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Field Application Note: Eccentricity TSI

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STI Field Application Note Eccentricity TSI Products


Accelerometers Accelerometer Installation Balancing BNC Junction Boxes Buffer Modules Enclosures NEMA Instrument Wire LED/LCD Displays Monitoring Systems Packaged Solutions Power Supplies Proximity Probe Mounting Rotor Kits (Demonstration) Shaft Runout Kit Specialty Cables System Accessories Tachometers Temperature Sensors Transmitters (Loop Power) Transmitters (Din Rail) TSI Systems 1. Fixed mechanical bow 2. Temporary thermal bow 3. Gravity bow In extreme cases of thermal/gravity bow, caused by a sudden trip of the unit and failure of the turning gear to engage, the rotor may be positioned and stopped 180o out of phase (bow up) to allow gravity to work entirely on the bow and substantially shorten the time required to reduce the bow. Eccentricity is measured while the turbine is on slow roll (1 to 240 RPM below the speed at which the rotor becomes dynamic and rises in the bearing on the oil wedge) and requires special circuitry to detect the peak- to-peak motion of the shaft. This is accomplished using circuitry with long update times selectable between 20 seconds (> 3 RPM) and 2 minutes (<3 RPM). As the eccentricity measurement is not required after a turbine is brought to speed and under load provisions are made to lock the measurement to zero. This can be accomplished without external contacts through the use of a speed measurement channel with underspeed or overspeed alarms. As it is impractical to mount Eddy Probe Transducers (Non-Contacting Pickups) midspan on the rotor where the eccentricity measurement would be the highest the transducer(s) are mounted outside the pressure case as far from the bearing (Node Point) as practical. The bearing should be avoided as a mounting location because during slow roll operation the rotor is turning in the bottom of the journal bearing and is not dynamic while the eccentricity measurements are being made. This effect forces the bearings to become nodal points. Share Share Share Share More0 Follow us on Twitter and Facebook: Shaft Eccentricity plays a very important role as part of a Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation (TSI) System on large steam turbines and should be included in retro-fit plans when at all possible. Operators use eccentricity measurements to determine when a combination of slow roll and heating have reduced the rotor eccentricity to the point where the turbine can safely be brought up to speed without damage from excessive vibration or rotor to stator contact. Eccentricity is the measurement of Rotor Bow at rotor slow roll which may be caused by any or a combination of

Assuming uniform stiffness and weight, the rotor mid- span eccentricity may be expressed as the ratio of the transducer span from the bearing over the transducer measured eccentricity to 1/2 the bearing span over the midspan eccentricity or calculated using the following formula, (Tecc x Bspan)/Tspan = MSecc. Where Tecc = Transducer measured eccentricity Bspan= Bearing Span Tspan= Transducer span from bearing MSecc= Midspan eccentricity

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OEM's (Original Equipment Manufacturers) should be consulted for actual calculations.

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Field Application Note: Eccentricity TSI

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Turbine owners who are retrofitting existing eccentricity systems supplied by the OEM or others will mount the eccentricity transducer at the same location as the original installation. In many cases only minor modifications to the existing bracket are required. Using the same location has several advantages and simplifies installation. 1. OEM's original installation as a rule included an eccentricity collar or other good target for an Eddy Probe System. 2. Eddy Probe eccentricity measurements will agree closely with the original OEM supplied system as the measurements will be taken at the same location. 3. Operators will need less training on how to interpret the new systems measurements as they will be basically the same. 4. Eccentricity historical data will be valid. 5. Existing brackets may be modified. 6. Case or standard penetration for cable may be reused with minor modification.

Eccentricity is normally measured P/P (Peak to Peak) to agree with previously established conventions. The actual excursion from shaft centerline caused by bow would be one half that measurement or the 0/P (Zero to Peak) measurement. The Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation may be calibrated in either fashion to suite the users requirements.

Theory of Operation

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Special Considerations Mounting Orientation

Eddy Current Transducers work on the proximity theory of operation. A system consists of a matched component system: a Probe, an Extension Cable and an Oscillator /Demodulator (driver). A high frequency RF signal @2 mHZ is generated by the Oscillator/Demodulator, sent through the extension cable and radiated from the Probe tip. Eddy currents are generated in the surface of the shaft. The driver demodulates the signal and provides a modulated DC Voltage where the DC portion is directly proportional to gap (distance) and the AC portion is directly proportional to vibration. In this way, an Eddy Current Transducer can be used for both Radial Vibration and distance measurements such as Thrust Position and Shaft Position.

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All vibration transducers measure motion in their mounted plane. In other words, motion either directly away from or towards the mounted Eddy Probe will be measured as eccentricity. For eccentricity measurements it is recommended that the transducer be mounted vertically. As most eccentricity sensors are internally mounted and are not visible from the outside of the machine whatever the angle of orientation is finally chosen it is very important that the mounting

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Field Application Note: Eccentricity TSI

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location be documented for future reference.

Linear Range
Several versions of Eddy Probe Transducers are available with a variety of Linear Ranges and body styles. In most cases, a sensor with a linear range of 90 mils (0.090") is more than adequate for Eccentricity measurements. Model CMSS65 CMSS68 Range 90 mils 90 mils Output 200 mV/mil 200 mV/mil Size 1/4"x28 UNF 1" to 5" Length 3/8"x24 UNF 1" to 9" Length

Target Material/Target Area

Eddy Current transducers are calibrated at the factory for 4140 Steel unless specified otherwise. As Eddy Probes are sensitive to the permeability and resistivity of the shaft material, any shaft material other than 4000 series steels must be specified at the time of order. In cases of exotic shaft material a sample may need to be supplied to the factory.

Mechanical Runout
Eddy Current transducers are also sensitive to the shaft smoothness for Eccentricity. A smooth (64 micro-inch) area approximately 3 times the diameter of the probe tip must be provided for a viewing area.

Electrical Runout
Since Eddy Probes are sensitive to the permeability and resistivity of the target material and the field of the transducer extends into the surface area of the shaft by approximately 15 mils (0.015"), care must be taken to avoid non homogeneous viewing area materials such as Chrome. Another form of electrical runout can be caused by small magnetic fields such as those left by Magna-fluxing without proper degaussing.

Perpendicular to shaft centerline


Care must be exercised in all installations to insure that the Eddy Probe is mounted perpendicular to the shaft center-line. Deviation by more than 1-2 degrees will effect the output sensitivity of the Probe.

Transducer (Probe) side clearances


The RF Field emitted from the probe tip of the transducer is approximately a 45 conical shape. Clearance must be provided on all sides of the Probe tip to prevent interference of the RF Field. Care must also be taken to avoid collars or shoulders on the shaft that may thermally "grow" out from under the Probe tip as the shaft expands.

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Eddy Probe tip to tip clearances System Cable Length and Junction Boxes

Although Eddy Probe tip to tip clearances are not normally an issue on most machines, it should be noted that the probes radiate an RF Field larger than the probe tip itself. As an example, SKF-CM CMSS65 and 68 Eddy Probes should never be installed with less than one (1) inch of Probe tip to tip clearance. Larger probes require more clearance. Failure to follow this rule will allow the driver to create a "beat" frequency which will be the sum and difference of the two driver RF frequencies.

Eddy Probe Systems are a "tuned" length, and several system lengths are available. System length is measured from the probe tip to the Oscillator/Demodulator, and is measured electrically which

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Field Application Note: Eccentricity TSI

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can be slightly different than the physical length. For example, the Model 403 is available in 9, 20, and 30 foot system lengths. Care must be taken to insure that the proper system length is ordered to reach the required Junction Box.

Grounding and Noise


Electrical noise is a very serious consideration when installing any vibration transducer, and special care needs to be taken to prevent unnecessary amounts of noise. As most plant electrical noise is at 60 HZ, and many machine running speeds are also 60 HZ, it is difficult to separate noise from actual vibration signal. Therefore, noise must be kept to an absolute minimum.

Instrument Wire
A 3-wire twisted shielded instrument wire (ie; Belden #8770) is used to connect each Oscillator/Demodulator to the Signal Conditioner Card in the Monitor. Where possible, a single run of wire from the Oscillator/Demodulator (Junction Box) to the Monitor location should be used. Splices should be avoided. The gauge of the selected wire depends on the length of the instrument wire run, and should be as follows to prevent loss of high frequency signals: Up to 200 feet Up to 1000 feet Up to 4000 feet 22 AWG 20 AWG 18 AWG

The following wiring connection convention should be followed: Red Black White -24 VDC Power Common Signal

Common Point Grounding


To prevent Ground Loops from creating system noise, system common, ground and instrument wire shield must be connected to ground at one location only. In most cases, the recommendation is to connect commons, grounds and shields at the Monitor location. This means that all commons, grounds and shields must be floated (not connected) at the machine. Occasionally due to installation methods instrument wire shields are connected to ground at the machine case and not at the monitor. In this case, all of the instrument wire shields must be floated (not connected) at the monitor.

Conduit
Dedicated conduit should be provided in all installations for both mechanical and noise protection. Flexible metal conduit should be used from the Eddy Probe to the Oscillator /Demodulator junction box, and rigid bonded metal conduit from the junction box to the monitor.

Calibration
All Eddy Probe systems (Probe, Cable and Oscillator Demodulator) should be calibrated prior to being installed. This can be done by using a SKF-CM P/N CMSS601 Static Calibrator, -24 VDC Power Supply and a Digital Volt Meter. The Eddy Probe is installed in the tester with the target set against the Eddy Probe tip. The spindle micrometer with target attached is then rotated away from the Eddy Probe in 0.005" or 5 mil increments. The voltage reading is recorded and graphed at each increment. The SKF-CM CMSS65 and 68 systems will produce a voltage change of 1.0 VDC 0.05 VDC for each 5 mils of gap change while the target is within the NCPU's linear range.

Gap
When installed, Eddy Probes must be gapped properly. In most Eccentricity applications, gapping the transducer to the center of the linear range is adequate. For the Model 403 transducer gap should be set for -12.0 VDC using a Digital Volt Meter (DVM), this corresponds to an approximate mechanical gap of 0.060" or 60 mils. The voltage method of gapping the Eddy Probe is recommended over mechanical gapping because it is more accurate and easier to accomplish. In all cases, final Eddy Probe gap voltage should be documented and kept in a safe place.

Eccentricity Installation Checklist


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Machine Slow Roll Speed Transducer Orientation Documented Target Material, 4140 Other Smooth Target Area Size of Target Area Junction Box Location(s) Metal Conduit (Junction Box to Monitor) Flexible Conduit (Junction Box to Probe) Correct Instrument Wire Shielding Convention, Monitor or Machine Calibration Gap Set

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TURBINE SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENTATION


SELECTION GUIDE

MEASUREMENT MODULES RELAY MODULES POWER SUPPLY COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE GRAPHIC TERMINALS PROGRAMABLE CONTROLLERS

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Introduction

In the past, the primary concern for companies that depend on turbo machinery was simply protecting the asset from catastrophic failure. In today's competitive environment, companies must not only protect their turbo machinery but they must also protect the people that operate it while maximizing production availability by detecting changes early and taking corrective action. Rockwell Automation - a global leader in industrial automation with more than 100 years of experience serving the changing needs of our customers in industries such as power generation, oil and gas, and others - understands the importance of turbo machinery as a primary mover for critical applications and offers solutions specifically designed to meet the unique requirements of steam, gas, and hydro turbines. For a solution that includes both protection and monitoring of your critical turbo machinery, Rockwell Automation's proven hardware, software and services include everything you need to be successful.

XM Condition Monitoring and Protection modules


Our XM condition monitoring and protection system gives you the ability to detect changes and faults as early as possible so that uptime and maintenance planning are optimized. In addition to this capability, the modular design and open industry network protocol of XM give you flexibility that results in the most cost effective design, installation and information sharing available.

Emonitor and RSMACC Enterprise Online software


Emonitor and RSMACC Enterprise Online expert data analysis and CMMS integration software makes storage and analysis of data easy, while making it possible to integrate this information into CMMS systems so that the data becomes actionable. Emonitor software also integrates data from portable data collectors and online surveillance systems, giving you a complete picture of plant asset health. TM

Services

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Rockwell Automation is committed to your success. Therefore, you're provided services that include every step - from initial planning and assessment through to the final commissioning and documentation. Rockwell Automation has the ability to perform complete turnkey turbine supervisory instrumentation installation and retrofits or just the support you need to complete your project. All services are designed to meet your specific needs.

Introduction

TSI System Integration

Our integrated solution lowers your total cost by utilizing your existing plant information and control platform as well as open industry standard protocols.

Integrated Architecture
Below is an illustration of a typical Rockwell Automation integrated TSI system.
Emonitor Enterprise RSMACC Enterprise Online Reliability OnLine DCS

CMMS

Proprietary Serial, OPC, Modbus, etc.

Ethernet
PanelView

Controller Versa View

DeviceNet

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TSI System Selection Guide

Retrofit Integration
The Rockwell Automation architecture can also be adapted to an existing turbine system. Below is an illustration of a typical Rockwell Automation TSI retrofit system.

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Introduction

Turbine System Comparison


Monitoring System Components Measurements Steam Turbine Radial Vibration - Shaft Relative Absolute Shaft Thrust/Expansion/Position Eccentricity Speed/Accel/Overspeed Temperature Phase Measurement Modules XM-120 XM-120E XM-121 XM-121A XM-160/161/162 XM-220 XM-320 XM-361/362 Sensors Power Supply HMI 9000 Series 2100 Series 1606-XLP VersaView PanelView Standard Strip Chart LED Indicator RSView Control PLC/DCS DeviceNet Interface ControlLogix OPC Gateway Gateways and Bridges Relay Logic (XM-440) 4-20mA I/O Overspeed Relay (XM-442) Reliability Emonitor RSMACC EOL ROL Emonitor RSMACC EOL ROL Emonitor RSMACC EOL ROL 9000 Series 2100 Series 1606-XLP VersaView PanelView Standard Strip Chart LED Indicator RSView PLC/DCS DeviceNet Interface ControlLogix OPC Gateway Gateways and Bridges Relay Logic (XM-440) 4-20mA I/O 9000 Series 2100 Series 1606-XLP VersaView PanelView Standard Strip Chart LED Indicator RSView PLC/DCS DeviceNet Interface ControlLogix OPC Gateway Gateways and Bridges Relay Logic (XM-440) 4-20mA I/O XM-120 XM-123 XM-160/161/162 XM-220 XM-320 XM-361/362 XM-121 XM-160/161/162 XM-220 XM-320 XM-361/362 Gas Turbine Radial Vibration Thrust Speed Temperature Phase Hydro Turbine Radial Vibration Thrust Speed Temperature Phase

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Recommendation is in bold text.

TSI System Selection Guide

System Selection Checklist


Step

Use the following Checklist as a guide to specify your turbine system.


