted Pilot

15 Seconds
Maximum

15 Seconds
Maximum

10 Seconds
Maximum (Note
31)

Direct Ignition

15 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum (Note
32)

15

15 Seconds 10 Seconds
(Note 26)
(Note 26)

15 Seconds

10
Seconds

10 Seconds

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

Seconds 15 Seconds

10
Seconds

10 Seconds

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

None

(Note 28)

(Note 29)

(Note 30)

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

15 Seconds
Maximum

(Note 28)

(Note 29)

(Note 30)

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

15 Seconds
Maximum

(Note 28)

(Note 29)

(Note 30)

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

15 Seconds
Maximum

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

Supervised Main Flame

(Note 34)

Required

Required

Required

(Note 34)

(Note 34)

(Note 33)

Required

CF-310(d)
(1)(2)(3)
(4)

Flame Failure Response


Time (FFRT)

4 Seconds
Maximum
(Note 36)

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum
(Note 35, 36)

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum

4 Seconds
Maximum

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

Action on Flame Failure

Safety
Shutdown
(Note 37,38)

Safety
Shutdown (Note
39)

Safety Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown
(Note 37,38)

Safety
Shutdown
(Note 40)

Safety
Shutdown
(Note 40)

Safety
Shutdown
(Note 40)

Tables CF-1, CF-2


CR-1, CR-2

Action On Limit Opening

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

Safety
Shutdown

CF-162(a), CR-220(a)
CW-130(d), CE310(c), CW-410(c),
CF-910

FOOTNOTES:

Print Out 05/07/2014

Prepurge Air Changes


Required

For modular boilers, each


module shall have a pressure
control that will shut off the
fuel supply when the steam
pressure reaches a preset
operating pressure

For modular boilers, each


module shall have at least
one temperature actuated
control to shut off the fuel
supply when the system water
reaches a preset operating
temperature.

The assembled modular


boiler shall have a high steam
pressure limit control that will
prevent the generation of
steam pressure in excess of
the maximum allowable
working pressure.

The assembled modular hot


water boiler shall have a high
temperature limit control that
will prevent the water
temperature from exceeding
the maximum allowable
temperature.

Required for direct ignition


systems. Not required for
ignition systems with pilots

Optional one safety shutoff


valve with valve seal
overtravel (Proof-of-closure)
interlock.

One of the safety shutoff


valves with valve seal
overtravel (Proof-of-closure)
interlock.

Four air changes at 60%


damper opening with both air
flow and damper opening with
both air flow and damper
position proven.

Four air changes at 60%


damper opening with both air
flow and damper position
proven.

10

Units equipped with automatic


operating air shutters or
dampers which are closed or
positioned to restrict air when
burner is not firing, shall
provide means to open the air
shutter or damper the high
fire position for at least 90
seconds prior to light off.

11

One of the two low-water fuel


cutoffs may be a combined
feeder / cutoff device.

Print Out 05/07/2014

12

For low pressure steam units


with inputs of 400,000 Btu/Hr.
or less, only one low-water
fuel cutoff is required gravity
return units installed in
residences as defined by the
authority having jurisdiction.

13

For modular low pressure


steam boilers, each module
shall be equipped with an
automatic low-water fuel
cutoff. The assembled
modular boiler shall have a
second low-water cutoff.
Operation of this low-water
fuel cutoff shall shut off the
fuel supply to all modules.

14

Except those installed in


residences (as defined by the
authority having jurisdiction).

15

An assembled modular boiler


shall be protected by a lowwater fuel cutoff located so
that it will detect a low-water
condition before the level falls
below the lowest safe
waterline in any module.
Operation of the low-water
fuel cutoff shall shutoff the
fuel to all modules.

16

In Lieu of the requirements for


low-water fuel cutoff in a
water tube or coil-type boiler
requiring forced circulation,
they shall have an accepted
sensing device to prevent
burner operational a flow rate
inadequate to protect the
boiler from overheating.
Where there is a definitive
waterline, a low-water fuel
cutoff shall be provided in
addition to the sensing
device. Functioning of the
low-water fuel cutoff shall
cause a safety shutdown.

17

Close main valve and recycle.

18

One recycle for piloted


systems.

19

Two safety shutoff valves in


series. May be in single
control body.

20

Two safety shutoff valves in


series on one safety shutoff
valve with valve seal
overtravel (Proof-of-closure)
interlock.

