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WORD SMART

abase humiliate, lower, degrade, demean, humble, debase, ,(,),


abash make ashamed, embarrass, confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance,
abate subside, bate, dwindle, lull, relent, slacken, wane, deduce, lessen, , ,
abdicate
step down from a position of power or responsibility, renounce, give up, resign, , ,

aberration a deviation, , , , ()
abet encourage or assist in wrongdoing, ,
abhor hate very much, detest, abominate, execrate, loathe, ,
abject hopeless, extremely sad and servile, defeated, miserable, wretched, , , ,
abjure
repudiate, reject, recall, recant, retract, withdraw (,, ) , ,

abnegate renounce, give up, reject, ( ), , ,


abomination sth despised or abhorred, extreme loathing, , , ()
aboriginal
native, primordial, endemic, indigenous, , , , , / ,

abortive unsuccessful, futile, ineffective, ineffectual, vain, , ,
abound to be very numerous, , ...
abridge shorten, condense, abbreviate, curtail, retrench, , ,
abrogate
abolish, repeal formally, annihilate, annul, invalidate, vitiate, nullify, (,) , ,

absolve forgive or free from blame, pardon, , free from sin, discharge, ,
abstinent abstaining, voluntarily not doing something, continent, temperate, , ,
abstract theoretical, impersonal, , , , , , , , <-
abstruse hard to understand, obscure, profound, esoteric, recondite, enigmatic, ,
abysmal extremely hopeless or wretched, bottomless, fathomless, , , ,
accede agree, yield, give in, assent, consent, acquiesce, , 2. ()
accentuate emphasize, accent, highlight, , , ...
access , 2. the right or ability to approach, enter or use, 3. outburst,
acclaim praise publicity and enthusiastically, applaud, hail, , / ,
accolade an award, an honor, laurels, , ,
accord
agree, to be in harmony, grant or bestow, , , , / concord,
consonance
accost to approach an speak to someone, address, / ,
accouterments personal clothing, accessories, or equipment, trappings, ( ) , , ,
accrue accumulate over time, augment, (), ( ) ,
acerbic bitter, sour, severe, acrimonious, [] ,
acquiesce assent, accede, consent, agree, comply passively, , , ,
acquisitive seeking or tending to acquire, greedy, , (, , )
acquit
exculpate,exonerate,vindicate,, 2.behave or conduct oneself, ,

acrid sharp, pungent, piquant, poignant, harsh, like acid, , ,


acrimonious
bitter, stinging, caustic, acerbic, acidulous, mordant, sarcastic, trenchant, ,
,
acronym a word made up of the initial of other words,
acumen
keenness of judgment, mental sharpness, astuteness, discernment, perspicacity, , ,

acute sharp, shrewd, sensitive, penetrating, , 2. <-> chronic
adage wise saying, proverb, maxim, axiom, aphorism, apothegm, ,
adamant hard, inflexible, stubborn, unyielding, inexorable, obdurate, rigid, uncompromising, , ,
address to speak to, to direct one's attention to, [...] , , [ ]/
adduce bring forward as an example or as proof, cite, ... , (, ) ()
adherent follower, supporter, believer, , , / clinging, coherent, sticky, ,
adjourn suspend until another time, ... , ,
adjunct accessory, appendage, appurtenance, assistant, , ,
ad-lib improvise, speak or act spontaneously, ...
admonish scold gently, warn, reprove, forewarn, chide, rebuke, reprehend, reprimand, reproach, ,
adroit skillful, dexterous, adept, proficient, ambidextrous, clever, shrewd, , , ,
adulation flattery, wild or excessive admiration, blandishment, ,
adulterate contaminate, make impure, degrade, impurity, pollute, ,
advent arrival, coming, beginning, ( , ), , , <-> exit
adventitious accidental, fortuitous, casual, irrelevant, incidental, , , ,
adverse
opposed, disadvantageous, unpropitious, unfavorable, antagonistic, oppugnant, , ,

1
WORD SMART
advocate urge, plead for, , , / justify, support, ,
aesthetic having to do with artistic beauty, ,
affable courteous, amiable, congenial, cordial, genial, polite, friendly, , , ,
affectation unnatural or artificial behavior, usually intended to impress, ,
affidavit written statement made under oath, a sworn written statement, ,
affiliate
become closely associated with, , ally, conjunct, , , ,
,
affinity
kinship, analogy, comparison, resemblance, similitude, sympathy, attraction, similarity, ,
,
affliction misery, illness, great suffering, a source of illness, , , ; , ,
affluent opulent, rich, prosperous, ,
afford give, supply, confer upon, ... , , ,
affront insult, deliberate act of disrespect, , / (),
aftermath consequence, events following some occurrence or calamity, , ,
agenda program, timetable, items of business at a meeting, things to be done, , , ,
aggrandize
exaggerate, augment, increase, amplify, magnify, () , (, , )...

aggregate sum total, gross, inclusive ,overall, whole, , / , , ...


aggrieve mistreat, vex, do grievous injury to, distress, ... , ,
aghast terrified, shocked, horrified, agape, dismayed, overwhelmed, ,
agnostic one who believes that the existence of a god can be, atheist, skeptic, /
agrarian pertaining to land or its cultivation; ,,
alacrity cheerful eagerness or readiness to respond, promptness, , , ,
alchemy medieval chemistry,
alienate make unfriendly or hostile, estrange, alien, separate, ..., 2. ()
allege assert without proof, adduce, affirm, assert, avouch, declare, ,
allegiance duty, support, loyalty,
allegory fable, apologue, parable, story in which characters are used as symbols, ,
alleviate relieve, palliate, allay, appease, assuage, soothe, calm, pacify, ,
allocate distribute, assign, allot, apportion, mete, ,
allot apportion, allocate, assign, ,
alloy a combination of two or more things, usually metals, ,
allusion an indirect reference, a hint, connotation, implication, inkling, innuendo, insinuation, intimation, ,
aloof uninvolved, apathetic, indifferent, reserved, reticent, taciturn, ,
altercation heated fight, argument or quarrel, controversy, dispute, fracas, ,
altruism selflessness, generosity, magnanimity, philanthropy, ( )
amass pile up, accumulate, collect, cumulate, garner, stockpile, () , ,
ambience atmosphere, milieu, medium, surroundings, mood, feeling, ,
ambiguous
unclear in meaning, confusing, equivocal, inexplicit, vague, , ,

ambivalent undecided, neutral, wishy-washy, , ,
ameliorate make better or more tolerable, improve, amend, , ,
amenable obedient, compliant, docile, malleable, pliant, submissive, tractable, agreeable, ,
amenity pleasantness, attractive or comfortable feature, , , , (pl), ,
amiable friendly, agreeable, lovable, complaisant, courteous, lenient, , ,
amid in the middle of, ... , ... , ...,
amnesty
an official pardon for a group of people who have violated a law, absolution, , , /

amoral lacking a sense of right and wrong, nonmoral ,


amorous
feeling loving, especially in a sexual sense, in love, relating love, enamored, erotic, , ,

amorphous shapeless, bloblike, formless, ,


anachronism
something out of place in time or history, an incongruity, misdate, parachronism, ,

analogy comparison of one thing to another, similarity, affinity, parallelism, resemblance, similitude, ,
anarchy absence of government or control, lawlessness, disorder, chaos, ,
anathema sth or sn loathed , detested, cursed, or execrated, , , , ()
ancillary subordinate, providing assistance, appurtenant, auxiliary, subsidiary, , ,
anecdote a short account of a humorous or revealing incident, amusing account, tale, ,
angst anxiety, fear, dread,
anguish agonizing physical or mental pain, throes, torment, torture, , , /
animosity resentment, hostility, ill will, animus, antagonism, enmity, hostility, , , ,
annex add or attach, ,
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WORD SMART
annuity yearly allowance, (),
anomaly an aberration, an irregularity, a deviation, , , ,
antecedent precedent, , , ... / , ,
antedate be older than, have come before, () ,
anterior situated in front, (, ), ,
anthology a collection of especially of literary works, ( ), ,
anthropomorphic anthropoid, humanoid, ( )
antipathy dislike, animosity, abhorrence, abomination, aversion, loathing ,repugnance, (sympathy) ,
antipodal situated on opposite sides of the earth, exactly opposite, ,
antiquity ancientness, ancient times, , , , (pl) ,
antithesis the direct opposite, , , ( )
apartheid the abhorrent policy of racial segregation an oppression,
apathy lack of interest, lack of feeling, impassiveness, indifference, , ,
aperture opening, hole, orifice, vent, outlet, , ,
aphorism a brief, often witty saying, a proverb, maxim, adage, apothegm,
apocalypse a prophetic revelation, , ,
apocryphal dubious, fictitious, spurious, bogus, counterfeit, forged, phony, spurious, ungenuine, ,
apogee (, ), , () <-> perigee
apoplexy stroke, (),
apostasy abandonment or rejection of faith or loyalty, treachery, perfidy, , ,
apotheosis
elevation to devine status, signification, deification, , 2. the perfect example of
something,
appalling causing horror or consternation, ,
apparition ghost, phantom, specter, wraith, , ,
appease
soothe, pacify, propitiate, placate, conciliate, assuage, mollify, palliate, ,,(,
)
appellation name, title, caption, , ,
appendage supplement, appurtenance, () , ,
apportion distribute proportionally, divide into portions, , ,
apposite distinctly suitable, pertinent, appropriate, relevant, germane, ,
appraise estimate value of, judge, assess, evaluate, ,
appreciate recognize quality, 2. understand, fathom, cognize, comprehend 3. to be thanks for 4. increase in
apprehensive
worried, anxious, solicitous, fearful, , 2.comprehensive, discerning, perceptive,

apprise inform, give notice to, notify,
approbation approval, praise, sanction, , ,
appropriate
set aside for a particular use, take without permission, , / ,

appurtenance something extra, appendage, accessory, adjunct, appendage, appendix, ,


apropos appropriate, with reference to, properly, , ,
apt quick to learn or understand, 2. likely, liable ... 3. appropriate, ,
aptitude capacity for learning, natural ability, caliber, fitness, talent, , , ,
arbiter one who decides; a judge, referee, umpire, ,
arbitrary random, capricious, autocratic, despotic, monocratic, , , ,
arcade
arcane mysterious, secret, inscrutable, mystical, uncanny, ,
archaic extremely old, ancient, outdated, antique,
archetype original mode or pattern, prototype, primitive pattern, model, original, , ,
archipelago group of islands, ,
archives public records, place where public records are kept, (),
ardent passionate, , , , (half-hearted)
arduous hard, difficult, laborious, strenuous, toilsome, , 2. steep,
arid very dry, barren, droughty, sterile, unfruitful, , ,
aristocratic of noble birth, snobbish,
armament implement of war, the process of arming for war, , ,
armistice truce,
arraign
bring to court to answer answer an indictment, accuse, criminate, impeach, inculpate, indict,
,
arrant
utter, unmitigated, absolute, thorough, complete, unmitigated, , , , ,

arrears the state of being in debt, unpaid debts, indebtedness, ,
arsenal
a collection of armaments, a facility for storing or producing armament, , , ()

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WORD SMART
artful crafty, wily, sly, , ,
articulate pronounce clearly, express clearly, 2. J oint / , joint
artifice
trickery, cunning, chicanery, deceit, device, feint, maneuver, ruse, stratagem, skulduggery, ,
,
artisan a manually skilled worker, craftsman, mechanic, ,
ascendancy supremacy, domination, preeminence, preponderance, , , ,
ascertain find out certainty, determine with certainty, discover, , ,
ascetic practicing self-denial, hermitlike, abstemious, abstinent, astringent, austere, /
ascribe refer, attribute, impute, assign,
askance
with suspicion ,disapproval, sideways, or indirect look, awry, askew, crookedly, ,

aspersion slanderous remark, animadversion, calumny, detraction, invective, libel, obloquy, stricture, ,
assail attack vigorously, assault, aggress, ,
assert claim strongly, affirm, , ()
assess fix the amount of, (, ) 2. appraise, evaluate, estimate, ,
assiduous hardworking, busy, quite diligent, industrious, sedulous, ,
assimilate
absorb, cause to become homogeneous, imbibe, learn thoroughly, , , ,

assuage
soothe, pacify, ease pain of, relieve, allay, appease, mitigate, mollify, propitiate, placate, ,

astringent binding, causing contraction, 2. harsh, severe, withering, strict, stringent, /


astute shrewd, wise, acute, keen in judgment, , ,
asylum mental hospital, refuge, shelter, place of safety, , , () ,
atone make amends, compensate for, redress, expiate, ,
atrophy
, , () , / wither away, decline from disuse, , (
)
attest give proof of, give testimony, testify, certify, vouch, ,
attribute ascribe, , / trait, , , ,
attrition
natural or expected decrease, gradual wearing away, weakening or loss, corrosion, erosion,,,
,
augment make bigger, add to, increase, aggrandize, boost, expand, extend, magnify, , ,
augur steer, soothsayer / predict, foretell, serve as a sign or omen, , ...
august inspiring admiration or awe, stately, grandiose, imposing, magnificent, majestic, splendid, ,
auspices protection, support, sponsorship, , (under the auspices ), ,
auspicious
pointing to a good result, favorable, promising, propitious, , , , <->
adverse
austere
unadorned, stern, ascetic, rigorous, severe, strict, without excess, , , , ,

autocratic extremely bossy, ruling with absolute authority, despotic, of dictator,