See

1 Select the measurements Choose the measurements that you want to monitor on your turbine system. Steam turbine system Gas turbine system Hydro turbine system page 7 page 19 page 25

2 Select modules based on measurement Match the measurements and the XM modules. Steam turbine system Gas turbine system Hydro turbine system page 11 page 21 page 27

3 Select integration strategy Choose the HMI and control hardware for your system. 4 Select software Choose the software product you need to configure and manage your system. XM Serial Configuration Utility RSLinx software RSNetworx for DeviceNet software Emonitor Enterprise software RSMACC EOL software page 37 page 38 page 38 page 39 page 40 HMI products Control systems page 31 page 33

5 Select project services Determine the expertise needed to install a new system, or retrofit an existing one. Engineering design services Turnkey projects Reliability Online Service programs Available product services Training Repair, Exchange & Renewal parts page 41 page 41 page 42 page 42 page 43 page 43

6 Select optional accessories Choose sensors, power supply, enclosure, cables, junction boxes, etc. if necessary. Sensors Power Supplies Cables Junction Box Enclosures Sensor Adhesives / Mounting Tools Portable Data Collectors Surveillance Monitoring page 45 page 46 page 46 page 46 page 46 page 47 page 47 page 48

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Introduction

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Steam Turbine System

Typical Radial System Overview

CASE EXPANSION LEFT

RADIAL MEASUREMENTS
BRG #1 BRG #2 BRG #3 BRG #4 BRG #5 BRG #6 BRG #7

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

TEMP

ECCENTRICITY PHASE
"B" "A"

HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE

LOW PRESSURE TURBINE

GENERATOR

EXCITER

(OR OTHER DRIVEN COMPONENT) "B" "A"

ROTOR/THRUST POSITION "A" & "B" VALVE POSITION DIFF. EXPANSION 1 SET TO MONITOR 1 SET SPARE CASE EXPANSION RIGHT SPEED/OVERSPEED ROTOR ACCELERATION

Measurements

This section describes the recommended vibration monitoring for a steam turbine. Use this information to help you select the measurements that you want to monitor.

Radial Vibration Measurement - Shaft Relative


Radial vibration measures the radial motion of the rotating shaft relative to the TMas unbalance, case. This measurement gives the first indication of a fault, such misalignment, cracked shaft, oil whirl or other dynamic instabilities. Vibration measurements can be made in a single plane or a two plane (X-Y) arrangement where the sensors are 90 degrees apart and perpendicular to the shaft. Eddy current probes are usually installed in a hole drilled through the bearing cap and are held in place by either a bracket or a probe holder.

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Steam Turbine System

Absolute Shaft Measurement


Absolute Shaft Vibration is a measure of the shafts motion relative to free space. The measurement is typically applied when the rotating assembly is five or more times heavier than the case of the machine. Absolute shaft motion is proportional to the vector addition of the casing absolute motion and the shaft relative motion.

Phase Measurement
D GAP APPROX. .060 D GAP W PREFERRED (PROTRUSION)
D=1/4 W=3/8 OR LARGER

W ALTERNATE (DEPRESSION)

Phase is defined as the angle between a reference mark (usually a keyway on the shaft) and the heavy spot on the rotor. Phase measurement is required for accurate balancing of any rotor. It also provides an indication of shaft cracks, misalignment, mass loss (such as throwing a blade), and other faults.

AXIAL DRILLED HOLE 3/8"DIA.x 1/4" DEEP

EPOXIED STEEL SHIM STOCK

Speed/Acceleration Measurement
Speed is a measurement of shaft rotation in revolutions per minute. During start-up, speed is a critical measurement as it allows the operator to: increase speed quickly through shaft critical frequencies; hold the speed stable during heat soak plateaus; and, for electric generators, to accurately match the synchronous frequency before connecting the generator to the power grid. Acceleration measures how fast speed is increasing or decreasing. It is monitored by the operator during turbine roll up, so that a steady increase in machine speed is achieved. Once the turbine is in normal operation, acceleration is not monitored.

Eccentricity Measurement
Eccentricity is a measurement of the amount of sag or bow in a rotor. It may also provide indication of a bent shaft. This measurement is used by the operator to indicate when the machine can safely be brought up to speed TM without causing rubs or damage to the seals.

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TSI System Selection Guide

Differential Expansion (DE) Measurement


SHAFT d b c d = BEVEL ANGLE a = DETECTED RANGE c = INDICATED RANGE a

Ramp
ROT OR LONG

550mi l s NOMI NA L GA P 2" MI N. 2"MI N.

Differential expansion is the difference between the thermal growth of the rotor compared to the thermal growth of the case. Differential expansion monitoring is most critical during a turbine "cold" start-up. A common steam turbine has a thick, heavy case, and a lighter, hollow rotor. Due to the mass of the case it will grow slower than the rotor, so the operator must make sure the case has expanded enough to keep it from making contact with the rotor. To monitor, transducers can be placed on a collar or ramp that have been machined onto the turbine.

Collar

Rotor/Thrust Position Measurement


Dual Thrust

Single Thrust

The primary purpose of the thrust position measurement is to monitor thrust bearing wear and to ensure against axial rubs. Dual (redundant) thrust motion detection should be used when the machine is required to shutdown. This method requires two transducers mounted on each bearing. When both independent set points cross the shutdown limit the machine will be turned off. Single thrust motion detection should be used when the machine does not have to be shutdown and there is another means of verifying thrust bearing failure. Thrust position measurements are taken within 12 inches of the thrust bearing, monitoring the thrust collars movement between the active and inactive thrust shoes and their subsequent wear. Measurements taken outside of the thrust bearing area (greater than 12 inches) are generally effected by the rotors thermal expansion and an increase in the required dynamic measurement range. This measurement is typically referred to as rotor (axial) position.

Valve Position Measurement


Valve position is a measurement of how much a valve is open or closed, usually a throttle valve. It provides the operator with an idea of the current load on a machine in the form of a percentage; 0% correlates to a valve closed and 100% correlates to a valve open.

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Steam Turbine System

Overspeed - Triple Redundant Protection Measurement


Overspeed is one of the most dangerous conditions that can occur in a turbine, and is defined when a machine accelerates beyond its maximum permissible rotational speed. It is monitored by an Electronic Overspeed Detection System (EODS).

Shell (Case) Expansion Measurement


10-3/16 3 9-1/2

3-1/4 4-1/2

3/4

3/8 15/16 2-5/8 3-1/2

Figure 9-1

Steam temperature varies greatly between startup, operation, and shutdown. Shell expansion is a measurement of how much the turbine's case expands from its fixed point outward as it is heated. Continuous indication of shell thermal growth allows the operator to manage the amount of shell distortion as the load is increased or decreased.

Temperature Measurement
Temperature measurements are taken to determine how hot a bearing is operating. These measurements may provide a secondary validation of operation or maintenance problems. An increase in a temperature reading may be due to excessive bearing loading, insufficient clearances, or misalignment.

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TSI System Selection Guide

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XM Modules

The XM series is a group of intelligent, specialty I/O modules designed for machinery protection and condition monitoring. The XM modules monitor critical machinery parameters such as vibration, temperature, position, and speed. The XM modules may be applied as a standalone system, or they can be integrated with existing automation and control systems, including PLCs and displays, to provide maintenance and operations with intelligent information to aid in protecting machinery from catastrophic failures and planning production and maintenance activities. Your selection of measurements determines which XM module you need for your steam turbine system.

If you want to measure Radial Vibration - Shaft Relative Phase

select XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module

description The XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module is an intelligent, 2-channel, general-purpose monitor. The module supports monitoring of shaft, casing or pedestal vibration in rotating equipment by accepting input from any eddy current probe, standard accelerometer, or any voltage output measurement device such as a velocity or pressure transducer. In addition to dynamic inputs, the module accepts one tachometer input to provide speed, phase and order analysis functions making it capable of calculating over 14 critical parameters per channel simultaneously. For more information on the XM-120 module, see publication ENMON-TD120.

Absolute Shaft

XM-121 Low Frequency Dynamic Module

The XM-121 Low Frequency Dynamic Module with alternative XM-121A firmware loaded is an intelligent 2-channel monitor capable of supporting a single absolute shaft measurement. The XM-121A firmware is included on the distribution CD with every standard XM-121. Many of the specifications are similar to the XM-121 Low Frequency Module. The HPFs available in the XM-121 allow for measurements to be as low as .2 Hz (12 CPM). For more information on the XM-121 module with XM-121A firmware, see publication GMSI10-TD047.

Speed Acceleration

XM-220 Dual Speed Module

The XM-220 Speed Module is an intelligent 2-channel measurement module that accepts input from two tachometers of any standard type including eddy current probes, magnetic pickups, optical tachometers and TTL output devices. The module measures speed, rotor acceleration and peak speed and is capable of detecting zero speed, locked rotor and reverse rotation. The module may also serve as a component of an Electronic Overspeed Detection System (EODS). For more information on the XM-220 module, see publication TM ENMON-TD220.

Eccentricity

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XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module

The XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module with alternative XM-120E firmware, enables eccentricity monitoring, critical for steam turbine operation. The XM-120E firmware is included on the distribution CD with every standard XM-120. For more information on the XM-120 module with XM-120E firmware, see publication ENMON-TD002.

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Steam Turbine System

If you want to measure Differential Expansion Rotor/Thrust Position Valve Position Shell (Case) Expansion

select XM-320 Position Module

description The XM-320 Position Module is a 2-channel multi-purpose monitor. The module can be configured to measure any of: Axial Position, Valve Position, Case Expansion or Differential Expansion. The XM-320 supports multiple single and dual-probe methods of measuring differential expansion. The appropriate method is machine specific and requires review of the installation. For more information on the XM-320 module, see publication ENMON-TD320.

Temperature

XM-361 Universal Temperature Module or XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module

The XM-361 Universal Temperature Module is a 6-channel general purpose temperature monitor. Each channel can be configured to measure either an RTD or an isolated thermocouple. The XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module is a 6-channel temperature monitor designed specifically for use with thermocouples. For more information on the temperature modules, see publication ENMON-TD361.

Triple Redundant Overspeed

XM-220 Dual Speed Module XM-442 Voted EODS Relay Module

The XM-442 Voted EODS Relay Module provides high performance voted relays as a component of an Electronic Overspeed Detection System. When coupled with three XM-220 Dual Speed Modules, an XM-442 provides a single 2-out-of-3 overspeed trip relay plus separate relays for alarm (1 of 3 voting), system fault and transducer fault. A single XM-442 paired with three XM-220 modules meets the requirements with regards to the measurement, detection and relay actuation component of API-670 section 5.4.8 Electronic Overspeed Detection. For more information on the XM-220 module, see publication ENMON-TD220. For more information on the XM-442 module, see publication GMSI10-TD048. For more information on the Electronic Overspeed Detection System, see publication GMSI10-UM015.

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TSI System Selection Guide

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Typical Configurations

The following configurations are examples of a typical system. Reference OEM specifications and existing sensor dimensions before selecting replacement sensors. TIP Additional requirements may include power supply, enclosure, cables, junction box, sensor adhesives/mounting tools, etc. See Optional Accessories on page 45.

Radial Vibration - Shaft Relative Configuration


Radial Vibration Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-VST02-01RA 1440-TB-A Option 1 EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 EK-17253 EK-09712

Description XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module Terminal Base for XM-120 / XM-121 / XM-122 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system Shaft Rider 18.5 to 20 in Model 544M Velocity Transducer

Qty 1 1 2 2 2 1 1

Option 2 (for replacement of existing shaft riders only)

For probe holder options, see publication ENACC-PP210.

Absolute Shaft Configuration


Absolute Shaft Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-VLF02-01RA 1440-TB-A EK-43808I EK-46801I EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Description XM-121 Low Frequency Dynamic Measurement Module with XM-121A firmware Terminal Base for XM-120 / XM-121 / XM-122 Model 9100VO Velocity Output Accelerometer 32' Accelerometer Cable (splash proof) 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m Qty 1 1

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1 1 1 1 1 1

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8mm probe driver, 9m system Dual Probe Holder EK-29000-DPH-01

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Steam Turbine System

Speed/Phase Configuration
Only one option is necessary for a speed/phase measurement.
Phase Configuration Parts Cat. No. Option 1 EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Option 2 EK-44395 EK-47774 Hall Effect speed sensor, magnetic, zero velocity Cable, Hall Effect speed sensor, 16ft, blunt cut 1 1 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system 1 1 1 Description Included with XM-120/121/122/123 Modules Qty

Speed/Acceleration Configuration
Only one option is necessary for a speed/acceleration measurement.
Speed/Acceleration Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-SPD02-01RB 1440-TB-B Option 1 EK-2111-40-00-1-10 EK-2171-0-80 EK-2111-9-001 Option 2 EK-44395 EK-47774 Hall Effect speed sensor, magnetic, zero velocity Cable, Hall Effect speed sensor, 16ft, blunt cut 1 1 11mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 11mm extension cable, 8m 11mm probe driver, 9m system 2 2 2 Description XM-220 Dual Speed Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 Qty 1 1

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TSI System Selection Guide

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Eccentricity Configuration
Eccentricity Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-VST02-01RA 1440-TB-A EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Description XM-120 Standard Dynamic Measurement Module with XM-120E firmware Terminal Base for XM-120 / XM-121 / XM-122 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system Qty 1 1 1 1 1

Differential Expansion (DE) Configuration


Differential Expansion Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B EK-48486 Description XM-320 Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 Calibrated System, 500 Mil Includes: (1) 25mm dia tip right angle mounting plate & 1 meter armored cable (1) 8.0 meter armored extension cable (1) Drive calibrated for 25mm probe 9 meter electrical length Qty 1 1 1

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Steam Turbine System

Rotor/Thrust Position Configuration


Rotor/Thrust Position Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B Option 1: Rotor/Thrust EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Option 2: Position EK-2111-40-00-1-10 EK-2171-0-80 EK-2111-9-001 11mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 11mm extension cable, 8m 11mm probe driver, 9m system 1 1 1 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 or 2 Description XM-320 Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 Qty 1 1

Valve Position Configuration


Valve Position Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B EK-15383 EK-15629 EK-16282 Description XM-320 Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 LVDT - 0-2 in range Cam (Valve) position detector rotary potentiometer 1400 Ohm Cam (Valve) position detector rotary potentiometer 2000 Ohm Qty 1 1 1 1 1

Select one of the following part numbers

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Triple Redundant Overspeed Configuration


Triple Redundant Overspeed Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-SPD02-01RB 1440-TB-B 1440-REX03-04RG 1440-TB-G EK-2111-40-00-1-10 EK-2171-0-80 EK-2111-9-001 Description XM-220 Dual Speed Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 XM-442 Voted EODS Relay Module Terminal Base G for XM-442 11mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 11mm extension cable, 8m 11mm probe driver, 9m system Qty 3 3 1 1 3 3 3

Shell (Case) Expansion Configuration


Shell (Case) Expansion Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B EK-15383 Description XM-320 Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDT) Qty 1 1 1

Temperature Configuration
Temperature Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TUN06-00RE 1440-TB-E 1440-TTC06-00RE 1440-TB-E Description XM-361 Universal Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x XM-362 Isolated TC Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x Qty 1 1 1

Option 1:Thermocouple or 2 or 3 Wire RTD

Option 2: Isolated Thermocouple

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Steam Turbine System

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Gas Turbine System

Typical Gas System Overview


RADIAL MEASUREMENTS
BRG #1 BRG #2

TEMP SPEED

TEMP

PHASE SPEED

GENERATOR Compressor Shaft Turbine Shaft


(OR OTHER DRIVEN COMPONENT)

THRUST POSITION "A" & "B"

Measurements

This section describes the recommended vibration monitoring for a gas turbine. Use this information to help you select the measurements that you want to monitor.