21

One safety shutoff valve to


incorporate valve seal
overtravel (Proof-of-closure)
interlock.

22

When two safety valves are


provided in the fuel train, an
additional leak test valve is
required so that each safety
shutoff valve may be tested
independently of the other.

23

Gas pressure relief valves,


where required, shall be
located upstream of all
operating and safety controls
and downstream of the gas
pressure regulator I both the
main and pilot gas supply
systems. The relief valve in is
to directed to the atmosphere.

24

Water level control alarms,


when used, shall be distinctly
audible above the ambient
noise level and may be used
in conjunction with indicating
lights.

25
26

When pilot is used.


Initial start only.

27

Pilot only: 15 seconds


maximum if interrupted pilot is
used.

28

Pilot only: 15 seconds


maximum if interrupted pilot is
used. 25 to 30 seconds if
safety shutoff valve has full
opening.

29

Pilot only: 10 seconds


maximum for modulating or
high-low firing.

30

Pilot only: 10 seconds


maximum.

31

Interrupted pilot only.

32

Maximum input at light off


shall not exceed 2,500,000
Btu/Hr.

33

Required with modulating or


high-low firing.

34

Required if interrupted pilot.

35

If ignition system includes a


relight feature, the relight
attempt shall be initiated
within 0.8 seconds upon loss
of flame.

36

For power, and mechanical


draft, burner and natural draft
burners with inputs less than
400,000 Btu/Hr. and
continuos pilot, 180 seconds
maximum for pilot flame
failure.

37

If system has intermittent


pilot, wait 5 minutes before
resetting ignition system
(Instructional requirement).

38

If system has interrupted pilot


or direct ignition and the
ignition includes a relight
feature, the relight attempt
shall be initiated within 0.8
seconds of loss of flame.

39

A single recycle is allowed on


for

40

Or, recylce once after 5


minute time delay.

41

Select proper safety control


according to system
requirements.

Print Out 05/07/2014

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Date of Printout
05/07/2014 / 09:59:56

TechStuff - Boiler Benchmarking


BENCHMARKING A BOILER
Customer
Contact
Address
City/State/Zip
Date
Boiler Mfg
Type
Fuels
Rated BTU Input/Hr
Rated Steaming Capacity/Hr
Utility Meter

Firing Rate

Fuel Flow

AMBR = American Boiler Manufactuers Recommendations


AC Humco
Industry
Food Processing
Joe Treska - 901.381.2925 FAX 901.381.3136
1201 East Morton Rd
Jacksonville, Il. 62650
7/20/2006
Burner Data Zurn SAO-MJ S/ 5456 (49,500KBTU/Hr)
Zurn NB18952
Operating PSI
150
Economizer Yes
O-Type Water tube
Mfg
Natural Gas
Steam Temp
366
87,500,000
Fan Voltage
480
BTU/Lb Steam
1000
70000
Fan Amp Rating
60
Feedwater Pump Amp Rating

Steam Flow %/ Rated Flow

Stack Temp

Actual Ex O2

ABMR Ex O2

0
0
0
0.00%
6.00%
0
0
0
0.00%
6.00%
0
0
0
0.00%
6.00%
0
0
0
0.00%
6.00%
45120
47874000
39440
56.34%
358
5.00%
5.50%
0
0
0
0.00%
5.00%
54820
58820000
46500
66.43%
368.7
3.35%
4.75%
0
0
0
0.00%
4.50%
65800
70443000
48250
68.93%
376
3.50%
4.25%
0
0
0
0.00%
4.00%
0
0
0
0.00%
3.75%
722000
76194000
51151
73.07%
504
5.50%
3.50%
0
0
0
0.00%
3.25%
74840
79067000
52063
74.38%
501
1.90%
3.00%
74400
80285000
52700
75.29%
386
1.86%
2.75%
0
0
0
0.00%
2.50%
0
0
0
0.00%
2.25%
0
0
0
0.00%
2.00%
80000
86235000
55550
79.36%
510.8
1.00%
2.00%
NOTE: GAS FLOW METER JUST STOPPED INDICATING AT 80000. NO FLUCTUATION IN READING AT THIS POINT.
Economizer Data

Valve %

Water Flow

Inlet Temp

10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
79%
42%
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%

7000
8500
13500
17500
21000
24000
27500
31000
34780
37500
41700
44000
47500
51000
55000
57600
63000
67000
69800

