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Original Title: A Study Near Source Effect in Array Bassed SPAC Microtremor Surveys

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Centre for Environmental and Geotechnical Applications of Surface Waves (CEGAS), School of Geosciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Near source effects in SPAC surveys Prof. Michael Asten School of Geosciences Building 28, Monash University CLAYTON 3800 Australia Email: michael.asten@sci.monash.edu.au Ph.: +61 3 9905 1639 Fax: +61 3 9905 4903

Revised paper based on reviewers comments Submitted to Geophysical Journal International of the Royal Astronomical Society. Feb 2007 Revised Submitted to Geophysical Journal International of the Royal Astronomical Society. October 2007

SUMMARY Array-based methods for exploiting ambient seismic noise are receiving increasing attention in the literature, particularly for use in providing shear wave velocity profiles to assist with simulation of site-specific earthquake responses. Many of these microtremor methods - such as the spatial autocorrelation technique (SPAC) - operate under the fundamental assumption of plane wave propagation of surface waves. However, when there are significant microtremor sources in close proximity to an array, wavefront curvature becomes significant, and the plane wave assumption becomes a tenuous one. This paper explains the use of a simplified geometry-based approach to examine the effect of source distance on SPAC spectra for hexagonal (6-station) and triangular (3-station) arrays. The results suggest that near source effects are generally minimal provided that most of the sources are located a distance equal to at least two array radii from the centre of the array, although this distance increases when attenuation is considered. Results of a field trial involving the deliberate use of near-sources in proximity to a hexagonal (6-station) array support the findings of the theoretical model. Near source effects generally result in the measured SPAC curve being offset to lower frequencies for wavenumbers less than the first secondary maximum of the SPAC curve (kr < 7.0; ! > 0.86R), resulting in underestimates of shear velocity values in the inverted layered earth model. For the field example, shear velocity was underestimated by up to approximately 17%. Studies of near source effects in a number of theoretical source distributions for hexagonal arrays revealed that cyclic variation in the imaginary SPAC coefficients are indicative of near source effects, although field examples suggest this effect is less significant than the geometric modelling suggests. Modelling of linear microtremor source distributions (intended to represent traffic travelling along a road) resulted in less severe near source effects than full (360) azimuthal source coverage a result confirmed by field data. Model and field studies also indicated that in situations of a dominant, close microtremor source of limited azimuthal extent, use of a hexagonal (6-station) array significantly mitigates near source effects compared with a similarly aligned triangular (3-station) array. Keywords: Rayleigh waves, seismic-wave propagation, seismic array, seismic noise, seismic modelling, microtremor, passive seismic

1. Introduction

There are a number of array-based techniques for using measurements of microtremor ground motion to deduce the shear wave velocity (SWV) profile of the earth at a site. The most popular of these techniques can be broadly divided into two categories: Frequency wavenumber (f-k) methods based upon the methodology proposed by Capon (1969), and techniques based around the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) technique first derived by Aki (1957) and examined in detail by Okada (2003). Both of these approaches exploit the dispersive nature of surface waves (usually Rayleigh waves) to extract a dispersion curve from array based observations of microtremors. In most of the literature, the sources contributing to the microtremor wave-field are considered to be located at significant distance from the array, allowing for the assumption of plane-wave surface wave propagation. In recent times, the SPAC technique in particular has seen significant application in urban areas for a range of applications: Apostolidis et al. (2004); Asten, (2005, 2006a); Asten & Dhu (2004); Asten et al. (2005); Bettig et al. (2001); Boore & Asten (2008); Chavez-Garcia et al. (2005); Hartzell et al. (2005); Kudo et al. (2002); Roberts & Asten (2004, 2005, 2007); Scherbaum et al. (2003); Sorensen & Asten (2005); Wathelet et al. (2005). It is the relatively high level of (high frequency) microtremor energy present in urban areas that makes towns and cities attractive locations for microtremor surveys. Ideally, microtremor measurements in urban areas should be made in large, flat, undeveloped areas (such as parkland) away from strong microtremor sources such as roads, railway lines and factories. However, in some situations, placement of arrays alongside busy roads may be unavoidable due to array size requirements and limitations on available space. Asten & Boore (2006), Asten (2006b) and Roberts & Asten (2004, 2005, 2007) give examples of such situations. The consequences for microtremor measurements resulting from receivers being located close to the microtremor sources can potentially include three distinct effects: non-planar wavefront geometry; dominance of body wave energy rather than surface wave energy; and increased likelihood for the presence of higher modes in the wave field. The latter two aspects are addressed in many studies associated with the SASW and MASW techniques (which use active sources in proximity to a linear array of sensors), eg. Xia et al. (2004), and are not addressed in this paper. The issue of non-planar (curved) wavefronts for surface wave techniques is not often discussed in the literature, although both Almendros et al.(1999) and Zywicki & Rix (2005) give examples of varying traditional processing methodologies to account for wavefront curvature. For the SPAC method specifically, there is a notable scarcity of literature dealing with near source effects. A report of the European SESAME project (SESAME, 2005) addresses the effect of source distance on the phase velocities derived from SPAC processing of synthetic microtremor data. The results of these synthetic SPAC observations suggested that there was little effect on slowness values derived from near sources until the source distance (d) was approximately equal to the array radius (r). For sources located within the array (d/r < 1), slowness estimates were biased to higher values. This simulation used a dense (18 station) semi-circular array, so the validity of these findings for the case of less-dense (3- or 6-station) triangular and hexagonal arrays, which are more frequently used in practice, is unknown. Throughout this paper, we use the array nomenclature of Asten (2006) and Okada (2006), whereby an n-station array actually corresponds to an array of n sensors placed around an additional central sensor. Hence in practice, an n-station array makes use of recordings made at n+1 stations.

This paper presents the results of a study designed to examine the effects of near-sources on (3and 6-station) circular SPAC arrays by presenting a geometric modelling procedure for predicting the effects of source distance on observed SPAC spectra. It is well known (see for example Aki & Richards (2002) or Telford et al. (1990)) that in close proximity to a seismic source a larger portion of total wave energy is contained in body waves rather than surface waves. The influence of body waves and higher modes are not considered in this paper. The results presented below are based on ray-path geometry alone and are compared with the near-source effects observed in a field experiment deliberately contrived to mimic the distribution of sources for the theoretical models.

For SPAC-based approaches to microtremor processing, the key equation derived by Aki (1957) links the average coherency observed by an array of sensor pairs to the dispersion relationship for surface waves:

(1)

where: f is frequency, c ( f ) is the azimuthally averaged coherency, J0 is the zero-order Bessel function, k is the scalar wavenumber, V(f) is the phase-velocity dispersion relationship, and r is the inter-station distance (station separation) in the circular array over which the average has been formed. Although SPAC-based processing uses a stochastic approach and does not attempt to identify individual microtremor sources, the assumption is made that individual sources are sufficiently distant that the resulting wavefronts may be considered planar by the time they cross the array. This assumption is implied by the fact that in the derivation of equation (1), Aki (1957) assumes that the source to sensor azimuth is constant for all the sensors in the array. For a near-field source, this is not the case, as demonstrated in Fig. 1.