IMPORTANT

The turbine OEM should be referenced before choosing type and placement of measurements.

Radial Vibration Measurement


Radial Vibration gives the first indication of a fault, such as unbalance, misalignment, cracked shaft, oil whirl, or other dynamic instabilities. TM
Two Plane Arrangement

Shaft Relative - Fluid Film (Sleeve/Babbit) Bearing


This measures the radial motion of the rotating shaft relative to the case. Vibration measurements can be made in a single plane or a two plane (X-Y) arrangement where the sensors are 90 degrees apart and perpendicular to the shaft. Eddy current probes are usually installed in a hole drilled through the bearing cap and are held in place by either a bracket or a probe holder.

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Gas Turbine System

Case Absolute - Anti-friction (Ball or Rolling Element) Bearings


Case Mounted Arrangement

Vibration measurements can be made by a transducer mounted on the machines casing. Mounting locations are generally determined by the OEM.

Phase Measurement
D GAP APPROX. .060 D GAP W PREFERRED (PROTRUSION)
D=1/4 W=3/8 OR LARGER

W ALTERNATE (DEPRESSION)

AXIAL DRILLED HOLE 3/8"DIA.x 1/4" DEEP

EPOXIED STEEL SHIM STOCK

Phase is defined as the angle between a reference mark (usually a keyway on the shaft) and the heavy spot on the rotor. Phase measurement is required for accurate balancing of any rotor. It also provides an indication of shaft cracks, misalignment, mass loss (such as throwing a blade), and other faults.

Speed Measurement
Speed is a measurement of shaft rotation in revolutions per minute. Speed is a critical measurement during start-up and operation.

Thrust Position Measurement


Dual Thrust

Single Thrust

The primary purpose of the thrust position measurement is to monitor thrust bearing wear and to ensure against axial rubs. Dual (redundant) thrust motion detection should be used when the machine is required to shutdown. This method requires two transducers mounted on each bearing. When both independent set points cross the shutdown limit the machine will be turned off. Single thrust motion detection should be used when the machine does not have to be shutdown and there is another means of verifying thrust bearing failure.

Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurements are taken to determine how hot a bearing is operating. These measurements may provide a secondary validation of operation or maintenance problems. An increase in a temperature reading may be due to excessive bearing loading, insufficient clearances, or misalignment.

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XM Modules

The XM series is a group of intelligent, specialty I/O modules designed for machinery protection and condition monitoring. The XM modules monitor critical machinery parameters such as vibration, temperature, position, and speed. The XM modules may be applied as a standalone system, or they can be integrated with existing automation and control systems, including PLCs and displays, to provide maintenance and operations with intelligent information to aid in protecting machinery from catastrophic failures and planning production and maintenance activities. Your selection of measurements determines which XM module you need for your gas turbine system.

If you want to measure Radial Vibration Phase

select

description

XM-123 Aeroderivative Module The XM-123 Aeroderivative Module is an intelligent 2-channel special-purpose monitor that is uniquely suited for monitoring Aeroderivative Gas Turbines. The XM-123 can be configured, per channel, to perform either tracking filter or band pass style measurements while it also continuously measures each channels broad band overall level. Note: For FFT, TWF and These capabilities, along with its extraordinary configurability, enable the additional calculated XM-123 to meet the demanding monitoring requirements of almost any parameters, the XM-120 engine in service today. module (1440-VST02-01RA) should be used in conjunction For more information on the XM-123 module, see publication with the XM-123 module. ENMON-TD123. For more information on the XM-120 module, see publication ENMON-TD120. XM-220 Dual Speed Module The XM-220 Speed Module is an intelligent 2-channel measurement module that accepts input from two tachometers of any standard type including eddy current probes, magnetic pickups, optical tachometers and TTL output devices. The module measures speed, rotor acceleration and peak speed and is capable of detecting zero speed, locked rotor and reverse rotation. The module may also serve as a component of an Electronic Overspeed Detection System (EODS). For more information on the XM-220 module, see publication ENMON-TD220.

Speed

Thrust Position

XM-320 Position Module

The XM-320 Position Module is a 2-channel multi-purpose monitor. The module can be configured to measure any of: Axial Position, Valve Position, Case Expansion and Differential Expansion. For more information on the XM-320 module, see publication ENMON-TD320.

Temperature

XM-361 Universal Temperature Module or XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module

The XM-361 Universal Temperature Module is a 6-channel general purpose temperature monitor. Each channel can be configured to measure TM either an RTD or an isolated thermocouple. The XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module is a 6-channel temperature monitor designed specifically for use with thermocouples. For more information on the temperature modules, see publication ENMON-TD361.

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Gas Turbine System

Typical Configurations

The following configurations are examples of a typical system. Reference OEM specifications and existing sensor dimensions before selecting replacement sensors. TIP Additional requirements may include power supply, enclosure, cables, junction box, sensor adhesives/mounting tools, etc. See Optional Accessories on page 45.

Radial Vibration Configuration


Radial Vibration Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-VAD02-01RA 1440-TB-A EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Description XM-123 Aeroderivative Module Terminal Base for XM-123 / XM-120 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system -40 to +350F (-40 to +177C) Connector: max. 257F (+125C) -36 to +176F (-38 to +80C) -65 to +500F (-54 to +260C) Probe Operating Temperature Range Qty 1 1 2 2 2

Option 1: Shaft Relative

Option 2: Case Absolute EK-43807I EK-46801I 9100HT High Temperature Accelerometer 32 Accelerometer Cable (splash proof)

1 1

Sensors must meet operating temperature requirements. Specialty, high temperature probes and case mounted sensors are available. Special care should be taken when specifying sensor for aeroderivative gas turbine applications.

TIP

For FFT, TWF and additional calculated parameters, the XM-120 module (1440-VST02-01RA) should be used in conjunction with the XM-123 module.

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Phase/Speed Configuration
Only one option is necessary for a phase/speed measurement.
Phase Configuration Parts Cat. No. Phase/Speed Included with XM-123/120/121/122 Modules Speed 1440-SPD02-01RB 1440-TB-B Option 1 EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Option 2 EK-44395 EK-47774 Hall Effect speed sensor, magnetic, zero velocity Cable, Hall Effect speed sensor, 16ft, blunt cut 1 1 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system 1 1 1 XM-220 Dual Speed Module Terminal Base B for XM-220 / XM-320 1 1 Description Qty

Thrust Position Configuration


Thrust Position Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Description XM-320 Dual Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system Qty 1 1 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 or 2

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Gas Turbine System

Temperature Configuration
Temperature Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TUN06-00RE 1440-TB-E 1440-TTC06-00RE 1440-TB-E Description XM-361 Universal Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x XM-362 Isolated TC Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x Qty 1 1 1 1

Option 1: Thermocouple or 2 or 3 Wire RTD

Option 2: Isolated Thermocouple

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Hydro Turbine System

Typical Hydro Turbine System Overview

Generator

THRUST POSITION "A" & "B"

TEMP

R A D I A L M E A S U R E M E N T S

Shaft SPEED/PHASE TEMP

Turbine CAVITATION

Measurements

This section describes the recommended vibration monitoring for a hydro turbine. Use this information to help you select the measurements that you want to monitor.

Radial Vibration Measurement


Radial Vibration gives the first indication of a fault, such as unbalance, misalignment, cracked shaft, oil whirl, or other dynamic instabilities. TM

Shaft Relative - Fluid Film (Sleeve/Babbit) Bearing

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This measures the radial motion of the rotating shaft relative to the case. Vibration measurements can be made in a single plane or a two plane (X-Y) arrangement where the sensors are 90 degrees apart and perpendicular to the shaft. Eddy current probes are usually installed in a hole drilled through the bearing cap and are held in place by either a bracket or a probe holder.

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Hydro Turbine System

Cavitation

Case Absolute - Anti-friction (Ball or Rolling Element) Bearings


Vibration measurements can be made by a transducer mounted on the machines casing. Mounting locations are generally determined by the OEM. Cavitation is defined as the formation of vapor pockets in a liquid. In hydro turbines, cavitation can cause a large amount of noise, damage to the machine, and a loss of efficiency. It is measured by a case mounted accelerometer on either the draft tube or turbine head cover.

Phase/Speed Measurement
D GAP APPROX. .060 D GAP W PREFERRED (PROTRUSION)
D=1/4 W=3/8 OR LARGER

W ALTERNATE (DEPRESSION)

Phase is defined as the angle between a reference mark (usually a keyway on the shaft) and the heavy spot on the rotor. Phase measurement is required for accurate balancing of any rotor. It also provides an indication of shaft cracks, misalignment, mass loss (such as throwing a blade), and other faults. Speed is a measurement of shaft rotation in revolutions per minute. Speed is a critical measurement during start-up and operation.

AXIAL DRILLED HOLE 3/8"DIA.x 1/4" DEEP

EPOXIED STEEL SHIM STOCK

Thrust Position Measurement


Dual Thrust

The primary purpose of the thrust position measurement is to monitor thrust bearing wear and to ensure against axial rubs. Dual (redundant) thrust motion detection should be used when the machine is required to shutdown. This method requires two transducers mounted on each bearing. When both independent set points cross the shutdown limit the machine will be turned off. Single thrust motion detection should be used when the machine does not have to be shutdown and there is another means of verifying thrust bearing failure.
Single Thrust

Temperature Measurement

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Temperature measurements are taken to determine how hot a bearing is operating. These measurements may provide a secondary validation of operation or maintenance problems. An increase in a temperature reading may be due to excessive bearing loading, insufficient clearances, or misalignment.

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XM Modules

The XM series is a group of intelligent, specialty I/O modules designed for machinery protection and condition monitoring. The XM modules monitor critical machinery parameters such as vibration, temperature, position, and speed. The XM modules may be applied as a standalone system, or they can be integrated with existing automation and control systems, including PLCs and displays, to provide maintenance and operations with intelligent information to aid in protecting machinery from catastrophic failures and planning production and maintenance activities. Your selection of measurements determines which XM module you need for your hydro turbine system.

If you want to measure Radial Vibration Phase

select XM-121 Low Frequency Dynamic Module

description The XM-121 Low Frequency Vibration Module is identical to the XM-120 Standard Vibration Module except for the available high pass filter (HPF) selections. The HPFs available in the XM-121 allow for measurements to be as low as .2 Hz (12 CPM) making it ideal for monitoring low speed machinery such as hydroturbines and many fans, gearboxes, paper rolls, extruder presses and other low speed equipment. For more information on the XM-121 module, see publication ENMON-TD120.

Speed

XM-220 Dual Speed Module

The XM-220 Speed Module is an intelligent 2-channel measurement module that accepts input from two tachometers of any standard type including eddy current probes, magnetic pickups, optical tachometers and TTL output devices. The module measures speed, rotor acceleration and peak speed and is capable of detecting zero speed, locked rotor and reverse rotation. The module may also serve as a component of an Electronic Overspeed Detection System (EODS). For more information on the XM-220 module, see publication ENMON-TD220.

Thrust Position

XM-320 Position Module

The XM-320 Position Module is a 2-channel multi-purpose monitor. The module can be configured to measure any of: Axial Position, Valve Position, Case Expansion and Differential Expansion. For more information on the XM-320 module, see publication ENMON-TD320.

Temperature

XM-361 Universal Temperature Module or XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module

The XM-361 Universal Temperature Module is a 6-channel general purpose temperature monitor. Each channel can be configured to measure either an RTD or an isolated thermocouple. The XM-362 Isolated Temperature Module is a 6-channel temperature TM monitor designed specifically for use with thermocouples. For more information on the temperature modules, see publication ENMON-TD361.

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Hydro Turbine System

Typical Configurations

The following configurations are examples of a typical system. Reference OEM specifications and existing sensor dimensions before selecting replacement sensors. TIP Additional requirements may include power supply, enclosure, cables, junction box, sensor adhesives/mounting tools, etc. See Optional Accessories on page 45.

Radial Vibration Configuration


Radial Vibration Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-VLF02-01RA 1440-TB-A EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 EK-43784I EK-46801I Description XM-121 Low Frequency Dynamic Measurement Module Terminal Base A for XM-120 / XM-121 / XM-122 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system 9100 General Purpose Accelerometer 32 Accelerometer Cable (splash proof) Qty 1 1 2 2 2 1 1

Option 1: Shaft Relative

Option 2: Case Absolute and Cavitation

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Phase/Speed Configuration
Only one option is necessary for a phase/speed measurement.
Phase/Speed Configuration Parts Cat. No. Phase/Speed Included with XM-121/120 Modules Speed 1440-SPD02-01RB 1440-TB-B Option 1 EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Option 2 EK-44395 EK-47774 Hall Effect speed sensor, magnetic, zero velocity Cable, Hall Effect speed sensor, 16ft, blunt cut 1 1 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system 1 1 1 XM-220 Dual Speed Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 1 1 Description Qty

Thrust Position Configuration


Thrust Position Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TPS02-01RB 1440-TB-B EK-2105-70-00-1-10 EK-2170-0-80 EK-2108-9-001 Description XM-320 Position Module Terminal Base B for XM-320 / XM-220 8mm dia NCPU probe, 1m cable 8mm extension cable, 8m 8mm probe driver, 9m system Qty 1 1 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 or 2

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Hydro Turbine System

Temperature Configuration
Temperature Configuration Parts Cat. No. 1440-TUN06-00RE 1440-TB-E 1440-TTC06-00RE 1440-TB-E Description XM-361 Universal Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x XM-362 Isolated TC Temperature Module Terminal Base E for XM-36x Qty 1 1 1 1

Option 1: Thermocouple or 2 or 3 Wire RTD

Option 2: Isolated Thermocouple

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Integration Products

This section describes the integration strategy. Select the human machine interface (HMI), control system, and reliability products that best fit your needs. XM systems use the DeviceNet open standard for all communications. DeviceNet is an open, low-level network that provides connections between simple industrial devices (such as sensors and actuators) and higher-level devices (such as HMIs, PLCs, and computers). The DeviceNet network uses the proven Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) to provide the control, configure, and data collection capabilities for industrial devices.

HMI Products

Rockwell Automation offers the following HMI products for your system.

VersaView Industrial Computers and Monitors


VersaView products are a family of industrial computer and monitor solutions, comprised of integrated display computers, workstations, non-display computers, and flat panel monitors. VersaView products offer effortless management of changing technology, a rugged but cost-effective design, and easier product configuration. All VersaView products provide the latest industrial solution available, optimized for visualization, control, information processing, and maintenance application.