224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224
224

Outlet Temp

277
261
275

285

BTU Recovered Fuel Savings % FW Pump Amps


-1568000
-1904000
-3024000
-3920000
-4704000
-5376000
-6160000
-6944000
-7790720
-8400000
-9340800
2332000
1757500
-11424000
2805000
-12902400
-14112000
-15008000
4257800

-1.792%
-2.176%
-3.456%
-4.480%
-5.376%
-6.144%
-7.040%
-7.936%
-8.904%
-9.600%
-10.675%
2.665%
2.009%
-13.056%
3.206%
-14.746%
-16.128%
-17.152%
4.866%

46
47.7
50

51

65

Actual Ex CO ABMR Ex CO Comb Eff %


N0X/CO

na
83/4ppm
86/6ppm

1ppm
86/19ppm
96/13ppm

163ppm

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08

Fan Amps

82.3

49

80.9

50

81.1

51

81.2
82.9

83

53
53

Boiler Thermal Eff % System Total Eff%


#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
82.38%
#DIV/0!
79.05%
#DIV/0!
68.50%
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
67.13%
#DIV/0!
65.85%
65.64%
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
64.42%

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
82.193%
#DIV/0!
78.904%
#DIV/0!
68.384%
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
67.018%
0.000%
65.747%
65.428%
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
64.309%

05/07/2014 09:59:56

Data Compiled by
David Farthing
Voice 405-728-6709

Dissolved Oxygen In Make-up Water

PPB Dissolved Oxygen

Amount of Dissolved Oxygen in Make-up Feedwater vs. Temperature

20000
15000
10000
5000
0
50

58

60

72

125 180 200


Temperature

NOTE: 227 and 242 degree 'F' water is presumed to be deaerated.


Temperature Dissolved O2
50
20000
58
15000
60
12000
72
8800
125
5000
180
3000
200
2000
212
1000
227
44
242
7

212

227

242

Data Compiled by
Karl Pierson
KMCS

Date of Printout
05/07/2014 09:59:56

Pressure Coversions

Enter value to be converted in column D


The converted values will then be shown in the same row

To Values
From Value

PSI

OzSI

PASCAL

kPa

BAR

mBAR

In. H2O @
4C/39F

In. H2O @
60F

In. H2O @
20C/68F

mm H2O

cm H2O

ATM

3.93

62.9

27,091

27.09

0.271

270.91

108.8

108.9

109.0

2,762.6

276.3

0.267

In. Hg @
0C

Cm Hg

mm Hg

TORR

20.32

203.2

203.2

PSI
OzSI
PASCAL
kPa
BAR
mBAR
In.H2O @ 4 C
In. H2O @ 60F
In. H2O @ 20C

mm H2O
cm H2O
ATM
In. Hg
Cm Hg @ 0 C
mm Hg @ 0 C

TORR

8.00

8.00

Required Boiler Blowdown for proper TDS


Normal TDS should be between 3,000-5,000 ppm
TDS= Total Dissolved Solids in boiler water.
Blowdown Rate = (F/(B-F))*S
Where:
F=
Feedwater TDS in ppm
B=
Desired boiler water TDS Requirement
S=
Steam Generation Rate in lbs/hr

NOTES:

F=
300
B=
4000
S=
55000
Blowdown 4459.459 Lbs/Hr
Percent
8% of Production Capacity
Blowdown within acceptable limits
Be sure to see HEAT in the contents for possible Heat Recovery Savings.

Energy Conversions
BTU =
29,010.00
AMPS
43.00

KW
8.50

KW =
8.50

BTU
29,010.24

VOLTAGE 3Ph/KW
480.00
35.71

Cost of Energy
Cost/Hr to Operate
Gas per MMBTU
$8.95
$0.26
Electric per KW
$0.044
$0.37
NOTE:

Gas Cost is per Decatherm (1,000,000 BTU)


1 KW = BTU * 0.0002930 (Source NATCO Engineering Handbook of Conversion Factors 1988)
BTU = Kw/.0002930
GO TO VFD CALCULATIONS FOR MORE DETAILED INFORMATION