autonomous acting independently, ,
auxiliary
additional, subsidiary, secondary, ancillary, appurtenant, subordinate, supplementary, ,
/
avail help, to be of use, serve, , , ...
avant-garde () , ,
avarice greed, excessive love of riches, ,
aversion
antagonism, antipathy, abhorrence, abomination, distaste, hatred, repellency, repugnance, repulsion,
,
avert
turn away, divert, veer, (,) ; prevent, balk, foil, forestall, preclude, obviate,()
,
avid enthusiastic, greedy, eager for, ardent, covetous, gluttonous, ,
avow claim, declare boldly, affirm, assert, asseverate, aver, avouch, testify, admit, ,
avuncular like an uncle, especially a nice uncle, (),
awry off course, twisted to one side, askance, askew, ,
axiom a self-evident rule or truth without proof, , , 2. a widely accepted saying, maxim,
bacchanal () , / , (revelry)
baleful baneful, malign, pernicious, deleterious, destructive, harmful, sinister, ominous, ,
balk hinder,
ballyhoo sensational advertising or promotion, uproar, , , ,
balm
analgesic, anodyne, paregoric, , (, ), . , ()

banal unoriginal, ordinary, hackneyed, commonplace, trite, platitudinous, pedestrian, humdrum, ,


bandy toss back and forth, exchange, ( ) , (, )
bane poison, venom, cause of harm, , , ,
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WORD SMART
banter an exchange of good-humored or mild teasing remarks, /
baroque highly ornate, flamboyant in style, , ,
barrage
barrier laid down by artillery fire, outpouring, , bombardment, , (, )
,
bastion stronghold, fortress, fortified place, bulwark, rampart, ,
bauble a gaudy trinket, small and inexpensive ornament, bagatelle, ,
bedlam noisy uproar and chaos, place like that, ,
beget give birth to, create, lead to, cause, breed, generate, , propagate, ,
begrudge envy, 2. give with reluctance, , (grudge )
behest command, order, fiat, edict,
belabor
beat soundly, assail verbally, , , 2. go over repeatedly to an absurd
extent, harp
beleaguer surround, besiege, beset, harass, , ,
belie
give a false impression, contradict, contravene, controvert, ( ),
()
belittle make to seem little, put sb down, disparage, derogate, detract, depreciate, , ,
belligerent combative, bellicose, contentious, militant, pugnacious, quarrelsome, waging war, ,
bemoan mourn about, lament, ,
bemused absent-minded, confused, bewildered, , , / , ...
benediction blessing, benison, utterance of good wish, , ,
benefactor gift giver, patron, , ,
benevolent
generous, kind, charitable, altruistic, humane, magnanimous, philanthropic, humanitarian,
,
benighted ignorant, , , 2.
benign kind, favorable, gentle, clement, humane, merciful, not harmful, , , ,
bequeath leave in a will,
bequest something left to someone in a will, legacy, patrimony, , ,
bereft deprived of, lacking, left desolate, , , [ , ],
beset
surround, harass, badger, distress, irritate, torment, vex, , , , ,

bestow present as a gift, confer, donate, ,


bilious ill-tempered, cranky, fretful, irascible, peevish, petulant, testy, touchy, (bile), ,
bivouac temporary encampment especially of soldiers, /
blanch bleach, whiten, to turn pale, cause to turn pale, palliate, , ,
bland soothing, mild, balmy, lenient, tasteless, dull, , () , , ,
blandishment flattery, adulation, ,
blasphemy irreverence, an insult to sth held sacred, profanity, sacrilege, ,
blatant
loudly offensive, boisterous, clamorous, obstreperous, vociferous, , glaring, obvious,

blight () , , , , / ,
bliss extreme joy, perfect contentment, , ,
blithe carefree, cheerful, gay, joyous, delectable, , , ,
bluster roar, be loud, be tumultuous, (,) 2. (out) / () ,
bombast high-sounding talk, hyperbole, , ,
bon vivant a person who enjoys good food, good drink, and luxurious living, epicure,
boon blessing, benefit, , / convivial, jolly, ,
boor rough and ill-mannered person, churl, lout, clod, ,
booty plunder, ,
botch bungle, ruin through poor or clumsy effort, / ,
bourgeois middle-class person, , , / ,
bovine cow-like, , , ,
bracing
invigorating, lively, stimulated, , , cf. brace: support, prepare,
stimulate
brandish wave or display threateningly, ( ) , ()
bravado
swagger, temerity, bluster, assumed air of defiance, false or ostentatious show of bravery or
defiance, ,
brawn big muscles, great strength, ,
brazen
audacious, contumelious, impertinent, saucy, insolent, brash, impudent, bold, , ,

breach
breaking of contract or duty, violation, infraction, infringement,
2. fissure, hiatus, interim, rupture, gap or break, ,
brevity briefness, conciseness, succinctness, , ,
brink edge,
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WORD SMART
bristle / 1. stiffen with fear or anger, , 2. show indignation,
broach open up a subject, , 2.
bromide a dull, obvious, over familiar saying, a clich, platitude, , ,
brouhaha uproar, hubbub, tumult, bedlam, , ,
brusque blunt, abrupt, gruff,
bucolic charmingly rural, country-like, rustic, pastoral, idyllic, , ,
buffoon joker, clown,
bulwark earthwork or other strong defense, safeguard, citadel, bastion, , , ,
bureaucracy government by bureaus, (, )
burgeon
send out buds, blossom, bloom, effloresce, expand, augment, multiply, flourish, , ,

burlesque
parody, lampoon, travesty, caricature, give an imitation that ridicules, / /
,
byzantine extremely intricate or complicated in structure, , ( )
cabal a group of conspiracy, act of such group, clique, junta, plot, ,
cache hiding place, the thing hidden in a secret place, , , /
cacophony discordant sound, dissonance, , , <-> accord
cadence rhythm, the rise and fall of sounds, ,
cajole persuade, coax, wheedle, beguile, deceive, delude, ,
calamity disaster, cataclysm, catastrophe, misadventure, tragedy, ,
callous hardened, insensitive, emotionally hardened, unfeeling, (), ,
callow immature, immature, juvenile, unfledged, youthful, () ,
calumny
belittlement, defamation, depreciation, detraction, disparagement, slander, maliciously false
statement, ,
candor truthfulness, sincere honesty, frankness, , , ,
canine dog-like, , , ,
canon accepted standard,
cant slope, / 2. hypocrisy, ( ) 3. jargon , cf. recant:
canvass survey, inspect, scrutinize, ,
capacious spacious, roomy, commodious, , , , ,
capital
money, equipment and property owned by business, wealth used in creating more wealth, ,
,
capitalism
capitulate
give up or give in, submit, succumb, yield, surrender, (), ,

capricious fickle, incalculable, mercurial, unpredictable, ,


captivate fascinate, enchant, to enrapture, ... , ,
carcinogenic causing cancer,
cardinal chief, essential, fundamental, vital, , /
careen
swerve, move rapidly without control, lean to one side, , () (
)
caricature distortion, burlesque, parody, travesty, , ,
cartography (), ()
cascade small waterfall, , / fall like a cascade,
castigate criticize, chastise, punish, censure, , , ,
cataclysm
deluge, inundation, spate, calamity, catastrophe, misadventure, tragedy, (, , , )
,
catalyst , ,
categorical unconditional, absolute, , , , ,
catharsis purification that brings emotional relief or renewal, purgation, ,
catholic
universal, cosmic, embracing everything, broadly sympathetic, liberal, , , ,

caucus ( )( . ), , /
caustic
like acid, corrosive, sarcastic, incisive, mordacious, mordant, pungent, trenchant, , ,

cavalier (knight), () / 1. arrogant, haughty, 2. carefree, casual,


cavil quibble, carp, dissent, raise trivial objection, , /
celibacy abstinence from sex, , ,
censure
condemn, blame, criticize, denounce, denunciate, rebuke, reprehend, reprimand, reproach,
reprobate, reprove
cerebral brainy, intellectual, pertaining to the brain or intellect, , ,
chaff worthless stuff, , , 2. banter, ( ) /
chagrin mortification, vexation, disappointment, (, ), /
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WORD SMART
chameleon lizard that changes color in different situations, ,
champion advocate, vindicate, defend, support, ,
channel , / direct, cause to follow a certain path,
charisma divine gift, great popular charm or appeal of a political leader, , , ,
charlatan fraud, con man, quack, mountebank, pretender to knowledge, ,
chasm
deep and gaping hole, crevice, gorge, abyss, , , , , (.),

chaste
pure, unadorned, decent, immaculate, stainless, unblemished, undefiled, unsullied, , ,

chastise punish, discipline, castigate, chasten, ,


cherub supercede child, angel, , ,
chicanery
deceitfulness, artifice, trickery, deception, machination, plot, subterfuge, stratagem, ruse, ,
,
chimera illusion, foolish fancy, ,
chivalrous
(), (honorable), (courteous, polite), (gallant) cf. cavalier:
,
choleric quick to anger, hot-tempered, bilious, splenetic, irascible, testy, touchy, ,
chortle chuckle with glee, () , ,
chronic
constant, habitual, lasting along time, inveterate, long-established as a disease, ,

chronicle a record of events in order of time, , ,
churl rude person, boor, bad-tempered person, lout, clod,
chutzpah brazenness, audacity, ,
cipher zero, nonentity, code, solution to code, 0(), , , () /
circuitous roundabout, indirect, , , , , ,
circumlocution indirect or roundabout expression, euphemism, roundabout, , ,
circumnavigate sail or travel all the way around, (. )
circumscribe
draw a line around, define, restrict, limit, confine , , ,

circumspect prudent, cautious, chary, considerate, discreet, , ,


circumvent
baffle, balk, foil, thwart, frustrate as though by surrounding, , , (, ,
)
citadel fort, fortress, stronghold, bastion, bulwark, (),
civil polite, civilized, courteous, , , ,
clandestine
covert, furtive, stealthy, surreptitious, concealed ,secret (for an evil or subversive purpose), ,

classic top-notch, of the highest quality, serving as a standard or model, , , ,
cleave cling, split, dissect, sever, sunder, ... , , ...
clemency
disposition to be lenient, mildness as of the weather, lenity, mercy, forgiveness, () , ,

cliche
banality, commonplace, platitude, prosaism, bromide, () , ,

climatic having to do with the climate,


clique small exclusive group, coterie, (), /
cloister monastery or convent, , , , /
clone , , () /
clout a blow, influence, (.), (), , [],
cloy cause to feel too full, surfeit, ,
coalesce unite, combine, fuse, adhere, associate, cling, conjoin, mingle, stick, , , ()
coalition union, ,
coddle pamper, ,
coerce force, , , ,
cogent convincing, persuasive, solid, valid, ,
cogitate
ponder, cerebrate, deliberate, reflect, speculate, meditate, think over, , , (
)
cognitive mental, , ,
cognizant knowing, aware, conscious, perceptive, ,
coherent holding together, , 2. consistent, , make sense, ,
cohort a group, troops, , , , , ,
colloquial conversational, pertaining to conversational or common speech, ,
collusion complicity, connivance, conspiracy, secret cooperation, conspiring in a fraudulent scheme, ,
commemorate honor the memory, serve as a memorial to, ... , ...
commensurate proportionate, equal in extent, , ,
commiserate feel or express pity or sympathy for, sympathize with, compassionate, pity, ,
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WORD SMART
commodious spacious and comfortable, roomy, capacious, (. ), ,
compatible harmonious, agreeable, congenial, congruous, sympathetic, consistent, , ,
compelling forceful, causing to yield, ... ,
compendium abridgment, digest, epitome, syllabus, brief comprehensive summary, , ,, ,
competent capable, qualified, , () , ,
compile gather together, ,
complacent overly pleased with oneself, contented to a fault, self-satisfied, self-contented, ,
complement
that which completes, supplement, / , () cf. implement:
,
complicity collusion, connivance, implication, machination, participation, involvement, , ,
comply act or be in accordance, (..), ,
composed calm, tranquil, , / be composed of ...
comprehensive covering or including everything, overall, 2. apprehensive,
comprise consist of, , ,
compromise , , , / 1. , 2. (, )
compunction
remorse, contrition, penance, penitence, punctiliousness, rue, scrupulousness, , ,
,
concave curved inward, <-> convex
concede acknowledge as true or right, admit, grant or yield, avow, , ,
concentric having a common center, (,) ,
concert combined action, agreement, , , , , , ,
conciliatory propitiatory, making peace, attempting to resolve a dispute through goodwill, , ,
concise compendious, pithy, terse, succinct, brief and compact, laconic, ,
concoct create by mixing ingredient, make up or devise, ... ,, ,
concomitant
accompaniment, following from, that which accompanies, , /

concord accord, concordance, consonance, harmony, agreement, , ,


concurrent
contemporary, simultaneous, synchronous, co-operating, happening at the same time, ,

condescend stoop, patronize () , 2. () ,


condone permit to happen, overlook, forgive, ,
conducive helpful, promoting, ,
confederate ally, accomplice, (), (), / , / ,
confer bestow, , 2. exchange idea, consult with, (),
confidant acquaintance, intimate, ( ) ()
configuration arrangement, (.) , ,
conflagration large fire, , (.)
confluence flowing together, concise, junction, (), , (, ), ,
confound bewilder, perplex, nonplus, , 2. baffle, overthrow,
congeal coagulate, solidify, jell, ,
congenial agreeably suitable, pleasant, amicable, amicable, , , ,
congenital existing at birth, innate, inborn, inbred, intrinsic, inherent, inherited, ,
conjecture speculation, supposition, surmise, deduce, infer, guess, , , / ,
conjugal pertaining to marriage, connubial, nuptial, marital, matrimonial, ,
conjure
summon or bring into being as if by magic, ... 2. , 3.,