VersaView CE Industrial Computers


VersaView CE products offer open Windows CE terminals in Windows desktop environments - bringing together features of operator interfaces and industrial computers. It is a high performance computer with a compact flash drive and integrated RSView Machine Edition runtime (noTM activation required). Theres no hard disk, no fan, and no moving parts, which means maximum reliability on the plant floor. Easy to set up and maintain, VersaView CE means an open system thats rugged and economical, offering high functionality in an easy to use package.

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Integration Products

RSView Enterprise Series Software


RSView Enterprise Series software from Rockwell Software is a line of HMI software products designed with a common look, feel, and navigation to help speed HMI application development and training time. With RSView Enterprise Series 3.0, you can reference existing Logix data tags. Any changes made to these referenced tags are automatically inherited by RSView software. RSView Enterprise Series software includes: RSView Studio lets you create applications in a single design environment. It configures RSView Supervisory Edition, RSView Machine Edition, VersaView CE, and PanelView Plus applications. It supports editing and reusing projects for improved portability between embedded machine and supervisory HMI systems. RSView Machine Edition (ME) is a machine-level HMI product that supports both open and dedicated operator interface solutions. It provides a consistent operator interface across multiple platforms (including Microsoft Windows CE, Windows 2000/XP, and PanelView Plus solutions), and is ideal for monitoring and controlling individual machines or small processes. RSView Supervisory Edition (SE) is an HMI software for supervisory-level monitoring and control applications. It has a distributed and scalable architecture that supports distributed-server/multi-user applications. This highly scalable architecture can be applied to a stand-alone, one-server/one-user application or to multiple users interfacing with multiple servers.

PanelView Standard Operator Terminals


PanelView Standard operator terminals are engineered for maximum performance in space saving flat panel designs. These electronic operator interfaces feature pixel graphics capabilities and high-performance functionality in color, grayscale, and monochrome displays. The PanelView Standard family offers a complete line of rugged electronic operator interface solutions in a variety of sizes and configurations to meet specific application requirements, all with a rich collection of hardware and software TM features designed to simplify programming and improve operator productivity. The high performance functionality of the PanelView Standard line includes advanced alarm handling, screen security, analog gauges, ATA PC memory card, universal language support, and online printing for more intuitive operator control.

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Control Systems

Rockwell Automation offers the following control system solutions for your system.

PLC/DCS DeviceNet Interface


The XM module may be linked directly to a PLC or other control system via industry standard DeviceNet scanner cards. Host controllers can then scan XM modules for data, alarm and relay status information in real-time. Prioritizing messaging insures that changes to any alarm or relay status is immediately communicated to network controllers.

ControlLogix
The ControlLogix system provides sequential, process, motion, and drive control together with communications and state-of-the-art I/O in a small, cost-competitive package. The system is modular, so you can design, build, and modify it efficiently - with significant savings in training and engineering. A simple ControlLogix system consists of a standalone controller and I/O modules in a single chassis. You can also use the ControlLogix system as a gateway. Include the communication modules you need for connectivity to other networks. For this use, a controller is not required. The ControlLogix Gateway integrates into existing PLC-based systems so that users with existing networks can send or receive messages to or from other networks. For more information on the ControlLogix products, see publication 1759-SG001.

OPC Gateway
OPC (OLE for Process Control) is a set of industry-standard specifications that allow plant floor devices such as DCSs and PLCs to communicate and exchange data with software applications such as HMIs and Process TM Historians. The OPC standards allow different automation and control applications, field systems and devices, and business and office applications supplied by different vendors to work with one another. RSLinx Classic software is an OPC-compliant server exposing the required interfaces for an OPC client application to access data consistent with other OPC-compliant servers.

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Integration Products

Gateways and Bridges


XM-500 Ethernet Gateway
The XM-500 Ethernet Gateway provides a powerful bridge between an XM DeviceNet network and Ethernet. The Gateway provides complete DeviceNet Master functionality and support for a fully populated DeviceNet network with up to 63 devices. On the Ethernet side, the XM-500 offers a standard TCP/IP interface and support for the Ethernet protocol. Recommended for systems designed primarily to communicate with RSMACC EOL and Emonitor. For more information, see publication ENMON-TD500.

1788 EN2DN Ethernet/IP to DeviceNet Linking Device


The 1788 EN2DN Ethernet/IP to DeviceNet Linking Device has the capability to bridge explicit messages from an Ethernet/IP network to a DeviceNet network, or scan the DeviceNet network via Ethernet/IP. Can be used with any Logix controller or third party controller with Ethernet/IP support. Recommended for systems requiring integration with automation environments, e.g. PLCs, and visualizations.

1788 CN2DN ControlNet to DeviceNet Linking Device


One side of the Linking Device is a DeviceNet scanner with the capacity for handling 500 bytes of data in and out from DeviceNet compliant devices. The other side is a ControlNet scheduled adapter with redundant media communications and a Network Access Port.
IMPORTANT

Rockwell Automation's Encompass Partners provide additional gateways for almost any network; see http://www.rockwellautomation.com/encompass/ for further details.

XM-440 Master Relay Module


TM
The XM-440 Master Relay Module combines four relay outputs with XM bus master capabilities to provide remote, shared and voted relay operation for distributed XM measurement modules. The XM-440 module offers high power relays suitable for use in most protection applications.

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XM-442 Voted EODS Relay Module


The XM-442 module is designed to mate with three XM-220 Dual Speed Modules to provide an API compliant triple redundant Electronic Overspeed Detection System (EODS). The XM-442 provides four high power relays that serve as the EODS alarm and shutdown relays.

4-20mA Outputs
The XM modules offer a 4-20mA isolated analog output per channel proportional to the selected measurement. Each output is independently programmed to represent any measured parameter, from either channel with a maximum load of 300 ohms. The 4-20mA outputs can interface directly with existing strip chart recorders and LED indicators to monitor and control the health of your turbine system.

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Integration Products

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Software Products

Your network configuration determines what software packages you need to configure and manage your system.

XM Serial Configuration Utility Software

The XM Serial Configuration Utility software is an easy to use Windows application for installing and configuring the XM Series modules. The tool can read, write, and modify configurations stored on disk, upload configuration from a module; download configurations and firmware updates to a module; and view data from a module. The Utility software is provided on the XM Documentation and Configuration Utility CD that is packaged with the XM modules.

IMPORTANT

To use the XM Serial Configuration Utility, connect the PC to a modules serial port using the following serial cable.
Cat. No. 1440-SCDB9-FXM2 Description XM Serial Communications Cable

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Software Products

RSLinx Software

RSLinx software is a complete communication server providing plant-floor device connectivity for a wide variety of Rockwell Software applications such as RSLogix 5/500/5000, RSView32, RSView Enterprise Series, and RSMACC Enterprise Online Condition Monitor (RSMACC EOL). In addition, several open interfaces are provided for third-party HMI, data collection and analysis packages, and custom client-application software. RSLinx software can support multiple software applications simultaneously, communicating to a variety of devices on many different networks. RSLinx 2.x software is now joined by RSLinx Enterprise software, a new product within the RSLinx family that provide unparalleled connectivity to Logix processors. RSLinx Enterprise software currently can support working as a data server for widely distributed RSView Supervisory Edition products, RSSql, RSBizWare Historian, and RSBizWare PlantMetrics applications, RSView Machine Edition including PanelView Plus and VersaView hardware platforms, and RSView Supervisory Edition Station. You can communicate from anywhere to anywhere using RSLinx software. RSLinx v2.43 or later is required for compatibility with the entire line of XM modules.

RSNetWorx for DeviceNet Software

RSNetWorx software configures and manages the communication between the devices on your control network. RSNetWorx for DeviceNet provides an instant, selectable view of any DeviceNet network. With this software, you can

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configure DeviceNet I/O devices and create a scan list. The DeviceNet scanner stores the configuration information and scan list.

Emonitor Enterprise Software

The Emonitor suite is a complete machinery information software system for Condition Based Maintenance programs. By incorporating multiple data sources, such as online systems, portable data collectors and OPC servers, Emonitor can easily present a complete picture of the state of your machinery. A collection of analysis tools, statistical based alarms and rule-based logic allows you to quickly and easily identify problem areas among large amounts of data.

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Software Products

Emonitor historical data can be accessed via any application utilizing the following data access standards: Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) - ODBC provides access to data from any application regardless of which database management system (DBMS) is handling the data. It is independent of programming language, database system, and operating system. MIMOSA - MIMOSA is an open standard in which equipment asset software components are able to communicate and exchange data automatically without propriety or supplier-specific interface protocols. Extensible Markup Language (XML) - XML is a simple, flexible text format designed to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems. Programs are able to modify and validate documents in languages based on XML without prior knowledge of their form.

RSMACC Enterprise Online Software

RSMACC Enterprise Online Condition Monitor is an information presentation and analysis tool that provides you the ability to quickly and intuitively evaluate plant, machinery, and system status at a glance. Using the Enterprise Online Configuration Utility from within RSMACC Enterprise Online Condition Monitor, you can remotely configure data collection parameters, alarms, and relays on the XM modules.

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Third Party Software Products

Rockwell Automation offers connectivity solutions allowing our products to integrate with a variety of third party data sources directly via OPC, DeviceNet Standard and Scanner Bridges.

Project Services

A TSI system retrofit begins with a walk down of the machine and the creation of a project scope document. From this, a bill of material and quotation document will be generated. Rockwell Automation Project Services provides the expertise needed to scope and install a new TSI system, or the retrofit of an existing one.

Engineering Design Services

Rockwell Automation has the engineering resources and specific TSI knowledge to effectively design a new system or plan a retrofit. The design services include: Functional Design Specification Installation Drawings Custom Product Design Application Review Network Evaluation Customized Operational and Troubleshooting Guides

Turn Key

Rockwell Automations performance history and depth of knowledge help to deliver successful turnkey projects. Project Management Plan, design, build and install the solution Integrate TSI solution with other plant systems Factory Acceptance Testing with Documentation Package suitable for most ISO 9000 Requirements Mechanical and Electrical services On-Site Acceptance Testing with Documentation Package System Commissioning TM Software Configuration As-Built Drawing Package Factory or On-Site Training of plant personnel on operation and maintenance of the system Final Report Documentation Package

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Project Services

Reliability Online (ROL) Service Programs

Rockwell Automation ROL Services turns TSI data into actionable Condition-based Maintenance information. The TSI system can be designed to be accessed over a phone line or through a secure internet connection Regular or on demand analysis expertise is provided remotely Asset health information is accessed through the internet with an easy to use web portal (see illustration below)

Select the Product Services

Services Menu Cat. No. 1443-S-OLTK 1443-S-DOC 1443-S-MON 1443-S-CAL 1443-ROL-CAS Description Turnkey Installations and Services for on-line systems Documentation Service - Reports, Drawings and System Specifications On-line Systems Commissioning, Inspection, Application and Training Standard Annual Calibration or Troubleshooting Service for on-line systems Reliability Online (ROL) analysis service

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TSI System Selection Guide

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Training

Utilizing the Rockwell Automation training offerings can significantly improve the productivity and efficiency of the plant floor staff by giving them the knowledge, skills and learning aids to maintain both legacy automation systems and todays advanced automation technologies.
Training Menu Course No. CCP422 CCP163 EK-ICM101 EK-ICM121 EK-ICM141 EK-ICM162 EK-ICM165 EK-ICM201 EK-ICM221 EK-ICM261 EK-ICM281 EK-ICM301 RS-RSMACC Description DeviceNet Maintenance and Troubleshooting DeviceNet/RSNetWorx Design and Configuration Introduction to Vibration Technology Dynamic Balancing Emonitor Odyssey/Enshare Basic Using Your Enpac with Emonitor XM System Fundamentals Vibration Analysis I Emonitor Odyssey/Enshare Advanced Vibration Analysis II Time Waveform Analysis Vibration Analysis III RSMACC Installation and Configuration

Repair, Exchange & Renewal Parts

Rockwell Automation provides comprehensive repair services including remanufacturing services for a wide variety Rockwell Automation products, repair services for non-Rockwell Automation products, exchange services for over 12,000 Allen-Bradley catalog products, and renewal parts for many legacy Allen-Bradley products.

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Project Services

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Optional Accessories

Sensors

Rockwell Automation offers a comprehensive range of Sensors for use with both condition monitoring and protection systems. Accelerometers bare the workload in vibration monitoring and data collection processing. Designed for use in a broad range of applications, various types of accelerometers including high frequency, low frequency, high temperature, and specialty sensors offer a variety of frequency ranges and reference sensitivities to provide the best selection for each measurement concern.

9000 Series Accelerometers


9000 series Accelerometers are designed for use in a broad range of applications including high frequency, low frequency and high temperature and offer a variety of frequency ranges and reference sensitivities to provide the best selection for each measurement application. For more information on 9000 series accelerometers, see publication GMSI10-SG001, which is available on the Rockwell Automation web site (http://www.rockwellautomation.com/services/conditionmonitoring/ sensors.html).

2100 Series
The 2100 Series of non-contact pick-ups are designed to meet the stringent requirements of the American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 670. The sensors are non-contacting eddy-current type transducers that measure the dynamic and/or static displacement of the target relative to the mounting fixture. The system consists of a non-contact pickup probe, oscillator/demodulator (probe driver) and interconnecting cable. These systems are typically used to measure shaft radial and axial vibration, shaft eccentricity, shaft axial position, case expansion, differential expansion and TM other instances where non-contacting, relative measurements must be made.

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We also provide a variety of probe holder options. For more information on 2100 series non-contact pickups and probe holder options, see publication ENACC-PP210, which is available of the Rockwell Automation web site (http://www.rockwellautomation.com/services/conditionmonitoring/ sensors.html).

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Optional Accessories

Power Supplies

The XM series is designed to operate with 24V DC power supplies. The following Allen-Bradley 1606-XLP power supplies are recommended for use with all XM applications. The 1606-XLP series is a general purpose, DIN-rail-mount power supply.
Cat. No. 1606-XLP-30E 1606-XLP-50E 1606-XLP-100E Full Rated Load 1.3A 2.1A 4.2A

Capacity of the power supply must meet or exceed the total maximum load required by the XM system. If the total system power requirement exceeds the 1606-XLP-100E power supply, use multiple powers supplies and connections. Note that the total current draw through the side connector cannot exceed 3A. Maximum loads for each module can be found in the data sheet and User Manual for the specific module. It may be necessary to provide a redundant power source to the XM system for critical applications. All XM modules provide redundant power supply input terminals so if the primary 24V power supply fails, the secondary power supply will automatically be used in its place. For assistance in calculating the power requirements for your XM system, contact your local Rockwell Automation Customer Service.

Cables

Rockwell Automation offers a variety of cables for interfacing industrial vibration sensors to termination and switch boxes, portable data collectors, readout devices, and recording and analysis instruments. For individual product offerings, see publication GSMG10-PL001.

Junction Box

Rockwell Automation offers a 20 terminal junction box to house electrical components and facilitate wiring. For individual product offerings, see publication GMSG10-PL001.

Enclosures

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TM Rockwell Automation offers a broad line of UL approved NEMA enclosures to house and protect your XM system. NEMA enclosures are rated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and designed for hazardous or non-hazardous locations and indoor or outdoor use.

