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ABSTRACT

Pile foundation are used extensively for the support for the support of bridges and other structures to safely transfer structural loads to the ground and to avoid excess settlement or lateral movement.They are very effective in transferring structural loads through weak or compressible soil layers into the more compentent soils and rocks below.Pile foundations are the part of structure.Pile foundation is that type of deep foundation in which the loads are taken to a low level by means of vertical members which may be of timber,concrete or steel.The term pile foundation is used to describe a construction for the foundation of bridges pierswhich in turn is supported on the piles.The piles may be placed separately or they may be placed in a group.The piles are generally driven vertically or near vertical position. Project reports contains introductions and problems definition.It also contains literature review of project.It includes location of study area and project site.It also includes brief details of equipment used on the site and its cost.Project report also contains geotechnical investigation of soil and mix design.It also includes important activities such as marking the center line,boring,lowering of reinforcement,concreting,excavation,chipping of pile cap etc.It also includes various various tests done on site and their conclusion.Also last this project report contains conclusion and recommendations and references.

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER:1

1.1General
Pile foundation are used extensively for the support of bridges and other strucures to safely transfer structurel loads to the ground and avoid excess settlement or lateral movement.They are very effective in transferring structural loads through weak or compressible soil layers into the more competent soil and rock below. Pile foundations are the part of a structure.Pile foundation is that type of deep foundation in which the loads are taken to a low level by means of vertical members which may be a timber,concrete or steel. The term pile foundation is used to describe a construction for the foundation of bridges piers which in turn is supported on the piles. The piles may be placed separately or they be placed in group. The piles may be placed separately or they may be placed in group. The piles are generally driven vertically or near vertical position. A pile foundation is civil engineering concept that is, at its most basis ,a substructure that is supported by piles. These type of foundation allows any type of structure to actually supported by layer or layers of soil. The soil is actually built up under the ground surface and the dipper pile, or support pole, goes, the more stable the structure should be. There are two basis parts to a pile foundation:the pile and the pile and the pile cap.

Figure:1 pile foundation

1.2 Advantages of pile foundation for the bridge structure:


Economical. Large bearing capacity. Large axial & bending moment capacity. Corrosion free. Easy to handle. Strong joint & easy to form. Easy installation & Noiseless.

Low unit weight. Can increase the relative density of a granular founding stratum. Can be driven in long length. Easy to joint.

1.3 Pile foundations are adopted generally in the following situations:


Low bearing capacity of soil. Non availability of proper bearing stratum at shallow depths. Heavy loads from which the super structure for which shallow foundation may naot be economical or feasible.

1.4 Loads coming on the pile foundation: All the loads from super structure viz. Dead load, Live loads, wind loads and Seismic
loads.

The loads from the surrounding soil in case of seismic event. Water loads in case of off-shore structures.

1.5 Problem definition


In the pile foundation, the different materials used in mix design are responsible for the strength of piles. Also sub soil investigation is important as mix design in pile foundation. When the heavy loads coming on the foundation then failure may have to take place due to various reasons. Also the ground water plays an important role in the foundation of bridge. As there are so many factors which affect the foundation of bridge. With a view to eliminate such factor various recommendation for the material management on the site have been made. The pile load test for determining for the material management on the site have been made. The pile load test for determining the safe load carrying capacity of pile is to be carried out. Also recommendation for the management of the site are to be shown.

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER:2

2.1 General:
High strain dynamic pile testing or PDA testing is a method to determine static pile capacity using a dynamic impact. The method involves measurement of force and velocity response of the pile on field under the impact of hammer of predetermined weight falling from a known height. The test is used in lieu of conventional static load static load static. The test is conducted using pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) and with its allied strain sensors and accelerometers. Strain induced under the impact of heavy falling hammer from a pre-determined height are measured with the help of strain transuders attached to the pile, whereas accelerometers generated in the pile. The Pile Driving analyzer converts strain to force, and acceleration records are converted to velocities. The resistance developed by the pile is then a function of force and velocities. The resistant developed by the pile is then a function of force and includes few assumed factors such as the quake and damping parameters as inputs based on the soil type. The maximum pile top compression is obtained by integrating the pile velocity. A more accurate value of these parameters is then obtained from CAPWAP analysis conducted on field data.

