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Natural Sciences Tripos Part II

MATERIALS SCIENCE MATERIALS SCIENCE


C16: Composite Materials
Prof. T. W. Clyne
Lent Term2013 14
Name............................. College..........................
Lent Term 2013-14
II
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H1
TWC - Lent 2014
Course C16: Composite Materials
Synopsis (12 lectures)
Lecture 1 - Overview of Types of Composite System
Overview of Composites Usage. Types of Reinforcement and Matrix. Carbon and Glass Fibres. PMCs,
MMCs and CMCs. Aligned Fibre Composites, Woven Rovings, Chopped Strand Mat, Laminae and
Laminates.
Lecture 2 - Elastic Constants of Long Fibre Composites
Recap of Axial and Transverse Youngs Moduli for an Aligned Long Fibre Composite, derived using the
Slab Model. Errors for Transverse Loading and Use of Halpin-Tsai Equations. Derivation of Shear
Moduli and Poisson Ratios. Number of Elastic Constants for Systems with different Degrees of Symmetry.
Lecture 3 - Elastic Loading of a Lamina
Plane Stress Loading of a Uniaxial Lamina and the Kirchoff Assumptions. Off-axis loading of a Lamina.
Elastic Constants as a Function of Loading Angle. Tensile-shear Interactions and Lamina Distortions.
Lecture 4 - Elastic Loading of a Laminate
A Laminate considered as a Stack of Laminae. Elastic Properties of Laminates as a Function of Loading
Angle. Elastic Constants of Some Simple Laminates. Balanced Laminates. Coupling Stresses and
Symmetric Laminates.
Lecture 5 - Short Fibre & Particulate Composites Stress Distributions
The Shear Lag Model for Stress Transfer. Interfacial Shear Stresses. The Stress Transfer Aspect Ratio.
Stress Distributions with Low Reinforcement Aspect Ratios. Numerical Model Predictions. Hydrostatic
Stresses and Cavitation.
Lecture 6 - Short Fibre & Particulate Composites Stiffness & Inelastic Behaviour
Load Partitioning and Stiffness Prediction for the Shear Lag Model. Fibre Aspect Ratios needed to
approach the Long Fibre (Equal Strain) Stiffness. Inelastic Interfacial Phenomena. Interfacial Sliding and
Matrix Yielding. Critical Aspect Ratio for Fibre Fracture.
Lecture 7 - The Fibre-Matrix Interface
Interfacial Bonding Mechanisms. Measurement of Bond Strength. Pull-out & Push-out Testing. Control
of Bond Strength. Silane Coupling Agents. Interfacial Reactions and their Control during Processing.
Lecture 8 - Fracture Strength of Composites
Axial Tensile Strength of Long Fibre Composites. Transverse and Shear Strength. Mixed Mode Failure
and the Tsai-Hill Criterion. Failure of Laminates. Internal Stresses in Laminates. Failure Sequences.
Testing of Tubes in combined Tension and Torsion.
Lecture 9 - Fracture Toughness of Composites
Energies absorbed by Crack Deflection and by Fibre Pull-out. Crack Deflection . Toughness of Different
Types of Composite. Constraints on Matrix Plasticity in MMCs. Metal Fibre Reinforced Ceramics.
Lecture 10 - Compressive Loading of Fibre Composites
Modes of Failure in Compression. Kink Band Formation. The Argon Equation. Prediction of
Compressive Strength and the Effect of Fibre Waviness. Failure in Highly Aligned Systems. Possibility of
Fibre Crushing Failure.
Lecture 11 - Thermal Expansion of Composites and Thermal Residual Stresses
Thermal Expansivity of Long Fibre Composites. Transverse Expansivities. Short Fibre and Particulate
Systems. Differential Thermal Contraction Stresses. Thermal Cycling. Thermal Residual Stresses.
Lecture 12 - Surface Coatings as Composite Systems
Misfit Strains in Substrate-Coating Systems. Force and Moment Balances. Relationship between Residual
Stress Distribution and System Curvature. Curvature Measurement to obtain Stresses in Coatings.
Limitations of Stoney Equation. Sources of Misfit Strain. Driving Forces for Interfacial Debonding.
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H2
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Booklist
D.Hull & T.W.Clyne, "An Introduction to Composite Materials", Cambridge University Press,
(1996) [AN10a.86]
Web-based Resources
Most of the material associated with the course (handouts, question sheets, examples classes
etc) can be viewed on the web and also downloaded. This includes model answers, which are
released after the work concerned should have been completed. In addition to this text-based
material, resources produced within the DoITPoMS project are also available. These include
libraries of Micrographs and of Teaching and Learning Packages (TLPs). The following TLPs are
directly relevant to this course:
Mechanics of Fibre Composites
Bending and Torsion of Beams
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H3
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Lecture 1: Overview of Composites & Types of Composite System
Stiff, Light, Corrosion-Resistant Structures The Attractions of Composites











Fig.1.1 Data for some engineering materials, in the form of a map of Youngs modulus against
density

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H4
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Fibres used in Composite Materials
Carbon Fibres


























Fig.1.2 Effect of heat treatment temperature on the strength and Youngs modulus of carbon
fibres produced from a PAN precursor
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H5
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Glass Fibres










Polymeric Fibres














Fig.1.3 Structures of (a) cellulose & (b) Kevlar (poly paraphenylene terephthalamide) molecules
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H6
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Other Reinforcements








































Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H7
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Fibre Distributions and Orientations



















Fig.1.4 A fibre laminate (stack of plies), illustrating the nomenclature system



Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H8
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Lecture 2: Elastic Constants of Long Fibre Composites
Use of the Slab Model

Fig.2.1 Schematic illustration of loading geometry and distributions of stress and strain, and
effects on the Youngs moduli and shear moduli, for a uniaxial fibre composite and for
the slab model representation











Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H9
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Halpin-Tsai Expressions
















Fig.2.2 Predicted dependence on fibre volume fraction, for the epoxy-glass fibre system, of
(a) transverse Youngs modulus and (b) shear moduli of long fibre composites
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H10
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Poisson Ratios



Fig.2.3 Schematic representation of the three Poisson ratios of an aligned composite















Fig.2.4 Predicted dependence on fibre volume fraction, for the epoxy-glass fibre system, of the
three Poisson ratios
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H11
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Stress, Strain, Stiffness & Compliance Tensors
















Fig.2.5 Examples of how 2-D relative displacement components can represent different
combinations of shear and rigid body rotation













Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H12
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Lecture 3: Elastic Loading of a Lamina
Symmetry & Use of Matrix Notation for Matter Tensors
Matrix Notation

















Effect of Material Symmetry on the Number of Independent Elastic Constants

Fig.3.1 Indication of the form of the S
pq
and C
pq
matrices (matrix notation for S
ijkl
and C
ijkl

tensors), for materials exhibiting different types of symmetry. All of the matrices are
symmetrical about the leading diagonal

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H13
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Off-axis Elastic Constants of Laminae
Loading Parallel and Normal to Fibre Axis
















Loading at Arbitrary Angles to Fibre Axis

Fig.3.2 (a) Relationship between the fibre-related axes in a lamina (1, 2 & 3) and the co-
ordinate system (x, y & z) for an arbitrary in-plane set of applied stresses. (b)
Illustration of how such an applied stress state
ij
(
x
,
y
&
xy
) generates stresses in the
fibre-related framework of
ij
(
1
,
2
&
12
)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H14
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Derivation of Transformed Stress-Strain Relationship
For a thin lamina, stresses and strains in the through-thickness (3) direction are neglected, so
that the 3, 4, and 5 components in matrix notation are of no concern. Therefore, when a lamina is
loaded parallel or normal to the fibre axis, the strains that interest us are given by

12
= S

12
=
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66

12
(3.1)
in which, by inspection of the individual equations, it can be seen that
S
11
=
1
E
1
S
12
=

12
E
1
=

21
E
2

S
22
=
1
E
2
S
66
=
1
G
12

The first step in establishing the lamina strains for off-axis loading is to find the stresses,
referred to the fibre axis (
1
,
2
and
12
), in terms of the applied stress system (
x
,
y
and
xy
).
This is done using the equation expressing any second rank tensor with respect to a new
coordinate frame

ij
=a
ik
a
jl

kl

in which a
ik
is the direction cosine of the (new) i direction referred to the (old) k direction.
Obviously, the conversion will work in either direction provided the direction cosines are defined
correctly. For example, the normal stress parallel to the fibre direction
11
, sometimes written as

1
, can be expressed in terms of the applied stresses '
11
(=
x
), '
22
(=
y
) and '
12
(=
xy
)

11
=a
11
a
11

11
+a
11
a
12

12
+a
12
a
11

21
+a
12
a
12

22

The angle is that between the fibre axis (1) and the stress axis (x). Referring to the figure, these
direction cosines take the values
a
11
=cos(= c)a
12
=cos 90 ( )=sin(= s)
a
21
=cos 90 + ( ) = sin(= s)a
22
=cos(= c)

Carrying out this operation for all three stresses

12
= T

xy
(3.2)
where
T =
c
2
s
2
2cs
s
2
c
2
2cs
cs cs c
2
s
2
( )

The same matrix can be used to transform tensorial strains, so that

12
= T

xy

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H15
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However, to use engineering strains (
xy
= 2
xy
etc), T must be modified (by halving the
elements t
13
and t
23
and doubling elements t
31
and t
32
of the matrix T ), so as to give

12
= T

xy
(3.3)
in which
T =
c
2
s
2
cs
s
2
c
2
cs
2cs 2cs c
2
s
2
( )

The procedure is now a progression from the stress-strain relationship when the lamina is
loaded along its fibre-related axes to a general one involving a transformed compliance matrix,
S , which will depend on . The first step is to write the inverse of Eqn.(3.3), giving the strains
relative to the loading direction (ie the information required), in terms of the strains relative to the
fibre direction. This involves using the inverse of the matrix T , written as T
1

xy
= T
1

12

in which
T
1
=
c
2
s
2
cs
s
2
c
2
cs
2cs 2cs c
2
s
2
( )