TSI System Selection Guide

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Rockwell Automation offers the following enclosure types.


Enclosure Type NEMA 4 Intended Use and Description Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust, falling dirt, and dripping noncorrosive liquids.

NEMA 4X

NEMA 12

NEMA Type 4X and 12 rated enclosures are available with solid door or polycarbonate window.

For individual product offerings, see publication GMSG10-PL001.

Sensor Adhesives / Mounting Tools

Rockwell Automation offers sensor adhesives and mounting tools to prepare the machinery surfaces for installation of the sensors. For individual product offerings, see publication GMSG10-PL001.

Portable Data Collectors

A portable data collector is capable of performing condition monitoring data collection, analysis, and root cause correction. The Enpac portable data collectors are Windows CE based, high performance, data collectors and signal analyzers. Their comprehensive measurement capability, analysis functions and ease of use make them the perfect tool for a portable predictive maintenance strategy. The Enpac 2500 is an easy to use, cost effective, scalable solution that meets the needs of the novice as well as advanced user. Key attributes include size, easy to read color display, and speed of data collection. The Enpac 2500 is a rugged and reliable instrument with a built in laser tachometer and advanced analysis capabilities such as optional 2-channel functions, 2-plane balancing, TM and more.

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For more information on the Enpac 2500, see publication GMSI10-PP03.

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Optional Accessories

Surveillance Monitoring

The Enwatch is a cost-effective solution for monitoring the condition of the important machines in a plant. It bridges the gap between portable data collectors with manual periodic update capabilities and more expensive continuous monitoring systems. For more information on the Enwatch, see publication GMSI10-PP014.

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Listen. Think. Solve, Allen-Bradley, Emonitor, PanelView, RSBizware Historian, RSBizware PlantMetrics, RSLinx, RSLogix, RSMACC, RSSQL, VersaView and XM are trademarks ofRockwell Automation, Inc. DeviceNet is a trademark of the Open DeviceNet Vendor Association (ODVA). Windows is a registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. Trademarks not belonging to Rockwell Automation are property of their respective companies.

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GMSI10-SG002A-EN-P - June 2006

Copyright 2006 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in USA.

TURBINE SUPERVISORY GUIDE

TECHNIQUES FOR THE MONITORING & PROTECTION OF TM POWER PLANT EQUIPMENT

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25 YEARS
1978 -2003

CONTENTS

03 04 06

Introduction Overview TSE Application Diagram Transducers and Sensors Accelerometer Velocity Transducer Eddy Current Proximity Probe LVDT/RVDT Choosing the right transducer Measurement Techniques Absolute Vibration Eccentricity & Shaft Vibration Rotor Differential Expansion Shaft Position Speed Monitoring Casing & Cylinder Expansion Valve Position Monitoring Auxiliary Plant Monitoring Protection Systems Introduction to API Standard 670 Special Techniques Rod Drop Rundown Monitoring Orbit Analysis

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18 19 20

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24 26

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Seismic Monitoring and Protection Equipment Site References

System Equipment Bracketry Cubicle Panels

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Quick Product Selection Guide

INTRODUCTION
For nearly 30 years Sensonics has been supplying Turbine Condition Monitoring solutions to the power generation industry worldwide. Involved in measurement definition through to supply and final system commissioning, our experience within the power sector is second to none. We have produced this guide to capture the essence of that experience and to explain the basics of vibration and expansion measurement techniques relating to turbine and auxiliary plant equipment. The guide starts with an introduction to the basic transducers available for plant mounting with associated options, and details the various measurement techniques used as standard throughout the power industry. This is followed by typical equipment protection configurations for safe plant shutdown. In the final part of this guide the system components are introduced and special measurement regimes discussed. The guide aims to provide a balance of basic theory and practical advice but obviously cannot cover all measurement scenarios. For a detailed discussion on any measurement issues you may have, please feel free to contact Sensonics.

SENSONICS PRODUCTS & COMPETENCES


Turbine Supervisory Systems Standalone Monitoring Solutions Accelerometer, Displacement & Seismic Transducers Nuclear Infrastructure Protection Structural Monitoring Solutions Turn-Key Design, Manufacture and Project Support ATEX & IEC61508 Capability Installation & Commissioning

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OVERVIEW
Turbine supervision is an essential part of the day-to-day running of any power plant. There are many potential faults such as cracked rotors and damaged shafts, which result from vibration and expansion.When this expansion and vibration is apparent in its early stages the problem can usually be resolved without any of the disruption caused when a turbine has to be shut down. By appropriate trending of the various measurement points and the identification of excessive vibration or movement, scheduled equipment stoppages or outages can often be utilised to investigate and resolve the failure mechanism. It is for this predictive maintenance market that Sensonics produces a wide range of sensors and systems specifically for the power generation industry. With flexible and configurable equipment, we can tailor our supervisory equipment to your needs. In this brochure we aim to give a brief explanation of why turbine supervision is so essential and how Sensonics can provide the right solution to protect your turbine. The diagram on page 5 illustrates a generic configuration of a set of Turbine Supervisory equipment. The steam turbine shown is fairly standard with an HP (high pressure) stage followed by a single LP (low pressure) rotor section; different turbine configurations depending on power rating, may have an intermediate (IP) section in addition to a number of LPs which finally drive the turbine generator.This type of configuration is illustrated in the adjacent picture. Although the equipment configuration does vary, the measurement techniques remain the same, with each turbine installation generating its own unique set of measurements. Typical measurement techniques include:-

Absolute vibration of bearing pedestals Shaft vibration relative to bearing Shaft eccentricity Differential expansion or shaft movement Valve position on steam inlet Casing expansion, both inner and outer Speed, including overspeed and zero speed Temperature Structural & foundation vibration monitoring

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TM Each of the measurement techniques are used to monitor the turbine during its operating cycle, some measurements may be configured to provide warning alarms as well as automated shutdown, although these systems tend to operate on a voted principle to ensure maximum system integrity.

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ATYPICALTURBINE SUPERVISORY EQUIPMENT APPLICATION

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TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS


The Accelerometer
The accelerometer is based on the electrical properties of piezoelectric crystal. In operation, the crystal is stressed by the inertia of a mass. The variable force exerted by the mass on the crystal produces an electrical output proportional to acceleration. Two common methods of constructing the device to generate a residual force are compression mode and shear mode respectively. A residual force is of course required to enable the crystal to generate the appropriate response, moving in either direction on a single axis. A shear mode construction is illustrated below.

An accelerometer operates below its first natural frequency. The rapid rise in sensitivity approaching resonance is characteristic of an accelerometer, which is an un-damped single-degree-of-freedom spring mass system. Generally speaking, the sensitivity of an accelerometer and the ratio between its electrical output and the input acceleration is acceptably constant to approximately 1/5 to 1/3 of its natural frequency. For this reason, natural frequencies above 30KHz tend to be used. The frequency response curve can be influenced by a number of factors, mainly the mass, the stiffness and the degree of system damping. The resonant peak of the accelerometer can be eliminated by increasing the damping. However, increasing the damping introduces a phase shift in the linear range whereas un-damped accelerometers have very little phase shift until near the natural frequency. It is therefore usual to have un-damped accelerometers with very high natural frequencies so that the linear range is extended as far as possible. Typical damping ratios are 0.01 to 0.05. This resonant frequency in combination with the appropriate damping can be utilised to monitor bearing impact. Several manufacturers, including Sensonics have developed transducers that utilise the ringing of the transducer to mechanical impulses to measure the health of roller bearings. This technique analyses the high frequency response of the transducer (at resonance) to determine an impact factor normally in dB, which is directly proportional to the quantity and force of metal on metal impacts. This factor is normalised to an overall health measurement by consideration of bearing dimensions and rotational speed.

Shear mode construction

Shear mode devices which apply a shear force to the inner and outer surfaces of a ring of crystal (as opposed to a perpendicular force to a disk of crystal), offer a distinct advantage over standard compression techniques. When mounting the device to the plant, normally through a stud & screw arrangement, the mechanical stresses within the transducer assembly change. Compression mode devices are particularly affected by these stresses, which produce low frequency effects, compounded if further integration is carried out. Sensonics shear mode range of transducers are unaffected by base strain and offer a true low frequency performance down to 0.4Hz. Although the piezoelectric accelerometer is a selfgenerating device, its output is at a very high impedance and is therefore unsuited for direct use with most display, analysis, or monitoring equipment.Thus, electronics must be utilised to convert the high impedance crystal output to a low impedance capable of driving such devices. The impedance conversion electronics may be located within the accelerometer, outside of but near the accelerometer, or in the monitoring or analysis device itself.

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Accelerometers with internal electronics are convenient and can use inexpensive conventional plugs and cable but they are limited to temperatures of typically 120C. Locating the electronics in a cool location away from the accelerometer allows the transducer to tolerate higher temperatures.
Typical accelerometer frequency response

Accelerometers are available in various output configurations. The industry standard drive utilises a 2wire current source interface operating at a nominal bias voltage of +12Vdc typ., with an output sensitivity of 100mV/g. This configuration limits the dynamic range to around 70g, which is suitable for most applications. Larger dynamic ranges can be achieved through lowering the sensitivity at the expense of signal to noise ratio, 10mV/g as an example, or utilising current output devices, which can provide 1000g depending on sensitivity requirements (10pC/g is typical). Standard accelerometers are also available with velocity outputs in either metric or imperial format, although for these configurations the required measurement range must be understood if the correct sensitivity is to be selected (0-20mm/s, 0-50mm/s etc.). Since the integration function to convert the acceleration to velocity is carried out within the accelerometer, the low frequency performance is typically limited to around a few hertz. The limited complexity of the conditioning circuitry that can be included within the accelerometer combined with the integrated noise tend to be the limiting factors. For direct integration with SCADA and PLC based systems, most manufacturers offer direct 4-20mA outputs covering a factory set range of either acceleration or velocity vibration. This can be an extremely cost effective solution (provided the required measurement range is again well understood) since no signal conditioning unit is required to drive the transducer or process the resulting measurement. The resulting current loop output is typically either a peak or an RMS representation of the vibration signal and therefore signal frequency analysis is not possible.

For practical purposes, a typical velocity pick-up is limited to frequencies between approximately 10 and 1500 Hz. This has an advantage in certain applications where high frequency vibration (generated from steam noise for example) can saturate standard accelerometers with a built-in integration function. It is possible to obtain moving coil type transducers which operate in any axis.The high specification units tend to be only available for operation in either the vertical or horizontal plane due to the arrangement of the sprung mechanism and orientation during factory calibration.

The ATEX Directive


The ATEX directive 94/9/EC defines the specification requirements of equipment intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. Equipments supplied to meet the directive are approved by an authorized external body, the manufacturer must also maintain a quality system to meet with the standard. Sensonics produce a wide range of ATEX approved accelerometers and eddy current proximity probes for various intrinsically safe applications. The accelerometer is of particular concern when operating within a potentially explosive atmosphere because of the self-generating nature of piezoelectric devices and the high potential voltages that can be generated under shock conditions. For this reason the ATEX directive specifies complete encapsulation of the inner transducer body and limited capacitive capability within the electrical interface to minimize this effect. The inner crystal construction is voltage limited through the addition of diodes, as is the electrical interface. The construction of the device and the internal features will be specific to the approved temperature range and zone of operation.

Velocity Transducer
The velocity transducer is inherently different to the accelerometer with a conditioned velocity output. This device operates on the spring-mass-damper principle, is usually of low natural frequency and actually operates above its natural frequency. The transducing element is either a moving coil with a stationary magnet, or a stationary coil with a moving magnet. A voltage is produced in a conductor when the conductor cuts a magnetic field and the voltage is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic lines are cut. Thus, a voltage is developed across the coil, which is proportional to velocity. This type of transducer can provide sensitivities of up to 20mV/mm/s and is convenient because it generates a signal without an external power supply and the signal usually does not require further amplification.

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The sensitivity vs. frequency response curve of a velocity pickup is limited at low frequencies by the optimum damping of the first natural frequency; at high frequencies its response is limited by the amount of motion necessary to overcome the inertia of the system, as well as by the presence of higher order natural frequencies.
The ATEX approved PZS4

THE EDDY CURRENT PROXIMITY PROBE


The principle of operation, as the name implies, depends upon the eddy currents set up in the surface of the target material - shaft, collar, etc. adjacent to the probe tip. The Eddy probe tip is made of a dielectric material and the probe coil is encapsulated within the tip. The coil is supplied with a constant RF current from a separate Eddy Probe Driver connected via a cable, which sets up an electromagnetic field between the tip and the observed surface. Any electrically conductive material within this electromagnetic field, i.e. the target material, will have eddy currents induced in its surface. The energy absorbed from the electromagnetic field to produce these eddy currents will vary the strength of the field and hence the energising current, in proportion to the probetarget distance. Such changes are sensed in the driver where they are converted to a varying voltage signal. The whole probe, extension cable and driver system relies for its operation on being a tuned circuit and as such is dependent on the systems natural frequency. Thus each system is set up for a fixed electrical/cable length. Eddy probe systems are usually supplied with 2, 5, 9 or 14 metre total cable lengths. The probe types available are generally according to the API670 standard (see later discussion). Three main variants, straight mount, reverse mount and disc type probes make up the Sensonics range. The main difference between the straight and reverse mount is the location of the thread on the probe body and the fixing nut. Reverse mount tend to be used exclusively with probe holders, while straight mount are the more common and are used on simple bracketry or mounting threads where adjustment to the target is achieved through use of the thread on the probe body in conjunction with a moveable lock nut. The maximum measurement range available on this type of probe is typically 8mm. The disc probe mounts the encapsulated coil on a metal plate with fixed mounting holes, making a very low profile assembly with a side exit cable. Larger coils can be mounted on this plate; for example, the 50mm diameter tip probe can provide a measurement range of beyond 25mm. However, care must be taken to ensure the target area is sufficient to obtain the required linear response. Note the relationship opposite between linear range, probe tip and target area.
Eddy current probe empirical relationships

In rotating plant, the variations in shaft/bearing distance created by vibration, eccentricity, ovality etc. can thus be measured by probes mounted radially to the shaft. When the target is stationary the measured voltage can be used to set the probe/target static distance. Shaft speed can also be measured by placing the probe viewing a machined slot or a toothed wheel.