connive conspire, 2. scheme, plot, 3. (), ,


connoisseur expert (in art, taste), ( ) ,
consecrate dedicate, devote, hallow, sanctify, , , ,
consensus unanimity, general agreement, (. ), ,
conservatory greenhouse, 2. a music or drama school, ,
consign entrust, , , , 2. deliver, ,
consolidate combine, bring together, solidify, strengthen, , , ,
consonant harmonious, in agreement, , <-> dissonant
conspicuous easily seen, impossible to miss, , , , , ,
consternation sudden confusion, ,
constituency the group of voters represented by a politician, supporters, , , , ,
construe explain, interpret, , , ;
consummate complete, / perfect, flawless, impeccable, , , supremely skillful,
contempt disdain, disgrace, disparagement, , , , , , ,
contentious
quarrelsome, bellicose, belligerent, militant, pugnacious, argumentative, controversial, disputatious,
polemical,
, , ,
8
WORD SMART
contiguous adjacent to, touching upon, near, abutting, ,
contingent dependent, conditional, 2.uncertain, accidental, possible, , 3.
continuum a continuous whole without clear division into parts, ,
contraband illegal trading, smuggling, smuggled good, (), () /
contretemps an embarrassing occurrence, a mishap, ,
contrite admitting guilt, remorseful, penitent, repentant, compunctious, ,
contrived artificial, labored, , , ,
contumely rudeness, arrogance, scornful insolence, insult, (.) , ( )
conundrum puzzle, riddle, enigma, mystery, , , ()
convene gather together, meet, assemble, convoke, summon, (,), ,
conventional common, customary, unexceptional, orthodox, , 2. , 2.
conversant familiar with, experienced, acquainted, (..) (with, in, about), (..) (with)
converse
opposite, antithesis, contrary, contradictory, (. ) , 2. conversation, / talk,

convey transport, communicate, conduct, , (, ) , () (,),


conviction strong belief, confidence, , , 2. a determination of guilt, ()
convivial festive, gay, jocund, jolly, boon, ,
convolution twist or turn, act of twisting, , , ( ),
copious abundant, plentiful, bounteous, plenteous, , ,
cordial gracious, warm, sincere, , , , / tonic,
corollary sth that follows, a natural consequence or conclusion, () ,
corporeal
tangible, having substance, bodily, material, , , , , <-
>spiritual
correlation mutual relationship, interrelation, , (),
corroborate
confirm, authenticate, justify, substantiate, validate, verify, (. ) , ,

corrosive erosive, eating away by chemicals, , [] ,


corrugated shaped with folds or waves, , ,
cosmopolitan , ,
coterie group that meets socially, select circle, clique, (), ,
countenance face, facial expression, , , 2. approbate, espouse, ,
coup (), , , ,
covenant solemn agreement, contract, pledge, compact, convention, transaction, , /
covert
covered, secret, hidden, clandestine, furtive, stealthy, surreptitious, implied, , ,

covet wish for enviously, , , ,
cower
wimp, cringe, quail, wince, shrink away or huddle up in fear, crouch, (,,,)
,
crass very unrefined, stupid, grossly insensible, coarse, gross, raw, uncouth, , , ,
craven cowardly, poltroons, pusillanimous, , / /
credulous gullible, eager to believe, ( ) , ,
crescendo gradual increase in the volume of sound in a musical passage, , ,
crestfallen dejected, dispirited, downcast, depressed, disconsolate, , ,
crevice narrow split, crack, fissure, breach, cleft, ( )
cringe
shrink back with fear, cower, quail, wince, () 2. to be servile or suck up ()

criterion basis for judgment, standard used in judging, (.), ,


critique a critical review, [], [], ,
crux central point, core, gist, essence, , ( )
cryptic mystifying, mysterious, hidden, secret, clandestine, abstruse, enigmatic, , ,
cuisine style of cooking, gastronomy, ,
culinary relating to cooking, (), ()
cull
pick out from among many way, select, , 2.collect, / reject,

culminate to climax, to reach full effect, , ,


culpable
deserving blame, guilty, blamable, censurable, impeachable, indictable, reprehensible,
,
curb
restrain or control, shackle, fetter, () , , / (), , ,

curmudgeon difficult and bad-tempered person, churl, miserly individual person, ,


cursory quick and hurried, done without attention and detail, hasty, superficial, perfunctory, ,
curtail
cut short, shorten, reduce, abbreviate, abridge, retrench, , , ,

9
WORD SMART
cynic one who deeply distrust humane nature, one who is skeptical, ,
daunt make fearful, appall, dismay, horrify, intimidate, , discourage, ,
dearth scarcity, lack, deficiency, , ,
debacle
violent breaking down, sudden overthrow, downfall, , , , ,
,
debase lower in quality or value, degrade, abase, demean, humble, humiliate, (,)
debauchery wild living, intemperance, , ,
debilitate weaken, enfeeble, cripple, attenuate, extenuate, ,
debunk express the nonsense, falseness or exaggerated claims of, divulge, (, )
decadent decaying or decayed (in moral), ,
decimate kill or destroy a large part of (usually one of ten), genocide, ,
decorous proper, in good taste, orderly, , , , ,
decree
official order usually having the force of law, behest, edict, , , (), /
,
decry belittle, depreciate, derogate, detract, devaluate, lower, denounce, disparage, ,
deduce conclude from the evidence, infer, ,
deem judge, consider,
defame ruin the good name of, libel or slender, ,
deference
submission to another will, courteous regard for another's wish, respect, obeisance, reverence, ,
,
deficit shortage especially of money, , , (surplus)
defile
make filthy or foul, pollute, profane, sully, besmirch, , , ...
(desecrate)
definitive conclusive, final, ultimate, complete, , , , ,
deft skillful, ,
defunct dead, no longer in effect or existence, extinct, vanished, , ,
degenerate
deteriorate, vitiate, retrograde, deprave, , / , / reprobate, ,

degrade lower in dignity or status, vitiate, deteriorate, corrupt, ,


deign stoop, condescend, vouchsafe, ,
deity god or goddess, , ,
dejected depressed, disheartened, , , ,
delectable delightful, pleasant, blithe, ,
deleterious harmful, baneful, baleful, detrimental, injurious, nocuous, pernicious, ,
delineate draw in outline, describe accurately, depict, ,
delinquent neglecting a duty or law, late in payment, , ,
delude deceive, beguile, , , ,
deluge a flood, inundation, spate, , , , (, ) / ,
delve search or study intensively, investigate, probe,
demagogue person who appeals to people's prejudices, agitator, fomenter, inciter, instigator,
demeanor behavior, manner, bearing, comportment, mien, ,
demise death, defunction, ,
demography
demur to voice opposition, object, ,
demure serious, sober, solemn, reserved, sedate, , 2. shy, , ,
denizen inhabitant, resident, dweller, , , ,
denomination classification, category name, , ,
denote signify, indicate, mark, , ,
denounce condemn, censure, reprehend, reprobate, ,
depict portray, delineate, describe, ,
deplete decrease the supply of, reduce, drain, exhaust, use up, , ,
deplore regret, lament, bemoan, ~ 2. express strong disapproval of, condemn, ,
deploy to station soldier or armaments strategically, (), ,
depose
remove from office or position of power, (), () 2. testify, ,

depravity corruption, wickedness, turpitude, , , ,


deprecate express disapproval of, disapprove, discountenance, dissent, 2. to be little, depreciate,
depredate prey upon, plunder, pillage, cf. deprecate: (depreciate),
derelict deserted, abandoned, remiss, neglectful, negligent, delinquent, , , ,
deride mock. ridicule, laugh at contemptuously, scoff at,
derogatory
disapproving, degrading, pejorative, depreciatory, (,, ),
,
desecrate defile, pollute, profane,
10
WORD SMART
desiccate dry out, dehydrate, ,
desist stop doing, cease, ,
despondent
extremely depressed, full of despair, dejected, disconsolate, dispirit, downcast, ,
,
despot absolute ruler, autocrat, , ,
destitute utterly lacking, extremely poor, indigent, impecunious, penurious, , ~ ,
desultory
without plan or purpose, aimless, disconnected, random, haphazard, discursive
, , ,
devout deeply religious, pious, fervent, revering, venerating, worshiping, , , ,
dialectical relating to discussion, rules and methods of reasoning, , ,
diatribe bitter and violent attack in words, abusive denunciation, invective, harangue, tirade, ,
dichotomy division into two parts especially contradictory ones, divergence, 2 , 2, ,
dictum proverb, maxim, authoritative an weighty statement, , 2. ,
didactic intended to teach, morally instructive, exhortative, hortative, moral, sermonic,
diffident timid, lacking in self-confidence, , , , ,
diffuse cause to spread out, disperse or disseminate, / , ,
digress stray from the main subject, deflect, deviate, diverge, , ,
dilapidated broken-down, fallen into ruin, marred, () , ,
dilate
become wider, larger, expand, () 2.speak or write at length, (
)
dilemma problem, choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives, predicament, perplexity, bewilderment, ,
dilettante someone with superficial knowledge of act, amateur, dabbler, ,
diminution lessening, reduction in size, ,
dire warning of disaster, dreadful, terrible, desperate, disastrous, apocalyptic, , ,
dirge funeral song, musical lament, requiem, monody, elegy, threnody, , ,
disaffect cause to lose affection, estrange, alienate, ... , ... ,
disarray disorder, confusion, muddle, , , / ,
discern have insight, see things clearly, discriminate, differentiate, , ,
disclaim disown, disavow, repudiate, deny any claim to, renounce claim to, ,
discomfit put to rout; defeat; disconcert, frustrate, confuse, , ... ,
disconcert confuse, upset, embarrass, baffle, perturb, , ,
discourse speech, , lecture, , sermon, , treatise, / ,
discreet prudent, judiciously reserved, , ,
discrepancy difference, inconsistency, alterity, dissemblance, dissimilarity, distinction, divergence, , ,
discrete separate, unconnected, distract , , ,
discriminate discern, differentiate, , ,
discursive digressing, digressive, desultory, rambling, ,
disdain despise, scorn, contempt, /
disgruntle make sulky and dissatisfied, make discontented, grumble, ... , ...
disinformation false information, ( )
disinterested dispassionate, impartial, neutral, unprejudiced, not taking sides, unbiased, ,
dismal causing gloom or dread, somber, morose, dreary, , , , ,
dismay fill with dread, discourage, perturb, , / ,
disparage abuse, decry, depreciate, derogate, detract, belittle, disdain, , , ,
disparate
basically different, incompatible, unequal, dissimilar, distinct, diverse, unrelated, ,

dispassionate equitable, unbiased, unprejudiced, unaffected by passion, impartial, ,
disperse scatter, spread widely, disseminate, dispel, dissipate, ,
dispirit discourage, dishearten, lose spirit, , ...
disposition arrangement, , 2. characteristic attitude, state of mind, , 3. inclination, ,
disproportionate out of proportion, too much or too little, , ,
disquiet make uneasy, , / ,
dissemble
disguise, pretend, feign, camouflage, dissimulate, (, ) (),
,
disseminate
spread the seeds of sth, scatter, diffuse, disperse, propagate, radiate, make widely known, ,

dissent
disagree, demur, discord, deprecate, withhold approval, , , (
)
disservice a harmful action, an ill turn, ,
dissident disagreeing, , / dissenter,
dissipate
(cause to) thin out, drift away or dissolve, () 2. squander, fritter, ,

dissolution breaking up or dissolving of sth into part, disintegration, , , , ,


11
WORD SMART
dissonant inharmonious, incompatible <-> consonant
dissuade persuade not to, advice against, discourage,
distend expand, extend, dilate, inflate, swell out, , , ,
distinct separate, different, , 2. clear and unmistakable, ,
distinguish tell apart, cause to stand out, , ,
diurnal daily, , 2. <-> nocturnal
divine , / intuit, prophesy, , / ,
divulge reveal, disclose, debunk, ,
docile
easily taught, easy to handle, obedient, amenable, tractable, pliant, malleable, ,,

doctrinaire
dogmatic, theoretical, unpractical, authoritarian, authoritative, dictative, dictatorial, ,
/
document support with evidence, especially written evidence,
dogmatic authoritarian, authoritative, dictative, doctrinaire, arbitrary, dictatorial, , ,
doldrums low spirit, state of inactivity, dejection, depression, , , , ,
doleful sorrowful, filled with grief, dolorous, plaintive, ,
dolt stupid person, dunce, ,
domestic having to do with the household or family, , , , ,
dormant sleeping, lethargic, torpid, inactive, latent, potential, quiescent, , ,
dotage senility, foolish affection (of old person), , <-> adolescence
double entendre
dour stern, severe, stubborn, , 2. sullen, morose, surly, forbidding, gloomy, , ,
downcast dejected, depressed, , ,
downplay minimize, represent as being insignificant, play down, ... , ,
draconian harsh, severe, cruel, (),
droll humorous, comic, ludicrous, queer and amusing,
dross slag, waste matter, worthless impurities, [ ], ,
dubious full of doubt, doubtful, equivocal, suspect, skeptical, uncertain, , , ,
duplicity the act of being two-faced, double-dealing, deception, hypocrisy, deceit, guile, , ,
duress coercion, compulsion, forcible restraint especially unlawfully, constraint, (), ,
ebb lessen, abate, moderate, relent, subside, wane, diminish, recede, , / ,
ebullient boiling, showing excitement, overflowing with enthusiasm, exuberant, , ,
eccentric
not conventional, little kooky, irregular, erratic, idiosyncratic, , , ,
,
ecclesiastical having to do with church, clerical, sacerdotal, ,
eclectic choosing the best, drawn from many sources, , , (
eclipse , 2.decline, / 1., 2.adumbrate, dim, murk, surpass, outshine,
ecosystem
edict an official decree, , ,
edifice a big, imposing building, , ,
edify
enlighten, improve in moral or mind, illuminate, instruct, , , edifying
book-
efface rub out, erase, delete, expunge, obliterate, , ,
effectual effective, efficacious, efficient, adequate, , , ,
efficacy effectiveness, potency, power to produce desire effect, ,
effigy dummy, ( ) , ,
effusion pouring forth, ejection, emanation, emission, extrusion, , , , ,
egalitarian
egocentric selfish, believing that one is the center of everything, ,
egregious extremely bad, flagrant, gross and shocking , , ()
elation a rise in spirits, exaltation, feeling of great joy, ,
electorate voters, ,
elegy poem of song of sorrow for the dead, dirge, requiem, threnody, ( ),
elicit bring out, draw out , call forth, educe, evince, extract, , , ,
elite best or most select group,
elliptical oval; missing a word or words; obscure; , ,
elocution the art of public speaking,
elusive
hard to pin down, evasive, elusory; baffling, hard to grasp, , ;