Now, the strains relative to the fibre direction can be expressed in terms of the stresses in those
directions via the on-axis stress-strain relationship for the lamina, Eqn.(3.1), giving

xy
= T
1
S

12

Finally, the original transform matrix of Eqn.(3.2) can be used to express these stresses in terms
of those being externally applied, to give the result

xy
= T
1
S T

xy
= S

xy
(3.4)
The elements of S are therefore obtained by concatanation (the equivalent of multiplication) of
the matrices T
1
, S and T . The following expressions are obtained
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H16
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S
11
=S
11
c
4
+ S
22
s
4
+ 2S
12
+ S
66
( )c
2
s
2
S
12
=S
12
c
4
+ s
4
( )
+ S
11
+ S
22
S
66
( )c
2
s
2
S
22
=S
11
s
4
+ S
22
c
4
+ 2S
12
+ S
66
( )c
2
s
2
S
16
= 2S
11
2S
12
S
66
( )c
3
s 2S
22
2S
12
S
66
( )cs
3
S
26
= 2S
11
2S
12
S
66
( )cs
3
2S
22
2S
12
S
66
( )c
3
s
S
66
= 4S
11
+ 4S
22
8S
12
2S
66
( )c
2
s
2
+S
66
c
4
+ s
4
( )
(3.5)
It can be seen that S S as 0.
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H17
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Effect of Loading Angle on Stiffness









Fig.3.3 Variation with loading angle of the Youngs modulus E
x
and shear modulus G
xy
for a
lamina of epoxy-50% glass fibre











Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H18
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Tensile-Shear Interaction Behaviour














Fig.3.4 Variation with loading angle of the tensile-shear interaction compliance S
16
, for a
lamina of rubber-5% Al fibre, and photos of 4 specimens (between crossed polars) under
axial tension, lined up at the appropriate values of , showing tensile-shear distortions
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H19
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Lecture 4: Elastic Loading of a Laminate
Obtaining the Elastic Constants of a Laminate


















Fig.4.1 Schematic depiction of the loading angle between the x-direction (stress axis) and the
reference direction (=0'), for a laminate of n plies. Also shown is the angle
k
between
the reference direction and the fibre axis of the k th ply (1k direction)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H20
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Stiffness of Laminates



















Fig.4.2 Variation with loading angle (between the stress axis and the reference (=0')
direction) of the Youngs modulus of a single lamina and of two simple laminates, made
of epoxy-50% glass fibre. (The equal stress model was used to obtain the transverse
Youngs modulus of the lamina, E
2
.)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H21
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Tensile-Shear Interactions and Balanced Laminates
















Fig.4.3 Variation with loading angle (between the stress axis and the reference (=0')
direction) of the interaction ratio,
xyx
(ratio of the shear strain
xy
to the normal strain

x
) of a single lamina and of three simple laminates, made of epoxy-50% glass fibre.
(The equal stress model was used to obtain the transverse Youngs modulus of the
lamina, E
2
.)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H22
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In-plane Stresses within a Loaded Laminate



















Fig.4.4 (a) Predicted stresses within one ply of a loaded crossply laminate (epoxy-50%glass)
and (b) a schematic of these stresses for loading parallel to one of the fibre axes




Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H23
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Coupling Stresses and Symmetric Laminates











Fig.4.5 Elastic distortions of a crossply laminate as a result of (a) uniaxial loading and
(b) heating



Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H24
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Lecture 5: Short Fibre & Particulate Composites - Stress Distributions
The Shear Lag Model for Short Fibre Composites





Displacements of Fibre and Matrix

Fig.5.1 Schematic illustration of the basis of the shear lag model, showing (a) unstressed system,
(b) axial displacements, u, introduced on applying tension parallel to the fibre and
(c) variation with radial location of the shear stress and strain in the matrix





Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H25
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Derivation of Equations
The model is based on assuming that the build-up of tensile stress along the length of the fibre
occurs entirely via the shear forces acting on the cylindrical interface. This leads immediately to
the basic shear lag equation:
d
f
dx
=
2
i
r
0
(5.1)
The interfacial shear stress,
i
, is obtained by considering how the shear stress in this direction
varies within the matrix as a function of radial position. This variation is obtained by equating the
shear forces on any two neighbouring annuli in the matrix:
2 r
1

1
dx=2 r
2

2
dxie

2
=
r
2
r
1
=
i

r
0
r


The displacement of the matrix in the loading direction, u, is now considered. The shear strain
at any point in the matrix can be written both as a variation in this displacement with radial
position and in terms of the local shear stress and the shear modulus of the matrix, G
m

=

G
m
=

i

r
0
r

G
m
and =
du
dr

It follows that an expression can be found for the interfacial shear stress by considering the
change in matrix displacement between the interface and some far-field radius, R, where the
matrix strain has become effectively uniform (du/dr 0).
du
u
r
0
u
R

i
r
0
G
m
dr
r
r
0
R

i
=
u
R
u
r
0
( )
G
m
r
0
ln
R
r
0

(5.2)
The appropriate value of R is affected by the proximity of neighbouring fibres, and hence by the
fibre volume fraction, f. The exact relation depends on the precise distribution of the fibres, but
this needn't concern us too much, particularly since R appears in a log term. If an hexagonal array
of fibres is assumed, with the distance between the centres of the fibres at their closest approach
being 2R, then simple geometry leads to
R
r
0

2
=

2 f 3

1
f

Substituting for
i
in the basic shear lag equation now gives
d
f
dx
=
2 u
R
u
r
0
( )
G
m
r
0
2

1
2
ln
1
f


The displacements u
R
and u
r
0
are not known, but their differentials are related to identifiable
strains. The differential of u
r
0
is simply the axial strain in the fibre (assuming perfect interfacial
adhesion and neglecting any shear strain in the fibre - which is taken as being much stiffer than
the matrix)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H26
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du
r
0
dx
=
f
=

f
E
f

while the differential of u
R
, ie the far-field axial strain of the matrix, can be taken as the
macroscopic strain of the composite
du
R
dx