2.2 Load carrying capacity of the pile foundation:

The amount of load the pile can carry without undergoing continuous displacements for insiginificant load increments by virtue of its boundary conditions (soil condition) and not by virtue of its structural strength. The assumptions for this definition is the failure of surrounding soil occurs prior to the failure of the material especially in the case of concrete piles.

2.3 Lateral capacity of piles Piles are subjected to lateral loads in addition to axial loads. However for simplicity a pile subjected to only lateral load is usually studied for
analytical convenience.

Unlike axial capacity,the determination of lateral capacity of the pile is a complex


problem.

The lateral capacity of piles tested in the field is dictaded by the lateral deflection
criteria of local codes.

2.4 Factors influencing pile capacities


The surrounding soil Installation technique like driven or bored Method of construction (pre cast or cast in situ) Symmetry of the group Location of the pile cap i.e. above or below soil

Spacing of piles in group Shape of the pile cap,etc Location of the pile in the group Drainage conditions in soil

2.5Classification of piles Based on material Concrete Steel Timber


Based on method of construction/installation Driven/Displacement pre cast Piles. Driven/Displacement cast in situ Piles. Bored/Replacement pre cast situ. Bored/Replacement cast in situ piles. Based on load transfer mechanism End bearing Piles Friction/floating Piles Bearing cum friction Pile Based on sectional area Circular Square H Octagonal Tubular Based on size Micro piles dia.<150 mm Small dia.>150 mm and <600mm Large dia. Piles>600mm

Based on inclination Vertical Piles Inclined/raker Piles

2.6GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION REPORT:

For foundation analysis of the structure on the site, it is necessary. 1. To determine the soil profile of the site. 2. To know the physical properties and strength characteristics of soil/rock at various depths. For this geotechnical investigation was entrusted to us by M/s radhe Associates. The following points were decided. No.of borehole on one approach. Undisturbed samples at different interval. Standard penetration tests are conducted at different intervals. Collection of disturbed samples. To find physical properties of disturbed samples. To locate ground water table, if any. Interpretation of results, Analysis. Recommendation.

2.7 MIX DESIGN(pile cap,pier cap,girder,slab):

Ref Standard: IS 10262 & 456 & section 1700 of morth(REV 5) Design Stipulations 1. Characterics comp strength of concrete: 35 Mpa 2. Max size aggregate: 20 mm 3. Degree of workability: 0.95 compacting Factor 4. Degree of quality control: Good 5. Type of exposure: Normal 6. Minimum quality of cement should be at least 400 kg per cumt & quality provided is 434.6 kg per cumt 7. Maximum w/c ratio is 0.45 & provided is 0.41

Test Data: 1. Cement used : opc(ultratech) 53 grade 2. Specific gravity of cement : 3.15 3. Specific Gravity of Fine aggregate: 2.63 4. Specific Gravity of coarse aggregate : 2.82 5. Water absorption of Fine aggregate: 0.35 6. Water absorption of coarse aggregate: 0.68 7. Free moisture in Fine aggregate: 0.2 8. Free Moisture coarse aggregate: 0

Target strength of concrete(clause no.1704.2.1,MORTH Rev 5)


Initial current margin of 12 Moa is considered (Table no 1700.5 of MORTH) Target mean strength=47 Mpa

Selection of w/c ratio (Clause no 1703.2, Section 1700, MORTH & I.S. 10262)
Free w/c Ratio, For target mean strength of 7 Mpa=0.41 Max. w/c ratio=0.45 Taking W/C=0.41

Selection of water & sand content


Sugested water content per cubic meter of concrete for max size of aggregate=20 mm & grade f concrete M25 is 186 lit. Taking water content=173 lit

2.8: MIX DESIGN(P.C.C WORK)

