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Joint Advanced Student School

2006
Jeff Hillyard
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Magnetic Bearings
Overview
Magnetic Bearings
Introduction
Magnetism Review
Active Magnetic Bearings
Passive Magnetic Bearings
Industry Applications
Introduction
Magnetic Bearing Types
Active/passive magnetic bearings
electrically controlled
no control system
Radial/axial magnetic bearings
Introduction
Motivations
Advantages of magnetic bearings:
contact-free
no lubricant
(no) maintenance
tolerable against heat, cold, vacuum, chemicals
low losses
very high rotational speeds
Disadvantages:
complexity
high initial cost
Minimum Equipment for AMB
Source: Betschon
Introduction
Survey of Magnetic Bearings
Source: Schweitzer
Magnetism
Magnetic Field
north pole
south pole
magnetic
field line
iron filings
Pole Transition
Magnetism
Magnetic Field
Magnetic field, H, is found around a magnet or a current
carrying body.
r
i
H
t 2
=
i ds H =
}
(for one
current loop)
H
i
dsds
Magnetism
Magnetic Flux Density
B = magnetic flux density
= magnetic permeability
H = magnetic field
H B

=
r

0
=

0
= permeability of free space

r
= relative permeability
1 <
1 >>
diamagnetic
paramagnetic
ferromagnetic
r
ni
H
t 2
=
multiple loops
of wire, n
1 >
Meissner-Ochsenfeld Effect
Magnetism
B-H Diagram
H
B
area within loop represents
hysteresis loss
magnetic saturation
Ferromagnetic: a material that can be magnetized
H B

=
Coercivity, H
c
Remanence, B
r
Magnetism
Lorentz Force
f = force
Q = electric charge
E = electric field
V = velocity of charge Q
B = magnetic flux density
( ) B v E Q f


+ =
Magnetism
Lorentz Force
Simplification:
( ) B v Q f

~
Source: MIT Physics Dept. website
( ) B v E Q f


+ =
( ) B v E

<<
Magnetism
Lorentz Force
Further simplification:
B i f

=
B v Q f

=
v Q i

=
force perpendicular to flux!
f
i
B
Analogous Wire
Magnetism
Reluctance Force
}
=
V
BHdV U
2
1
The energy in a magnetic field with
linear materials is given by:
Force resulting from a difference between magnetic
permeabilities in the presence of a magnetic field.
force perpendicular to surface!
2
2
A B
f =
U = energy
V = volume
l
U
f
c
c
=
A
a
s l
Fe
2 +
Magnetism
Reluctance Force
}
=
V
BHdV U
2
1
Basic equation:
s A H B V H B U
a a a a a a a
2
2
1
2
1
= =
Energy contained within airgap:
Magnetism
Reluctance Force
Evaluating the magnetic circuit for a simple system:
ni sH H l Hds
a Fe Fe
= + =
}
2
NI ni
B
s
B
l
r
Fe
= = +
0 0
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
s
l
NI
B
r
Fe
2
0


a a Fe Fe
A B A B = = u
B B B
a Fe
= =
Assumption:
A
a
s l
Fe
2 +
Magnetism
Reluctance Force
Principle of virtual displacement:
0

B
H
a
=
a a
a
A BH
l
U
f =
c
c
=
o

cos
2
2
0 a
r Fe
A
s l
ni
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
s
i
k f =
0
quadratic!
inversely quadratic!
Active Magnetic Bearings
Elements of System
Electromagnet
Rotor
Sensor
Controller
Amplifier

Active Magnetic Bearings
Force Behavior
Distance
f
s
F
o
r
c
e

Distance
f
m
F
o
r
c
e

2
1
~
s
x
Magnetic Force Spring Force
x
s
x
s
Active Magnetic Bearings
Force Linearization
Magnetic Force Spring Force
f
s
f
m
2
1
~
s
x
x
s
x
s
mg
0
x
mg
0
x
Active Magnetic Bearings
Force Linearization
Operating Point (constant current)
x
s
f
m
x k f
s
=
x
0
x
f
x k f
s
i i
s m
m
=
=
0
,
x