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System overview T ypical straight probe with driver

THE L VDT
The LVDT is an electromechanical device that produces an electrical signal whose amplitude is proportional to the displacement of the transducer core. The LVDT consists of a primary coil and two secondary coils symmetrically spaced on a cylindrical former. The LVDT can be operated where there is no contact between the core and extension rod assembly with the main body of the LVDT housing the transformer coils. This makes it ideal for measurements where friction loading cannot be tolerated but the addition of a low mass core can. Examples of this are fluid level detection with the core mounted on a float and creep tests on elastic materials. This frictionless movement also benefits the mechanical life of the transducer, making the LVDT particularly valuable in applications such as fatigue life testing of materials or structures.This is a distinct advantage over potentiometers which are prone to wear and vibration. The principle of operation of the LVDT, based on mutual inductance between primary and secondary coils, provides the characteristic of infinite resolution. The limitations lie within the signal processing circuitry in combination with the background noise. The principles of operation of the LVDT enables the transducer to be configured in a variety of housings depending on the degree of mechanical protection required. The use of rod end bearings, linear rolling element bearings and flexible conduit, helps the LVDT to survive even the most severe environments. The LVDT principle can also be applied to the measurement of angular position; an RVDT (Rotary Variable Differential Transformer) converts the rotation of a shaft into a proportional electrical output signal. Although the transducer is capable of continuous rotation, a plot of angular rotation against magnitude and phase of the output signal over 360 would result in a complete sinusoidal wavelength response and therefore two null positions. To avoid ambiguity, just one of the null positions is chosen during calibration, providing a typical measurement range of 60. Some key characteristics of the Sensonics LVDT range are as follows. Range Core type Signal connection :2.5mm to 600mm :Sprung, guided or free :End or side exit connector or cable with option of conduit. :Rolling, ball or rod end : -40C to +220C :Submersible (.100m depth) TM :Short body to stroke ratio

Schematic of an LVDT

A magnetic core inside the coil assembly provides a path for the magnetic flux linking the coils. The electrical circuit is configured as above with the secondary coils in series opposition. When an alternating voltage is introduced into the primary coil and the core is centrally located, then an alternating voltage is mutually induced in both secondary coils. The resultant output is zero, as the voltages are equal in amplitude and in 180 opposition to each other. When the core is moved away from the null position the voltage in the coil, toward which the core is moved, increases due to the greater flux linkage and the voltage in the other primary coil decreases due to the lesser flux linkage. The net result is that a differential voltage is produced across the secondary tappings, which varies linearly with change in core position. An equal effect is produced when the core is moved from a null in the other direction but the voltage is 180 different in phase.

Mechanical conn Operating temp Specials

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Core displacement characteristics A range of Sensonics LVDT devices

CHOOSING THE RIGHT TRANSDUCER


Each type of transducer has an area of measurement in which it is particularly useful. In the figure below, the relationship is clearly shown. Note that the velocity curve is constant. Acceleration (the first derivative of velocity) increases with frequency, while displacement (the first integral of velocity) decreases. At 2000Hz (or 120000rpm) this example shows that measuring displacement would be impractical: the signal would be too low. A velocity pick up would be adequate, since the 0.3in/sec velocity produces a substantial voltage. However, the highest voltage level would be produced by an accelerometer. Eddy Probe are used for low frequency measurements (typically dc to 1kHz), and the velocity pick-ups cover the mid-frequency band (10Hz to 2kHz). Accelerometers generally have the widest frequency range and certainly the highest (1Hz to 10kHz typically). In practice, combinations of transducers are employed to supply different types of information simultaneously. For example, an Eddy Probe would be required to measure shaft vibration relative to a bearing housing, while an accelerometer (or velocity pick up) would measure the vibration of the housing itself and the bearing.

TRANSDUCER
Eddy Current probes

ADVANTAGES
Static and dynamic displacement measurements Immune to non-conductive materials such as plastic, wood oil and water Large linear ranges Non-contacting Self-Generating Doesn't require an amplifier Can provide displacement data via integrator Good general purpose vibration transducer Wide frequency range High operating temperature (external electronics) No moving parts Can provide acceleration, velocity or displacement data Infinite resolution Robust High temperature rating Adjustable zero and gain controls

DISADVANTAGES
Requires power supply Calibrated cable length between probe and driver unit

Velocity Transducer

Frequency response limits its lower frequency to 5-10Hz Moving parts make it prone to wear Phase response varies with frequency Requires charge amplifier TM Displacement information normally restricted to greater than 10Hz due to problems of double integration Contacting Limited frequency response

Accelerometer

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LVDT

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MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Absolute vibration
Absolute vibration monitoring is perhaps the primary method of machine health monitoring on steam turbines. The type of transducer used is seismic (ie vibration of turbine relative to earth) and can either be a velocity transducer or an accelerometer. The choice of transducer has been the subject of debate for many years and often the final decision is purely subjective. A number of factors however should be taken into account. The steam turbine is a fairly simple machine when considering vibration signatures.The frequencies of interest are normally from one-half to five times running speed (broadly 25 to 300Hz).The unique high frequency detection capability of the accelerometer is not often used.

Pedestal vibration monitoring

Accelerometer with external electronics for high temperature applications

Vibration monitoring is nearly always in terms of velocity or displacement and can therefore be obtained by an accelerometer or a velocity transducer. Particular care needs to be taken when double integrating an accelerometer signal to provide a displacement measurement. Problems usually occur below 10Hz when double integrating and 5Hz when single integrating. In the frequency ranges normally monitored on steam turbines this is not a problem. These measurement issues can be reduced by integrating the signal at source rather than after running the signal through long cables (ie having picked up noise on route). Accelerometers with built-in stages of integration are available to perform this task as discussed in the previous section. Pedestal vibration is normally measured in the two axes perpendicular to the shaft direction where the bearing is under load, providing complete measurement coverage. In some instances the thrust direction is also monitored depending on turbine configuration. Gas turbines demand high temperature transducers for absolute vibration monitoring (>400 typ). For this reason, a separate charge amplifier is normally utilised, located away from the high temperature environment.

Difficulties can be encountered when monitoring the HP turbine pedestals using accelerometers. The high frequencies generated by steam noise can saturate the amplifier electronics. Filtering the signal prior to the charge amplifier will eliminate the problem but this must be incorporated into the amplifier circuit of an accelerometer with built in electronics. In summary, the velocity transducer is simple and easy to fit to a turbine but has limited frequency and phase response (not a problem in the range 10 to 1000Hz) and requires periodic maintenance.The accelerometer on the other hand requires more careful installation but can then TM be left without maintenance. The velocity transducer has the advantage over the accelerometer of being self generating and not requiring any power supply. On the other hand, the accelerometer has no moving parts and should not require frequent calibration.

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ECCENTRICITY & SHAFT VIBRATION


Eccentricity monitoring can be subdivided into shaft vibration and bent shaft monitoring. Bent shafts normally result when the turbine is stationary and thermal arching or bowing of the shaft occurs or the shaft sags under its own weight. The Turbine is rotated slowly (barring) to prevent this happening or to straighten the shaft after it has occurred. The accurate monitoring of the shaft, both when at full speed and when on barring is therefore vitally important but often requires two techniques to monitor them effectively. At shaft speeds above 300rpm, conventional detection circuits are used but below this speed, analogue meters and recorder traces fluctuate at the frequency being measured. Recorder traces become a blur of ink as the pen bands at the frequency of the barring speed. Detection circuits can be employed that hold the peak value of eccentricity so that a continuous line trace is obtained. In order to monitor gradually decreasing eccentricities, the peak hold function is discharged by 1% per rev using a tacho signal. One of the difficulties encountered when using shaft displacement transducers be they the eddy current probe or the older inductive probes, is the problem of runout. Runout is the error signal generated by mechanical, electrical or metallurgical irregularities of the shaft surface.These error signals are generally of a low magnitude in comparison to the vibration signal and are often at a much higher frequency. The graphs illustrate that misalignment effects are readily ignored through utilising the peak to peak measurements of eccentricity. When higher frequency components are present (e.g hammer marks) the RMS value is more representative. Sensonics have developed a dual path eccentricity module to specifically eliminate the effects of marks and dents on the shaft. The module utilises a speed signal derived from a second probe to actively tune the low pass elliptical filter response of the eccentricity unit to remove the high frequency components of the eccentricity waveform.This provides accurate peak measurements, particularly at low barring speeds and is effective through the full speed range. To ensure that all the shaft vibration data is captured, probes mounted in the X and Y axis are normally used. Probes are invariably mounted at the 0 and 90 points or at the 315 and 45 points. The eddy current probe measures displacement in the plane of its own axis only. Displacement vibration perpendicular to the probe axis is not measured.

Typical probe mounting configuration

Measuring eccentricity with runout using RMS or peak to peak detection

The 315 and 45 points are used to avoid the half joints of the bearings and to ensure that when bearings are removed the probes are removed along with them. This moves the probes away from possible mechanical damage when the turbine is being worked on.

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Measuring lower frequency signals using RMS or peak detection

Eddy current probes monitoring vibration at 45 and 315 Points

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ROTOR DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION & SHAFT POSITION


The eddy current probe, as well as providing ac vibratory information, also provides dc information of the probe to target gap. This makes it ideal for measuring rotor to casing differential expansion via a non-contact method. The eddy current probe and the measurement of differential expansion are governed by a series of empirical relationships. The linear measurement range of an eddy current probe is approximately one third of its coil diameter as shown earlier. The ideal flat target area for an eddy current probe to observe is twice the coil diameter. Therefore the ideal target size for an eddy current probe is six times the linear measurement range.

Probes monitoring differential expansion by observing a tapered collar

For differential measurement ranges of 25mm a target of 100mm is therefore required. This large target size is often impractical to fit. It is also often the case when retrofitting differential expansion systems that the existing collar is much smaller than that ideally required. The illustrations opposite show the effect of a less than ideal target on the output of an eddy current probe. To overcome this problem and obtain a linear output the probe electronics can either be calibrated in-situ or supplied pre-calibrated with a non-linear output. This non-linear output becomes linear when the probe is fitted in-situ. Eddy probe drivers are normally precalibrated to give a linear output when observing an ideal target. The diagram opposite illustrates a disc type eddy current probe measuring movement against a flat collar, the limitations in terms of target area can clearly be seen.

One option to overcome this limitation is to reduce the size of the probe and therefore obtain a more linear output against the fixed target area, in combination with measuring both sides of the collar. However, this push pull technique does require some simple arithmetic within the signal conditioning units to generate the correct expansion measurement.

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Another technique utilised in measuring differential expansion is to use tapered rather than flat collars.The use of tapered collars fitted to the turbine shaft enables longer linear ranges to be obtained. A 1 in 10 taper enables an axial expansion of 10 times the normal range of the probe to be measured. A problem arises however if there is any radial movement eg if the shaft moves 100 micrometers within the bearings, this is incorrectly seen as 10 x 100 micrometers (ie 1mm) of differential expansion. To overcome this, two eddy probes are fitted. Thus two unknowns can be easily solved by two simultaneous equations through software manipulation.

It is also possible to measure differential expansion or axial movement with a small range probe using a mark space technique. This principle operates on detecting movement in special plates attached to the turbine shaft. The shaft target pattern consists of a number of pairs of teeth and slots surrounding the shaft and rotating with it. Each pair of teeth are tapered axially such that alternate teeth taper in the opposite directions, the narrow parallel slot between the teeth being at an angle to the shaft axis. There is a wider parallel slot between each pair of teeth to allow the system to identify each pair. When the shaft rotates, the voltage pulses produced by the proximity probe and driver, have a tooth to slot pulse width ratio dependant upon the axial relationship between the shaft pattern and the probe position. The probe is mounted on a fixed part of the machine so variations in pulse width ratio are a measure of shaft axial position. The shaft pattern is illustrated below.

Two probes monitoring expansion by observing a tapered collar

Travel = Normalised Range x T3+T4 + Offset T1+T2 +T3+ T4 Normalised range is the total travel range divided by the pulse width ratio range determined from each travel extreme.

A further complication arises when the casing holding the eddy probes is subjected to twisting as can happen if slides start to stick (see below). A further two eddy current probes are then required to give a correct reading of differential expansion.

The Sensonics Sentry machine protection MO8612 module is suitable for this type of monitoring. The module exhibits a self-tracking threshold level, which ensures that the width of the signal pulses are measured at the optimum position within the pulse height. The unit is pre-programmed with specific plate patterns that can be selected to suit applications.The number of plates on the mark-space wheel is also an important parameter; when correctly set up this enables the module to minimise plate wobble through the implementation of TM can also be averaging algorithms. Customised patterns entered into the module. Since this technique measures axial movement based upon the ratio between detected pulses, it is immune to shaft movement in any other direction. This is a distinct advantage over the other techniques detailed in this section. A large expansion range can also be measured with a low cost probe through the fitting of the appropriate plate pattern, several centimetres if necessary, which would be impossible to achieve with a shaft collar.

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Four probes monitoring expansion by observing a tapered collar

14

SPEED - OVERSPEED - ZERO SPEED MONITORING


The eddy current probe as well as being used for shaft vibration and differential expansion can also be used as a speed monitoring transducer. The eddy current probe gives a large voltage output, which is independent of shaft speed. A pulsed signal is obtained by observing a projection, a slot or series of slots. The size of the slot need only be 16mm wide by less than 0.25mm deep. The speed at which the turbine trips is obtained by a display freeze on external contact closure.This contact closure is obtained by a micro-switch on the governor valves or some similar method. The maximum turbine speed is obtained by a sample and hold circuit within the speed monitor. It is imperative however during the screen freezing or peak holding, that the recorder output follows the speed uninterrupted. A zero speed facility can also be incorporated in a speed monitoring system or by a separate system entirely. A zero speed facility works by measuring the period between two pulses. When the period exceeds the selected zero speed time limit an alarm is initiated. Zero speed periods range from 1 second (60 rpm) to 300 seconds (0.2 rpm). Alarm voting within speed trip systems is a common technique. Typically 2 out of 3 or 2 out of 4 voting methods are used, where multiple measurement heads around a single toothed wheel, generate individual trip alarms, which are further processed to generate a plant trip if any two signals are simultaneously valid. These type of systems also incorporate self test facilities that enable signal injection on individual speed channels for trip verification as well as testing the admissible trip combinations; A+C, A+D, B+C and B+D as an example for a 2 out of 4 system. The test rack provides key switch facilities to enable on load testing. This provides an interlock mechanism, which prevents two channels from being selected at the same time. A typical 3-channel system is illustrated below:-

Effect of slot width on eddy probe output

The number of slots used is dependent on the minimum speed required. Most phase locked loops have a minimum operating frequency. This lower frequency is approximately 4Hz. In order to measure a minimum speed of say 1Hz ie 60 rpm, 4 pulses are required and at 30 rpm, 8 pulses are required. For monitoring of speeds above 240 rpm one pulse/rev is sufficient. The eddy current probe can work using specially fitted speed wheels or by observing an already fitted gear wheel. Where gear teeth are less than 16mm thick then a lower voltage swing output signal is obtained as shown above. Most speed monitors have a conventional 4 or 5 digit display and have a number of alarm set points.The update time of the display should be such as to give a steady reading but respond fast enough to speed changes. An update time of 1 second is sufficient for on load and run-ups but is usually insufficient for overspeed testing. A speed monitor that has a faster update time when in overspeed mode is an advantage: typically 100 milliseconds. When carrying out overspeed testing, to set the emergency stop valves, two speed readings are required:a) The speed at which the turbine trips b) The maximum turbine speed reached.