Ref standard: IS : 10262 & 456 & section 1700 of morth (REV 5) Design Stipulations 1. Characteristics comp strength of concrete: 15 Mpa 2. Max size aggregate : 20 mm 3. Degree of workability : 0.9 compacting Factor 4. Degree of quality control:Good 5. Type of exposure :Normal 6. Minimum quality of cement should be at least 250 kg per cumt & quality provided is 278.1 kg per cumt 7. Maximum w/c ratio is 0.5 & provided is 0.5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Test Data : Cement used : opc(ultratech) 53 grade Specific gravity of cement : 3.15 Specific gravity of fine aggregate : 2.63 Specific gravity of coarse aggregate : 2.82 Water absorption of fine aggregate : 0.35 Water absorption of coarse aggregate : 0.68 Free moisture in fine aggregate : 0.2 Free moisture coarse aggregate : 0 Fine aggregate confirms to zone : 3

Target strength of concrete (clause no. 1704.2.1,MORTH Rev 5) Initial current margin of Mpa is considered (Table no1700.5 of MORTH) Target mean strength=25 Mpa

Selection of w/c Ratio (Clause no. 1700, MORTH I.S. 10262) Free w/c ratio, For target of 25 Mpa=0.55 Max. w/c ratio=0.6 Taking W/C=0.5

Selection of water & sand content Suggested water content per cubic meter of concrete for max size of aggregate=20 mm & grade of concrete M35 is 186 lit. Taking water content=135 lit

TABLE : 1 Mix Design of P.C.C. Sr. Discription No Water content % Sand in Total Aggregate in %

Each 0.05 decrease/ 0.0. increase in w/c ratio -2.0

Each 0.0.5 decrease/ 3.0 increase in compacting factor 0.0

For sand confirming to zone 3

0.0

-1.5

Total Adjustment

3.0

-5.5

Required Sand content of soil of total aggregate by absolute violume will be 31.5% Required water content is 39.1 lit Cement content : Cement content for w/c 0.5 is 278.1 kg per cum

Fine aggregate content: V=(w+(c/sc)+(1/p*fa/Sfa)/100 V=Absolute volume of concrete=98% W=mass of water=139.1 lit/cum C=mass of cement=278.1 kg/cum Sc=Sp.Gravity of coment=3.15 P=Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate br absolute volume=31.5% Sfa=Sp.Gravity of fine aggragate in saturated dry condition=2.63 Total fine aggregate content=623.5 kg/cum Coarse aggregate content: Ca=((1-p)/p)*fa*Sca/Sfa Total coarse aggregate of material per cement Cement =50kg Sand=112kg Coarse aggregate(fraction 10-6 mm)=104.6 kg (Fraction 20-10 mm)=159.9 kg Water= 25lit

Table :2 Quality of material

Water

Cement

Fine aggregate

Coarse aggreagate

139.1 lit

278 kg

623.54 kg

1453.9 kg

Adjustment:
1. Extra quality of to be added for absorption in case coarse aggregate @ 0.68 % by mass is 1.8 lit. 2. Quality water to be added for absorption in case of fine aggregate @ 0.35 by mass is 0 lit. 3. Quality of water to be added for absorption in case of fine aggregate @ 0% by mass is 0 lit. 4. Quality of water to be added for deducted for free moisture fine aggregate @ 0.2 % by mass is 0.22 lit.

5. Actual quality of water is 26.5 lit. 6. Actual quality of sand required absorption/ free moisture % by mass will be 112.22 kg.

7. Actual quality of C.A required allowing for absorption/ free moisture% by mass is Fraction 10-6 mm=103.88 kg 8. Fraction 20-10 mm=155.82 kg

Sr. Material No. 1 Cement 50.00 Kg Quantity Unit

Fine aggregate

112.22

Kg

Coarse Aggregate (20-10)

155.82

Kg

Coarse Aggregate (10-6)

103.9

Kg

Water

26.5

Litre

Remark: Slump observed is 35 mm. The theoretical density of fresh is 2494.6/cum