1

Differentiating the expression for the gradient of stress in the fibre and substituting these two
relations into the resulting equation, with the shear modulus expressed in terms of Young's
modulus and Poisson's ratio [E
m
=2 G
m
(1+
m
)], leads to
d
2

f
dx
2
=
n
2
r
0
2

f
E
f

1
( ) (5.3)
in which n is a dimensionless constant (for a specified composite), given by
n =
2E
m
E
f
1+
m
( )ln
1
f

(5.4)
This is a second order linear differential equation of a standard form, which has the solution

f
= E
f

1
+ Bsinh
n x
r
0

+ Dcosh
n x
r
0


and, by applying the boundary condition of
f
= 0 at x = L (the fibre half-length), the constants B
and D can be solved to give the final expression for the variation in tensile stress along the length
of the fibre

f
= E
f

1
1 cosh
n x
r
0

sech n s ( )

(5.5)

in which s is the aspect ratio of the fibre (=L/r
0
). From this expression, the variation in interfacial
shear stress along the fibre length can also be found, using the basic shear lag equation, by
differentiating and multiplying by (-r
0
/2),

i
=
E
f
n
1
2
sinh
n x
r
0

sech n s ( ) (5.6)
An estimate can now be made of the axial modulus of the composite. This is done by using
the Rule of Averages (
1
= f
f
_
+ (1-f)
m
_
), with the average matrix stress taken as its Young's
modulus times the composite strain and the average fibre stress obtained by integrating the above
expression for
f
over the length of the fibre. This leads to
E
1
=

1
= f E
f
1
tanh n s ( )
n s

+ 1 f ( ) E
m
(5.7)




Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H27
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The Stress Transfer Length (Aspect Ratio)














Fig.5.2 Predicted (shear lag) variations in (a) fibre tensile stress and (b) interfacial shear stress
along the axis of a glass fibre in a polyester-30% glass composite subject to an axial
tensile strain of 10
-3
, for two fibre aspect ratios
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Fibre End Regions - Hydrostatic Stresses and Cavitation



(a) (b)
Fig.5.3 Photoelastic (frozen stress) models under applied axial load, showing the stress field
in the matrix around two stiff reinforcements having the same aspect ratio, with
(a) cylindrical and (b) ellipsoidal shapes





Fig.5.4 Predicted (finite element) hydrostatic stress fields around sphere and cylinder (s=5) of
SiC in an Al matrix, with an applied axial tensile stress of 100 MPa (and differential
thermal contractions stresses corresponding to a temperature drop of 50 K)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H29
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Lecture 6:
Short Fibre & Particulate Composites - Stiffness & Inelastic Behaviour
Shear Lag Model Predictions for Stiffness
















Fig.6.1 Predicted composite/matrix Youngs modulus ratio, as a function of fibre/matrix Youngs
modulus ratio, for aligned short fibre composites with 30% fibre content and fibre aspect
ratio (s) values of (a) 30 and (b) 3. Shear lag model predictions are reliable when s is
relatively large. For very short fibres, the predictions become inaccurate, due to neglect
of the stress transfer across the fibre ends, which is more significant for shorter fibres
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H30
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Approach to Rule of Mixtures (Long Fibre) Stiffness

Fig.6.2 A set of four (rubber 5% Al fibre) photoelastic models under axial load, showing how
the stress field and the axial extension change as the aspect ratio and degree of
alignment of the fibres are changed














Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H31
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Interfacial Sliding and Matrix Yielding














Fig.6.3 Plots of the dependence of peak fibre stress,
f0
, (at the onset of interfacial sliding or
matrix yielding) on the critical shear stress for these phenomena,
i
*
. Plots are shown
for different fibre aspect ratios, with n values typical of polymer- and metal-based
composites. Also indicated are typical value ranges for fracture of fibres and for matrix
yielding and interfacial debonding



Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H32
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Critical Fibre Aspect Ratio
























Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H33
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Lecture 7: The Fibre-Matrix Interface
Bonding Mechanisms and Residual Stresses
Bonding Mechanisms
































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Residual Stress Distributions















Fig.7.1 Predicted stress distribution around and within a single fibre, in a polyester-35% glass
long fibre composite, as a result of differential thermal contraction (T drop of 100 K)









Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H35
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Silane Coupling Agents for Glass Fibres



Fig.7.4 Depiction of the action of silane coupling agents, which are used to generate improved
fibre-matrix bonding for glass fibres in polymeric matrices. The silane reacts with
adsorbed water to create a strong bond to the glass surface. The R group is one which
can bond strongly to the matrix




Objectives for MMCs and CMCs







Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H36
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Bond Strength Measurement
Single Fibre Pull-out Testing

















Fig.7.2 Schematic stress distributions and load-displacement plot during single fibre pull-out
testing. The interfacial shear strength,
*
, is obtained from the pull-out stress,
0,*

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H37
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Single Fibre Push-out Testing















Fig.7.3 Schematic stress distributions and load-displacement plot during the single fibre push-
out test. One difference from the pull-out test is that the Poisson effect causes the fibre
to expand (rather than contract), which augments (rather than offsets) the radial
compressive stress across the interface due to differential thermal contraction
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H38
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Lecture 8: Fracture Strength of Composites
Axial, Transverse and Shear Strengths of Long Fibre Composites