The modelling approach adopted here is an extension of that used by Asten (2003, 2006a) and Asten et al. (2004) for assessing the performance of differing array geometries in situations where microtremor sources are confined to a fixed range of azimuths. This approach uses a numerical summation of the phase difference associated with multiple sources, with a single source for each 1 of source arc to be analyzed. Thus, continuous source arcs consisting of 1 to 360 sources can be arbitrarily located around the array.

Figure 1

2.1 Modelling methodology 2.1.1 Background and general assumptions For the near source modelling presented here, a further variable is added to the method described by Asten (2003), allowing all the sources in each case to be placed at a (finite) fixed distance from the array.

In order to make the modelling as general as possible, a dimensionless frequency parameter (kr) is used. This parameter represents the wavenumber normalised by the array radius, and is equivalent to the argument of the Bessel function in equation (1). As a result of using kr as a

4

frequency parameter, source distances are also measured in units of array radius, R (see Fig. 1). All source distances are measured from the centre of the array. In later discussions concerning source model results, the kr parameter is used in place of frequency. In addition, since kr is 6r approximately equal to , kr frequencies are also provided in terms of a comparison between

"

the wavelength and the array radius (e.g. kr > 1.5 approximately corresponds to the condition ! < 4R). The modelling undertaken here does not consider variations in the dispersion relationship, V(f), associated with SPAC spectra; modelling is considered for the case of a homogeneous halfspace. This does not diminish the applicability of the findings because results for each wavenumber in the spectrum are numerically independent from results at other wavenumbers. In effect, the Bessel function SPAC curves used here are template spectra onto which the effects of a specific velocity structure can be superimposed as a non-linear scaling of kr.

2.1.2 Weighting factors For propagation of surface waves, geometric attenuation of surface-wave energy follows a 1/r relationship with distance from the source (cylindrical spreading), although this rate is strictly true only for stable far-field propagation. Attenuation of wave energy associated with inelastic losses or absorption is at a rate dependant on frequency and the material properties (specifically the quality factor, Q) of the medium.

A constant geometric decay rate of 1/r is relatively simple to implement, however the absorption attenuation component is more problematic as it introduces an additional (unknown and frequency-dependant) variable to be considered. Energy loss by attenuation theoretically follows an exponential attenuation relation. After computing several near source models using a range of Q values (30<Q<1000), it was found that the influence of this factor on the initial cycle of the model SPAC curve (kr<5; i.e. ! > 1.2R) was less than that for geometric attenuation. The effect of high attenuation (low Q) was generally only significant at higher frequencies (kr>10; i.e.+! < 0.6R). Hence, although the theoretical basis of surface wave attenuation provides for a separation of geometric and absorption attenuation, the effect on modelled SPAC spectra was difficult to separate in the results of the modelling process. Even if the effects of absorption attenuation in the modelled SPAC spectra were discernable from those of geometric attenuation, there is the problem of selecting a single Q value for each model: Low Q is generally associated with soft, unconsolidated sediments in the near surface, while high Q typically corresponds to fresh basement rocks. Although array size plays a major role in defining the depth sensitivity characteristics of the SPAC spectrum, the initial cycle (kr<5; i.e. ! > 1.2R) is always more sensitive to deeper materials than the higher frequencies (kr>10; i.e.+! < 0.6R). As the modelling approach adopted in this paper assumes a homogeneous halfspace, choosing a single Q value for the entire halfspace would result in a false impression of the significance of absorption in some part of the model SPAC spectrum. For this reason the authors chose to remove the frequency-dependant parameter from the attenuation weighting function, instead increasing the effect of geometric attenuation to allow for additional attenuation from absorption and scattering. The weighting factors used in computing model SPAC spectra are therefore based only upon geometric-style spreading with a power-law attenuation function, to broadly approximate different levels of attenuation:

w f (ij )

* d0 j $( (d ) ij

' % % &

(2)

where: wf(ij) is the weighting factor for source j at sensor location i, d0j is the distance from the centre of the array to source j, dij is the distance from source j to sensor i, and , is a geometric decay index that should be 1.0 for purely geometric attenuation.

2.1.3 Calculating the SPAC spectrum The coherency () for a pair of sensors (a and b) in the presence of an arc of identical sources producing monochromatic waves of wavenumber (k) can be calculated by a simple summation of the differences in phase of each source at each sensor position. This situation is represented schematically in Fig. 2. In the figure, each source is represented by an asterisk (*) and is intended to be representative of all microtremor energy propagating from a given direction (represented by 1 subtended at the centre of the array). In the modelling process, measurements of azimuth are made from North (corresponding to the alignment of a pair of sensors in the 6-station array pictured) in a clockwise direction. Wavenumber vectors propagating from each source to each sensor contribute to the computed SPAC coefficients. Figure 2

For the far-field case, all sources are considered to contribute equally to the model coherency for a given array configuration (Asten, 2003). Due to the effects of attenuation, for extremely near sources the signal coherency may be biased towards sources that are closer to the array. To account for this, a weighting factor (explained previously) based on the relative distance of each sensor to the source is added into the summation process:

% a ,b $

1 wtotal

-w

j $1

f ( aj )

w f (bj ) e

i $a , j .$b , j

"

(3)

where: is the coherency, $ is the phase of waves from each source (j) at each geophone pair, n is the total number of sources, wf is the weighting factor for each sensor based on distance from the source and wtotal is the sum of all the weighting factors used inside the summation. The average model SPAC spectrum ( % ) for the entire array of sensors can be calculated by a summation over all of the N station pairs in the array. In the case of the radial pairs (r1) in a circular array, this summation becomes:

% r1 $

1 N

-%

i $1

0, i

(4)

Using this approach, coherency can also be computed for other combinations of station pairs such as circumferential pairs (r2), diagonal pairs (r3) or diameter pairs (r4).

2.1.4 Quantifying the onset of near source effects The results of the near source modelling approach described above is a plot of the modelled SPAC spectrum compared with ideal SPAC spectrum (represented by a J0(kr) curve for non-dispersive wave propagation) for a given array configuration. Possible values of the model SPAC coefficient are in the range -1 to 1. It is expected that deviations of the model SPAC curve from the J0 curve will be small (less than 0.1 units). It is reasonable to expect that in field measurements the hundredths place of a SPAC coefficient is uncertain (Okada, 2006). In his study on the efficiency of various circular array configurations Okada (2006) defines a deviation tolerance of 0.01 as the threshold of errors in SPAC values. In our experience, variations of this magnitude have a negligible effect on interpreted shear velocities in most SPAC surveys, and are frequently below the noise threshold. As a result, we will adopt a slightly more generous error tolerance of 0.05 as being indicative of significant near source effects in this paper. The lowest value of kr for which the model SPAC curve differs from J0 by more than 0.05 is defined here as kro ,

representing the maximum frequency at which the SPAC curve can be expected to yield reliable phase velocities.

