You are on page 1of 72

Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design

A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aircraft General Knowledge
1. 1. Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Stress, Fatigue and Airframe
Design Design
2. 2. Hydraulics Hydraulics
3. 3. Flying Controls Flying Controls
4. 4. Landing Gear Landing Gear
5. 5. Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic Systems
6. 6. Air Conditioning and Air Conditioning and
Pressurisation Pressurisation
7. 7. Fuel Systems Fuel Systems
8. 8. Ice and Rain Protection Ice and Rain Protection
9. 9. Basic Electric Theory Basic Electric Theory
10. 10. Direct Current Electricity Direct Current Electricity
11. 11. Alternating Current Electricity Alternating Current Electricity
12. 12. Internal Combustion Principles Internal Combustion Principles
13. 13. Piston Engines Piston Engines
14. 14. Jet Engines Jet Engines
15. 15. Propellers Propellers
16. 16. Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits
17. 17. Fire and Smoke Detection and Fire and Smoke Detection and
Suppression Suppression
18. 18. Oxygen and Breathing Systems Oxygen and Breathing Systems
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aircraft General Knowledge
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aircraft General Knowledge
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aircraft General Knowledge
1. 1. Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Stress, Fatigue and Airframe
Design Design
2. 2. Hydraulics Hydraulics
3. 3. Flying Controls Flying Controls
4. 4. Landing Gear Landing Gear
5. 5. Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic Systems
6. 6. Air Conditioning and Air Conditioning and
Pressurisation Pressurisation
7. 7. Fuel Systems Fuel Systems
8. 8. Ice and Rain Protection Ice and Rain Protection
9. 9. Basic Electric Theory Basic Electric Theory
10. 10. Direct Current Electricity Direct Current Electricity
11. 11. Alternating Current Electricity Alternating Current Electricity
12. 12. Internal Combustion Principles Internal Combustion Principles
13. 13. Piston Engines Piston Engines
14. 14. Jet Engines Jet Engines
15. 15. Propellers Propellers
16. 16. Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits
17. 17. Fire and Smoke Detection and Fire and Smoke Detection and
Suppression Suppression
18. 18. Oxygen and Breathing Systems Oxygen and Breathing Systems
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The forces of lift, weight, thrust and drag acting on an aircraft create stresses
in the aircraft structure.
Stress is formally defined as the force divided by the cross-sectional area to
which it is applied. .
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The forces of lift, weight, thrust and drag acting on an aircraft create stresses
in the aircraft structure.
Stress Stress is formally defined as the force divided by the cross-sectional area to
which it is applied. The SI unit of stress is the newton per square meter.
Strain Strain refers to a change in some spatial
dimension (length, angle, or volume)
compared to its original value
and stress refers to the cause of the
change (a force applied to a surface)
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
Stresses can either be twisting or torsion stresses , tension, compression or
shear. These stresses can act individually or together. Bending a structure,
for instance, creates tension on the outside and compression on the inside.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
High compression loads can cause
buckling of a structure.
Fatigue is the progressive and localised
structural damage that occurs when a
material is subject to cyclical loading.
When a sufficient load is applied to a metal or other structural material it will
change shape. This change in shape is called deformation.
A temporary shape change that is self-reversing after the force is removed is
called elastic deformation. When the stress is sufficient to permanently
deform the metal it is called plastic deformation A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
The stress at which the structure fails is called the ultimate stress, this is
the fail point for a single application of a static load. In flight the structure is
loaded and unloaded many times at levels below the ultimate stress. In
metals, this causes cumulative damage which in turn allows the structure
to fail catastrophically at a stress level well below ultimate stress.
The cumulative damage and weakening of the structure is called metal
fatigue.
Composite structures also suffer from fatigue damage, but react in a
different way.
In metal structures failures usually occur under tensile stress, for example
on the bottom surface of a wing that is being bent upwards. The failures
usually start as cracks at the points of concentrated stress, such as rivet
holes, machining marks, sharp corners and screw threads.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
Composites "soft fail" as the fibres break,
and failure can usually be detected before
a catastrophic loss of strength occurs.