emaciate make extremely thin through starvation or illness, ... ,
emanate emit, exude, come forth, issue forth, stem, , , (, , )
emancipate liberate, manumit, release, unshackle, free from bondage or restraint, set free, extricate,
embargo , / ,
12
WORD SMART
embellish adorn, decorate, garnish,
embody personify, give physical form to, () () , ( )
embroil
throw into confusion, implicate, involve in conflict, entangle, (,), ,

embryonic undeveloped, rudimentary, basal, elementary, ,
emigrate move to a new place to live, expatriate, ,
eminent well-known and respect, outstanding, high, lofty, prominent, , ,
emissary envoy, , ,
empathy identification with the feeling or thoughts of another,
empirical experiential, based on experience or observation, not merely theoretical, , ,
empower give power or authority to, ... ,
emulate strive to equal or excel usually through imitation, rival, compete, contend, vie, ( )
encroach make gradual or stealthy inroads into, trespass, , ,
endear make dear, make beloved, ... , ,
endemic native, aboriginal, indigenous, restricted to a particular region or era, , ,
enervate reduce the strength or energy gradually, weaken, debilitate, devitalize, disable, unnerve,
enfranchise franchise, , 2.
engaging charming, pleasing, attractive, ,
engender bring into existence, create, cause, produce, arouse, generate, induce, provoke, ,
enigma puzzle, mystery, conundrum, riddle, , ,
enmity ill will, deep hatred, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor, , , ,
ennui listless lack of interest, boredom, ,
enormity extreme evil, hideous offense, , , 2.immensity, hugeness(in a bad sense),
ensue follow, succeed, result, , , [] ,
entail have as a necessary consequence, involve, ,
entity real thing, existence, , ,
entreat ask earnestly, beg, beseech, implore, importune, supplicate, plead, , , ,
entrepreneur business man, contractor, , , () , ;
enumerate numerate, name one by one, list, , ,
envision imagine, foresee, envisage, ( ) , ,
ephemeral
lasting very short time, short-lived, evanescent, momentary, temporary, transient, fleeting,
,
epicure connoisseur of food and drink, gastronomist, gourmand, gourmet, bon vivant, ,
epigram brief and usually witty or satirical saying, apothegm, ,
epigraph apt quotation,
epilogue short speech at conclusion of dramatic work, apologue, , <-> prologue
epitaph inscription in memory of a dead person, ()
epithet characterizing term, descriptive word or phrase,
epitome
summary, abstract, synopsis, , , , 2.perfect example, paradigm, ,
,
epoch era, period of time, aeon, eon, , , ( )
equanimity
composure, calmness of temperament, aplomb, phlegm, poise, sangfroid, serenity, (),
,
equestrian rider on horseback, , , , ()
equine horse-like, , ,
equitable fair, impartial, ,
equivocal
doubtful, ambiguous, confusing, vague, , 2. suspicious, ,

erudite deeply learned, scholarly, , ,


esoteric
hard to understand, abstruse, hermetic, recondite, understood by only a select few, peculiar, ,
,
espouse support, advocate, embrace, countenance, , 2.
estimable worthy of admiration, ()() 2. capable of being estimated,
estrange
make unfriendly or hostile, cause to feel removed from, , ... ,

ethereal heavenly, , 2. as light and insubstantial as gas or ether, , ,


ethics ,
eulogy (speech or writing full of) high praise, compliment, encomium, panegyric, ()
euphemism mild expression in place of an unpleasant one, circumlocution, roundabout, rhetoric, ,
evanescent quickly fading, fleeting, vanishing, ephemeral, , , ,
evince
demonstrate convincingly, prove, manifest, show clearly, ( ) ,,

13
WORD SMART
evoke
summon forth, awaken, call forth, educe, elicit, evince, extract, (,, ),

exacerbate make worse, aggravate,


exacting severe, extremely demanding, difficult, requiring great skill or grace, , , (),
exalt raise high , , 2. glorify, extol, ,
exasperate annoy thoroughly, make very angry, vex, ,
excise remove by cutting, [, ] , ... , / , ,
exemplify illustrate by example, instance, serve as a good example, ,
exempt excused, not subjected to, free from obligation, ... /
exhaustive through, rigorous, complete, painstaking, , , ,
exhort urge strongly, give a serious warning to, , , ,
exhume unbury, dig out of the ground, remove from grave, ... , [](, )
exigency emergency, urgency, urgent situation, , , ( ), ()
existential having to do with existence, extant, , ,
exodus departure, egress, exit, [ ], , [ ] , ,
exonerate free completely from blame, acquit, vindicate, exculpate, ,
exorbitant excessive, ,
expatriate exile, someone who has exiled, , / expellee, ,
expedient immediately advantageous, serving one's immediate self-interest, practical, , ,
expedite speed up or ease the progress of, precipitate, ,
expiate make amends for (a sin), atone for, rectify, redress, ... , [ ]
explicate explain in detail, [, , ] , ... ,
explicit
clearly and directly expressed, definite, distinct, unequivocal, open, , , ,

exposition explanation, , 2. large public exhibition, ,


expostulate to reason with sn in order to warn or dissuade, ,
expunge
erase, eliminate any trace of, remove, , cf. postulate: , /

exquisite extraordinarily fine or beautiful, intense, ,


extant still in existence, ( )
extol praise, laud, eulogize, panegyrize, glorify, exalt, ,
extort
obtain from force, wring from, get money by threats, wrest, (, ), ,

extraneous
not related to object, not essential, , , coming from outside, alien, extrinsic,

extrapolate project of deduce from sth known, infer, , ,


extremity , , 2. (, ), , , 3. limb or appendage of the body, ()
extricate free, disentangle, emancipate, , ,
extrovert open and outgoing person ,
exuberant abundant, effusive, lavish, , 2. highly joyous or enthusiastic, ebullient,
fabrication a lie, sth made up, , , , ,
facade
front of the building, () , (), , () cf. facet: , ,

facet small plane surface, a side, [ ] , , [, ] 2. aspect, phase, ,


facetious droll, jocose, ludicrous, witty, not serious, clumsily humorous, jocular, , ,
facile easy, easily done, , 2. fluent, skillful, ,
faction party, clique, sect, , , , 2. dissension, ,
fallacy false idea, (); incorrectness of reasoning,
farcical absurd, ludicrous, , ,
fastidious meticulous, squeamish, demanding, finicky, dainty, finicky, fussy, punctilious, , ,
fatalist
fathom [] , 2. understand, perceive, penetrate the meaning of, , [ ]
fatuous silly, idiotic, foolish, asinine, silly, witless, inane, ,
fauna animals of a period or region; , , <-> flora
faux false, , cf. faux pas ( )
fawn ,2. 3. exhibit affection () 4. suck up to sn, ()
fecund fertile, productive, , , () <-> futile
feign make the false representation, pretend, sham, simulate, ... , ... ,
felicity happiness, 2. skillfulness, adeptness, (, ) ,
feline cat-like
fervor great warmth or earnestness, zeal, glowing ardor, enthusiasm, passion, ,
fester generate pus, decay, suppurate, [ ], ,
fetish object supposed to possess magical powers, [, ], ,
14
WORD SMART
fetter shackle, / manacle, restrain, hamper, fetter, , ,
fiasco complete failure or disaster, incredible screwup, defeat, , ,
fiat arbitrary decree or order, command, decree, mandate, behest, edict, ,
fickle capricious, mercurial, unstable, changeable, unfaithful, (, )
fidelity loyalty, allegiance, devotion, faithfulness, , (), 2. accuracy, exactness, ,
figment something made up or invented, fabrication, fiction, () , ,
figurative based on figure or speech, allegorical, metaphorical, ()
finesse skillful maneuvering, delicacy, nicety, subtlety, craftiness, delicate skill, , , ,
fiscal pertaining to financial matters; monetary, , ,
flagrant glaring bad, notorious, scandalous, conspicuously wicked, egregious, gross, heinous, ,
flaunt show off, display ostentatiously, boast, gasconade, vaunt, , ,
fledgling inexperienced or immature, inexpert, untrained, , ,
flippant frivolously disrespectful, saucy, pert, flip, , ,
florid red-faced, ruddy, flushed, rubicund, sanguine, , 2. flowery, ,
flout
disregard sth out of disrespect, reject, oppose, mock, jeer, scoff, sneer, , ,
/
fodder coarse food for livestock, raw stock, raw material, , [] , ,
foible minor character flaw, slight fault, frailty,
folly foolishness, insanity, , (imprudence)
foment stir up, instigate, abet, foster, goad, incite, provoke, spur, .., <-> quell
foray raid, , / incursion, invasion, , , (an initial venture)
forbear refrain from, abstain, , 2. ancestor, ,
forebode to be an omen of, predict, foretell, bode, , ,
foreclose [] , , (), preclude, bar,
forensic related to debate or courts of law, controversial, juridical, ,
forestall
thwart, prevent or hinder sth from happening, head off, , , ,

forgo
give up, abandon, abdicate, relinquish, waive, do without, forbear, , , ,

forsake desert, abandon, renounce ,relinquish, give up, quit, , , ,


forswear retract, renounce, or recant, 2. commit perjury, ,
forte strong point or special talent, eminency, ,
forthright frank, outspoken, , 2. going straight to the point,
fortuitous accidental, by chance, casual, incidental, adventitious, , ,
foster rear, cultivate, nourish, , , 2. encourage, promote the development of,
founder fail, collapse, sink, submerge, submerse, , , ,
fragmentary incomplete; disconnected, made up of fragments, , ,
fraternal like brother, ,
frenetic frenzied, frantic, furious, rabid, , ,
frugal economical, penny-pinching, , , <-> prodigal
fruitful productive, successful, , , ,
fuel stimulate, ignite, kindle as if providing with fuel, () 2. ... (kindle)
fulminate
thunder, explode, detonate, 2.denounce vigorously, protest vehemently ,

furtive
secretive, sly, stealthy, sneaky, clandestine, covert, sub-rosa, surreptitious, insidious, , ,

futile
useless, abortive, bootless, ineffectual, vain, hopeless, , , , <->
fecund
gaffe a social blunder, embarrassing mistake, faux pas, (, ),
galvanize stimulate by shock, startle into sudden activity, stir up, ,
gambit
maneuver,opening in chess 2. maneuver or ploy, , , 3. commencement,
incipience,
gamut entire range, spectrum, , ,
garner gather, store up, glean, reap, stockpile, amass, , /
garrulous
talkative, chatty, loquacious, prolix, wordy, , , ,

gastronomy science of preparing and serving good food, cuisine, ,


generic general, common, characteristic of a class or species, , ,
genesis origin, creation, beginning, , ,
genocide (cf. homicide, matricide, patricide, suicide, insecticide)
genre style of art illustrating scenes of common life, category, , , ,
genteel refined, polite, aristocratic, well-bred, cultured, polished, urbane, elegant, , ,
germane pertinent, relevant, apposite, apropos, ,
15
WORD SMART
gesticulate make gestures in speaking, (),
ghastly
shockingly horrible, frightful, grisly, gruesome, lurid, macabre, ghostlike, , ,

glut surplus, overabundance, overstock, surfeit, gorge, jade, sate, satiate, , /


grandiloquent pompous; bombastic; using high-sounding language; () ,
grandiose absurdly exaggerated, imposing, impressive, majestic, stately, , ,
gratis free, gratuitous,
gratuitous given freely, gratis, , 2. unnecessary or unwarranted , ()
gravity , , 2. , 3. sobriety, solemnity, ,
gregarious sociable, enjoying the company of others, (),
grievous tragic, agonizing, , , .2 severe,
grimace a facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc., /
guile
cunning, duplicity, artfulness, deceit, duplicity, artifice, craftiness, trickery, , ,

guise appearance, semblance, costume, , ,
habituate train, accustom to a situation, ... ,
hackneyed overused, trite, commonplace, banal, pedestrian, humdrum, stale, ,
halcyon peaceful, carefree, serene, composed, , ,
hapless unlucky, unfortunate, miserable, cf. hap: fortune, chance
harass
annoy by repeated attacks, torment or pester, bother, irk, badger, vex, badger, harry, heckle, tease,