2.1.5 Significance of the imaginary SPAC component Computation of signal coherency results in a complex number, with both real and imaginary components. Since the original mathematical basis for the SPAC method (Aki, 1957) shows that the imaginary component should be zero for the ideal case of an omnidirectional wavefield, most SPAC literature focuses exclusively on the real component of the SPAC coefficient. Recent work (Asten, 2006a) has shown that, in routine practice, the imaginary component is frequently nonzero. Asten (2006a) makes the distinction between two sources of perturbation to the imaginary SPAC component stochastic noise from the finite sample length of the time series record, and smooth, long-wavelength pseudo-cyclic variations associated with finite azimuthal sampling. The latter effect is a combination of directional biases in the wavefield (i.e. nonuniform distribution of microtremor energy source azimuth) and biases in directional sampling resulting from the number and position of sensors in the circular array. In the following discussion the effect of source distance on the imaginary components is included to highlight the point that source distance forms an additional factor in causing deviations from the common assumption of a null imaginary component. 3. Near source effects for full azimuthal coverage

The usual assumption of the SPAC method is that the microtremor wavefield may be considered omnidirectional. In the ideal situation of a perfectly omnidirectional wavefield, shear velocity profiles can successfully be interpreted from the coherency spectrum of a single pair of stations. In practice, this is difficult without significant degradation of the SPAC curve, although the use of a single pair of seismometers in successive locations (Morikawa et al., 1999) , or a single pair of seismometers recording for an extended period (Chavez-Garcia et al., 2005) has yielded useful SPAC data.

Even though it represents a relatively idealised situation, this section describes the results of near source modelling performed using a 360 distribution of sources that represent a relatively omnidirectional wavefield of identical sources. The intention is to compare the model SPAC spectra obtained for source distances that are progressively closer to the array sensors in order to identify the onset of near source effects represented by deviations from the SPAC spectra under far-field conditions.

3.1 Geometric Attenuation Only (!=1.0) In the first instance, we use a geometric decay factor (,) of 1.0, representing only geometric attenuation and neglecting the influence of inelastic attenuation and scattering. Plots of modelled SPAC curves are provided in Fig. 3 for source distances of 99R, 3R, 1.5R, 1.25R, 1.05R and 0.8R under full (360) azimuthal source coverage around a 6-station array. For the 99R model (equivalent to the far field case), the result matches the J0 assumption (real SPAC component), while the imaginary component is zero for all kr in the modelled domain. For the 3R and 1.5R cases, the real SPAC components still closely match the J0 curve, although there is a cyclic deviation from zero in the imaginary component. In fact, the imaginary component displays small cyclic variations, beginning at large source distances (!10R).

It is not until the sources are at a distance of 1.25R that near source errors become significant (i.e. >0.05) in the real component, becoming worse for the extreme near source case of 1.05R. For sources located inside the array (0.8R), there are very large errors in the modelled SPAC coefficients, although the nature of these errors differs significantly from those observed with

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Figure 3

sources outside the array. It is noted that this condition is consistent with the findings of SESAME (2005); the near-source error becomes largest when the sources are inside the array. From this initial modelling, it can be concluded that for a 6-station array, the near source onset distance lies between 1.25 and 1.5 array radii from the array centre, and that once near source effects are manifested, they restrict the reliable frequency range to values of kr of 1.9 or less (i.e. ! > 3.2R). A similar simulation using a 3-station (triangular) array with the same model parameters yields identical results.

1.2 Effects of inelastic (absorption) attenuation (!=2.0) In order to examine the significance of inelastic attenuation in near source effects, the model calculations above were repeated for using a larger attenuation factor. Since a value of ,=1.0 represents cylindrical spreading of surface waves, a larger value (here we arbitrarily choose ,=2.0) represents additional attenuation from inelastic losses and scattering of wave energy. Although these phenomena are usually frequency dependant, they are applied here equally to the whole SPAC curve. The resulting SPAC plots are shown in Fig. 4. The larger attenuation factor (,=2.0) has led to the onset of significant near source effects shifting to the range 2.5R to 3.0R, significantly higher than for the case of geometric attenuation only (,=1.0) as discussed above. Similar trends are also seen in the imaginary component to those from the previous models, although cyclic variations in the imaginary component begin at larger source distances (~10.0R). Models produced for 3-station (triangular) arrays at equivalent source distances yield identical results to those for 6-stations Figure 4 (shown in Fig. 4). The source and array geometry represented by these models is highly contrived, and unlikely to present an accurate representation of conditions for real field situations. As such, the near source onset distances should be considered first-order estimates rather than precise values. As will be demonstrated later, the models do (to a first approximation) replicate the results obtained from field testing. Hence, from these simplified models, it may be concluded that attenuation plays a significant role in determining near source onset distance and the magnitude of near source errors. For more attenuating ground, the results suggest that near source effects occur for more distant sources, and that the effect will be more significant at progressively closer source distances than for the same source array configuration on less attenuative ground. Since SPAC surveys are frequently undertaken in sedimentary basins composed of attenuative soft sediments, this finding is significant. Distortions to the coherency curve resulting from near source effects may potentially result in significant differences in an inverted layered earth model (and dispersion curve) than would be the case for far field sources. 3.3 Field Survey

A field survey was conducted in order to evaluate the results of the modelling process and compare the performance of the 3-station (triangular) and 6-station (hexagonal) array types. A rural location, away from any urban areas, was chosen to minimise the background (far-field) level of high-frequency microtremor energy. The chosen site is located at Laanecoorie, in Victoria, Australia and is known from previous investigations to have predominately horizontal stratigraphy consisting of alluvial deposits of sand and silt.

Since the site is in a rural area at least 20km from the closest town and more than 0.5km from the nearby country roads, there was little coherent microtremor energy at the site for frequencies >1Hz. These enabled us to produce microtremors by driving a four-wheel-drive vehicle in proximity to the array. Use of such a controlled source allowed for the source characteristics of the modelling procedure to be approximated in a real field situation. The 360 source distribution was simulated by driving the vehicle along a circular path that was concentric with the array, but of varying radius to accommodate simulation of varying source distances. The narrow azimuthal source distributions (/4) discussed in Section 4 were achieved by driving the vehicle along a radial path, in-line with one of the sensor pairs of the hexagonal array. In all cases, the vehicle was used to produce microtremors by driving continuously along a path that approximated the model source distribution. Mechanical interaction between the tyres and uneven ground produced microtremors over the desired path for the duration of the time-domain recording. A 10m radius hexagonal array consisting of seven Mark Products L28 seismometers (natural frequency ~5.5 Hz) was used to record a series of 200-second duration files of ground motion. The time domain data were processed using methodology identical to that described by Roberts & Asten (2004, 2005) to produce MMSPAC (Asten et al. 2004) spectra for differing station separations in the hexagonal array. Figure 4 shows the station separations possible for a hexagonal (6-station) array. For the triangular (3-station) array, only the r1 and r2 separations are meaningful. This involved taking 7-channel time-domain recordings (duration ~200 seconds) of vertical component ground motion. Each dataset was transformed to the frequency domain and corrected for the transfer function and gain of each seismometer and digitiser channel. Interstation coherencies were then computed for each pair of spectra in the array. The average coherency for all sensor pair combinations sharing similar station separation was then calculated in order to produce the real and imaginary SPAC functions for each recording. Field SPAC spectra were then compared with theoretical SPAC spectra generated, using equation (1), from the dispersion function for a layered earth model. Layered earth model parameters (i.e. layer thicknesses and shear wave velocities) were varied to achieve a best fit match between the field and model SPAC spectra. The MMSPAC approach (Asten et al. 2004) differs from other SPAC processing in that matching of field and model data is carried out using the SPAC spectra, rather than the dispersion curves. Numerical estimates of the fitting process error were made using the standard deviation of the RMS fit computed for all data points over an appropriate frequency range in the SPAC spectra. This allowed an objective selection of the best-fit model for each dataset through comparison of standard deviation of RMS errors for a population of theoretical models. Fig. 5 shows the field SPAC spectra for a 6-station (hexagonal) array of radius 10m recorded with a 360 source arc, achieved by driving a vehicle in circles concentric with the array at distance of 15m and 40m from the array centre. Since there is little ambient microtremor energy above 1 Hz in this location, and the vehicle source appears to produce energy at frequencies greater than 5Hz, there is a decrease in coherency (effectively a drop in the signal to noise ratio) for frequencies below 5 Hz. This appears in the field data (Fig. 5) as a decrease in the coherency function at low frequencies, an effect that is also observed for all the field data recorded at this site. There is a clearly observable shift in the SPAC curve recorded for each source distance compared with the reference curve (dashed line) that is the same in both plots. This shift is similar to the shift predicted by the models in Fig. 4 and serves as validation of the modelling process and the predicted near source effects. The shift in the field SPAC curve associated with near source effects would result in a different interpreted shear velocity profile as shown in the SWV profile shown in Fig. 5. Particularly for depths between 15m and 40m, the near source SWV profile underestimates the velocity compared with the far field profile by up to 17%. It is