Combat aircraft are designed to have a
safe life. Fatigue calculations are made to
assess at what point the structure will fail,
and the aircraft is taken out of service
before this point is reached.
The aircraft is then scrapped, or critical
components such as wing spars are
replaced if it is economically justified.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
Civil airliners are designed to be fail safe. In a fail safe design the structural
components of an aeroplane are designed such that 'an evaluation of the
strength, detail, design and fabrication must show that catastrophic failure due
to fatigue, corrosion, manufacturing defects or accidental damage will be
avoided throughout the operational life of the aeroplane'.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
In a fail safe design:
where components are load bearing, there must be more than one;
and
the design must be based on the principal of 'redundancy of
components.
As with combat aircraft, fail safe components in civil aircraft have a 'safe
life, defined in either numbers of flight hours or 'cycles,. For example, a fail
safe landing gear component might have a safe life defined in number of
landing gear cycles.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Stress and System Failure Stress and System Failure
Modern airliners are also designed to be damage tolerant.
A damage tolerant evaluation of a structure ensures that, should serious
fatigue, corrosion or accidental damage occur within the design service
goal of the aeroplane, the remaining structure can withstand reasonable
loads without failure or excessive structural deformation until the damage
is detected.
By incorporating redundancy, crack-arrest features and parallel load paths
the structure can be allowed to fail in some degree but continue in
operation until a periodic inspection reveals the failures and components
can be replaced.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The S/N Curve The S/N Curve
The relationship between repeated
applications of stress and the gradual
degradation of the safe stress level is given
by the S/N Curve.
This is a plot of the number of times and
degrees of stress applied, and shows what
percentage of the original ultimate stress
will cause catastrophic failure for a given
fatigue history.
The designers now assess the stress and the S/N forecast for the aircraft -
taken from the forecast flight profiles, weights and loading - and design a
structure that should be safe for the life of the aircraft. If the aircraft is
operated in an entirely different manner from the original design, for instance
short haul instead of long haul, then this will affect the life of the aircraft and
the planned servicing and spares holdings.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Reducing Fatigue Reducing Fatigue
It should be clear from all this that an aircraft's fatigue life can be greatly
extended if stress levels are kept low. This means smooth flying, avoiding
high g, avoiding turbulence and going easy on the power. Weight is a
critical factor. Increasing aircraft all-up weight by 1% can increase fatigue
life consumption by 5%.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Certification Requirements Certification Requirements
The design requirements for aircraft are set out in:
CS25 For aircraft with a maximum take off mass 5700kg or more
CS23 For light aircraft
Very similar, if not identical, documents exist in other states. In the US,
for instance, FAR25 mirrors CS25 and FAR23 matches CS23
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Level of Certification Level of Certification
The table opposite shows the certification safety objectives associated with
failure conditions.
There is a direct link between the probability of a failure, and the severity
of the effects. The more severe the effect of a failure, then the probability
of that failure happening must be more remote.
To keep within these limits, systems are often duplicated, or triplicated on
aircraft.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Classification
of Failure
Conditions
No safety
effect
Minor Major Hazardous Catastrophic
Probability per
Flight Hour
No probability
requirement
<10
-3
<10
-5
<10
-7
<10
-9
Effect on
Aeroplane
No effect on
operational
capabilities or
safety
Slight
reduction in
functional
capabilities or
safety margins
Significant
reduction in
Functional
capabilities or
safety margins
Large reduction in
Functional
capabilities or safety
margins
Normally with
hull loss
Effect on
Occupants
excluding
Flight Crew
Inconvenience
Physical
discomfort
Physical distress,
Possibly including
injuries
Serious or fatal injury
to a small number of
passengers or cabin
crew
Multiple
fatalities
Effect on Flight
Crew
No effect on
flight crew
Slight increase
in workload
Physical discomfort
or a significant
increase in
workload
Physical distress or
Excessive workload
impairs ability to
perform tasks
Fatalities or
incapacitation
Qualitative
Probability
No probability
requirement
Probable Remote
Extremely
remote
Extremely
improbable
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
The ideal material for aircraft structures would have the following
properties:
Low density
High strength
High stiffness
Good corrosion resistance
Good fatigue performance
High operating temperature
Ease of fabrication
Low cost
None material has all these properties.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
In the construction of an aircraft a variety of materials may be used to meet
the requirements of a particular structure.