harbinger (), / forerunner, herald, precursor, prophetic sign, , ,


harp repeat tediously, go on and on about sth, reiterate, ( )
harry raid, foray, maraud, (), 2. harass, annoy,
hedonism belief that pleasure is the sole aim in life, asceticism, ,
hegemony leadership (one nation over another) , ,
heinous shockingly evil, abominable, atrocious, hatefully bad, desperate, monstrous, ,
herald royal proclaimer, [ , ] 2. harbinger, /
heresy
opinion contrary to popular belief or accepted religion, unorthodoxy, ,
,
hermetic obscure, occult, abstruse, esoteric, profound, recondite, , 2. impervious, ,
heyday golden age, prime,
hiatus break or interruption in continuity, gap, pause, breach, interim, interruption, ,
hierarchy pecking order, body divided into ranks, order,
histrionic relating or actors or acting, overly dramatic, theatrical, affecting, , ,
hoary white or gray with age, ancient, stale, , () , ,
homage reverence, respect, deference, obeisance, ,
homily sermon, serious warning, discourse, ,
homogeneous made entirely of one thing, uniform, , <-> heterogeneous
hubris arrogance, excessive pride, haughtiness, hauteur, imperviousness, loftiness, superciliousness, ,
husbandry
frugality, thrift, providence, thrifty management of resources, agriculture, livestock farming,
,,
hyperbole exaggeration, overstatement, modification, bombast, , , ,
hypocrisy insincerity, two-facedness, ,
hypothetical based on assumptions or hypotheses, conjectural, putative, suppositious, supposititious,
iconoclast image breaker, , ,
ideology ideas of a group of people, credo, , ,
idiom ,
idiosyncrasy peculiarity, eccentricity, oddity, singularity, , , (),
idyllic charming in rustic way, bucolic, naturally peaceful, , ,
ignominy deep disgrace, , , ,
illicit illegal, illegitimate, not permitted, , ,
imbue inspire, permeate or tinge, saturate, inculcate, fill, , (, )...
imminent
just about to happen, impending, proximate, near at hand, , , , ,

immutable unchangeable, constant, immovable, inalterable, inflexible, unmodifiable, ,
impartial fair, unbiased, ,
impasse deadlock, cul-de-sac, blind alley, dilemma, , ,
impeach charge, accuse or indict public official, , 2. call into question, (, )
impeccable
faultless, flawless, immaculate, irreproachable, entirely without sin, , (),

impecunious without money, penniless, destitute, impoverished, indigent, penurious, ,
impede obstruct or interfere with, hamper, delay, ,
16
WORD SMART
impending imminent, looming, nearing, approaching, proximate, , ,
impenetrable incapable of being penetrated, impervious, incomprehensible, , , ,
imperative completely necessary, vitally, important, urgent, , 2. ,
imperial like an emperor or empire, , , ,
impervious impenetrable, not permitting passage through, , 2. () , ,
impetuous
impulsive, quick and violent, ; abrupt, headlong, vehement, precipitate, hasty, rash, impatient,
,
implement
carry out, fulfill, 2. supply what is needed, complete, ,
/ tool, instrument, ,
implication that which is hinted at or suggested, () , , , , ()
importune
beg earnestly, urge with annoying persistence, trouble, , ,

impotent
beseech crave implore plead supplicate
powerless, helpless, unable to perform sexual intercourse, , ,
impoverish reduce to poverty, make destitute, ... 2. (, ) ,
impregnable unconquerable, indomitable, invincible, able to withstand attack, invulnerable, ,
impresario a person who manages public entertainment; (, , )
impromptu extemporaneous, on the spur of the moment, improvised, offhand, , / ,
improvise compose on the spur of the moment, (),
impugn
doubt, ; attack the truth or integrity of sth, challenge, (); gainsay,
contradict, contravene, negate
impunity freedom from punishment, exemption, immunity, (, , , ) , ,
inadvertent unintentional, heedless, not planned, accidental, adventitious, ,
inalienable not to be taken away, lost , nontransferable, ()
inane silly, senseless, asinine, fatuous, , ,
inaugurate begin officially,
incandescent brilliant, effulgent, fulgent, lambent, lucent, luminous, radiant, refulgent, ,
incantation singing or chanting of magic spells, chant, magical formula, (), ,
incarnation
act of assuming a human body and human nature, embodiment, ,
,
incendiary tending to arouse passion or anger, inflammatory, , , / (arsonist),
incense infuriate,
incessant
unceasing, uninterrupted, ceaseless, everlasting, interminable, perpetual, unremitting, ,

incipient beginning, emerging, in an early stage, inceptive, , ,
incisive
cutting right to the heart of matter, sharp, penetrating, trenchant, , , , ,

inclination tendency, preference, liking, ,


incongruous
not harmonious, not consistent, not appropriate, not fitting, absurd, , ,

incorrigible incapable of being reformed, uncorrectable, () ,


increment increase, accretion, one in a series of increases, , , , , , , ,
inculcate
instill, imbue, implant by repeated suggestions or admonitions, teach, instruct,(
)
incumbent current office holder, () / obligatory,
incursion raid, foray, sudden attack or temporary invasion, ,
indict charge with a crime, accuse of wrongdoing, ()
indifferent apathetic, aloof, uninterested, 2. mediocre, commonplace(not good quality) ,
indigenous native, aboriginal, endemic, originating in that area, , () , ,
indigent poor, destitute, (), , ,
indignant angry, insulted, , ,
indolent lazy, ,
induce persuade, , 2. influence, cause, , cf) seduce
indulgent lenient, charitable, clement, yielding to desire, humoring, , ,
ineffable
inexpressible, unutterable, indescribable, inexpressible, cannot be expressed in speech,

ineluctable inescapable, inevasible, irresistible, unavoidable, , , ,
inept unsuited, inappropriate, clumsy, incompetent, gauche, absurd, , ,
ineradicable incapable of being removed or destroyed or eradicated, ,
inert inactive, sluggish, not reacting chemically, , , ,
inexorable
adamant, obdurate, relentless, inevitable, unavoidable, unyielding, implacable, , ,

infamous shamefully wicked, disgraceful, notoriously bad, flagrant, opprobrious, , ,


17
WORD SMART
infatuated
foolish, foolishly passionate or attracted, made foolish, foolishly in love, , ,

infer deduce, conclude, ,


infinitesimal very very small, infinitely small, , ,
inflammatory fiery, tending to arouse passion or anger, incendiary, , 2. (inflammation)
influx flowing into, arrival of large numbers of people or things, inundation, , , ,
infraction violation, infringement, breach, contravention, transgression, breaking of law, ,
infrastructure the basic framework of a system, foundation, ()
infringe violate, breech, contravene, offend, transgress, 2. encroach or trespass,
infuse introduce into, instill, imbue, , ( ) 2.()
ingenuous nave, frank, without deception, artless, unsophisticated, unaffected, , ,
ingratiate work to make yourself liked, ... , ... ,
inherent intrinsic, congenital, inborn, innate, firmly established by nature or habit, , ,
inimical unfavorable, unfriendly, harmful, detrimental, hostile, antagonistic, , ,
inimitable
impossible to imitate, incomparable, matchless, unrivaled, the best, ,

injunction a command or order, especially a court order, , ,
innate inborn, congenital, inherent, intrinsic, , , ,
innocuous harmless, innoxious, ,
innuendo sly hint, insinuation, allusion, implication, intimation, ( ) , ,
inordinate
excessive, exorbitant, immoderate, intemperate, unreasonable, unrestrained, , , ,

inquisition ruthless questioning, official investigation, , ()


insatiable not easily satisfied, greedy, avaricious, avid, voracious, ,
insidious
artful, astute, craft, guileful, wily, treacherous, sneaky, stealthy, sly, furtive, surreptitious,
, , , ()
insinuate
creep in, worm, 2.hint, imply, allude, connote, intimate, ,

insipid
dull, vapid, bland, banal, tasteless, flavorless, savorless, unpalatable, , , ,

insolent
arrogant, insulting, haughty, contemptuous, domineering, imperious, overweening, supercilious,
,
insouciant
nonchalant, lighthearted, carefree, indifferent, listless, without concern or care, , ,

instigate
provoke, stir up, urge, start, abet, activate, actuate, foment, incite, , , <-
> quell
insufferable not sufferable, unbearable, intolerable,
insular like an island, isolated, narrow-minded, , ,
insuperable
unable to be overcome, insurmountable, invincible, indomitable, overwhelming, ( )

insurgent rebellious, contumacious, insubordinate, mutinous, () , / rebel, ,
insurrection an act of open rebellion, revolt, insurgence, mutiny, ,
integral essential, indispensable, 2. whole, 3. ,
interim meantime, meanwhile, intervening time, breech, hiatus, interval, (), ,
interloper intruder, trespasser, interfere, intrude, unwanted person, ,
interlude intervening, episode, intermission, pause, ( , ), , , ,
interminable seemingly unending, endless, perpetual, tediously long, , ,
intermittent periodic, on and off, occasional, fitful, recurrent, , ()
intersperse place at intervals, scatter among,
intervene intercede,
intimate hint, imply, , () / 1. familiar 2. essential, innermost 3. private /
intractable
fractious, headstrong, pertinacious, perverse, recalcitrant, disobedient, unruly, refractory,
,
intransigent stubborn, uncompromising,
intricate complicated, sophisticated, , , ,
intrigue secret scheme, crafty plot, , /
intrinsic part of the essential nature of sth, inherent, natural, , ,
introspective tending to think about oneself, examining one's feelings, , ,
inundate overflow, deluge, flood, cover completely with water, overwhelm, , ,
invective
insulting or abusive speech, abuse, billingsgate, contumely, obloquy, scurrility, vituperation, ,
,
inveterate deep-rooted, chronic, habitual, firm in habit, (, ), ,
18
WORD SMART
invidious
causing envy or resentment, offensively harmful, hateful, obnoxious, odious, ,
,
inviolate not violated, kept sacred, free from injury, pure, , ,
invoke
entreat or pray for, crave, supplicate, (),,() 2.summon up,

irascible choleric, fractious, peevish, petulant, touchy, irritable, bilious, splenetic, , ,


iridescent exhibiting rainbow-like colors, ( ),
ironic meaning the opposite of what you seem to say, , ,
irrevocable irreversible, unalterable, (.)
itinerant moving form place to place, wandering, traveling, ,
jargon language used by special group, gibberish, cant, argot, , , ,
jaunt a short pleasure tip, junket, sally, , , /
jingoism belligerent and chauvinistic patriotism, warmonger, ,
jocular humorous, fond of joking, jocund, jocose, droll, facetious, ludicrous, witty, ,
jubilation exultant joy, rejoicing, exultation, bliss, , ,
judicious having good sense, wise, determined by sound judgment, prudent, sapient, (),
junction Convergence, , 2. Linkup, act or state of being joined together, , ,
junta small group ruling a country after a coup, ( )
juxtapose place side by side, ...
karma good or bad emanation from sn or sth, , ,
kinetic
having to do with motion, lively, active, producing motion, , , ,

labyrinth maze, Daedalus , ,


laconic
using few words, brief and to the point, concise, compendious, succinct, terse, (, ),

lament mourn, , ,
lampoon satirize, mock, parody, ridicule, burlesque, caricature, travesty,
languish become weak, languid, listless or depressed, lose animation or strength, flag, ,
larceny theft, robbery, stealing, purloining, (), ,
largess generous gift, generosity, philanthropy, , , ( )
lascivious
lustful, obscene, lewd, licentious, lecherous, incontinent, libertine, libidinous, , ,
,
latent present but not visible or apparent, potential, dormant, hidden, abeyant, quiescent, ,
laud applaud, extol, celebrate, praise, glorify, ,
lavish
liberal, , 2. abundant, exuberant, opulent,
3. excessive, wasteful, luxuriant, prodigal, profuse, profusive, , / ,

lax negligent, lazy, irresponsible, loose, remiss, , , ,


layman nonprofessional, , , ,
legacy inheritance, bequest, patrimony,
lethargic sluggish, lazy, indifference, drowsy, dull, comatose, torpid, , ,
levity lightness, frivolity, unseriousness, flippancy, ,
liaison connection, association, alliance, secret love affair, , ( ), ,
libel (cf. invective, ) 2. , , /
licentious
lascivious, lewd, promiscuous, amoral, dissolute, incontinent, lecherous, libertine, libidinous, ,

limpid
transparent, clear, lucid, pellucid, translucent, (,,, ), , ()
,
listless sluggish, without energy or enthusiasm, lackadaisical, languid, ,
litany supplicatory player, (), 2. tedious recounting, ()
litigate try in court, engage in legal proceeding, ,
livid lead-colored, ashen, pallid, wan ; enraged, , [ ], ;
loath extremely unwilling, reluctant, averse, abhorrent, execrable, odious, ,
lobby urge legislative action, exert influence, (), ()
loquacious talkative, garrulous, verbose, , ,
lout boor, oaf, clod, churl, bad-tempered person, clumsy person, , ,
lucid
clear, easy to understand, pellucid, translucent, transparent, unambiguous, ,,
2.mentally sound, 3.bright, transparent, effulgent, lambent, luminous, refulgent,
ludicrous ridiculous, absurd, laughable, trifling, , ,
lugubrious exaggeratedly mournful, lamentable, funeral, woeful, dolorous, plaintive, , ,
luminous shining, giving off light, glowing, bright, easily understood, , , , ,
lyrical melodious, songlike, poetic, , 2. enthusiastic, ,
machination scheming actively for an evil purpose, conspiracy, intrigue, plot, ,
19
WORD SMART
magnanimous forgiving, unresentful, noble in spirit, generous, benevolent, chivalrous, , ,
magnate rich, powerful or very successful business person, person of prominence or influence, tycoon, ,
malaise feeling of depression, uneasiness or queasiness, ,
malapropism humorous misuse of a word, ,
malfeasance an illegal act especially by public official, () , ( )
malinger to pretend to be sick to avoid doing sth,
malleable easy to shape or bend, supple, () 2. , ,
mandate command, dictate, , 2. authorization, , / ,
mania crazed or excessive excitement, insanity, delusion, , , , ..., ...
manifest
visible, evident, understandable, clear, , 2. make visible, , / ,