Fig.8.1 Schematic depiction of the fracture of a unidirectional long fibre composite at critical
values of (a) axial, (b) transverse and (c) shear stresses
Axial Strength




Transverse and Shear Strengths












Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H39
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Failure Criteria for Laminae subject to In-plane Stresses
Maximum Stress Criterion


Mixed Mode Failure and the Tsai-Hill Criterion




















Fig.8.2 Single ply failure stresses, as a function of loading angle: (a) maximum stress
criterion, for polyester-50%glass (
1*
=700 MPa,
2*
=20 MPa,
12*
=50 MPa) and
(b) maximum stress and Tsai-Hill criteria, plus experimental data, for epoxy-
50%carbon (
1*
=570 MPa,
2*
=32 MPa,
12*
=56 MPa)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H40
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Experimental Data for Single Laminae











Fig.8.3 Schematic illustration of how a hoop-wound tube is subjected to simultaneous tension
and torsion in order to investigate failure mechanisms and criteria









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Failure of Laminates
Failure Sequences in Laminates














Fig.8.4 Loading of the crossply laminate of Fig.4.4 parallel to one of the fibre directions:
(a) cracking of transverse plies as
2
reaches
2*
, (b) onset of cracking parallel to fibres
in axial plies as
2
(from inhibition of Poisson contraction) reaches
2*
and (c) final
failure as
1
in axial plies reaches
1*

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Failure of Laminates under Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading




























Fig.8.5 Stresses within an angle-ply laminate of polyester-50%glass fibre, as a function of the
ply angle: (a) stresses within one of the plies, as ratios to the applied stress. and
(b) applied stress at failure (maximum stress criterion, with
1*
=700 MPa,
2*
=20 MPa
and
12*
=50 MPa)
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Fig.8.6 Stresses within an angle-ply laminate of polyester-50%glass fibre, as a function of the
ply angle, when subjected to biaxial loading, with
x
=2
y
: (a) stresses within one of the
plies, as ratios to the applied
x
. and (b) applied stress,
x
, at failure (maximum stress
criterion, with
1*
=700 MPa,
2*
=20 MPa and
12*
=50 MPa)
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Lecture 9: Fracture Toughness of Composites
Fracture Energies of Reinforcements and Matrices








Crack Deflection at Interfaces Planar Systems











Fig.9.1 Schematic load-displacement plots for 3-point bend testing of monolithic SiC and a SiC
laminate with (weak) graphitic interlayers

Fig.9.2 SEM micrographs showing the layered structures of (a) a mollusc and (b) a SiC laminate
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Energy of Interfacial Debonding in Fibre Composites

Fig.9.3 Schematic representation of the advance of a crack in a direction normal to the fibre
axis, showing interfacial debonding and fibre pull-out processes


















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Energy of Fibre Pull-out





G
cpo
=
Ndx
0
L
0
L

rx
0
2

i*
=
f
r
2

r
i*
L

L
3
3

=
fs
2
r
i*
3
(9.1)




Effects of Fibre Flaws and Weibull Modulus

Fig.9.4 Schematic depiction of stress distribution, and associated probability of fracture, along a
fibre bridging a matrix crack, for (a) fixed fibre strength
*
(m=) and (b) strength
which varies along the length of the fibre, due to the presence of flaws (finite m)
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Fracture Energy of a Metal Fibre Reinforced Ceramic Composite
(a) (b)
Fig.9.5 Microstructure of a composite (Fiberstone) comprising coarse stainless steel fibres in
a matrix which is predominantly alumina, illustrated by (a) an X-ray tomograph,
showing the fibres only, and (b) an optical micrograph of a polished section
There have been many attempts to produce ceramic-matrix composites with high toughness,
but with limited success. Probably the most promising approach is to introduce a network of
metallic fibres, and this is the basis of a commercial product (Fiberstone see Fig.9.5). The
fibres are often about 0.5 mm diameter, although finer fibres can be used. During fracture, fibres
bridge the crack and energy is absorbed by both frictional pull-out and plastic deformation - see
Fig.9.6. These mechanisms are likely to dominate any other contributions to the work of fracture.


Fig.9.6 Schematic representation of the fracture of Fiberstone, showing: (a) overall fracture
geometry, (b) fibres undergoing debonding, possibly fracture, and then frictional pull-
out and (c) fibres undergoing debonding, plastic deformation and then fracture
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The work of fracture can thus be estimated by summing the energy absorbed via both
processes, assuming that a fraction g of the fibres bridging the crack plane undergo pull-out and
the remainder (1-g) undergo plastic deformation and rupture.
G
cnet
= G
cpo
+ G
cfd
(9.2)
An expression for the fibre pull-out work was derived previously (Eqn.(9.1)), but the relationship
between N and f depends on fibre orientation distribution, and that treatment referred to aligned
fibres. For this type of composite, it can be taken as isotropic (random), in which case N is half
that for the aligned case (see EE Underwood, Quantitative Stereology. 1970, Addison-Wesley)
N =
f
2r
2
(9.3)
leading to
G
cpo
=
gfs
2
r
i*
6
(9.4)
where s is here the ratio of , the (average) length of fibre extending beyond the crack plane, to
the fibre radius, r.