Early aircraft used wood with fabric covering for the main structure with
metal fittings at critical points.
In the 1920s and "30s steel and aluminium replaced the wooden frame but
the fabric covering remained.
Advances in metallurgy eventually led to aluminium alloys that were light
yet had similar properties to steel. Engine design advanced in parallel and,
as more thrust became available, all-metal aircraft were eventually built.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aluminium Aluminiumand and Aluminium AluminiumAlloys Alloys
Aluminium is less dense than steel, has good corrosion resistance but is
relatively weak. Aluminium alloys are stronger but have worse corrosion
resistance.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aluminium Aluminiumand and Aluminium AluminiumAlloys Alloys
Duralumin is a common aluminium alloy in aircraft structures which was
invented in Germany in the 1930's. It may contain about 3% or 4% copper,
to 1% manganese, % to 1 % magnesium, and, in some formulations,
a little silicon.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aluminium Aluminiumand and Aluminium AluminiumAlloys Alloys
Duralumin alloys are relatively soft and workable in the normal state. They
may be rolled, forged, extruded, or drawn into a variety of shapes and
products. After heat treatment and ageing, these alloys are comparable to
soft steel in strength and hardness. Once manufactured, Duralumin should
not be heated above 120C. This makes Duralumin unsuitable for welding
and restricts its use for aircraft operating above the speed of sound where
surface temperatures can rise above this level. Although restricted by
operating temperatures Duralumin has good thermal conductivity, and
being metal also conducts electricity.
Duralumin has poor resistance to corrosion. To overcome this, a thin layer
of pure aluminium or a corrosion-resistant aluminium alloy is used to cover
the Duralumin core. These special laminated sheets are called Alclad and it
is in this form that Duralumin is most used for aircraft construction.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aluminium Aluminiumand and Aluminium AluminiumAlloys Alloys
In summary, the advantages of Duralumin are:
Low density
High strength
High stiffness
Fatigue tolerant
Ease of fabrication
Good thermal conductivity
Low cost
The disadvantages are:
Poor corrosion resistance
Low operating temperature
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Magnesium Alloys Magnesium Alloys
Magnesium alloys are less dense than aluminium but have very low
operating temperatures and a high susceptibility to corrosion. Magnesium
alloys should only be used where they can be easily inspected.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Titanium Alloys Titanium Alloys
Titanium alloys are expensive and difficult to work but are extremely strong
and will sustain operating temperatures up to 400C. Titanium is used for
engine fire-walls and other critical components such as helicopter rotor
heads. Titanium can be welded with electron beams.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Monel Monel
Monel is an alloy of copper and nickel with small amounts of iron and
manganese. Monel alloy s high resistance to corrosion, its low coefficient
of expansion and its high strength make it useful for certain applications
like the exhaust system for aircraft engines.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Honeycomb Materials Honeycomb Materials
The conventional method of fixing metal structures is riveting or bolting. In
the 1940's epoxy adhesive metal-to-metal bonding came into use, and is
still widely used in aircraft construction.
A spin-off from this was the development of "honeycomb" materials, where
a cellular fill is bonded between two sheets of metal to give a light but stiff
structure.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Honeycomb Materials Honeycomb Materials
The core itself is weak but stabilises the outer skins and produces a light yet
strong torsional structure. The main function of the core material is to
stabilise the covering sheets. A honeycomb or sandwich structure is
unsuitable for absorbing concentrated loads, and extra protection is
required if the structure is to be subjected to such loads.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Composites Composites
One of the latest materials is a composite of fibres reinforced with a
poymer matrix (also known as resin or filler). The fibres can be glass or
kevlar, for example, but the most used are carbon fibres, which have the
best tensile strength to weight ratio.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Composites Composites
The fibres can be laid in a random pattern, which gives a material with the
same bending strength in any direction, or in one particular direction to
give great bending strength along the fibre run but a much lower strength
across the run. In this way the bending response of the material can be
tailored exactly to the designers needs , a fact which becomes important
when we deal with the wing bending response of swept wing aircraft.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Corrosion Corrosion
Corrosion results from the fact that most metals will try to revert to
their natural and more stable state.