TM

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Turbine speed profile 3-channel overspeed trip system

15

CASING & CYLINDER EXPANSION


These techniques require a larger measurement range than can be offered through standard proximity probe equipment, the necessary probe target is also not easy to achieve. This is where LVDTs are used to provide the expansion measurements required. A total range of 50mm usually suffices and the various mounting options available with LVDTs makes installation straightforward. The movement of the turbine pedestals on the cylinder sole plates is a relatively easy measurement to make requiring an LVDT mounted on the turbine and the extension rod fixed or sprung onto the slides. The environment is not hostile although care must be taken to prevent mechanical damage to the transducer. Turbine cylinder crabbing, movement of the cylinder in the horizontal plane on the cylinder sole plates, is monitored at the cylinder front and rear by two pairs of LVDT transducers mounted so that one pair is to the cylinder front outer corners and one pair to the rear corners. The outputs of a pair of LVDT transducers are summated and conditioned by an arithmetic unit to determine movement and to give a single output, which is displayed in the control room as cylinder crabbing.

Rotor to casing expansion


It is also possible by a combination of two different techniques to monitor the rotor to casing expansion by measuring the rotor and casing movement separately with respect to the bearing pedestal and adding or subtracting to achieve the rotor to casing displacement. This is particularly relevant when the rotor differential expansion, carried out typically by a proximity probe, cannot be referenced to the casing through fixed mechanical connection. Sensonics Sentry range provides a solution through the use of an LVDT module for the casing expansion and a displacement module for the rotor expansion. An additional process module is implemented to calculate the relative displacement. This configuration is illustrated below.

LVDT monitoring cylinder casing expansion

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The inner to outer cylinder measurement requires a much higher degree of sealing within the transducer against moisture as the measurement is made inside each outer cylinder. The transducer body is mounted on a bracket.This is adjustable for initial setting up and calibration against the inside structure of the outer cylinder in such a position that the spring loaded core is held at approximately mid travel against a point on the inner cylinder. Expansion of either inner or outer cylinder with respect to the other, changes the relative position of the LVDT core, giving a change in output to the position monitoring instruments.

TM

Understanding the relative positions of the LP rotor and casing is extremely important, as contact of these parts can be catastrophic. This is most critical on run-up and run-down, where the expansion between the shaft and casing is occurring at different rates.

VALVE POSITION MONITORING


The Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is ideally suited for valve position monitoring. In this type of application the LVDT is used to provide positional feedback to the governor control system to effect a closed loop system. The electrical properties of the LVDT therefore play a key role in determining the system response. Linearity is obviously key as well as a robust construction with flexible mounting options. AC type devices (as opposed to DC) are exclusively used for this type of application, which permit long cable runs and offset adjustment with gain control.The picture below shows a heavy industrial LVDT utilised in a valve position application. The LVDT is usually driven by a 3kHz oscillator which enables frequencies up to 300Hz to be monitored, permitting a fast closed loop response within the control system. Drive electronics can also be combined with signal conditioning functions to provide various forms of positional information in addition to alarm triggering and process outputs. A twelve channel Sensonics Aegis system is illustrated below.

Aegis valve position monitoring system

The Aegis system offers a high integrity low cost multichannel monitoring solution in a compact 3U, 19 rack format. The system utilises a common display to view positional information as well as to set up the dual level alarm trip facilities. Each module excites an LVDT with a sinusoidal 3.0kHz waveform of fixed magnitude. The construction of the LVDT provides a feedback signal to the module via inductance in to the secondary windings from the primary dependant on stroke position. The centre of the stroke range is normally the null point. The module performs rectification of the secondary induced signal converting to relative displacement.The module is usually configured to show a percentage of the total stroke length required. Calibration is achieved once the LVDT transducer is installed and the zero displacement point can be determined; this is then set on the module. The LVDT is then stroked to its maximum travel and the unit adjusted to display 100% displacement. It is also possible to display actual distance through the addition of a scaling factor. The module also has a calibrate function which can be enabled remotely. Once in calibration mode the transducer signal is disconnected and replaced with the calibration signal which is common to all units within the rack. The calibration signal is normally set to be 50% of the stroke length, therefore the standard analogue outputs available (4-20mA, 0-5V) canTM be confirmed as mid range. The rack also has a common reset facility to clear all latched alarms, which can be operated remotely in conjunction with the calibration function for alarm trip testing. As well as two sets of relay contacts per channel for the dual level alarms, (configurable for both positive and negative going alarms) each module also has a transducer integrity relay. This will indicate a fault if either the primary or secondary windings exhibit a continuity problem or short to earth.

Heavy industrial LVDT monitoring valve position

The usual LVDTs for this application have universal joints at each fixing point. This feature allows for any lateral movement as well as being a positive fixing. Other options include rod end types, which tend to be spring-loaded but not suitable for this type of application since spring loaded LVDTs are subject to bouncing when the valve is hunting or oscillating. Mounting of the LVDT is also critical to the application custom bracketry may be necessary to position the transducer, away from locations where high temperature steam leaks or vents occur. Although the Sensonics range of devices operate up to 180C the life of the LVDT can be extended by minimising these temperature extremes. The LVDT drive electronics would normally be mounted locally (up to 100 metres) either in a weatherproof housing or in a modular rack assembly.The use of external electronics has a number of advantages over internal electronics.

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1. LVDT operating temperature increased to 220C 2. Setting up is made easier as zero and gain controls are accessible. 3. Local 4-20mA output can be made available.

17

AUXILIARY PLANT MONITORING


Fan & Pump Monitoring
The majority of rotary fan and pump systems can be broken down in to three categories; direct coupled, gearbox coupled and belt coupled. Each of these systems will exhibit a unique set of failure modes between the motor and shaft interface. Faults at the blade or driven unit interface are common across the various configurations. of teeth, as well as harmonics of this. Although in some cases gear hunting problems can generate frequencies 1/10th to 1/20th shaft speed. It is also important on gearbox monitoring to differentiate between tooth faults and shaft/bearing faults. For better diagnostics, a once per shaft revolution pulse is sometimes required.

Unbalanced Fan or Pump


This is likely to be caused by a build up of debris on the blades over time and can put stresses on to other system components. Depending on the amount of imbalance, this generally results in high levels of vibration and can be detected using accelerometers fitted on both the fan/pump bearing and the motor bearing.The typical vibration frequency of the unbalance would be at the shaft rotating frequency. If the problem affects all blades then the frequency would be the shaft rotational speed multiplied by the number of blades.

Worn / Loose belts


Generates vibration frequencies of 2x, 3x & 4x the belt frequency, normally 2x being the dominant peak and amplitudes are usually erratic.

Eccentric Pulleys/Sheaves & Misalignment


These problems all cause high levels of vibration at the rotating frequency. If misalignment is the problem, the highest vibration is usually at the fan/pump end and in the axial direction (eccentric vibration is normally in line with the belt).

Journal Bearing Defects


Like all bearings, sealed bearings will fail over time. Premature failure can be the result of insufficient or contaminated lubrication, as well as excessive operating temperatures. The failure will cause elevated levels of vibration at the shaft frequency and the vibration spectrum signature will normally be high in shaft frequency harmonics. The bearing will typically run at a higher temperature during the early stages of failure. Fitting a sensor offering both vibration and temperature detection is the ideal.Vibration can also be measured by monitoring the shaft transverse movement with proximity probes, if access to the bearing is difficult.

Belt Resonance
This is normally detected as a small peak of vibration of regular frequency and amplitude and should only be a problem if the frequency coincides with the motor or fan/pump rotating frequency.

Monitoring Solutions
A low cost, effective solution, for the protection and monitoring of single or multiple units is to have vibration transducers, temperature sensors and eddy current probes (for shaft vibration, eccentricity or thrust wear) feeding into a local unit with signal conditioning.The Sensonics DN range of products is ideal for this type of application Din Rail Mountable Buffered Sensor O/P LCD Display Alert & Danger Alarms Integrity Alarm 4-20mA per channel

Roller or Ball Bearing Defects


As above, the same causes of failure apply, although for roller or ball bearings, manufacturing defects do play a larger role in premature failure mechanisms.Vibration monitoring again is the best method of detection, although the exact signature of failure is dependent not only on the rotational speed but also the bearing race dimensions and configuration. Usually these defects are best detected by using shock transducers mounted directly on the bearing housings.

Misalignment
This type of problem normally occurs following incorrect assembly of the system components. eg misalignment between the shaft, motor and driven unit.This is normally detected through bearing vibration monitoring, ideally utilising both horizontal and vertical mounted transducers.The typical vibration frequency would be 1, 2, or 3 times the shaft speed depending on the exact nature of the misalignment.

The DN2601 is capable of independently monitoring two channels of vibration, allowing user configurable alarm windows for the switching of internal contacts to raise a warning or to trip the fan or pump. The outputs can be TM from a remote used to log/view the pump/fan condition location (either by analogue current/voltage outputs or by a comms link). The DN2604 offers both vibration and temperature monitoring in a single DIN rail mountable unit; this in combination with Sensonics PZAT range of dual sensors (vibration and temperature) forms a very cost effective solution. Speed measurement with Overspeed protection is available in the DN2608 module configuration.

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Gearbox Coupled Type
Apart from the bearing monitoring detailed above, gear tooth faults can also be detected at an early stage, using accelerometers mounted directly on the gearbox casing. The typical vibration frequency of a tooth fault can be detected at the shaft frequency multiplied by the number

18

INTRODUCTION TO API STANDARD 670


The American Petroleum Institute has developed a range of standards to assist users in the procurement of standardised systems of equipment for various applications. One standard particularly relevant to the monitoring of rotating equipment is the API Standard 670 covering Machinery Protection Systems, which has become heavily adopted by industry. The standard details the following measuring techniques:Casing Vibration Radial Shaft Vibration Shaft Axial Position Shaft Rotational Speed Piston Rod Drop Phase Reference Overspeed Critical Machinery Temperatures The standard also covers the transducer & monitoring equipment requirements as well as installation, commissioning and documentation. The majority of the above techniques have been discussed in previous sections. The standard details a clear set of mechanical and electrical properties for both accelerometers and eddy current proximity probes. Adherence by manufacturers to these specifications assist the user in finding several sources for the same component (form, fit and function), as well as a robust product designed for the monitoring of heavy industrial machinery. Parameters detailed include; sensitivity, dynamic range, operating temperature range, accuracy, mechanical mounting options, connector and cabling standards, immunity to shock, etc. The Sensonics range of vibration transducers and eddy current proximity probes both conform to the API 670 standard. In terms of the monitoring system philosophy, the focus is of course on protection, detailing the appropriate measurement technique and associated system elements to form a multi-channel system with high integrity, minimising the effects of single point failures. The standard generally specifies that a single circuit board failure shall not affect more than two channels of measurement. The key concepts are as follows. Sensonics Sentry Machine Protection System conforms to the API 670 standard. A typical Sentry rack configuration is pictured below.

Sentry Machine Protection System

For each of the measurement options detailed opposite, not only is the equipment specification important but also the installation technique. The majority of the complexity and difficulty involves the transducer mounting and cabling. Each application is normally unique, the 670 standard details various standard approaches that can be implemented. Important elements to consider include access to the transducer for servicing or replacement, termination to a suitable local junction box, the selection of armoured cable with or without additional conduit for either isolation or mechanical protection, cable segregation, grounding techniques etc.

Protection Systems Incorporating Voting


To build on the good practice underpinned by the API 670 standard, some applications require extreme reliability and also safe failure in the event of a fault. Where the system has a direct impact on safety, IEC 61508 can be applied to determine the required Safety Integrity Level or SIL rating. The rating can be between 1 and 4, with 4 being the most stringent. The 61508 standard defines a methodology for the protection system from concept through to decommissioning, the complete life cycle. To determine system suitability for such an application, the backbone of the analysis is a failure mode and effect analysis; carried out to determine the probability of a failure on demand as well the percentage of safe failure modes. This will determine the SIL rating.

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Voted systems can provide enhanced system reliability in combination with a high degree of failure detection, Integral display indicating measurement & status therefore quite suitable for SIL rated applications, which may be a requirement because of a commercial impact Monitoring resolution of 2% full scale (ie unnecessary shutdown) rather than safety alone. Adjustments for alarm set points and scaling TM Channel fault monitoring Two out of three majority voting has already been Buffered transducer outputs discussed with respect to turbine overspeed protection. It is possible to implement more complex schemes Digital output of measured variables and through the logical combination of many measurement channel configuration parameters, such as a turbine high vibration trip system Isolated / non isolated 4-20mA per channel where pedestal bearing vibration alarms are processed to Alert and danger setpoints for each channel only trip under a specific combination, thus reducing the effect of spurious events and transducer failures. Further Relay for each setpoint with programmable voting can be added to the alarm processing hardware to delay ensure complete system robustness, any voted decision is Alarm defeat for system integrity testing positive detection of a system failure. Power supply protection

SPECIAL TECHNIQUES ROD DROP


Rod Drop is an ingenious measurement technique for increasing the productivity of industrial plant by providing a reliable and accurate warning of rider band wear on reciprocating compressors, thus eliminating the need to shutdown the machine for inspection. The Sensonics system consists of a special type of eddy current proximity probe (non-contacting displacement sensor) and a real time monitor module, which measures the vertical position of the rod and calculates the wear on the rider bands. This measuring method is a well-proven technique; equipment to do this has been available for many years. The Sensonics system is different in that the probe used has a dramatically increased measurement range, which allows a different monitoring philosophy to be utilised. Traditionally, rod drop monitoring systems have been confined to using standard eddy current probes with a measuring range of just 2mm, which is often not sufficient to cover the full range of lateral (or radial) movement of the connecting rod on most types of machine. This has meant that monitoring system designers have had to utilise a snap shot measuring technique where the vertical position of the rod is measured instantaneously at the same point on each cycle of the machine. This measurement is usually triggered by a pulse from a second eddy current proximity probe looking at a single phase reference slot on the crankshaft.This measuring method relies on the assumption that the rods position is identical from one stroke to the next except for the gradual change in position caused by rider band wear. Research has shown that this is often not the case and in fact each rod stroke cannot always be guaranteed to be repeatable, which is often a cause of inaccuracy in the calculated rod drop reading. The Sensonics system uses a 4mm range probe (in the standard 8mm body) and is therefore able to measure the position of the rod throughout its 360 stroke (even where the rod is coated with ceramic).This in turn enables the monitor to calculate the true mean position of the rod more accurately and give a truly reliable measurement of the rider band wear. Due to the increased measurement range, the unit can also provide a peak to peak vibration measurement which can provide additional information on the machinery health. The Sensonics system was first installed at a chemical plant in the UK, alongside numerous traditional rod drop monitoring systems. Twelve months later the operating staff reported that the new system was 100% reliable and a vast improvement.They have since replaced their old equipment with the new Sensonics system. The system is not just for monitoring rod drop; casing vibration and valve temperature can also be incorporated for early warning of other types of mechanical fault. Fitted through the distance box of the compressor, the small size of the probe means that the Sentry system can be economically retrofitted to installed machines of any make in the field with minimal modification.The whole system can be installed and commissioned from scratch in less time than it takes to strip the machine to take a traditional rider band wear measurement. As illustrated opposite, compressor systems are complex machines and several techniques are normally utilised for machine health monitoring. An effective additional method to rod drop is to fit an impact sensor above the piston housing to detect transient vibration events generated from cracked parts, leaks or general machine wear. Conventional vibration monitoring is excellent for detecting sinusoidal vibration events due to unbalance or bearing wear. However for reciprocating compressors, the transient shock and impact events are key, therefore simple RMS evaluation techniques cannot determine suitable trip levels for plant protection. The impact sensor in combination with a suitable monitor can count the number and magnitude of shock TM events providing a more reasonable metric to enable effective plant shutdown.