noted that the near source shift in the interpreted velocities corresponds to a decrease in the interpreted velocity. It is noted that while the theoretical modelling (Fig. 4) predicts large amplitude (0.3 to 0.5), cyclic variations in the imaginary SPAC coefficients, the actual fluctuation seen in the field data for both 4R and 1.5R have amplitudes that are relatively low (0.15). The reason for this discrepancy is unknown, but could be related to the influence of body waves in the field data or the simplifying assumptions made in the modelling procedure.

The previous section described sample near-source model results that represented an omnidirectional wavefield, consisting of 360 sources positioned at 1 intervals around the array. Here, we examine near source effects for situations in which there is significantly less than 360 of sources, in an attempt to mimic real-world situations where a large proportion of microtremor energy arrives from a limited range of directions. We present two source configurations: the first is for a 77 distribution of sources, representing a relatively broad direction wavefield; the second case is a 6 source arc, representing an approximately unidirectional wavefield.

4.1 Broad directional wavefield (77) A source arc consisting of 77 of sources is chosen to represent a broad, but still directional microtremor wavefield. The particular choice of 77 was made to avoid an even number such as 60 or 90 which in initial modelling scenarios was found to lead to geometrically convenient situations where near source effects were underestimated due to source arc size and location coinciding with the sensor positions. A 77 source arc was thus chosen and placed in an arbitrary position relative to the alignment of the sensors in the array. This choice is also larger than the 60 requirement for sufficient source azimuth to ensure adequate averaging for 3- and 6-station array geometries in the far-field case as specified by Asten (2003). 4.1.1 Hexagonal array

In the plots of Fig. 6 below, the source distances of 99R, 3R, 1.5R and 1.05R are used for the arbitrarily placed 77 arc of microtremor sources placed around a 6-station (hexagonal) array. In computing the model SPAC spectra, we default to the use of #=1.0 so that the near source effects associated with azimuthal coverage are not confused with those associated with attenuation as discussed in the previous section. Results of the 77 source arc placed at 99R from the hexagonal array indicate that the SPAC spectrum (both real and imaginary components) provide a very close fit to the J0 curve, although there are some significant errors around kr=13 (! = 0.46R). Since the source distance used here is very large, these errors are a result of the limited extent of the source arc. Furthermore, this part of the SPAC curve is rarely used in interpretation, so these errors are not significant to the broader discussion of near source effects. Curiously, for the source distance of 3R, the errors observed on the 99R plot have disappeared. Here, however, it is suspected that the near source effects on the SPAC coefficients are compensating for the errors associated with the finite source arc, resulting in the observed better fit. More importantly, it can be seen that the near source effects appear again at kr=12.4 (! = 0.48R) when the source distance is reduced to only 1.5R. Even for a source distance of 1.05R, there is a relatively low near source error, with the curve providing a match to J0 up to kr= 5.9 (! = 1.0R), beyond the first minimum of the spectrum that is generally regarded as the reliable upper limit of

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Figure 6

the SPAC method (Okada, 2006). Even for very near sources, there is relatively little near source error for the hexagonal array configuration; even the imaginary component only indicates slight deviations from zero over most of the spectrum. It is also curious that the resulting errors to the SPAC spectrum for source distance 1.5R are less than that for the full 360 distribution of sources. Based on the results presented in section 2, it should be noted that use of an attenuation coefficient greater than 1.0 would likely result in greater near source effects than those seen here.

Here, the near source models produced above using the 77 source arc are repeated for a 3-station (triangular) array under exactly the same source conditions. The results are plotted in Fig. 7. For the far-field model (99R), an identical error to that seen for the hexagonal array is observed, beginning at kr=13.1 (! = 0.46R). This is associated with the finite nature of the source arc rather than near source effects. In contrast to the results for the hexagonal array, however, there are near source errors above the 0.05 threshold at kr=3.7 (! = 1.6R) for a source distance of 3R, although they are small and localised to the first minimum of the SPAC function. For source distances of 1.5R and 1.05R, the near source effects become larger and more pervasive, seriously altering the shape of the SPAC function and reducing the usable portion of the curve. Inclusion of additional attenuation (#>1.0) in this analysis would likely result in larger near source effects. A comparison of Figs 6 and 7 indicates that the hexagonal (6-station) and triangular (3-station) sensor configurations provide nearly identical results in the far field case (99R), a finding that is consistent with Okada (2006) and Asten (2003). However, as the source distance is reduced, the hexagonal array appears to be less susceptible to near source effects than the triangular array, as evidenced by the lower kro values in Fig. 7. One possible explanation for this is that the additional station pairs available in a hexagonal array result in less bias towards individual station pairs that are very close to the microtremor sources. The next section compares the performance of hexagonal and triangular array geometry for a narrow source arc, and is typical of the results found with the source arc in other positions.

Figure 7

Here, highly directional wavefield is modelled using a 6 source arc. The location of the 6 source arc relative to the azimuth of sensor pairs in the array proved to have a significant influence on the resulting SPAC spectra. The source arc location shown here was chosen so as to not coincide with any sensor pair alignments for either 6-station or 3-station array geometry and as such represents close to a worst case position of the source arc. For certain locations of the 6 source arc (principally where the source arc location coincides (or closely coincides) with the orientation of one or more sensor pairs), the near source effect observed in the model SPAC spectrum is mitigated.

4.2.1 Hexagonal Array Model results for a hexagonal array in the presence of a highly directional wavefield at varying source distances are shown below in Fig. 8. Here, the limited source arc results in significant deviation from J0 even for the far field (99R) case. Asten (2003) proposed a minimum source arc of 60 to ensure adequate azimuthal coverage for use of a 6-station array; here the effects of a small source arc are seen for kr>5.3 (! < 1.1R), becoming especially significant above kr=9.0 (! = 0.67R). As the source distance is reduced, to 3R the usable portion of the model SPAC curve actually increases to kr=6.3 (! = 0.95R) and as high as kr=11.0 (! = 0.54R)for 1.5R, but as seen previously this is due to near source effects cancelling the effects of the finite source arc (as evidenced by the progressively lower SPAC coefficients in the range 6<kr<8; i.e. 0.75R<!<R). It

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is not until the very near source distance of 1.05R that near source error is seen in the first limb of the J0 function. Overall, this series of plots indicates that although near source effects are evident in the SPAC spectra for source distances greater than 3R, it is not until the sources are very close to the array (less than 1.5R) that near source perturbations occur in the critical first cycle of the SPAC spectra. As noted in previous models, the imaginary SPAC component shows the effects of near sources much earlier than the real component.