Redefining distance:
( )
0
x x x
s
=
k
s
= force-displacement factor
Active Magnetic Bearings
Force Linearization
i k f
i
x x
i m
s
=
=
0
,
i
m
f
m
i
m
0
i
2
~
m
i
mg
f
m
i
m
0
i
i k f
i
=
i
0
i i i
m
=
k
i
= force-current factor
Operating Point (constant position)
Active Magnetic Bearings
Force Linearization
Linearized equation:
( )
0 0
, ,
,
x x
i m
i i
s m
s m
f f i x f
= =
+ =
i k f
i
x x
i m
s
=
=
0
,
x

i
m
x k f
s
i i
s m
m
=
=
0
,
0
i i i
m
=
0
x x x
s
+ =
( ) i k x k i x f
i s
+ = ,
Not valid for:
- rotor-bearing contact
- magnetic saturation
- small currents
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
Open Loop Equation: Basic System
( ) i k x k i x f
i s
+ = ,
Controller function?
- Provide force, f

Controller signals?
- Input: position, x
- Output: current, i

i = i(x)
x

i

x

Artifical damping and stiffness:
( ) x d kx f + =
x

k

d
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
Solving for controller function:
Basic System
x d kx i k x k
i s
= +
x

i

x

To model position of rotor:
( )
( )
i
s
k
x d x k k
x i
+ +
=
x m f =
( ) i k x k i x f
i s
+ = ,
i k x k x m
i s
=
0 = + + kx x d x m
Just like for the spring system!
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
System characteristics:





with
0
2
= + + k d m
x(t)

t

t
Ce
o
e o j =
2
2
4m
d
m
k
= e
m
d
2
= o
General solution for position:
( ) ( ) e
o
=

t Ce t x
t
cos
Eigenfrequency:
m k = + =
2 2
0
o e e
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
Controller Abilities:
1) k, d can be varied in controller
2) air gap can be varied in controller
3) specify position for different loads
4) rotor balancing, vibrations, monitoring...
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
Linearization:
o cos
4
1
2
2
0
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
i
A n f
a
( )
( )
( )
( )
o cos
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
= =
+
x s
i i
x s
i i
k f f f
x x
x
x s s =
+ 0
x s s + =
0
o cos
2
2
s
i
k f =
a
A n k
2
0
4
1
=
magnetic force was
determined to be

where
Differential driving mode
Active Magnetic Bearings
Closed Control Loop
Linearization:
x
x
f
i
i
f
f
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

c
c
+
c
c
=
0
0

x
s
ki
i
s
ki
f
x x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= o o cos
4
cos
4
3
0
2
0
2
0
0
i
k
s
k
x k i k f
s x i x
+ =
linearized for
differential driving
mode
Differential driving mode
Radial Bearing Axial Bearing
Active Magnetic Bearings
Bearing Geometry
B circumferential to
rotor axis
B parallel to rotor axis
- similar to electromotors
- rotor requires lamination
- hysteresis loss low
- lamination avoided
Orientation:
magnet pole pairs are often lined up with the principle
coordinate axes x and y (vertical and horizontal)
control equations are simplified
Active Magnetic Bearings
Bearing Geometry
Active Magnetic Bearings
Sensors
Position Sensor
contact-free
measure rotating surface
surface quality
homogeneity of surface material
various values

Other Sensors
speed
current
flux density
temperature

+
sensor
other concerns:
observability
placement
cost
Active Magnetic Bearings
Sensors
Sensorless Bearing
- calculate position
- less equipment
- lower cost
Source: Hoffmann
Active Magnetic Bearings
Amplifier
Converts control signals to control currents.