Although there are a number of reactions that can take place between
metals and their environment they may broadly be divided into two
categories, oxidation oxidation and electrolytical electrolytical.
Oxidation, or dry corrosion, is the reaction between a metal and its
environment without the intervention of an electrolyte.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Corrosion Corrosion
Electrolytical, or wet corrosion, requires an electrolyte which conducts
electricity, such as impure water. A potential difference exists between
dissimilar metals of two surfaces, or two areas of the same surface, the
electrolyte provides the current path. One of the areas becomes anodic
(+) and the other area becomes cathodic (-). The anodic area usually
corrodes while the cathodic are has material added to it.
If a structure is subjected to corrosion and fatigue then stress corrosion,
or stress corrosion cracking can occur.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Corrosion Corrosion
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The structure of the conventional aeroplane can be broken down into
three major subsections. The fuselage carries the crew, cargo and
passengers, the wings provide lift and the empennage (the fin and the
tailplane) provide stabilisation.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
As aircraft design has advanced, these distinctions have become blurred in
the search for efficiency. Most passenger aircraft rely on the fuselage
shape to provide some of the lift, stabilising surfaces have been combined
into V tails, and extreme designs such as the American B2 combine all the
features into a flying wing.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Where the functions of control surfaces are combined so are the names.
Elevons are combination ailerons and elevators fitted to the outer wing,
tailerons are the same things but fitted to the tail. Flaperons are a
combination flap and aileron used mostly on light aircraft and fighters.
Fuel is usually carried in the wing but is often carried in fuselage tanks,
particularly on large aircraft and, occasionally, even in the fin.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
Early aircraft were built of a fabric covered wooden frame. Three or four long
wooden struts called longerons ran the length of the fuselage.
The longerons were held apart by
compression struts or bracing struts
forming individual "bays which were in
turn cross braced with tie-bars or wire.
This is also known as truss
construction. The frame of a structure
like this carries the entire structural
load, the fabric skin is purely for
aerodynamic efficiency.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
Later versions of the braced fuselage used steel rather than wood. The
structure was bolted together in the early years rather than welded as
welding reduced the strength of the joint. As lighter and more easily welded
steel became available in the late 1930s welded structures became the
norm.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The The Monocoque Monocoque Fuselage Fuselage
A monocoque structure relies on the shape of the outer skin of the aircraft for
strength. The ideal cross section is circular and the shape is maintained by
circular formers. The stressed skin structure can only be built from light,
strong and easily worked materials. Early aircraft used plywood, later aircraft
either use alloys of aluminium, magnesium and titanium or composite
materials.
The disadvantage of pure
monocoque structures is that they
depend too heavily on their shape
for strength. Any damage or
deformation weakens the structure
and can eventually lead to failure
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The Semi The Semi--Monocoque Monocoque Fuselage Fuselage
Including some of the features of the
frame structure with some of the
features of a pure monocoque structure
gives a design where the skin only takes
part of the load and allows fuselages to
be other than circular in cross section.
The semi-monocoque structure uses
bulkheads and formers to support the
load bearing skin and the longitudinal
stringers are more robust to take some of
the tensile and compression load. Frame
structures like the cabins of light aircraft
can be included in the design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The Semi The Semi--Monocoque Monocoque Fuselage Fuselage
As the skin carries more of the load in monocoque and semi-monocoque
structures it becomes necessary to move away from a simple uniform
sheet skin. Early semi-monocoque aircraft like the Ju52 used corrugated
skins for extra strength. In more modern aircraft large areas of skin are
machined on the underside in complex patterns to carry the varying loads.