Figure 8

We now repeat the highly directional (6) wavefield model using an array of only 3-stations. Results are shown in Fig. 9. The plot for source distance 99R shows that although the imaginary SPAC component varies compared with the hexagonal array case, the triangular array produces an identical result to the hexagonal array for the real component of the SPAC coefficients. This is consistent with the findings of Okada (2006). We also see that for the far-field case, the imaginary component for the triangular array does not average to zero, removing this potential measure of adequate averaging from the data. As the source arc moves closer to the array, the triangular array geometry proves to be inadequate; where the hexagonal array remained relatively unaffected by source distances of 3R and 1.5R, the triangular array has large near-source errors Figure 9 that severely reduce the usable part of the SPAC curve.

Field data were collected to compare the performance of the triangular and hexagonal array configurations. This field trial was carried out with the same array and test site as described previously. The hexagonal configuration allowed for the processing of the data for two subtriangles (3-station arrays) to enable comparison of these different array configurations. The results in Fig. 10 show model and field SPAC spectra for both hexagonal and triangular array configurations for a 360 source distribution and a narrow-band (~5) source distribution. Note that for the 5 source arc, the field example has a different placement of the arc relative to the sensor pairs to that used in section 4.2. For the full 360 source distribution, examples are shown for a source distance of 4R, representative of negligible near source effect. The model SPAC curves for both the hexagonal (Fig. 10a) and triangular arrays (Fig. 10c), and the corresponding field spectra (Figs 10b and 10d) for the equivalent source distance (40m) both show good approximation to the reference model of the site, up until approximately 20-30 Hz. It is noted that the hexagonal field data is smoother to higher frequencies as a result of the additional averaging that is made possible by the larger number of station pairs. These model and field spectra confirm the findings of Okada (2006) with respect to the equivalent efficiency of averaging between the hexagonal and triangular array configurations. In contrast to the results of the 360 source distribution model, the results for the narrow band source indicate that the hexagonal configuration provides significantly better results than those for the triangular array. The model spectra (Figs 10e and 10g) for the narrow (4) source distribution for a source distance of 2R predicts that the hexagonal array should produce usable SPAC coefficients up to kr ! 6 (! ! R), while the triangular array is limited to values of kr ! 2 (! ! 3R) or less. Although plots are not shown here, for the same source distribution (4) in the far field case (99R), both hexagonal and triangular arrays yield the same SPAC coefficients, useful up to kr ! 3 (! ! 2R), so the performance of the hexagonal array is much better than that of the triangular configuration for closer source distances. Similar results were found for other model spectra obtained with the 4 arc placed in various orientations relative to the sensor pairs. Field SPAC curves (Figs 10f and 10h) obtained from short vehicle passes on a radial path centred at a

Figure 10

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distance of approximately 20m (2R) from the array centre resulted in SPAC spectra that are in good agreement with the modelled SPAC. The deviations from the reference model for both the hexagonal array (Fig. 10f) and triangular array (Fig. 10h) are very similar to those of the corresponding model curves (Figs 10e and 10g) throughout the first cycle of the SPAC curve (up to approximately 25 Hz). It can be seen that even for the narrow and near source arc case (Fig. 10f) that the hexagonal array configuration provides a usable SPAC curve up to the first minimum of the SPAC function at approximately 17 Hz. Although the source distributions used here are simplistic and unlikely to reflect many practical field situations, they serve to highlight the difference in performance of hexagonal and triangular arrays in near source conditions. In the far-field case, both achieve identical efficiency in sampling the wavefield a result already established analytically by Okada (2006) except for the imaginary coefficients averaging to zero for the hexagonal array in situations of limited source arc. For near source situations, the hexagonal array proves to provide significantly better results, allowing for useful SPAC data to relatively close source distances. Use of triangular geometry, while having obvious logistical advantages, appears to be far more susceptible to near source effects, especially as the size of the dominant source arc is reduced.

The previous models have assumed arc-shaped distributions of sources in which each source in the arc is placed at the same distance from the array centre. In this section, a linear source of distributions is used to simulate the near source effects associated with array measurements taken in close proximity to a busy road in an urban area. To model linear distributions of sources, the modelling procedure described previously is adapted so that the source distance specifies the distance to the mid-point of a line of equally spaced sources arranged so that it is tangent to an imaginary circle concentric with the array. The length of the line source is calculated such that it subtends an angle equivalent to the number of sources specified (Fig. 11). In the field situation, a line source was simulated by repeatedly driving along an approximately linear path that, at nearest approach to the array, corresponds to the source distance in question and subtends an angle of 120 at the array centre. Since the vehicle travels more slowly at the beginning and end of the linear path, the actual length is probably longer than the equivalent model length, since there is significantly less energy input at the beginning and ends of the source path where the vehicle is travelling slowly. In Fig. 12, the model spectra are calculated for an 80 source line placed at a distance of 4R and 1.5R from the array, using a geometric attenuation factor of 2.0. This choice of decay factor is based upon the match observed between field and model data in section 3. The resulting model SPAC coefficients show very little deviation from the J0 curve and suggest that the 80linear source distribution produces better result than a full 360 arc of sources at the same distance (as seen previously in Fig. 4). We reason that the linear geometry and limited azimuthal extent of the sources mean that fewer of the radial sensor pairs have large differences in source distance as compared with the full circle of near sources. Thus, the overall SPAC coefficients are less affected by near-source errors. Field data plotted in Fig. 12 shows some difference in the curves for source distances of 4R and 1.5R for a linear source distribution. For frequencies below 5Hz, the 4R (40m) field data shows a good match to the reference model. However in the same frequency range for the 1.5R (15m) near source condition, a shift of the field SPAC curve to lower frequencies is seen. This is