Analog Amplifier:

- simple structure
- low power applications
P<0.6 kVA

Switching Amplifier:

- lower losses
- high power applications
- remagnetization loss

Active Magnetic Bearings
Electrical Response
There is an inherent delay in the electrical system
inductance

voltage drops: and
velocity within magnetic field
induces a voltage
dt
di
L u
L
= Ri u
R
=
x k
dt
di
L Ri u
u

+ + =
k
u
= voltage-velocity coefficient
Total voltage drop:
Active Magnetic Bearings
Control Equations of Motion
Block diagram with voltage control:
f x m =

x k
dt
di
L Ri u
u

+ + =
i k x k i x f
i s
+ = ) , (
Source: Schweitzer
Active Magnetic Bearings
Current vs. Voltage Control
Voltage Control:
- more accurate model
- better stability
- low stiffness easier to realize
- voltage amplifier often more convenient
- possible to avoid using position sensor

Current Control:
- simple control plant description
- simple PD or PID control

Flux Control:
- very uncommon
Active Magnetic Bearings
Addressing of Assumptions
Uncertainties in bearing model
- leakage flux outside of air gap
- air gap is bigger than assumed
- iron cross section is non-uniform
Active Magnetic Bearings
Types of Losses
Air Losses
- air friction divide shaft into sections
Copper Losses (Stator)
- wire resistance
Iron Losses (Rotor)
- hysteresis (higher w/ switching amplifier)
- eddy currents
2
i R P
Cu Cu
=
Active Magnetic Bearings
Copper Losses
For differential driving mode:
2
max max ,
2 i R P
Cu Cu
=
n A K A
d n n
=
m
n n
Cu
l
K A
P NI
2
max , max
=
A
n
= slot area
K
n
= bulk factor
= specific resistance
l
m
= average length of turn
limit of permissible mmf!
Active Magnetic Bearings
Rotor Dynamics
Areas of Consideration
natural vibrations
forward/backward whirl (natural vibrations)
critical speeds
nutation
precession (change in rotation axis)
Source: Wikipedia
Active Magnetic Bearings
Rotor Dynamics
rotor touch-down in retainer bearings
- maintenance
- sudden system shutoff
- during system shutdown
very difficult to simulate
cylindrical motion conical motion
Source: Schweizer
Active Magnetic Bearings
Rotor Stresses
Radial


Tangential

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ O + =
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
3
8
1
r
r
r r
r r
a i
a i r
v o
( )( ) ( ) ( )
(

+ + + + + O =
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
3 1 3 3
8
1
r
r
r r
r r
a i
a i t
v v v o
largest stress is at inside
radius of disc with hole!

Source: Schweizer
Active Magnetic Bearings
Rotor Stresses
Implications of max stress:
max velocity (full disc)!
( ) v
o
+
= O =
3
8
max
S
a
r v
o
s
= max tensile strength
Material vmax (m/s)
steel 576
brass 376
bronze 434
aluminium 593
titanium 695
soft ferro. sheets 565
Actual reached speeds (length 600 mm, dia. 45 mm):


s
m
v 300
max
=
rpm 000 , 120
max
~ O
Source: Schweizer
Passive Magnetic Bearings
Permanent Magnets
Common Materials:
1) neodymium, iron, boron (Nd Fe B)
2) samarium, cobalt, boron
(Sm Co, Sm Co B)
3) ferrite
4) aluminium, nickel, cobalt
(Al Ni, Al Ni Co)
Relative Sizes

Issues:
- material brittleness
- varying space requirements (B-H)
- operating temperatures
(equal H at 10 mm)
Passive Magnetic Bearings
Permanent Magnets
at least one degree of
freedom unstable!
increase in stiffness with
multiple rings
caution: misalignment!
reluctance bearings:
- non-rotating magnets
- resistance to radial
displacement
Passive Magnetic Bearings
Permanent Magnets
High Potential
- economical
- reliable
- practical

already replacing some active magnetic bearings
- smaller size equipment and systems
- systems with large air gaps
Source: Boden
Applications
Turbomolecular Pump
cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland
- eliminates complicated lubrication system
- high temperature resistance
- reduction of pollution
- vibrations, noise, stresses avoided
- improved monitoring (unbalances, defects, etc.)