For some very convoluted patterns chemical etching has replaced milling
to form the internal skin profile.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The Reinforced Shell Fuselage The Reinforced Shell Fuselage
The final development of the semi-monocoque structures is called the
reinforced reinforced shell shell. The basic structure is stressed skin with skin shape
being defined by frames, bulkheads and stringers but now reinforced
with longerons. The purpose of the stringers, in fuselage construction, is
to assist the skin to absorb longitudinal compressive loads. Where
openings are made for windows and doors a frame is fitted around the
hole which is bolted, riveted or welded to the frame.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The Reinforced Shell Fuselage The Reinforced Shell Fuselage
Where weak points such as window
openings occur the structure around
them is strengthened with additional
straps called doublers. Doublers can be
either riveted or bonded to the main
structure.
The floor panels are normally
suspended on cross beams. A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Pressurisation Pressurisation Loads Loads
Modern transport aircraft have
pressurised cabins to allow passengers
and crew to breathe normally at high
altitudes without having to wear
breathing apparatus. The pressure inside
the cabin is maintained at a higher
pressure than outside. Doors and
windows are designed to open inwards, so
when the aircraft is pressurised they are
forced into their apertures forming
gastight seals.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Pressurisation Pressurisation Loads Loads
The loads caused by pressurisation can be split into axial or longitudinal
loads and hoop or radial stresses. The pressurisation loads are applied
once each flight and it makes little difference whether the aircraft stays
at height for one hour or ten. Because of this, the number of
pressurisations, called the pressurisation cycles, are recorded along with
the flight time.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Pressurisation Pressurisation Loads Loads
If an aircraft suffers a tailstrike on take-off or landing apart from the
obvious possibility of fuselage damage, the aft pressure bulkhead may
also be damaged.
Pressurisation loads are one reason why it is not always straightforward
to convert a long haul aircraft to short haul operations - the aircraft may
end up with a significantly shorter life.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
The wings of a modern aircraft are of a cantilever design, that is to say they
are self-supporting and do not require external bracing or wires. The
structure is stressed skin with a rigid beam called a spar running the full
length of the wing, many aircraft have two or three spars in the wing. The
spar may be designed to run the full length of the wing, full span, or may be
assembled in half span sections and bolted together. Wing spars can be
girders or box section.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
The aerodynamic shape of the wing is
maintained by ribs in the classic aerofoil
shape which run fore and aft and stringers
which run along the wing. Ribs correspond
to the frames used to define the shape of
a stressed skin fuselage. Cavities in the
wing are designed to carry fuel, either in
flexible tanks or sealed into the structure
itself.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Introduction Introduction
The forces on the skin are transmitted
by the ribs and stringers to the spars
which ultimately take the load. Figure
shows a wing with three
spars, ribs and stringers. The skin
between the spars has been corrugated
to increase its strength and would have
another layer of thin metal over the top.
The spars and the stressed skin now
form a box section called a torsion box
that is very rigid and resistant to
twisting.
One type of spar is called an Ibeam spar'. This has two horizontal members,
called "girders', joined by a vertical component, called 'the web, together, they
form an I shape in cross section.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Wing Loads Wing Loads
The main loads on a wing are bending bending
loads loads, incorporating both tension tension and
compression compression, both in flight and on the
ground.
In flight the weight of the aircraft is
supported by the lift of the wings, on
the ground by the landing gear.
Although the normal loads tend to bend
the wing upwards, on landing and in
turbulence the wing flexes downwards
so the spar has to take bending loads in
both directions. The load is at a
maximum at the wing root.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Wing Loads Wing Loads
The primary bending and shear loads are
controlled by observing g, and loading
limits, in particular the the Maximum Maximum Zero Zero
Fuel Fuel Mass Mass (MZFM) (MZFM)..
This manufacturer's limit ignores the effect of fuel load in the wings. It ensures
that the value of maximum bending of the wing at the wing root is not
exceeded at the designed maximum load factor ('g,) of the aircraft. Although it
is mainly concerned with the weight of the fuselage the MZFM is defined for
convenience as the maximum permissible aircraft weight disregarding fuel. It
should never be exceeded in flight or on the ground.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Wing Loads Wing Loads
Wing loading may also be reduced by up rigging the ailerons, by causing them
to produce less lift in their 'at rest, position.