Figure 11

13

Figure 12

consistent with near source effects discussed in the previous sections, but is larger than the model predictions. For frequencies greater than 10Hz, the field data appears to display a shift to higher frequencies for the 4R (far-field) case. Since this shift from the reference curve is seen at relatively large source distance, we attribute it to an effect of finite source azimuth (Asten, 2003) rather than proximity to sources. However, above 10 Hz there is still a shift of the field SPAC curve to lower frequencies as the source distance is reduced to 1.5R (15m), consistent with previous findings. Thus, near source effects seem to counteract the effects of finite source azimuth in the frequency band 10-20Hz. We now examine the sub-triangle arrays for the linear source case in Figs 13 and 14. Sub-triangle array A (Fig. 13) provides a similar result (including a right-shift of the curve between 10 and 20Hz. in the field data) to that seen previously for the hexagonal array (Fig. 12), although the curve is less smooth due to the poorer statistical averaging achieved for the sparser array. However, for sub-triangle array B (Fig. 14) the model SPAC spectra predict a significant near source deviation from J0 in the first cycle of the spectrum. This is reflected in the field data: while providing agreement with the reference model at source distance 40m (4R), the SPAC curve deviates to lower frequencies for the first limb of the curve and also displays lower SPAC coefficients around the first minimum for the near source case (15 m 1.5R). This is consistent with the equivalent model spectrum for a source distance of 1.5R. From these field and model examples using 3-station (triangular) arrays, it is clear that the resulting field (or model) SPAC spectra depends upon the orientation of the array relative to the source distribution. Although the hexagonal array also displayed a near source effect (superimposed upon some finite source effects between 10 and 20Hz), the magnitude of the observed shift was less than for triangle sub-array A. The results of model and field testing suggests that near source effects for a linear source distribution are less significant than for the case of a 360 distribution of near sources. Although there are near source effects in the model and field spectra, they are minimised by the use of a denser 6-station array rather than a 3-station array. Near source effects for the triangular (3- Figure 13 station) arrangement vary depending upon the orientation of the array, whereas the 6-station Figure 14 hexagonal array provides a result that is less dependant on the position of the array. This finding gives the authors more confidence in using hexagonal array geometry in close proximity to a road or other, similar, linear distributions of microtremor energy. Triangular (3-station) arrays should be used carefully in such situations.

All of the models and field examples presented so far have been SPAC spectra computed for radial sensor pairs. The MMSPAC technique (Asten, 2006a) makes use of the additional SPAC spectra available using circumferential (r2) pairs (for hexagonal and triangular arrays), as well as off-diagonal (r3) and diameter (r4) pairs (only possible for the hexagon (6-station) array and not possible for the triangular (3-station) array). In the MMSPAC method, model SPAC curves derived from Equation (1) based on a trial layered earth model are calculated and fitted separately to the field SPAC spectra associated with each of the different types of sensor pairs. All of the near source model and field results presented so far have looked at near source effects on SPAC averages for radial pairs of sensors, which are those used most frequently by SPAC practitioners. In order to examine the effect of near sources on the alternative SPAC averages, near source models were computed and compared with field derived SPAC coefficients for the case of a full 360 distribution of sources at a distance of 1.5R (equivalent to 15m for the field

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data that was recorded using a hexagonal array of radius 10m). These model and field SPAC spectra are compared in Fig. 15. The plots of Fig. 15 show that for this arrangement of sources, all of the alternative SPAC averages are characterized by similar near-source effects. The most significant effect of the near sources is to move the SPAC curve to lower frequencies within the first cycle of the SPAC curve. This effect is observed in the field data within the first cycle of the SPAC function and the effect is relatively similar across all the SPAC averages. Although the model SPAC curves predict an increase in the amplitude of the SPAC function (ie. lower minimum values and higher maximum values) and large amplitude cyclic variation in the imaginary component, these effects are not observed in the field data (the imaginary component is not shown for the field data for the sake of clarity, but there are no consistent cyclic variations in the imaginary SPAC coefficients). From these results, we infer that the use of additional SPAC averages from a single array does not necessarily assist in the identification of near source effects. However, given that the example field and model data represent a simplistic and contrived distribution of sources, we note that this finding may not hold true for all source distributions. For example, use of the circumferential SPAC average may be less prone to near source effects than radial averages if there were to be significant energy associated with sources (known or unknown) located near the central sensor of the circular array, which is only used for radial averages. It is further noted from the model plots in Fig. 15, that although minima and maximum at higher frequencies (kr>5; !+>1.2R) have increased amplitude in near source conditions, the location of points of zero coherency are not significantly affected. Hence, it would still be possible to fit a model curve to the higher frequencies of near source affected SPAC spectra, by matching the points of zero coherency and the location of peaks and troughs rather than the actual values of the SPAC coefficients themselves.

7. Discussion

The modelling procedure presented here makes a number of simplifying assumptions: an evenly spaced distribution of sources, all placed at a similar distance and all occupying a single continuous arc of azimuths. These assumptions neglect the fact that in almost all field situations, microtremor sources occupy an effectively random assortment of distances and directions. These assumptions make the modelling process indicative of worst case scenarios of source placement and are therefore likely to represent the most extreme near source effects in the model SPAC spectra. The modelling is further simplified by assuming all sources have similar frequency characteristics and that the effects of body waves and higher modes are not considered. However, the benefit of a simplified approach is in computational efficiency; near source models can be produced in seconds using this simplified approach. Despite the simplicity of the modelling approach, the field examples show that the model data fits the field observations to a first approximation, and therefore are suitable for estimating the influence of source distance on the nature of observed SPAC spectra. Near source effects for an omni-directional (360) wavefield are shown not to significantly affect the SPAC spectra until the source distance approaches approximately 1.5R, although if attenuation is considered, the onset distance is increased. This finding indicates that the onset distance and magnitude of near source errors may be linked to the attenuation properties of the ground. Except for large distortions when sources are very close to the array, the shape of the near-source affected SPAC spectra are not significantly distorted from the expected J0 shape. Instead, the dominant near source effect seems to be a shift to lower frequencies of the first limb of the J0 curve. This is an inconvenient finding for two reasons; one, the first cycle of the SPAC

15

spectrum is the most useful part of the curve for inverting shear velocities; and two, it means that SPAC spectra with near source effects do not necessarily display telltale signs of distortion in their shape (except for cyclic fluctuations of the imaginary component in the case of hexagonal arrays). The onset of cyclic variations in the imaginary component at relatively large source distances for the hexagonal array explains the observation of the authors in SPAC spectra from other surveys not presented in this paper while the real SPAC coefficients are unaffected by most near source (>1.5 to 3.0 array radii) situations, the imaginary component may display cyclic variations for sources at greater distances. The crossover points (points in the SPAC spectrum with zero coherency) of the modelled near source affected spectra are very close to those for the far field case, except for the shift to lower frequencies of the first limb of the curve. Although the amplitudes of minima and maxima at higher kr (frequencies) are predicted to be high under near source conditions, this was not verified by field data. Evidence of anomalously high (potentially near source affected) SPAC values for higher frequencies (kr >7; ! < 0.9R) are seen in previously published SPAC field data (Figure 4(a) and 4(b) in Roberts and Asten (2005)) recorded close to a road. In this data, there is evidence of increased amplitudes in the minima and maxima of the SPAC function beyond the first cycle (kr>5; !+0 1.2R) that is consistent with the near-source modelling in section 6 of this paper. If the anomalous amplitudes seen in that study are a result of near sources, the findings of the near source modelling in this paper suggest that using the high frequency portion of the SPAC curve can still yield valid shear velocity information. This can be achieved by matching the frequencies of points of zero coherency and maximum/minimum coherency rather than amplitudes themselves. Since the dispersion function, V(f), acts as a scaling parameter of the J0 function (see equation (1)), the frequencies of points of minimum, maxima and zero coherency are controlled by the subsurface structure. For datasets which display a poor numeric match between field and model SPAC coefficients at higher frequencies, direct matching of the frequencies at which points of minimum, maximum and zero SPAC occur may yield better results than automated inversion of a dispersion curve using all available data points. In any case, most microtremor researchers do not use these higher frequency minima and maxima in interpreting shear velocity profiles, although Asten (2006b) highlights the advantages of doing so. For the model spectra using reduced azimuthal coverage, it appears that the reduction in azimuthal coverage has the effect of increasing the distance at which near source effects begin to become significant. However this prediction has not been verified with field data acquired in this study. It is also noted that for many instances of reduced azimuthal coverage, the near-source effects are secondary to the deviations from J0 associated with the finite source azimuthal spread, as explored previously by Asten (2003). Okada (2006) has shown that for the far field case, the additional stations in dense arrays (eg. 6stations, sampling three azimuths twice each compared with a 3-station array, sampling 3 azimuths once each) do not significantly reduce analytic errors in sampling the wavefield beyond better statistical averaging of coherency. However, the model and field examples presented here indicate that in situations where there is a localised microtremor source that contributes a large proportion of energy to the microtremor field, the use of a hexagonal array reduces susceptibility to near source effects. Furthermore, examination of the conjugate sub triangles within the hexagonal array may be diagnostic of near source effects where they produce different SPAC spectra. Modelling of linear source distributions indicated that these source-array configurations resulted in lower near source errors than the equivalent arc of sources. For a linear distribution of