manifesto public declaration, statement of policy, , (),


marginal of margin or border, 2. lower limit of quality, insignificance, (), ,
marshal
arrange in order, gather together for the purpose of doing sth, , /
,
martial warlike, bellicose, belligerent, militant, pugnacious, having to do combat, , ,
martyr , / ,
materialistic preoccupied with material things, greedy for possessions, [], []
matriculate enroll, especially at a college, ( ) cf. matriculation
maudlin silly and overly sentimental, romantic, ,
maverick nonconformist, dissenter, rebel, , ,
mawkish sickening, nauseous, , 2. foolishly sentimental, maudlin,
maxim fundamental principle, old saying, aphorism, proverb, adage, ,
meander wander,
mediate help settle differences, intervene, arbitrate, intercede, ,
medium , 2. , 3. () 4. , / ,
melancholy gloomy, depressed and weary, , , / ,
melee brawl, affray, brawl, fracas, fray ,confused fight or struggle, tumultuous confusion, ,
mellifluous
flowing smoothly, smooth, dulcet, euphonious, (, , ) , ,

menagerie a collection of animals () , , []


mendacious lying, dishonest, false, fraudulent, unveracious, ,
mendicant beggar, /
mentor counselor, instructor, coach, tutor,
mercenary interested in money or gain, , 2. hired soldier,
mercurial capricious,
metamorphosis magical change in form, sudden change, ,
meticulous fussy, heedful, scrupulous, finicky, fastidious, punctilious, (), ,
microcosm the world in miniature, ,
milieu environment, surroundings, ,
millennium thousand year period, a thousandth anniversary, , ,
minuscule very tiny,
mire
marshy, mucky ground, , / () , embroil, implicate, tangle, ()

misanthrope one who hates mankind, , <-> philanthropist


mitigate
moderate the effect of sth, appease, allay, alleviate, assuage, mollify, palliate, , (
)
mode method of doing, type, manner, fashion, vogue,
modulate regulate, adjust, adapt; reduce ,lessen or change intensity, , ,
mollify
soothe, soften, pacify, allay, alleviate, appease, assuage, mitigate, pacify, propitiate,
,
momentum quantity of motion of a moving body, impetus, , , , , ,
monarchy government by king or queen,
monolithic massive, solid, uniform, and unyielding, , ,
moratorium suspension of activity, legal delay of payment, (),
mores customs, customary moral standards, ,
moribund dying, at the point of death,
morose somber, melancholy, gloomy, sullen, , , , ,
mortify humiliate, punish the flesh, debase, degrade, demean, humble, ,
motif recurring theme or idea, ( ),
motley extremely varied or diverse, heterogeneous, multicolored, parti-colored, mixed, ,
mundane not heavenly and eternal, temporal, , 2. ordinary, dull, pretty boring, ,
municipal pertaining to a city(town) and its government, (),
20
WORD SMART
munificent lavish, very generous, ,
muse ponder, meditate, deliberate, ruminate, ,
muster assemble for battle or inspection, summon up, , / ( ),
myopia near sightedness, lack of foresight, ,
myriad very large number, ,
mystic otherworldly, mysterious, enigmatic, , ,
narcissism excessive love of one's body or oneself,
nebulous vague, hazy, indistinct, cloudy, () , ,
nefarious evil, flagrantly wicked, flagrant, infamous, vicious, , ,
nemesis revenging agent, , , ,
neologism a new word or phrase, new usage of a word, , , ,
neophyte beginner, novice, apprentice, tyro, recent convert, ,
nepotism favoritism( to a relative), ,
nihilism the belief that there are no values or morals in the universe, 19 ,
nirvana blissful, painless, worry-free state, ,
noisome offensive, , (smell) disgusting, stinking, noxious, rancid, putrid, ,
nomadic wandering from place to place, without a permanent home, itinerant, peripatetic, ,
nomenclature
system of naming, designation, terminology, (), , , ()()
,
nominal in name only, insignificant, OK(during rocket launches), titular, , ,
nonchalant indifferent, coolly unconcerned, blas, insouciant, , ,
nostalgia home-sickness, longing for the past, ,
notorious nefarious, famous for sth bad, outstandingly bad, unfavorably known,
novel new, original, strange, , , ,
noxious harmful, offensive, nocuous, (),
nuance subtle difference or distinction, , , , ,
nullify repeal, revoke, cancel, void, annul, , ,
obdurate stubborn and insensitive, , ,
obeisance bow or curtsy, deep reverence, , ,
obfuscate
darken, confuse, muddle, make confusing, fluster, confound, , ,

objective unbiased, unprejudiced, uninfluenced, <-> subjective 2. real 3. / ,


oblique at an angle, deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight line, 2. Indirect,
oblivion total forgetfulness, the state of being forgotten, ,
obscure unknown, elliptical, hard to understand, dark, , , , ,
obsequious fawning, subservient, sucking up to, slavishly attentive, servile, sycophantic, , ,
obtrusive pushing forward, 2. interfering, meddlesome, intrusive, officious, butting in,
obtuse insensitive, blockheaded, blunt, stupid, , ,
obviate make unnecessary, get rid of, avert, ,
occult mysterious, magic, secret, supernatural, uncanny, ,
odious hateful, abhorrent, loath, detestable, abominable, repulsive, vile, , , ,
odyssey
long, difficult journey, usually marked by many changes of fortune, (),

officious
annoyingly eager to help or advise, meddlesome, excessively trying to please, ,

olfactory pertaining to the sense of smell, , / ,


oligarchy government by only a few people, ,
ominous
threatening, menacing,,, 2. portentous, of bad omen,, <-
>auspicious
omniscient all-knowing, having infinite wisdom, cf. omnipotent : all-powerful,
onerous burdensome, oppressive, , , , needing effort,
opaque impossible to see through and understand, dark, not transparent, , ,
opprobrious extremely critical, showing scorn or reproach, disgraceful, ( ), ,
opulent luxurious, rich wealthy, , ,
ordinance law, regulation, decree, ,
orthodox conventional, , ,
oscillate pulsate, vibrate pendulum-like, waver or vacillate, , (, )
osmosis gradual or subtle absorption, ,
ostensible apparent(but misleading), professed, pretended, alleged, , , ,
ostentatious excessively conspicuous, showy, pretentious, flamboyant, , ,
ostracize shut out or exclude a person from a group, ban, shun, ,
oust eject, expel, banish, ,
override overrule, prevail over, ( , , , ) ,
21
WORD SMART
overture opening move, preliminary offer, , , ,
oxymoron
pacify calm someone down, placate, ,
painstaking extremely careful, , (=pains-taking = taking pains)
palatable
pleasing to the taste, agreeable to the feelings, gusty, relishing, sapid, savory, , ,

palliate
relieve, alleviate, assuage, mitigate, easy pain, make less guilty or offensive, (,, , )

pallor paleness, whiteness, () (a. pallid)


palpable tangible, obvious, easily perceptible, , ,
paltry insignificant, worthless, petty, , ,
panacea cure-all, remedy fir all diseases,
pandemic
prevalent throughout a large area, rampant, ( ) <-> endemic /
epidemic,
panegyric elaborate and formal praise, eulogy, compliment, encomium, (,)
parable religious allegory, fable, morality tale, ,
paradigm model or example, archetype, paragon, ,
paradox statement that looks false but is actually correct, , ,
paragon
model of perfection, pattern of excellence, paradigm, archetype, , , , (),

parallel similar, comparable, , , ,


paranoia (),
paranormal supernatural, phony, ( )
parochial narrow or confined in point of view, provincial, , , , ,
parody satirical imitation, humorous imitation, travesty, lampoon, ,
paroxysm sudden or violent outburst, a severe attack, , (, )
parsimonious stingy, excessively frugal, miserly, niggardly, penurious,
partisan one who supports a particular person, cause, or idea, , ,
partition division, dividing wall, ,
pastoral rural, rustic, peaceful and calm like the country, bucolic, , , / ,
patent obvious, evident, 2. 3. open for public to read, , / /
paternal fatherly, fatherlike, ,
pathology the science of diseases,
pathos tender sorrow, pity, , (), , , ,
patina
green crust on old bronze works, verdigris, ( ), ,

patriarch father and ruler of a family or tribe, , ,
patrician a person of noble birth, an aristocrat, <-> plebian
patrimony inheritance from father, legacy, bequest, ,
patronize treat as an inferior, 2. condescend to, 3.
paucity scarcity, , , ,
peccadillo a minor offense, misdemeanor, , ,
peculiar unusual, bizarre, individual, , , ,
pedantic
boringly scholarly or academic, showing off learning, bookish, scholastic, , ,

pedestrian banal,
pejorative negative, disgracing, derogatory, detracting, disparaging, depreciatory, ,
penchant predilection, strong inclination, liking, proclivity, predisposition, propensity, , ,
penitent sorry, repentant, contrite, remorseful, , ,
pensive dreamily thoughtful, thoughtful with a hint of sadness, ,
peregrination wandering, traveling, expedition, journey, ,
peremptory uncompromising, final, categorical, dictatorial, (), ()
perennial continual, happening again and again or year after year, ,
perfidy treachery, apostasy, disloyalty, faithlessness, ,
perfunctory superficial, listless, careless, unenthusiastic, cursory, , , ,
peripatetic traveling continually, itinerant, wandering, ambulant, nomadic, ,
periphery outside edge of sth, especially of a round surface, ,
perjury lying under oath, false testimony, foreswearing, ,
permeate pass through, spread, , ,
pernicious
extremely evil, very harmful, deleterious, injurious, baneful, pestilential, virulent, , ,

perpetrator one who committed the act, ,


perpetuate make sth perpetual, keep from perishing, ,
22
WORD SMART
perquisite a privilege that goes along with a job, perk, bonus, ,
pertinent relevant, germane, suitable, to the point, apposite, apropos, ,
perturb disturb greatly, , , ,
peruse read carefully, , n. perusal
pervade spread throughout, ,
perverse perverted, 2. pernicious, refractory, cranky, peevish, irritable, , ,
petulant
rude, cranky, ill-tempered, touchy, peevish, fractious, fretful, irritable, testy, , ,

phantasm apparition, ghost, phantom, ,


philanthropy love of mankind especially by doing good deeds, , , ,
philistine , ,
phlegmatic
indifferent, not easily roused to excitement, stolid, 1.,, 2.imperturbable,
,
pilgrimage religious or spiritual journey, excursion, peregrination,
pious reverent or devout, , 2. hypocritical,
piscine fish-like, ,
pivotal crucial, cardinal, momentous, , ,
placate
pacify, appease, soothe, conciliate, assuage, mollify, propitiate, slake, , , ,

placebo fake medication, ()


plaintive expressing sadness or sorrow, mournful, doleful, dolorous, lamentable, lugubrious, ,
platitude trite remark, commonplace statement, cliche, banality, prosaism, ,
platonic nonsexual, purely spiritual, theoretical, ( ), / ,
plausible seem to be right or reasonable, believable, 2. convincing,
plebian(plebeian) common, vulgar, low class, bourgeois, , , (vulgar), , ()() <->
plethora excess, overabundance, superfluity, surplus, , 2. ,
pliable flexible, easy to band, , 2. easy to convince, persuade or mold,
plight predicament, / promise, pledge, betroth, , ,
plunder loot, ransack, , / booty, ,
pluralism , , , ()
poignant
pointed, painfully emotional, extremely moving, sharp, piquant, pungent, , ,
,
polarize
break up into opposing fractions or groupings, dichotomize, , , ,

polemic powerfully dispute, controversy, argument in support of point of view, , / pl.