Status: suboptimal design
overheating at load (> 550C)
increase life span
optimize fill factor
reduce cost
simplify manufacturing
Applications
Flywheel (97)
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
(NEDO) Japans Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)

T=Je
2
speed has larger influence than mass (better energy density)
fiber-reinforced plastics for high strength
fracture into small pieces upon failure above ground
combination of superconductor and permanent magnet bearings (q
sys
= 84%)
Applications
Flywheel (97)
Current Development Goals (NEDO)

increase load force
reduce amount load force decrease with time (magnetic flux creep)
reduce rotational loss
increase size of bearings for larger systems
Applications
Maglev Trains

Maglev = Magnetic Levitation
150 mm levitation over guideway track
undisturbed from small obstacles (snow, debris, etc.)
typical ave. speed of 350 km/h (max 500 km/h)
what if? Paris-Moscow in 7 hr 10 min (2495 km)!
stator: track, rotor: magnets on train
Source: DiscoveryChannel.com
Applications
Maglev Trains
x
Maglev in Shanghai
- complete in 2004
- airport to financial district (30 km)
- worlds fastest maglev in commercial operation (501 km/h)
- service speed of 430 km/h
Source: www.monorails.org
Applications
Maglev Trains

Noise Reduction
by Frequency
Noise Reduction
by Speed
Source: Moon
Magnetic Bearings
References
1. Betschon, F. Design Principles of Integrated Magnetic Bearings, Diss. ETH. Nr. 13643, ETH
Zrich, 2000.

2. Boden, K. & Fremerey, J.K. Industrial Realization of the SYSTEM KFA-JLICH Permanent
Magnet Bearing Lines, Proceedings of MAG 92 Magnetic Bearings, Magnetic Drives and Dry
Gas Seals Conference & Exhibition. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing, 1998.

3. Electricity and Magnetism. Hyperphysics. Georgia State University, Dept. of Physics and
Astronomy. 1 Apr. 2006 <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/hph.html>.

4. Fremery, J.K. Permanentmagnetische Lager. Forshungszentrum Jlich, Zentralabteilung
Technologie, 2000.

5. Hoffmann, K.J. Integrierte aktive Magnetlager, Diss. TU Darmstadt. Herdecke: GCA-Verlag 1999.

6. Lsch, F. Identification and Automated Controller Design for Active Magnetic Bearing Systems,
Diss. ETH. Nr. 14474, ETH Zrich, 2002.

7. Maglev Monorails of the World: Shanghai, China. The Monorail Society Website. 1 Apr. 2006
<http://www.monorails.org/tMspages/MagShang.html>.

8. Maglev Train Explained, DiscoveryChannel.ca. Bell Globemedia 2005
<http://discoverychannel.ca/interactives/japan/maglev/maglev.html>.

9. Magnetic Bearings & High Speed Motors, S2M. 1 Apr. 2006 <http://www.s2m.fr/chap3/>.
Magnetic Bearings
References
10. Moon, F.C. Superconducting Levitation: Applications to Bearings and Magnetic Transportation.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

11. Research and Development for Superconducting Bearing Technology for Flywheel Electric
Energy Storage System. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
(NEDO). 1 Apr. 2006
<http://www.nedo.go.jp/english/activities/2_sinenergy/1/p04033e.html>.

12. Schwall, R. Power Systems Other Applications: Flywheels. Power Applications of
Superconductivity in Japan and Germany. WTEC Hyper-Librarian 1997
<http://www.wtec.org/loyola/scpa/04_02.htm>.

13. Schweizer, G., Bleuler, H., & Traxler, A. Active Magnetic Bearings: Basics, Properties and
Applications of Active Magnetic Bearings. Zrich: Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH, 1994.

14. Widbro, L. Magnetic Bearings Come of Age. Revolve Magnetic Bearings Inc. 2004.
MachineDesign.com. 1 Apr. 2006
<http://www.machinedesign.com/ASP/strArticleID/57263/strSite/MDSite/viewSelectedArticle.asp>.

15. Wikipedia contributors (2006). Hysteresis. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 1, 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hysteresis&oldid=45621877>.

16. Wikipedia contributors (2006). Magnetic field. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 1, 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Magnetic_field&oldid=46010831 >.
Questions?
Applications
Crystal Growing System