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sources (such as a road or railway line) the coherency of station pairs on the side of the array close to the sources will be more affected by near source effects than those on the far side of the array. Hence, provided the linear distribution of sources still subtends an angle greater than 60 (as established by Asten (2003) to minimise finite source arc effects) at the array centre, the near source error for the SPAC over the whole array is reduced compared with the case of near sources surrounding the whole array. The MMSPAC (Asten et al., 2004) approach to the interpretation of SPAC data makes use of multiple SPAC spectra obtained by selecting, radial, circumferential, diagonal, or diameter pairs from a hexagonal array. An examination of near source effects on SPAC spectra using these different sets of sensor pairs indicates that they are all susceptible to similar near source effects. The shift to lower frequencies of the SPAC curve is observed for field SPAC spectra associated with all four sensor pair groups. This suggests that a comparison of the fit of a single layered earth model to each of the SPAC spectra obtained from a 6-station array measurement would not necessarily yield information on near source effects as discrepancies in fit for each of the spectra. However, the authors suggest that examination of coherency plots for individual station pairs may enable the identification of anomalous contributions to the overall (array averaged) SPAC spectrum. As has been discussed previously, the modelling approach here makes many simplifying assumptions. Although this approach has successfully predicted (to a first approximation) the near source effects seen in real data, further information regarding near source effects may be gained from a more rigorous modelling approach. Use of full waveform modelling from a large distribution of microtremor sources, such as those used to produce synthetic data for the ESG 2006 blind trial (ESG, 2006), with particular attention paid to simulating possible real-world near-source situations rather than assuming a purely random distribution, may result in further insights into near source effects.

8. Conclusions

From the theoretical and field investigations of near source effects in SPAC spectra for 3-station (triangular) and 6-station (hexagonal) arrays, the following is a summary of the significant results: 1. Attenuation properties of the ground effect the onset distance of significant near source errors in SPAC curves. 2. Since hexagonal arrays (theoretically) produce an imaginary SPAC component equal to zero at all frequencies regardless of the source distribution, systematic cyclic variations in the imaginary SPAC component for a 6-station (hexagonal array) are (in principle) indicative of near source effects. Triangular arrays do not allow for this indicator of near source effects as they potentially display cyclic variations in their imaginary component for non-omnidirection wavefields, even for far-field situations (Asten, 2003). 3. Near source effects appear only to be significant in field situations where: a. For hexagonal arrays: there is a high proportion of energy propagating exclusively from sources close to the array (within 1.5 to 3.0 array radii of the centre). b. For triangular arrays: as for hexagonal array, with additional susceptibility to sources at intermediate (perhaps 3.0 to 5.0 array radii) distances when these are confined to a narrow azimuthal band. The exact nature of the near source effect for triangular arrays with narrow azimuthal bands of sources are also variable depending upon the position of the arc relative to the array orientation. 4. The principal effect of near sources on the SPAC curve is a (small) shift to lower frequencies, mainly confined to the first limb of the SPAC curve (kr<3.5; ! >1.7R). The magnitude of near source perturbations on SPAC curves, even in relatively extreme situations, appears to be

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low (17% change to interpreted SWV). This finding is confirmed by near-source field data. This shift to lower frequencies corresponds to a decrease in estimated shear velocities as interpreted from near-source affected SPAC spectra. 5. Secondary near-source effects include cyclic variations in the imaginary SPAC coefficients and increase amplitude of minima and maxima in the J0 shape of the SPAC spectrum. These secondary effects are based on theoretical modelling only and are not definitively confirmed by field data. 6. Despite the abovementioned near source effects, the results of this study indicate that significant near source effects are unlikely to occur in real field situations where energy propagating from a large number of sources, source directions and source distances. Even surveys conducted adjacent to roadways appear to produce SPAC curves that match the expected J0 shape as supported by the model and field data in this paper. The major area for concern in real field situations is when conducting SPAC surveys adjacent to strong microtremor sources that provide a narrow range of source azimuths to the sensor array. In these cases, it appears that the additional stations in a 6-station (hexagonal) array mitigates near source effects up to the first minimum of the SPAC function compared with a similarly aligned 3-station (triangular) array.

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Sorensen, C. & Asten, M., 2005. Comparison of shear wave velocity profiles of Quaternary sediments in the Newcastle area estimated from SCPT, microtremor spectral ratios and array studies, and drilling, In: Earthquake Engineering in Australia, Proceedings of a conference of the Australian Earthquake Engineering Society, Albury, Australia., Paper 9. Also available online at: www.geosci.monash.edu.au/research/cegas Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P. & Sheriff, R.E., 1990. Applied Geophysics, 2nd edn., Cambridge. Wathelet, M., Jongmans, D. & Ohrnberger, M, 2005. Direct inversion of spatial autocorrelation curves with the neighborhood algorithm, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95 (5), 1787--1800. Xia, J., Miller, R.D., Park, C.B., Ivanov, J.I., Tian, G. & Chen, C., 2004. Utilization of highfrequency Rayleigh waves in near-surface geophysics, The Leading Edge, 23 (8), 753-759. Zywicki, D.J. & Rix, G.J., 2005. Mitigation of near-field effects for seismic surface wave velocity estimation with cylindrical beamformers, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131 (8), 970--977.

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FIGURE LEGENDS

Figure 1: Geometric implications of near sources for a hexagonal array of sensors. For a farfield point source (top), wavefronts are approximately planar and the difference in source azimuth for each sensor position is negligible. For the near-field case (bottom), wavefronts are curved and source azimuth varies significantly for each sensor position. Figure 2: Schematic of SPAC modelling process: (a) A 6-station (hexagonal) sensor array and 3 microtremor sources, each representative of microtremor energy originating from a 1 arc subtended from the array centre. (b) shows the difference in path (and therefore phase) for wavefronts propagating from source j to sensors a and b as used for calculation of weighting factors in equation (2). Figure 3: Variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array at varying levels of attenuation (, = 1.0, , = 1.5, , = 2.0). The SPAC spectra (top and bottom) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and attenuation indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 360 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset). Figure 4: A 6-station (hexagonal) array indicating examples of r1 (radial), r2 (circumference), r3 (diagonal) and r4 (diameter) pairs of sensor. Note that for 3-station (triangular) arrays, only r1 and r2 pairs are possible. SPAC coefficients are calculated for each of these station separations (r1, r2, r3 and r4) using equation (1). Figure 5: Field SPAC spectra (solid line) for 360 for a hexagonal array of radius 10m source arc at source distances of 40m (4R) and 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. The thick dashed line in both SPAC spectra corresponds to the far field shear velocity profile shown on the right. The thin dotted line in the 15m SPAC spectrum corresponds to the near source shear velocity profile shown on the right. Since there is identical azimuthal coverage in both cases, the deviations from the far field model are attributable to near source effects. Note that the shift in the curve to lower frequencies between 7 and 20 Hz is attributable to near source effects consistent with those predicted by the models in Figure 4. Also note that the near source effects result in significant changes in the associated shear velocity profile. Figure 6: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a hexagonal (6-station) array with a 77 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array for a 77 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 77 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum).