ponderous heavy, bulky, unwieldy, massive, , , , 2. dull,
pontificate
speak pompously or dogmatically, ( ), /

porcine pig-like
porous filled with many tiny holes, permeable, penetrable, pervious, absorbent, ,
portent sign, omen, forewarning, presage, ,
posterity descendants, future generation, progeny, offspring, progeniture, scions, ,
posthumous postmoral,
postulate
sth accepted as true without proof, axiom, , , , / ,,

posture act artificially or affectedly, 2. / attitude, , , 2.state,


pragmatic practical, down to earth, based on experience ,concerned with practical values, ,
prattle talk idly or childishly, babble, ( ) , /
precarious doubtable, unstable, uncertain; dangerously insecure or unsteady, unsafe, risky, , ;
precedent antecedent, earlier example or model of sth, preceding in time, rank, etc., ,
precept a rule to live by, principle, decree, ordinance, prescript, regulation, statute, ()
precipitate
, 2.() 3.() 4.()/,
/hasty,
precipitous steep, clifflike,
preclude
prevent sth from ever happening, deter, forestall, obviate, make impossible, ,

precocious
premature, unusually mature, developed ahead of time, uncommonly gifted, , (,)

precursor trailblazer, forerunner, harbinger, herald, , ,
predecessor
sn or sth that precedes in time, ancestor, antecedent, precursor, , , , <->
successor
predicament dilemma, plight, quandary, ,
predilection nature preference, partiality, disposition, penchant, predisposition, propensity, proclivity, ,
23
WORD SMART
predispose make susceptible, cause to be incline toward, cf) dispose :,,
predominant most important, dominant, , , ,
preeminent
outstanding, supreme, superior, prominent, salient, conspicuous, renowned, , ,

preempt seize sth by prior right, appropriate beforehand, ,


pregnant highly significant,
prelude
introduction, forerunner, overture, preamble, preface, prologue, , , /

premeditated planned beforehand, prearranged, plotted, precogitated, predetermined, ,
premise assumption, the basis for a conclusion, postulate, () 2. /
preponderance majority, predominance, superiority of power, quantity, (, , , , ),
prepossess
preoccupy, influence beforehand or prejudice, make good impression, ,

prerogative privilege, unquestionable right,


presage
portend, foreshadow, forecast, predict, foretell, bode, , , / ,
,
presentiment premonition, foreboding, prediction, presage, (),
presumably probably, the assumption is that, doubtless, ,
presuppose
assume beforehand, 2.take for granted in advance, require as a prior condition,

prevail triumph, overcome rivals, predominate, preponderate, , , ,
primal first, original, , 2. of the greatest importance,
pristine
perfectly clean and untouched, unspoiled, pure, characteristic of earlier times, primitive, ,
,
privation
lack of comforts or necessities, poverty, destitution, indigence, penury, ( ),,
,
proclaim announce, declare, make known, ... ,
procure obtain or acquire by special means, () 2. bring about, cause, ,
prodigal wastefully extravagant, reckless with money, lavish, profuse, , ,
prodigious extraordinary, marvelous, enormous, colossal, huge, titanic, , ,
prodigy miracle, extraordinary accomplishment or occurrence, , , ,
profane
irreverent, blasphemous, desecrate, , , , / defile, ()

profess declare, declare falsely or pretend, , , ,


proficient thoroughly competent, skillful, dexterous, very good, ,
profligate widely immoral, dissipate, wanton, dissolute, wasteful, licentious, , , /
profound deep, , , , ,
profuse flowing, fluent, , , extravagant,
progeny offspring, descendants, posterity, scions, ,
proletariat industrial working class, , ,
proliferate spread or grow rapidly, , ()
prolific productive, fertile, fecund, abundantly fruitful, , , ,
promulgate make known by official proclamation or publication, , , , ,
propagate reproduce, multiply, spread or disseminate, , , (, ),
propensity natural inclination or tendency, predilection, disposition, penchant, proclivity, , ,
propitious
marked by favorable signs or conditions, favorable, kindly, , , , ,

proponent advocate, supporter, exponent, , , ,
propound put forth for analysis, propose, offer for consideration, (, ) ,
proprietary characteristic of an owner of property, constituting property, , ,
propriety properness, good manners, fitness, correct conduct, decorum, decency, dignity, ,
prosaic unimaginative, like prose, commonplace, dull, , ,
proscribe outlaw, prohibit, ostracize, banish, exile, expatriate, , ,
proselytize convert to a religion or belief, (, ) , ,
protagonist the leading character in a novel, (, ),
protege person under the protection and support of a patron, subordinate, ( ) ,
protocol diplomatic etiquette and customs, , , ,
protract prolong, lengthen the time, () ,
provident
preparing for the future, displaying foresight, frugal, thrifty, , ,
,
provincial pertaining to a province, limited, narrow, insular, , , ,
provisional conditional, temporary, tentative, ,
provocation act of provoking, , 2. incitement, cause, (), ,
24
WORD SMART
prowess superior skill or ability, 2. superior strength or bravery,
proximity nearness, , ,
prudent careful, having foresight, provident, chary, circumspect, wary, canny, , ,
prurient having lustful thoughts, causing lust, licentious, lecherous, lascivious, amorous, , ,
pseudonym alias, false name, alias, pen name, , , (),
psyche human soul, mind, spirit, ,
pummel pound or punch with the fists, beat, strike, ()...
punctilious
meticulously attentive to detail, scrupulously exact, fussy, heedful, ,
,
pundit learned Hindu, any learned man, authority on a subject, guru, savant, ,
pungent acrid, incisive, piquant, stinging, caustic, (, , ) , , ,
punitive inflicting a punishment, castigatory, ,
purblind dim-sighted, practically blind, lacking understand or imagination, obtuse, , ,
puritanical like puritan, very severe and strict about morals, , (,)
purported rumored, claimed, ... (), ,
putative commonly accepted, supposed, hypothetical, reputed, , ,
quaint pleasantly old-fashioned, picturesque, odd, idiosyncratic, , ,
qualify entitle, , 2. limit, modify or restrict, , ()
qualitative having to do with the quality or qualities of something, ,
quandary state of perplexity, bewilderment, dilemma, predicament, , ,
quasi almost, near, resembling, -, -, -
quay a landing on the edge of the water, wharf, pier, ,
quell put an end to, squelch, suppress, subdue(rebellion, rebels, opposition), (, ) ,
querulous
complaining, grumbling, fretful, whining, irritable, fractious, peevish, petulant, ,
,
query question, inquiry, , / ,
queue a line or file, ( ) , , / ,
quiescent motionless, at rest, still, dormant, latent, abeyant, potential, , , ,
quintessential being the most perfect example, essential, substantial, , ,
quixotic
idealistic but impractical, , , ,

quizzical questioning, inquisitive, 2. teasing, mocking, , 3. eccentric, odd,


quotidian daily, everyday, ordinary, , ,
ramification consequence, branching out, subdivision, , , , ,
rampant widespread, uncontrollable, prevalent, raging, () , , (, ) ,
rancor
bitter and long-lasting ill will or resentment, enmity, animosity, bitterness, hatred, (), ,
,
rapacious
excessively grasping, plundering, greedy, avaricious, voracious, gluttonous, ( ),

rapture ecstasy, bliss, unequaled joy, (), , ,


rarefied esoteric, interesting to a select group only, exalted, ,
ratify confirm, approve sth formally, , ( ) , ,
ratiocination logical reasoning, act of drawing conclusion from premises, inference, deduction, () ,
rationale underlying reason, basis, reasoning, , cf. rational : , ,
raucous stridently loud, rowdy, harsh and shrill, hoarse, strident, , () ,
reactionary
retrograde, ultraconservative, right-wing, backward-thinking, ,, ,/

rebuff snub, reject, spurn, (, ) , / ,


rebuke criticize sharply, , / ,
rebut contradict, argue in opposition, provoke to be false, ,
recalcitrant
stubborn, unruly, refractory, fractious, intractable, untoward, disobedient, ,,

recant publicly take back and deny, recall, retract, repudiate, withdraw previous statement, ,
recidivism act of repeating an offense, habitual return to crime, cf. recidivist,
reciprocal mutual, shared, interchangeable, exchangeable, interacting, , , ,
reclaim , 2. , , 3.
reclusive hermitlike, withdrawn from society, ,
recondite hard to understand, over one's head, abstruse, profound, secret, , , ,
recrimination bitter counteraccusation, countercharges, , ,
redeem
buy back, 2.fulfill,() 3.make up for, 4.rescue from sin,

redolent fragrant, odorous, aromatic, odoriferous, 2. reminiscent,


25
WORD SMART
redress
remedy, , 2. compensate for, make amends for, / remedy, amend, restitution, ,
,
redundant unnecessarily repetitive, excessive, superfluous, excessively wordy, prolix, , , ,
referendum suffrage, ,
refractory
resisting control, stubborn, unmanageable, recalcitrant, , , ,
,
refute prove to be false, disprove, controvert, rebut, ,
regime method or system of government, , , ,
regimen regulated course, , , ,
reiterate say again, repeat, harp, ( )(),
relegate delegate, , 2. banish, consign to inferior position, , ,
relentless without pity, unyielding, , , 2. continuous, unstoppable, steady, persistent
relinquish
abandon, waive, forgo, release or let go, stop doing, (. ), , ,

remission disappearance of a disease, , , 2. pardon, forgiveness, ,


remonstrate argue against, raise objections, protest, resist, withstand, ,
remuneration payment, recompose, stipend, ,
renaissance rebirth or revival, , ,
rend split, tear apart, rip, cleave, , , , ,
render submit, present, give, , , 2. cause to be, make, 3. ,
renounce
give up formally or resign, abandon, discontinue, disown, repudiate, , cf.
denounce:
reparation paying back, amends, compensation, redress, restitution, indemnification, , ,
repartee quick and witty reply, witty, clever reply, sally, ,
repercussion consequence, indirect effect, rebound, reverberation, reaction, , (), , ,
replenish fill up again, resupply, restore, , ()
replete completely filled, abounding, plenary, abundantly supplied, fraught, , ,
replicate duplicate, copy, 2. fold over or bend back, ( )
repose
rest, 2. be based on,trust in, , / rest, tranquility, relaxation, ,
,
reprehensible worth of blame or censure, deserving blame, blamable, censurable, culpable, ,
repress hold back, conceal from oneself, suppress, () , , ...
reprimand reprove or rebuke severely and officially, impeach, , , / ,
reprisal retaliation, revenge, counterattack, avengement, vengeance, retort, , ,
reproach scold, blame, disgrace, , , / 1. , , 2. , 3. , 4. ,
reprobate person hardened in sin, devoid of sense of decency, degenerate, , / ,
reprove criticize mildly, censure, chide, reprimand, reproach, rebuke, , , ,
repudiate reject, renounce, recant, disown, disavow, disclaim, , ,
repugnant repulsive, offensive, disgusting, , ,
requisite necessary, required, , / prerequisite, requirement, , ,
resignation resigning, , , 2. passive submission, , , [] , (acquiescence)
resolute determined, firm, unwavering, , , ,
respite a period of rest or relief, delay in punishment, , ,
resplendent brilliantly shining, radiant, dazzling, , () ,
resurrection return to life, revival, , , , , ,
reticent quiet, restrained, taciturn, reluctant to speak (especially about oneself), , ,
retort make a sharp reply, , / retaliation, reprisal, ,
retrospect looking backward, review, , <-> prospect
revamp revise, renovate, , (..)
revel
enjoy thoroughly, take delight in, carouse, , / revelry, bacchanal,
,
revere respect highly, honor, ( ), ,
revile scold abusively, berate, denounce, slander, vilify, calumniate, libel, malign, traduce, ,
revulsion loathing, repugnance, disgust, , ,
rhapsodize speak extremely enthusiastically, gush, () cf. rhapsody: ,
rhetoric art of effective communication, insincere language, eloquence, oratory, , ,
ribald indecent or vulgar, off-color, wanton, profane, blasphemous, ()
rife occurring frequently, widespread, common, , 2. abundant, teeming, swarming,
rigorous strict, harsh, severe, , , ,
rivet engross, [, ] , 2. hold firmly,
robust
vigorous, strong and healthy, stout, stalwart, sturdy, (.), , , (.
)
rogue criminally dishonest person, scoundrel, , ,
26
WORD SMART
rout put to flight, scatter, 2. defeat overwhelmingly, / , , ,
rudimentary basic, crude, unformed or undeveloped, elementary, embryonic, , , ,
rue mourn, regret, repent of, , , / , ,
ruminate contemplate, ponder, mull over, chew the cud, ponder, ,
rustic rural, bucolic, pastoral, uncouth, crude, gauche, , , , ,
saccharine sweet, excessively or disgustingly sweet,
sacrilege a violation of sth sacred, blasphemy, profanity, cf. sacrosanct:
sacrosanct most sacred, inviolable, ,
sagacious
discerning, wise, keen in judgment, shrewd, having insight, discerning, judicious, sage, ,
,
salient sticking out, conspicuous, leaping, prominent, preeminent, ,
sally attack, , 2. excursion, jaunt, expedition, , 3. repartee, / 1,2,3
salutary healthful, remedial, curative, tending to improve, beneficial, wholesome, () ,
salutation greeting, welcome, opening words of greeting, ,
sanctimonious
affecting religious feeling, displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness, pharisaical,

sanction
official permission, approval, endorsement, penalty, () ,,, /

sanguine cheerful, optimistic, hopeful, , , ~ , 2.


sarcasm irony, jokingly or bitingly saying the opposite of what is meant, , ,
sardonic mocking, scornful, disdainful, sarcastic, cynical, , , ,
savant scholar, very knowledgeable and learned person, pundit,
scant limited, meager, barely sufficient, , () cf. scanty, ()
schism division, separation, rupture, discord or disharmony, (), (),
scintillate
sparkle (either literally or figuratively), flash, glitter, shimmer, twinkle, , ,

scorn disdain, contempt, , / ,


scrupulous
careful, conscientious, extremely thorough, fussy, heedful, meticulous, punctilious, , ,

scrutinize examine very carefully, canvass, survey, ,


seamless without seam, smooth, cf)seam 1. , 2. , 3.
secede withdraw from an alliance, () ,
seclusion aloneness, withdrawal from other people, reclusion, sequestration, (), , ,
sect a small religious subgroup or religion, faction, clique, , ,
secular
not of religious or spiritual concerns, worldly, not pertaining to church matters, temporal, mundane,
,
sedentary largely confined to sitting down, , ,
sedition treason, the incitement of public disorder or rebellion, mutiny, ( )
self-made ,
sensory of senses or sensation, , ,
sententious terse, aphoristic, , , 2. preachy, self-righteous, pompous, ,
sentient able to perceive by the senses, conscious, , ()
sequester
set or keep apart, retire from public life, segregate, seclude, , 2. ,

serendipity
accidental good fortune, discovering good things without looking for them, ,
,
serene calm, peaceful, tranquil, untroubled, ,
serpentine snake-like, , ,winding, sinuous, cf) serpent
servile
submissive, subservient, like a servant, slavish, cringing, menial, obsequious, , ,

