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Technologies for establishing connectivity




LAN: A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that
share a common communications line or wireless link. Typically, connected devices
share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area
(for example, within an office building). Usually, the server has applications and data
storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users. A local area network
may serve as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or as
many as thousands of users (for example, in an FDDI network).

WAN: A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications
network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local
area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the
term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. An
intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network
(MAN).


Bluetooth is a wireless technology that enables devices to connect point-to-point or
multipoint (up to seven simultaneous connections by a single device) rather than the
traditional cable link. This means that devices that have Bluetooth enabled can
connect to each other in a wireless environment, no more cables! Bluetooth
operates at the unlicensed 2.4 GHz range, and its usable within a range of about 30
feet (10 meters).
Characteristics of Bluetooth:
Operates at low power
Low cost
Capable of processing voice and data transmission simultaneously
Networks are temporary
Networks are ad hoc basis: whenever two Bluetooth devices get close enough
to each other, they can communicate directly with each other.

Bluetooth Classes:
Class 1: 100-meter (300 ft) range, industrial usage, 100 milliwatts power.
Class 2: 10-meters (30 ft) range, mobile devices usage and 2.5 milliwatts (Most
common class)
Class 3: 1-meter (3 ft) rarely used and 1 milliwatt power

Infrared a standard for transmitting data via infrared light waves. Increasingly,
computers and other devices (such as printers) come with IrDA ports. This enables
you to transfer data from one device to another without any cables. For example, if
both your laptop computer and printer have IrDA ports, you can simply put your
computer in front of the printer and output a document, without needing to connect
the two with a cable.
IrDA ports support roughly the same transmission rates as traditional parallel ports.
The only restrictions on their use is that the two devices must be within a few feet of
each other and there must be a clear line of sight between them.
Infrared is: quick, easy to configure, secure. Limited to line-of-sight, point-to-point

Cellular WAN 3G cellular WAN technology intended to turn your cell phone into a
powerful data transmission tool. It supports speeds of up to 2.4M it/sec, far
exceeding previous generation cellular transmission rates of 44K bit/sec.
Cell communications requires the use of a central access point, usually a cell tower,
which is connected to a main hub.

ISDN
Acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network, an communication
standard for sending voice, video and data over digital telephone lines or
normal telephone wires. The goal of ISDN is to replace the current
telephone network, which requires digital-to-analog conversions.
ISDN supports data transfer rate of 64 Kbps.
ISDN works at the physical, data link, network, and transport layers.

Broadband (DSL, Cable, Satellite)

Broadband: The term "broadband" refers to a communications technique for
transmitting multiple simultaneous data channels.

DSL: Digital Subscriber Line, employs high-speed connections from telephone-
switching stations.
Bandwidth numbers advertised for residential DSL service range from 128 Kbps to 3
Mbps (3000 Kbps).

Cable: Cable Internet service uses a cable modem connected to the cable TV line.
Numerous providers in larger cities and towns offer Cable Internet access.
Cable modem speeds vary widely. While cable modem technology can theoretically
support up to about 30 Mbps, most providers offer service with between 1 Mbps and
6 Mbps bandwidth for downloads, and bandwidth between 128 Kbps and 768 Kbps
for uploads.

Satellite: A satellite Internet connection is an arrangement in which the upstream
(outgoing) and the downstream (incoming) data are sent from, and arrive at, a
computer through a satellite. Each subscriber's hardware includes a satellite dish
antenna and a transceiver (transmitter/receiver) that operates in the microwave
portion of the radio spectrum.
Uplink speeds are nominally 50 to 150 Kbps for a subscriber using a single computer.
The downlink occurs at speeds ranging from about 150 Kbps to more than 1200
Kbps, depending on factors such as Internet traffic, the capacity of the server, and
the sizes of downloaded files.


Wireless: 802.11 Standards - 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g

802.11 overview: In 1997, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE) created the first WLAN standard. They called it 802.11 after the name of the
group formed to oversee its development. Unfortunately, 802.11 only supported a
maximum bandwidth of 2 Mbps - too slow for most applications.
For this reason, ordinary 802.11 wireless products are no longer being
manufactured.

802.11b supports bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet.
802.11b uses the same radio signaling frequency - 2.4 GHz - as the original 802.11
standard. Being an unregulated frequency, 802.11b gear can incur interference from
microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances using the same 2.4 GHz
range. However, by installing 802.11b gear a reasonable distance from other
appliances, interference can easily be avoided.
Pros of 802.11b - lowest cost; signal range is best and is not easily obstructed
Cons of 802.11b - slowest maximum speed; supports fewer simultaneous users;
appliances may interfere on the unregulated frequency band.

802.11a supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps and signals in a regulated frequency
spectrum around 5 GHz. This higher frequency compared to 802.11b limits the range
of 802.11a networks. The higher frequency also means 802.11a signals have more
difficulty penetrating walls and other obstructions.
Pros of 802.11a - fastest maximum speed; supports more simultaneous users;
regulated frequencies prevent signal interference from other devices
Cons of 802.11a - highest cost; shorter range signal that is more easily obstructed.

802.11g supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps, and it uses the 2.4 GHz frequencies for
greater range. 802.11g is backwards compatible with 802.11b, meaning that
802.11g access points will work with 802.11b wireless network adapters and vice
versa.
Pros of 802.11g - fastest maximum speed; supports more simultaneous users; signal
range is best and is not easily obstructed
Cons of 802.11g - costs more than 802.11b; appliances may interfere on the
unregulated signal frequency.


VoIP: (voice over IP) is an IP telephony term for a set of facilities used to manage
the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice
information in digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional
circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). A
major advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by
ordinary telephone service.






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