22

Figure 7: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a triangular (3-station) array with a 77 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for triangular (3-station) array for a 77 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 77 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum). Figure 8: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a hexagonal (6-station) array with a 7 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array for a 7 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 7 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum). Figure 9: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a triangular (3-station) array with a 7 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for triangular (3-station) array for a 7 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 7 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum). Figure 10: Field and corresponding model examples of near source effects for hexagonal and triangular array geometry. (a) to (d) represent full (360) coverage, while (e) to (h) are results for the case of a small source arc of < 5. Figure 11: Schematic layout of linear source distributions for modelling of microtremor sources at various distances from the array. Figure 12: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius hexagonal array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. Figure 13: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius triangular array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. This sub-array corresponds to triangle ACE-G of the whole hexagonal array of Figure 11.

23

Figure 14: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius triangular array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. This sub-array corresponds to triangle BDF-G of the whole hexagonal array of Figure 11. Figure 15: Near source effects for radial, circumferential, off-diagonal and diameter SPAC averages. Model SPAC spectra are shown on the left, with corresponding field SPAC spectra on the right. Field data was recorded with a hexagonal (6-station) array with radius 10m in the presence of a vehicle driving on a circular path of radius 15m (1.5R). The model SPAC spectra use an attenuation coefficient of 2.0, consistent with that found in the previous section.

24

FIGURES

Figure 1: Geometric implications of near sources for a hexagonal array of sensors. For a farfield point source (top), wavefronts are approximately planar and the difference in source azimuth for each sensor position is negligible. For the near-field case (bottom), wavefronts are curved and source azimuth varies significantly for each sensor position.

Figure 2: Schematic of SPAC modelling process: (a) A 6-station (hexagonal) sensor array and 3 microtremor sources, each representative of microtremor energy originating from a 1 arc subtended from the array centre. (b) shows the difference in path (and therefore phase) for wavefronts propagating from source j to sensors a and b as used for calculation of weighting factors in equation (2).

25

kro=1.1

kro=1.9

10 9 8 7 6 kr0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1

d/R

10

100

kro=1.0

kro=2.0

Figure 3: Variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array at varying levels of attenuation (, = 1.0, , = 1.5, , = 2.0). The SPAC spectra (top and bottom) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and attenuation indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 360 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset).

26

r2 r1 r4 r3

Figure 4: A 6-station (hexagonal) array indicating examples of r1 (radial), r2 (circumference), r3 (diagonal) and r4 (diameter) pairs of sensor. Note that for 3-station (triangular) arrays, only r1 and r2 pairs are possible. SPAC coefficients are calculated for each of these station separations (r1, r2, r3 and r4) using equation (1).

SHEAR VELOCITY (m/s)

40m (4r)

0 0

500

1000

15m (1.5r)

DEPTH (m)

25

50

Figure 5: Field SPAC spectra (solid line) for 360 for a hexagonal array of radius 10m source arc at source distances of 40m (4R) and 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. The thick dashed line in both SPAC spectra corresponds to the far field shear velocity profile shown on the right. The thin dotted line in the 15m SPAC spectrum corresponds to the near source shear velocity profile shown on the right. Since there is identical azimuthal coverage in both cases, the deviations from the far field model are attributable to near source effects. Note that the shift in the curve to lower frequencies between 7 and 20 Hz is attributable to near source effects consistent with those predicted by the models in Figure 4. Also note that the near source effects result in significant changes in the associated shear velocity profile.

27

kro=5.9

kro=5.4

kr0

d/R

10

100

Figure 6: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a hexagonal (6-station) array with a 77 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array for a 77 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 77 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum).

28

kro=1.3

kro=3.7

10 9 8 7 6 kr0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1

d/R

10

100

Figure 7: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a triangular (3-station) array with a 77 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for triangular (3-station) array for a 77 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 77 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum).

29

kro=1.7 kro=6.3

10 9 8 7 6 kr0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1

41 - 47 20 - 26 0 - 6

d/R

10

100

Figure 8: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a hexagonal (6-station) array with a 7 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for hexagonal (6-station) array for a 7 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 7 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum).

30

kro=1.5

kro=5.3

10 9 8 7 6 kr0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1

41 - 47 20 - 26 0 - 6

d/R

10

100

Figure 9: Onset of near-source effect (kr0) for a triangular (3-station) array with a 7 source arc. The central plot show variation in kr0 with source distance for triangular (3-station) array for a 7 source arc at varying locations relative to the sensor array. The SPAC spectra (at top) illustrate selected examples of the near source effect on the SPAC coefficients for the distance and source arc position indicated by the arrows. In the SPAC spectra, the real component of near source model SPAC curves (heavy solid line) is compared with the ideal far field case (J0 thin lines). The heavy dashed line represents the imaginary SPAC coefficients. The dashed vertical lines represent the near source onset frequency (kro). Source distances are as indicated; all plots have 7 azimuthal coverage indicated by the heavy circle around the array diagram (inset on each SPAC spectrum).

31

Hexagonal Array

Triangular Array

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(e)

Source arc: <5 Source distance: ~20m (2r)

(g)

Source arc: <5 Source distance: ~20m (2r)

(f)

(h)

Figure 10: Field and corresponding model examples of near source effects for hexagonal and triangular array geometry. (a) to (d) represent full (360) coverage, while (e) to (h) are results for the case of a small source arc of < 5.

32

sub triangle A A (ACE-G) F G E C B 60 source represents 60 sources evenly spaced along these lines

Figure 11: Schematic layout of linear source distributions for modelling of microtremor sources at various distances from the array.

Figure 12: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius hexagonal array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre.

33

Figure 13: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius triangular array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. This sub-array corresponds to triangle ACE-G of the whole hexagonal array of Figure 11.

Figure 14: Model (left) and field (right) coherency spectra for a 10m radius triangular array in the presence of a linear distribution of microtremor sources. The upper plots correspond to a source distance of 40m (4R), while the lower plots are for the (near) source distance of 15m (1.5R) from the array centre. This sub-array corresponds to triangle BDF-G of the whole hexagonal array of Figure 11.

34

Figure 15: Near source effects for radial, circumferential, off-diagonal and diameter SPAC averages. Model SPAC spectra are shown on the left, with corresponding field SPAC spectra on the right. Field data was recorded with a hexagonal (6-station) array with radius 10m in the presence of a vehicle driving on a circular path of radius 15m (1.5R). The model SPAC spectra use an attenuation coefficient of 2.0, consistent with that found in the previous section.

35

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