CALCULATING APPROXIMATE HP WHEN VOLTS AND AMPS ARE KNOWN


Voltage
Amps
NP Eff%
# Phases

480
65
80%
3
57.95

VFD

VFD

Replacing DC3000 Versa-Pro

with

OLD
OLD
OLD
OLD
OLD
OLD

DC300CDC300KDC300EDC300ADC300TDC300L-

use
use
use
use
use
use

Table 1

O
E
A
T
L

use
use
use
use
use

Table 2

1_ _
2_ _
4_ _
_A_
_B_
_ _3

use
use
use
use
use
use

Table 3

Same on 3300

Table 4

First digit (zero)


Second digit
Third digit
Forth digit
n/a
n/a

use
use
use
use
5th digit
6th Digit

Table 5

Always -0-

use

Table 6

Not used

use

Note. "DIN" is almost never used on replacement controllers.!!!

DC3300 Base plus w/ 1st Digit of Table 1


DC330B-CO
DC330B-K_
DC330B-E_
DC330B-A_
DC330B-T_
DC330B-E_
-_O- Place as 2nd digit of table 1.
-_E-_A-_T-_L1_ _
2_ _
4_ _
_0_
_B_
_ _3
No change. Use DC3000 table
Always zero (0_ _0_0)
Same (0X_0_0)
Same (0_X0_0)
Always Zero (0_ _0_0)
Zero or D if DIN adapter required (0_ _000)
Always zero (0_ _0_0)
Aways -00Always -0-

er used on replacement controllers.!!!

Replacing

Table 2

Table 3

DC3000 W/ Table 1

with

DC3001-0DC3002-0DC3003-0DC3004-0DC3005-0DC3006-0-

use
use
use
use
use
use

1st -0_ _-1_ _-2_ _-3_ _-4_ _2nd -_0_-_1_-_2_3rd -_ _0-_ _A-_ _B-1-2-3-

use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use

Table 4
-00(multiple avail.) -35-DIN-FM-UL-

use
use
use
use
use

Table 5
Table 6

use
use

ID code 4 digits
Not used

Note. DIN or "D" is almost never used on replacement controllers.!!!

DC3300 W/ Table 1
DC330B-C0DC330B-KEDC330B-EEDC330B-EE-Also change 2nd digit of table 3 to "2"
DC330L-E0DC330L-E0-0_ _-1_ _-2_ _-0 _ 3- No misprint, it goes as 3rd digit
-4_ _-_0_-_0_- Also change 2nd digit of table 3 to "1".
-_0_- Also change 2nd digit of table 3 to "1".
-_ _0-_ _0-_B_- No misprint, it goes as 2nd digit.
-10-20-30-000000- Multiple options available in this table.
-000T00-0000D0-0F0000-0F0000Always use -00Always use -0-

" is almost never used on replacement controllers.!!!

VFD Calculations
05/07/2014

David Farthing's
TechStuf

Variable Frequency Drive Applications


Kodak PolyGraphics
Application VFD Draft Fan 33KPPH Boiler
Customer

Need to know
Motor Horsepower
30
Motor Speed as supplied
1750
Hertz - Name Plate
60
Rated Torque Ft/Lb.
90
New Hertz
33
New Motor Speed
963
New Torque Ft/Lb.
90
NOTE: Torque should remain constant but Horsepower will change.
Change in Motor Speed % 45.00%
New Horsepower @ New Speed 16.50
Prefer to know
Original Amp Draw
0
Cost of kW of Electricity $6.800
Total Hours of Operation/Year
8000
Is Application Pump or Fan? (P or F)
F
Control Methods Code - See List Below
FC
Variable Frequency Drive
VFD
0.28
Discharge Control Valve
DV
0.94
Bypass Valve
BV
1
Inlet Guide Vane
IG
0.62
Outlet Damper
OD
0.88
Fan Curve
FC
0.88
No Control
NA
1
NOTE: WHEN USING KNOWN AMP DRAW MOTOR HORSEPOWER ENTRY IS IGNORED.
IF YOU WANT TO COMPARE MOTOR HORSEPOWER ENTER A "0" IN AMP DRAW TO JUST REVIEW MOTOR DATA ONLY.
Results
kWha
22.380
Kilowatt Usage Standard Motor No Control
kWhb

12.309

Kilowatt usage using VFD at New Horsepower

kWhc

19.694

Kilowatt Usage Using Current Control Method

kWhd

7.385
$4,017.66

Savings

Kilowatt Savings Converting from Current Control Method to VFD


Annual Energy Cost Savings By Converting to VFD