Twisting Twisting or torsional torsional loads caused by shifts in the centre of gravity and centre
of pressure and by control surface deflection are also present as are shear shear loads
on the centre section of the main spar, particularly if half span spars are bolted
to a centre box section.
The forces on the spar are affected by the
amount of fuel in the wing. Some aircraft have
special fuel management procedures which
keep fuel in the outboard tanks to balance the
lift and reduce the fatigue loads on the wing
root.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Wing Loads Wing Loads
Aerodynamic Aerodynamic Flutter Flutter
All three loads can be extremely high if the wing or control surfaces suffer
from aerodynamic flutter, an undamped oscillation caused by
aerodynamic imbalance.
The mass of the wing affects the likelihood of flutter, a lighter wing being
more susceptible to high frequency flutter. Fuel may therefore be retained
in the outboard tanks not only to reduce the stress on the spar but also to
reduce the onset of flutter.
The position of the engines can also reduce flutter by providing a
balancing mass forward of the main wing, this tends to move the flexural
axis closer to the centre of pressure and reduce the imbalance.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
The empennage serves two functions. It provides directional stability and
control in yaw and longitudinal stability and control in pitch.
Traditionally the empennage is split into a vertical surface, the fin, with the
rudder attached and a horizontal stabilizer or tailplane with the elevators
attached.
Directional stability is provided by the fin.
Tailplane position is affected by the stall
characteristics of the aircraft and the
desire to keep the tailplane away from the
wing vortices at low speeds.
High tail planes keep out of the vortex but
increase the possibility of a deep stall.
V tails combine the functions of both
surfaces.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Fuselage mounted
Cruciform
T-tail
Flying tailplane
Tailplane mounted
Twin tailboom
Wing mounted
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Two different methods of aircraft
maintenance may be employed:
hard time, where a component is replaced
after a set amount of hours, cycles or
operations; or
on condition when a component is only
replaced when it is deemed to be
unserviceable or out of limits.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Maintenance of aircraft is a comprehensive, ongoing process. The entire
aircraft needs to be examined, maintained, and have the necessary parts
replaced to uphold the safety standards.
Aircraft are required to be maintained after a certain period of calendar time
or flight hours or flight cycles.
Also, some aircraft articles have
a specific life (flight cycle) limit,
and need to be replaced
immediately upon reaching the
maximum use requirements.
Besides the aircraft articles that
are due for replacement, all
other parts need to be checked
for faults or faulty performance.
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Here are just some of the routine maintenance
tasks performed by an AMT:
cleaning aircraft and components
application of corrosion prevention compound
lubricating parts
draining and trouble shooting fuel systems
checking and servicing hydraulics and
pneumatic systems
replacing components
inspecting for general wear and tear
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A newer field of aircraft maintenance is working in avionics, which deals
with electronic systems. These parts are vital for navigation and
communications, and include radar, instruments, computer systems,
radio communications, and global positions systems (GPS).
A strong knowledge of wiring and technical skills is required for working
in avionics maintenance
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
Aircraft General Knowledge
1. 1. Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Stress, Fatigue and Airframe
Design Design
2. 2. Hydraulics Hydraulics
3. 3. Flying Controls Flying Controls
4. 4. Landing Gear Landing Gear
5. 5. Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic Systems
6. 6. Air Conditioning and Air Conditioning and
Pressurisation Pressurisation
7. 7. Fuel Systems Fuel Systems
8. 8. Ice and Rain Protection Ice and Rain Protection
9. 9. Basic Electric Theory Basic Electric Theory
10. 10. Direct Current Electricity Direct Current Electricity
11. 11. Alternating Current Electricity Alternating Current Electricity
12. 12. Internal Combustion Principles Internal Combustion Principles
13. 13. Piston Engines Piston Engines
14. 14. Jet Engines Jet Engines
15. 15. Propellers Propellers
16. 16. Integrated Circuits Integrated Circuits
17. 17. Fire and Smoke Detection and Fire and Smoke Detection and
Suppression Suppression
18. 18. Oxygen and Breathing Systems Oxygen and Breathing Systems
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s
Stress, Fatigue and Airframe Design
A
.

T
a
c
h
t
a
t
z
i
s