Fig.9.7 Data from tensile testing of single 304 stainless steel fibres, showing (a) a set of 10
stress-strain curves and (b) the distribution of corresponding work of deformation values
The work done during plastic deformation and rupture of fibres can be estimated by assuming
that interfacial debonding extends a distance x
0
from the crack plane - see Fig.9.6(c). The energy
is obtained by summing the work done on each fibre, as if it had an original length 2x
0
and were
being subjected to a simple tensile test
G
cfd
= (1 g)2x
0
NU
fd
= (1 g)2x
0
f
2r
2

W
fd
r
2
= (1 g)x
0
fW
fd
(9.5)
where U
fd
and W
fd
are the work of deformation of the fibre, expressed respectively per unit length
(J m
-1
) and per unit volume (J m
-3
). The latter is given by the area under the stress-strain curve of
the fibre. Some such curves, for the fibres used in Fiberstone, are shown in Fig.9.7, together
with corresponding W
fd
values. The value of is in this case given by the product of x
0
and
*
, the
fibre strain to failure, leading to
G
cfd
= (1 g)

fW
fd
=
(1 g)srfW
fd

*
(9.6)
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Use of Eqns.(9.2), (9.4) and (9.6) allows prediction of the composite fracture energy, although
it requires measurements or assumptions to be made concerning several parameters. In addition to
the single fibre work of deformation, W
fd
, and the failure strain,
*
, estimates are required for the
proportion of fibres undergoing pull-out, g, the interfacial frictional sliding stress,
i*
, and the
(average) length of fibre extending beyond the crack plane, , and hence the protrusion aspect
ratio, s (= /r) Nevertheless, predictions can be made, based on experimental data or on plausible
assumptions, and compared with measured composite fracture energies. An example is shown in
Fig.9.8, where it can be seen that, even with the relatively low fibre content (~10-15%) that is
normally present, the work of fracture is both predicted and observed to be substantial. The
experimental G
c
values were obtained by impact (Izod) testing.

Fig.9.8 Comparison between experimental data for the fracture energy of Fibrestone
composites, as a function of fibre volume fraction, and predictions obtained using
Eqns.(9.4) amd (9.6), for fine and coarse fibres
The value of s can be estimated from observation of fracture surfaces. However, its difficult
to be sure whether particular fibres have predominantly undergone pull-out, rather than plastic
deformation and rupture - of course, some fibres could deform plastically and then pull out. In
any event, very strong bonding may be undesirable, since this will tend to inhibit both pull-out and
plasticity, although very poor bonding may allow fracture to take place without the fibres being
significantly involved in the process. An intermediate bond strength is likely to give optimal
toughness.
It also worth noting that, for a given fibre protrusion aspect ratio, s (= /r), both pull-out and
plastic deformation contributions increase linearly with the absolute scale (fibre diameter).
Composites reinforced with coarser fibres therefore tend to be tougher, particularly for this type of
composite. Its clear that refining the scale of the microstructure does NOT always give benefits!
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Lecture 10: Compressive Loading of Fibre Composites




Euler Buckling
































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Kink Band Formation


Fig.10.1 Optical micrograph of an axial section of a carbon fibre composite after failure under
uniaxial compression, showing a kink band















Fig.10.2 Predicted kinking stress, as a function of misalignment angle, for epoxy-60%carbon
composites, with two different interfacial shear strengths
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Failure by Fibre Crushing in Highly Aligned Systems




(a) (b)
Fig.10.3 (a) Fragment of SiC monofilament extracted from a Ti-35%SiC composite after loading
under axial compression and (b) schematic of the crushing process


Fig.10.4 Stresses in Ti-35%SiC monofilament composite (average axial values for fibre, matrix
and composite) as axial strain is increased by external loading. At zero strain, stresses
in fibre and matrix are from differential thermal contraction. The matrix yields when the
stress in it reaches
mY
. It is assumed that no matrix work hardening occurs during
plastic straining. Failure occurs when the fibre stress reaches the critical value
f*

Failure is expected when the fibre stress reaches
f*
, taken to be a single, fixed value. The
composite strength
c*
can readily be predicted, provided it can be assumed that the matrix yields
before composite failure and that matrix work hardening is negligible, since it is then given by

c*
= E
1c

cmY
+ E
1c
'

c*

cmY
( ) (10.1)
in which the composite moduli before and after matrix yielding are given by
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H53
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E
1c
= fE
f
+ 1 f ( ) E
m
E
1c
'
= fE
f

Now, the strains at matrix yield and at final failure can be written as

cmY
=

mY
+
mT
E
m

c*
=

f*
+
fT
E
f

Substituting into Eqn.(10.1), and applying the residual stress force balance condition
f
fT
+ 1 f ( )
mT
= 0
then leads to

c*
= f
f *
+ 1 f ( )
mY

A correction should be applied for the effect of misalignment in reducing the stress parallel to the
fibre axis, leading to

c*
=
f
f *
+ 1 f ( )
mY
cos
2

0
(10.2)
This predicted strength is independent of the thermal residual stresses (whereas the strain at which
failure occurs will depend on them).