shackle manacle, pinion. chain, fetter, curb, restraint, , , / , ,


shibboleth slogan or catchword, ( ), , , (),
shrewd wily, sagacious, perspicacious, cunning, sly, astute, , ,
singular unique, superior, exceptional, unusual, , ,
skirmish fight between small groups, brief conflict, , , / ,
skittish nervous, easily startled, jumpy, lively, frisky, , , ,
slake quench, () 2. satisfy, () 3. assuage,
slander
defame, spread malicious rumor, / calumny, depreciation, detraction, disparagement,
,
sloth laziness, sluggishness, indolence, , ,
sobriety state of being sober, seriousness, soberness, , , ( )
solace consolation, comfort, (), () / ,
solicitous eager and attentive, anxiously caring or attentive, worried, concerned, ,
27
WORD SMART
solidarity sense of unity, ,
solvent not bankrupt,
sophomoric juvenile, childishly goofy, immature, shallow, callow, () 2, ,
soporific sleep inducing, sleepy, somnolent, , , / sleep producer ,
sordid wretched, shabby, filthy, squalid, , 2. morally vile, contemptible, ()
sovereign supreme ruler, monarch, , ,
spate sudden river flood, () , 2. sudden outpouring, , , () ,
spawn lay eggs, ( ) / (, ),
specious deceptively plausible or attractable, seemingly reasonable but incorrect, casuistic, ,
specter ghost, phantom, ,
spectrum broad sequence or range of different but related things or idea,
sporadic
stopping and starting, occurring irregularly, scattered, fitful, spasmodic, , ,
,
spurious false, fake, counterfeit, apocryphal, bogus, sham, unauthentic, ungenuine, ,
spurn reject or refuse disdainfully, rebuff, scorn, , (, ) ,
squalor filth, wretched, degraded or repulsive living conditions, , , ,
squander waste,
stagnation motionlessness, inactivity, ,
stalwart
strong, sturdily built, stout, robust, brawny, valiant, unwavering, steadfast, ,,/

stark
stiff(in death), () , 2. complete, utter, unmitigated, downright, , 3.
harsh, grim
static stationary, not changing or moving, , ,
staunch firm and steadfast, strong, solid, , , 2. stanch, ()
steadfast loyal, faithful, , ,
stigmatize brand with disgrace, mark as wicked, ,
stint restrict or limit, 2. to be frugal or sparing, , / 1. , 2. limitation,
stipend income, allowance, salary, pay for services, remuneration, ,
stipulate require sth as a part of an agreement, (), , 2. ( )
stoic person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain, epicurean, ,
stolid impassive, apathetic, phlegmatic, dull, impassive, ,
stout
plump, fat, 2. strong, stocky, sturdy, stalwart, 3. valiant, 4. substantial, ,

stratagem maneuver designed to outwit an enemy, scheme, ruse, subterfuge, chicanery, ,


stratum layer of earth's surface, layer of society, level, , ,
stricture restriction, limitation 2. critical comments, severe and adverse criticism, reprehension, ,
strife bitter conflict, discord, struggle or clash, , , , ,
stringent strict, restrictive, austere, rigorous, severe, , , , 2.
stupendous remarkable, extraordinary, 2. remarkably large or gigantic, ,
stupor stunned condition, near-unconsciousness, apathy, inertia, daze (, ) , ,
stymie hinder,
subjugate subdue and dominate, enslave, conquer, bring under control, ,
sublime awesome, extremely exalted, loft, majestic, noble, uplifting, , , ,
subordinate
lower, , , , / , , / , ,

subside
sink of settle, diminish, lessen, wane, ( ), (), (,,)

subsidiary supplemental, additional, secondary or subordinate, ancillary, appurtenant, ,


subsidize provide subsidy, make a financial contribution, ...
substantiate support with proof or evidence, verify, confirm, corroborate, validate, authenticate, ,
substantive having substance, real, substantial, essential, cardinal, substantial, , , ,
subterfuge
pretense, evasion, artifice, trick or stratagem, ruse, pretext, tergiversation, chicanery, , ,
,
subtle not obvious, ingenious, crafty, , , ,
subversive
corrupting, overthrowing, undermining, insurgent, mutinous, tending to overthrow or run, ,

succinct brief and to the point, terse, compact, laconic, pithy, sententious,
succumb yield or submit, die, capitulate, surrender, , , ,
suffice be sufficient, be enough,
suffrage the right to vote, referendum, , ,
suffuse cover, overspread, pervade, saturate, (, , , , )
sumptuous luxurious, splendid, lavish, rich, , ,
supercilious contemptuous, haughty, patronizing, arrogant, disdainful, insolent,
28
WORD SMART
superficial on the surface only, shallow, not thorough, trivial, cursory, , ,
superfluous extra, unnecessary, redundant, ,
supersede displace, take the place of, supplant, replace, make sth obsolete, , , ,
supine lying on back, <-> prone 2. inactive, indolent, lethargic, ,
supplication humble prayer, earnest entreaty, ,
suppress overpower, subdue, quash, repress, ,
surfeit cloy, overfeed, glut, gorge, sate, satiate, ,, , / , ,
surmise conjecture, guess, /
surreal having an unreal, fantastic quality, hallucinatory, dreamlike,
surreptitious sneaky, secret, clandestine, covert, furtive, stealthy, sub-rosa, insidious, ,
surrogate substitute, vicarious, , / alternate, deputy,
susceptible impressionable, , 2.(to) sensitive to, , 3.(of) capable of
sweeping far-reaching, extensive, wide-ranging, ,
sycophant one who sucks up to others, fawner, flatterer, trucker,
syntax , , ,
synthesis combining parts into a whole, ,
systemic
affecting the entire system or body, (, ), cf. systematic : orderly, meticulous,
methodical
tacit implied, not spoken, not put into words, alluded, implicit, intimated, (),
taciturn habitually silent, talking little, reticent, ,
tactical of tactics,
taint
contaminant, trace of sth spoiled, stigma, , , , , / , ,

tangential only superficially related to the matter, not especially relevant, , ,


tangible touchable, detectable, palpable, , , , ,
tantamount equivalent to, equal, identical, ,
tautological redundant, circular, needlessly repetitious, ,
tedium dullness, monotony, boredom, weariness, ennui, irksomeness, , ,
teem swarm, be inundated, overrun, 2. (down) pour, ( )
temerity boldness, recklessness, audacity, rashness, foolhardiness, precipitateness, bravado, ,
temperate mild, moderate; restrained, abstemious, abstinent, continent, , ;
temporal
pertaining to time, 2. pertaining to life, secular, mundane, , 3. temporary,

temporize stall, cause delay through indecision, gain time, ,


tenable defensible, as in one's position in an argument, valid, , ()
tenacious persistent, stubborn, adhesive, cohesive, , ,
tenet doctrine, dogma, creed, credo, , , ,
tentative
temporary, provisional, conditional,; experimental, ; uncertain,;
hesitant,
tenuous flimsy, thin, rare, slim, attenuated, slender, , , ,
tepid lukewarm, halfhearted, ,
terse concise, abrupt, pithy, succinct, sententious, laconic, ()
theology the study of god or religion,
thesis
thorny painful,
threshold , 2. any part of beginning or entering, , ,
throttle strangle, , 2. ( ) /
thwart prevent from, obstruct, baffle, frustrate, balk, circumvent, foil, ( ),
timorous timid, cowardly, fearful, demonstrating fear, ,
tirade prolonged and bitter scolding, denunciation, diatribe, harangue, ,
titillate excite, stimulate, tease, tickle, , ...
titular in title or name only, nominal, ,
toil hard work, labor, drudgery, exhausting effort, , / , ,
torpor
sluggishness, dormancy, inactivity, apathy, coma, languor, lassitude, stolidity, stupor, torpidity,
, , , , , cf. torpid: ,
tortuous winding, twisting, sinuous, serpentine, full of curves, , ()
touchstone
stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys, standard, criterion,
,
tout praise highly, acclaim, laud, ... , /
toxic poisonous, virulent,
transcend exceed, surpass, ,
transfix pierce through, , 2. rivet, (, , )
transgress violate a law, sin, (),
29
WORD SMART
transient temporary, fleeting, quickly passing away, staying for a short time, , ,
trauma severe shock or distress, violent wound, [], , ,
travesty
grotesque or shameful imitation, mockery, perversion, comical parody, ,
,
trenchant
cutting, keen, incisive, poignant, pungent, forceful, effective, () , , ,
,
trepidation
alarm, fear, dismay, apprehension, trembling agitation, excited state of mind, , , ,

triumvirate a ruling coalition of three officials, , 3 , 3
tryst a secret meeting of lovers, ,
tumult
violent and noisy commotion, uproar, outbreak, turmoil, clamor, hubbub, bedlam, brouhaha, ,
,()
turbid
muddy, murky, opaque, unclear, (), , 2. disordered, confused, ,

turmoil tumult, commotion, pandemonium, hubbub, bedlam, tumult, ,


turpitude shameful wickedness, depravity, , ,
ubiquitous being everywhere, omnipresent, universal, , ,
uncanny
extraordinary, unimaginable, seemingly supernatural, strange, mysterious, arcane, ,
,
unconscionable not controlled by conscience, unscrupulous, excessive, , , ,
unctuous oily, bland, insincere, suave , , , ,
underlying
basic, fundamental, , , 2. present but not obvious, implicit, ,

undermine impair, subvert, weaken by excavating underneath, debilitate, , ,


underpinning a system of supports beneath, a foundation or basis, , ,
underscore underline, emphasize, ,
underwrite sponsor, subsidize, , 2. insure, 3. indorse,
uniform the same for everyone, consistent, unchanging, ,
unilateral involving one-sided only, , , <-> bilateral
unremitting unceasing, unabated, relentless, ,
unwitting unintentional, not knowing, ignorant, ,
urbane poised, sophisticated, suave, refined, elegant, , , ,
ursine bear-like, pertaining to a bear, ,
usurp seize wrongfully, ( ) , cf. usury: ()
usury lending money at an extremely high rates of interest, ()
utilitarian stressing usefulness or utility above all other qualities, pragmatic, , ,
utopia ideal society, imaginary land with perfect social and political system,
vacillate to be indecisive, waver, , ,
vacuous empty, blank, vacant, , 2. lacking in ideas or intelligence, inane, stupid, ,
vagary caprice, whim, unpredictable action, wild notion, , () ()
vanquish conquer, defeat, subdue, overcome, overpower, , ,
vapid without liveness, dull, uninteresting, insipid, inane, , , (), ,
vehement incense, forceful, violent, impetuous, with marked vigor, fervid, fervent, , ,
venal capable of being bribed, bribable, corruptible, , ,
veneer thin layer, 2. coating, facade, outward appearance, , (),
venerate revere, adore, worship, ()
veracity truthfulness, verity, , ,
verbose wordy, not succinct, circumlocutory, garrulous, loquacious, prolix, talkative, ,
verdant green, fresh, leafy, , 2. inexperienced, unsophisticated, ,
verge border, brink, edge, fringe, margin, , / (on)
verisimilitude similarity to reality, looking like real thing, , ,
verity truth, reality, veracity, truism, true statement, (), ,
vernacular language, tongue, everyday speech, slang, idiom, , , () , ( )
vestige trace, remains, , ,
vex
fret, annoy, distress, trouble, pester, fester, aggrieve, torment, ,
2. confuse,
viable capable of maintaining life, workable, () ,
vicarious acting as a substitute, done by a deputy, surrogate, proxy, , ,
vicissitude upheaval, natural change, change of fortune, , ,
vie contend, compete, contest, struggle, cope, emulate, rival, ,
vigilant constantly alert, watchful, wary, , ,
vignette
small, decorative design or drawing, depiction, , , , ,
()
30
WORD SMART
vilify
slander, asperse, calumniate, denigrate, rebel, traduce, say vile things about, defame, ,

vindicate
champion, clear from blame or suspicion, justify, exculpate,,(,) ,

vindictive vengeful, revengeful, , unforgiving, 2.spiteful


virtuoso highly skilled artist, (), ,
virulent extremely poisonous, toxic, malignant, full of hate, , , , ()
viscous viscid, sticky, gluey, , ,
visionary produced by imagination, fanciful, mystical, delusory, quixotic, , , /
vitiate
spoil, impair, mar, pollute; abrogate, abolish, annul ,invalidate, , ;

vitriolic caustic, full of bitterness, corrosive, sarcastic, , , ,


vivacious lively, frolicsome, high-spirited, gay, animated, full of pep, ,
vocation job,
vociferous clamorous, noisy, ,
vogue popular fashion, style, (),
volatile evaporating rapidly, light-hearted, mercurial, , , , , ,
volition act of making a conscious choice, 2. choice, 3. will , ,
voluminous large, extensive, having great volume, , , , , ,
voluptuous gratifying the senses, only seeking to pleasure, luxurious, sensual, sensuous, ,
voracious
ravenous, covetous, gluttonous, greedy, rapacious, ravening, , , ,

waft float, drift, blow, wave, (, ) / ,


waive give up, relinquish, forgo, cede, ( ), ,
wake all-night vigil, 2.
wane decrease in strength or intensity, fade away, abate, subside, (), <-> wax
wanton
unruly, perverse, wayward; unchaste, dissolute, lewd, licentious, lustful; excessive, malicious,
unjustifiable, unprovoked, egregious, bestial, brutal, cruel; , ; , ;
warrant justify, guarantee, ... , , / , ,
wary cautious, watchful, careful, chary, circumspect, discreet, , ,
willful deliberate, , 2. obstinate, intractable, pertinacious, perverse,
wistful yearning, sadly longing, meditative, ,
wizened shriveled, withered, shrunken, ,
woe
distress or misery from grief, suffering, affliction, , 2. misfortune, calamity causing woe,
,
wrath deep anger, fury, resentment, ,
zealous enthusiastically devoted to sth, fervent, ,
zeitgeist the mood or spirit of the times, ()
zenith
point directly overhead in sky, highest point, peak, pinnacle, summit, acme, apex, apogee,
culmination, (), , () ,
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