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A typical compressor with rod drop

20

ROD DROP MONITORING SYSTEM

Typical Components of a Rod Drop system

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Probe type AECP04 This is the sensing element of the system, with a measuring range of 4mm, 1 off is required for each cylinder. Probes are supplied with 500mm unarmoured cable and integral connector. Probe Holder type ECPH Aluminium body (standard) or ECPH stainless steel body (when required). 1 off is required for each probe. This item is fitted through the distance box of the compressor and holds the probe at the correct position over the surface of the rod. Adjustment of the probe position is possible from outside the distance box by the mechanism of the probe holder. The length of the insertion piece can be from 30mm to 300mm max. Extension Cable type AEXC Connects the probe to the driver unit. As a tuned system, extension cables are available in certain set lengths, choice of length is entirely dependent on the machine layout and positioning of the driver housing. Driver Unit type AD8 This unit conditions and amplifies the signal from the probe. Driver Housing type DH Series Basically a junction box that holds the driver unit. If the layout of the compressor allows, then 2 drivers can be housed in 1 box. Standard unit is painted steel, (SS an option) sealed to IP66 and supplied with stuffing glands for probe cables. Interconnecting Cable to connect the drivers signals to the monitors. We recommend BS5308 armoured individually screened twisted pair cable. This is best supplied locally although Sensonics can provide it if required. Zener Barriers for Intrinsically Safe applications. Note the barriers and monitors need to be mounted in non-hazardous areas. Monitor Module type M08604 provides a display, outputs and alarms for compressor rod drop. Modules are dual TM a scaling factor for channel and so one is required for every two probes or cylinders. Each module is programmed with a particular compressor. Rack type RA8606 Standard 19 rack to hold up to 6 dual channel monitor modules. Can be panel mounted or to fit standard 19 enclosures. Blank Panels type MO8600 for spare positions in racks. Sentry Set Up Software is used to configure the monitor modules (the most commonly used functions eg alarm levels, etc can be adjusted from the front panel of the monitor module without the need for the set-up software). A Communications Cable is also provided to connect a laptop PC to the module for set up purposes.

SPECIALTECHNIQUES RUNDOWN MONITORING


Cracked rotor shafts have plagued nearly all turbine manufacturers (and of course their users) to a greater or lesser extent over the years, due to the costly and disruptive problems they cause.Vibration monitoring via pedestal vibration or eccentricity is not appropriate as it is not good when it comes to detecting cracked shafts at the early stage required. In order for a crack to be detected by vibration monitoring alone the size of the crack will be approaching 20 to 30% and by this point the shaft will have to be scrapped. This late diagnosis can however be avoided so that future planning can take into account predictions of the shafts life-span. A more sophisticated technique than simply monitoring the overall or frequency components of shaft vibration must be adopted to detect shaft cracks at such an early stage. When a crack appears in a shaft it affects the stiffness of that shaft. The stiffness of the shaft is dependant upon the width of the crack.When the crack is at the top, the weight of the rotor forces the crack to close and when the crack is at the bottom, the weight of the rotor causes it to open.Therefore during one revolution of a shaft with a crack in it, the stiffness varies according to the cracks position. The varying stiffness as the shaft rotates means that the deflections are not proportional to the forces causing them.This varying stiffness/deflection causes harmonics of the running speed to be generated. When one of these harmonics coincides with a rotor critical, as it is in the case of a run-up or run-down, the vibration response at that frequency changes. A run-down spectra of a cracked shaft will therefore show a change in response at a frequency corresponding to one of the known critical speeds when the rotor is actually spinning at one-half, one-third etc of that critical speed. This allows a crack to be spotted when it is a fraction of the size of a crack spotted using vibration monitoring alone and therefore long before the shaft has to be replaced. Trending of vibration data is an extremely valuable tool for machine health monitoring. Not only does it indicate problems but it enables estimates to be made as to when the problem will become serious enough for the machine to be taken out of service. Trending of vibration data however requires the machine trend data to be taken when machine conditions are identical.The diagrams below show that even when there are relatively small changes in the turbine load, the vibration spectra are markedly different. Trending also becomes difficult when the vibration signature of the machine is constantly changing, due not only to generator load but a number of factors including steam conditions. Conditions between a number of rundowns do however remain constant so comparison between rundown signatures provides valid trending data.

Typical run-down plot of vibration

Run-down plot from a turbine with cracked rotor

TM

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spectum from steam turbine at two different loads

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SPECIALTECHNIQUES ORBIT ANAL YSIS


When two eddy probes are looking at a stationary shaft at 90 degrees to each other and displayed on the X and Y plates of an oscilloscope, an illuminated dot will appear on the CRT. This dot represents the centre-line of the shaft and will be seen to move in relation to the position of the shaft. At slow roll the shaft centre-line will appear as a discrete dot but as the speed is increased, the centre-line of the shaft is represented as a continuous circle known as a Lissajous figure. This is the actual shaft movement within the bearings. If this Lissajous figure is projected onto the screen with a phase reference on the Z axis input then it is known as an orbit. By aligning the phase marker transducer and the phase marker key way or projection, one can read off the high spot of the shaft. Below the first critical, this high spot indicates the position of unbalance and trial weight needs to be added at 180. Above the first critical this high spot indicates the position at which the trial weight should be added.

Shaft Pre-load (Misalignment Aerodynamic Forces - Elliptical Bearings)


A pre-load is defined as a directional load or force applied to the rotating shaft. The immediate result of preload is to force the shaft into one sector of a bearing and results in non-linear restraint.This is where the spring constant is much higher in the opposite direction to the pre-load than in the perpendicular direction to the preload.This produces the classical twice per rev frequency associated with misalignment. This can be seen below:-

The orbit and its resultant shape under various conditions can be used to augment machinery surveillance and analysis. Certain machine conditions produce certain orbit shapes, thus a knowledge of the orbit can lead to detection of machine conditions. As the orbit is a direct display of the output from eddy probes any run-out be it electrical or mechanical will also be displayed. For meaningful orbit displays, then run-out should be minimised. The conditions that cause classical orbit shapes are as follows:Shaft-Unbalance Oil Whirl Shaft Pre-load Oil Whip Shaft Bow Shaft Rubbing

Orbit from machine with misalignment

Oil Whirl
The oil film within a sleeve bearing normally flows around with the journal surface to lubricate and cool the bearing. Film flow occurs because of oil shear viscosity.The speed of this oil film flow is slightly less than half the speed of the journal surface. During normal stable rotor conditions, the oil film separates at 180 from the minimum oil thickness. However, when Oil Whirl occurs there is an oil film around the 360 of the bearing. The orbit in the case of Oil Whirl is characterised below.The phase markers are approximately 180 apart and because it is slightly less than 180 the orbit is seen to slowly rotate in the direction opposite to that of rotation.This counter rotation is due to the sub-synchronous frequency of the TM Whirl at 43% to 46% of rotational speed.

Shaft Unbalance
An orbit which is essentially circular is usually generated by an unbalanced condition. It is the phase reference marker that indicates the high spot at any particular time and the dimensions of the orbit on the display that give an indication of the magnitude of unbalance.

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Shaft unbalance orbit showing position of high spot Orbit showing oil whirl

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BRACKETRY
It is vital when mounting transducers that the bracket itself and the fixing of the bracket is rigid. An insufficiently stiff bracket will resonate in the frequency range which is being measured and false readings of vibration will result. A robust method of mounting eddy current proximity probes is illustrated below.

An API670 probe holder

Note: A crude but effective test of the resonant frequency of a transducer and bracket is to attach the output of the transducer to a spectrum analyser and monitor the output when struck with a steel hammer. The mechanical configuration of disk probes permit large measurement ranges to be achieved against a shaft collar where mounting space is at a premium. However, without appropriate adjustment, the gapping process is virtually impossible. The disk probe bracket below operates on a sliding plate principle in combination with a thumb wheel to allow accurate setting up of the probe.

The above configuration of probe holder is used almost exclusively with reverse mount probes with an 8mm tip diameter and measurement range of up to 4mm. Since the probe is threaded up in to the extension piece no further adjustment at this point can be achieved, therefore the definition of length L is critical in offering the probe to the shaft. The top section of this extension piece is threaded to permit fine adjustment and therefore appropriate gapping of the probe to the target. The mounting thread for the holder can be either standard imperial or NPT (tapered), which forms a tight seal when tightened. If a standard thread is utilised and a seal is required on the shaft housing an additional O ring should be fitted on a suitably prepared mounting face. This type of holder permits robust signal cabling methods to be applied to the installation. The probe extension cable is routed from the driver unit and connects with the probe in the main housing body. This allows flexible conduit or armoured cable options to be utilised whilst retaining an IP66 rating and protecting the probe RF cables.

TM

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Right angled disk probe bracket

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CUBICLE PANELS

Cubicles are an important part of the turbine supervisory system, forming a central location for the mounting of the instrumentation for collective display as well as terminating the transducer signal cables in the appropriate manner, earthing screens and centralising the communications hub to the DCS. When drawing up a specification for a cubicle, consideration should be given to the following points: Free standing or wall mounted? Dimensions of cubicle? Top or bottom cable entry? Isolated or grounded gland plate? Lifting bolts required? Anti-vibration pads to be fitted? Plinth required? IP sealing required? Number of spare terminals? Ferrule system to be adopted? Internal cable sizes? Segregation of terminals required? Cubicle earthing requirements? Canopy for protection against running water to be fitted? Removable or fixed gland plate or gland box? Paint colour internally and externally? Glass or steel front door? (specify type of glass.) Removable or fixed internal front panels? Number of signal conditioning units to be fitted? Number of incoming and outgoing cables? (specify number of cores) Spring loaded, standard or terminals with test points? Isolation/distribution switch or fused mains power supply? Type of crimped terminals to be fitted? How many electrical supplies to cubicle and of what type? Automatic mains changeover required? Door operated or hand light switch? TM Type and number of mains sockets inside cubicle - if required? Anti-condensation heater or cooling fans required? Automatic fire extinguisher required?

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Labelling requirements for: Front of cubicle Fuses Rear of signal Terminal rails Conditioning racks Internal electrical fittings Mimic diagram

25

SEISMIC MONITORING & PROTECTION EQUIPMENT


As well as our turbine supervisory equipment, we supply seismic sensors for power plants. For many, particularly nuclear stations, monitoring earth movement is as important for safety reasons as monitoring the turbines themselves. Sensonics are the leading supplier of Seismic Monitoring and Protection systems to the UK Nuclear Industry. We offer a range of equipment, which can be scaled to meet the most complex requirements. Integrity and robustness is key to our system concept, offering protected power supply configurations and custom indication panels as well as alarm voting racks suitable for safety critical applications. The systems provide a secure and extremely dependable seismic alarm to the site operational staff, allowing rapid shutdown of plant processes in a controlled manner.
The key system components are as follows:-

Voting Rack - Offering multi-channel two out of three alarm voting. Utilising either robust electromechanical devices or triplicated programmable logic with self-fault diagnosis. Recorder Robust PC with embedded operating system, contains on board non-volatile memory for program operation and event data storage. Annunciator For local alarm indication and reset facilities. Key operated interlocks and alarm defeat

facilities provide additional system robustness. Calibrator Activates individual transducer self test facility for complete system integrity check. UPS Typically configured in a dual redundant PSU configuration and available with various hold up times dependant on system load. Qualifications - Seismic qualification to IEEE Std 3441987, EMC approval to Def Stan 59-41.

REFERENCE SITES
With over a thousand TSE systems installed within the power sector alone, Sensonics can provide references from most of the major station operators worldwide. Please contact Sensonics for references regarding the monitoring and protection of the following plant:-

Turbine & Generator


Absolute and Relative Vibration Thrust, Casing & Differential Expansion Eccentricity, Speed & Overspeed Infrastructure Monitoring Voted Protection Systems

Boiler Feed Pump


Absolute Vibration Voted Protection Speed, Overspeed & Reverse Rotation

Milling Plant
Absolute Vibration Impact Monitoring

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Fans, Motors & Pumps
Absolute and Relative Vibration Thrust & Speed Temperature Impact

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PZS

PZP

PZV

type

Aegis

PZHT

PZDC

Sentry

VEL-G

Sensor Range

DN2600

Plant Scan

Spyder Net Measurement and Features Absolute Vibration Relative Vibration Eccentricity Thrust / Movement Speed Temperature Differential Exp Rod drop LVDT Multiple Voting Bearing Element RS232 / RS485 TCP / IP Ethernet Alarm Relays 4 20mA Din Rail Mt Rack Mount Measurement and Features Accel 10 500mV/g Velocity 4mV/mm/s Vel up to 20mV/mm/s Velocity 4 20mA Charge 100pC/g Temperature 120C Temperature 140C Temperature 200C Temperature 240C Top Exit Side Exit ATEX Approved Triaxial Version Connector Version Armoured Cable Conduit Version Broadband <0.5Hz 2-Wire Constant Current

Sensor selection matrix

Monitor selection matrix

QUICK PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE

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8 Channel Vibration or process inputs with internal trending

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2/4/8 Channel Configurations of Vibration and Temperature

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SENSORS & SYSTEMS

SENSONICS PRODUCT RANGE


For all your turbine supervisory needs

KEEPING INDUSTRY TURNING

Industrial Accelerometers and Velocity Transducers Eddy Current Proximity Probe Systems LVDT Displacement Transducers & Conditioning Units SENTRY Programmable API 670 Machine Protection System AEGIS Machine Condition Monitoring System SpyderNet Remote Multichannel Machine Monitoring Series in DIN Rail Mountable Format with in-built Webserver. PLANTSCAN Multi Channel Wall Mounted Vibration Monitor VIBCHECK Hand Held Vibration Monitor Seismic Transducers and Protection Systems Customised Cubicle Design Turnkey System Design and Implementation Maintenance and Support Services Calibration and Refurbishment

Due to Sensonics policy of constant improvement, designs may be subject to alteration without notice.

To order or request a sample or further information

Call Sensonics NOW on: +44 (0) 1442 876833 or FAX us on: +44 (0) 1442 876477
or email on: sales@sensonics.co.uk www.sensonics.co.uk

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Cert. No. FM26920

Sensonics Ltd, Northbridge Road, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire HP4 1EF England Telephone: +44 (0) 1442 876833 Facsimile: +44 (0) 1442 876477 email on: sales@sensonics.co.uk

If you are at all unsure about any application of the Sensonics products & systems please do not hesitate to call our technical sales department, who will be delighted to offer advice without obligation.