Fig.10.5 Experimental strength data, as a function of the initial angle between fibre and loading
axes, during compression of misaligned Ti-35%SiC specimens. Also shown are
predicted curves for failure by kink band formation and by fibre crushing, obtained by
substitution of the values shown into the kinking equation and Eqn.(10.2) respectively
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H54
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Lecture 11:
Thermal Expansion of Composites & Thermal Residual Stresses
Thermal Expansivity Data for Reinforcements and Matrices



Fig.11.1 Thermal expansion coefficients for various materials over a range of temperature





















Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H55
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Derivation of Expression for Composite Axial Expansivity


Fig.11.2 Schematic showing thermal expansion in the fibre direction of a long fibre composite,
using the slab model


















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Transverse Thermal Expansivities








Fig.11.3 Predicted thermal expansivities of Al-SiC uniaxial fibre composites, as a function of
fibre content







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Thermal Stresses in Composite Systems
Magnitudes of Thermal Residual Stresses






Stresses in Composites during Thermal Cycling












Fig.11.4 Neutron diffraction data for an Al-5vol%SiC whisker (short fibre) composite, showing
lattice strains (& hence stresses) within matrix & reinforcement during unloaded
thermal cycling. (111) reflections were used for both constituents. The gradients shown
are calculated values for elastic behaviour, assuming a fibre aspect ratio of 10



Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H58
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Lecture 12: Surface Coatings as Composite Systems
Force and Moment Balances
A Substrate-Deposit System with a Uniform Misfit Strain




Fig.12.1 Schematic depiction of the generation of curvature in a flat bi-material plate, as a result
of the imposition of a uniform misfit strain, . The strain and stress distributions shown
are for the case indicated, obtained using Eqns.(12.10) & (12.11)


Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H59
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Relation between Curvature and Misfit Strain
The forces P and P generate an unbalanced moment, given by
M= P
h + H
2

(12.1)
where h and H are deposit and substrate thicknesses respectively. Since the curvature, ,
(through-thickness strain gradient) is given by the ratio of moment, M, to beam stiffness,
=
M

(12.2)
P can be expressed as
P =
2
h + H
(12.3)
The beam stiffness is given by
= b E y
c
( )
H
h

y
c
2
dy
c
= b E
d
h
h
2
3
h +
2

+ b E
s
H
H
2
3
+ H +
2

(12.4)
where , the distance from the neutral axis (y
c
= 0) to the interface (y = 0) is given (see Appendix
on p.64) by
=
h
2
E
d
H
2
E
s
2 hE
d
+ HE
s
( )
(12.5)
The magnitude of P is found by expressing the misfit strain as the difference between the
strains resulting from application of the P forces.
=
s

d
=
P
HbE
s
+
P
hbE
d

P
b
=
hE
d
HE
s
hE
d
+ HE
s

(12.6)
Combination of this with Eqs.(12.3)-(12.5) gives a general expression for the curvature, , arising
from imposition of a uniform misfit strain,
=
6E
d
E
s
h + H ( )h H
E
d
2
h
4
+ 4E
d
E
s
h
3
H + 6E
d
E
s
h
2
H
2
+ 4E
d
E
s
h H
3
+ E
s
2
H
4
(12.7)
Note that, for a given deposit/substrate thickness ratio, h/H, the curvature is inversely proportional
to the substrate thickness, H. This scale effect is important in practice, since it means that
relatively thin substrates are needed if curvatures are to be sufficiently large for accurate
measurement. Predicted curvatures, obtained using this equation, are shown in Fig.12.2.
Curvatures below about 0.1 m
-1
(radius of curvature, R > 10 m) are difficult to measure accurately.


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Biaxial Stresses
In practice, there are often in-plane stresses other than those in the x-direction. For an isotropic
in-plane stress state, there is effectively another stress equal to
x
in a direction at right angles to it
(z-direction); this induces a Poisson strain in the x-direction. Assuming isotropic stiffness and
negligible through-thickness stress (
y
= 0), the net strain in the x-direction can be written

x
E =
x

y
+
z
( )
=
x
1 ( )
so that the relation between stress and strain in the x-direction can be expressed

x
=
E
1 ( )
= E' (12.8)
and this modified form of the Youngs modulus, E, (the biaxial modulus) is usually applicable
in expressions referring to substrate/coating systems having an equal biaxial stress state.
Stoneys Equation the Thin Coating Limit
A simplified form of Eq.(12.7) applies for coatings much thinner than the substrate (h << H).
The whole of the misfit strain is now accommodated in the deposit, the substrate stress becomes
negligible and that in the deposit varies little as a result of curvature adoption. The misfit strain
can under these circumstances be converted to a deposit stress. Focussing on the equal biaxial
case, the relationship between the two can be written

d
=
E
d
1
d
( )

Substituting in Eqn.(12.7) for , using the two biaxial moduli and applying the condition h << H,
now leads to
=
6E
d
'
h
E
s
'
H
2

d
1
d
( )
E
d
=
6h 1
s
( )
E
s
H
2

d
(12.9)
This is Stoneys equation, which is commonly used to relate (biaxial) stress to (biaxial) curvature
for thin coatings. The properties required (E
s
and
s
) are only those of the substrate. This is
convenient, since these are usually more readily accessible than those of the coating.
Unfortunately, the Stoney equation is only accurate in a regime (h<<H) where curvatures are often
very small (and hence difficult to measure) - see below.
Stress Distributions in Thick Coating Systems
When the condition h << H does not apply, then stresses and stress gradients are often
significant in both constituents. Stress distributions are readily found for the simple misfit strain
case outlined above, from the values of P and , using the expressions

d
y=h
=
P
bh
+ E
d
h ( ) (12.10a)

d
y=0
=
P
bh
E
d
(12.10b)

s
y=H
=
P
b H
E
s
H + ( ) (12.11a)

s
y=0
=
P
b H
E
s
(12.11b)
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The stress distributions in Fig.12.1, 12.3 and 12.4 were obtained using these equations. The
adoption of curvature can effect substantial changes in stress levels and high through-thickness
gradients can result. It may be seen from Eqns.(12.10) and (12.11) that (for a given value of h/H),
since P is proportional to H and is inversely proportional to H, the stresses (at y=-H, 0 and h) do
not depend on H, ie the stress distribution is independent of scale. However, the curvature is not.
Substrates must be fairly thin if measurable curvatures are to be generated, although the maximum
thickness could be as small as 50 m, or as large as 50 mm, depending on various factors.

Fig.12.2 Predicted curvature, as a function of the fall in temperature, for four different
substrate/deposit combinations






Curvature Measurement Techniques









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Accuracy of the Stoney Equation


Fig.12.3 Predicted dependence on thickness ratio of (a) curvature and (b) stress in deposit
(coating), obtained using Eqns.(12.7), (12.10) and (12.11), and the Stoney equation
(Eqn.(12.9).) The Poisson ratios of substrate and deposit were both taken as 0.2



Possible Sources of a Misfit Strain





Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H63
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Driving Force for Interfacial Debonding














Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H64
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Appendix Location of the Neutral Axis

Fig.12.4 Location of the Neutral Axis of a Bi-Material Beam
The force balance
b y ( )
H
h

dy= 0 (12..1)
can be divided into contributions from the two constituents and expressed in terms of the strain
b E
d
(y)
0
h

dy+b E
s
(y)
H
0

dy= 0 (12..2)
which can then be written in terms of the curvature (through-thickness strain gradient) and the
distance from the neutral axis
b E
d
y ( )
0
h

dy+b E
s
y ( )
H
0

dy= 0 (12..3)
Removing the width, b, and curvature, , which are constant, this gives
E
d
y
2
2
y

0
h
+ E
s
y
2
2
y

H
0
= 0
E
d
h
2
2
h

+ E
s
H
2
2
H

= 0
E
d
h + E
s
H ( ) =
1
2
E
d
h
2
E
s
H
2
( )
=
h
2
E
d
H
2
E
s
2 hE
d
+ HE
s
( )
(12..4)
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H65
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Property Data (Room Temperature)
Fibres

Fibre
Density
(Mg m
-3
)
Axial
Modulus
E
1
(GPa)
Transverse
Modulus
E
2
(GPa)
Shear
Modulus
G
12
(GPa)
Poisson
Ratio

12

Axial
Strength

*
(GPa)
Axial
CTE

1
( K
-1
)
Transverse
CTE

2
( K
-1
)
Glass
2.45 76 76 31 0.22 3.5 5 5
Kevlar
1.47 154 4.2 2.9 0.35 2.8 -4 54
Carbon (HS)
1.75 224 14 14 0.20 2.1 -1 10
Carbon (HM)
1.94 385 6.3 7.7 0.20 1.7 -1 10
Diamond
3.52 1000 1000 415 0.20 4 3 3
Boron
2.64 420 420 170 0.20 4.2 5 5
SiC
(monofilament)
3.2 400 400 170 0.20 3.0 5 5
SiC
(whisker)
3.2 550 350 170 0.17 8 4 4
Al
2
O
3

( continuous)
3.9 385 385 150 0.26 1.4 8 8
Al
2
O
3

( staple)
3.4 300 300 120 0.26 2.0 8 8
W
19.3 413 413 155 0.33 3.3 5 5

Matrices

Matrix
Density
(Mg m
-3
)
Young's
Modulus
E (GPa)
Shear
Modulus
G (GPa)
Poisson
Ratio

Tensile
Strength

*
(GPa)
Thermal
Expansivity
( K
-1
)
Epoxy 1.25 3.5 1.27 0.38 0.04 58
Polyester
1.38 3.0 1.1 0.37 0.04 150
PEEK
1.30 4 1.4 0.37 0.07 45
Polycarborate
1.15 2.4 0.9 0.33 0.06 70
Polyurethane
Rubber
1.2 0.01 0.003 0.46 0.02 200
Aluminium
2.71 70 26 0.33 0.07 24
Magnesium
1.74 45 7.5 0.33 0.19 26
Titanium
4.51 115 44 0.33 0.24 10
Borosilicate
glass
2.23 64 28 0.21 0.09 3.2

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H66
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Question Sheet 1
[Can be attempted after lecture 8: property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]
1. Show that the Young's modulus of a composite lamina (having the elastic constants, referred
to the fibre axis, given below) falls by about 50% if it is loaded at 7 to the fibre axis,
compared with the on-axis value. What is the minimum Young's modulus that the lamina can
exhibit and at what loading angle does this occur ?
[E
1
= 200 GPa, E
2
= 7 GPa, G
12
= 3 GPa, v
12
= 0.3]

2. Explain what is meant by tensile-shear interactions in composite laminae. Using information
in the Data Book, derive an expression for the tensile-shear interaction compliance S
16
of a
lamina. State how this is used in describing the elastic deformation of the lamina under an
applied uniaxial tensile load. For a lamina of an epoxy-glass composite, with the elastic
constants given below, calculate the loading angles for which the lamina will show no shear
strains under such a load.
[E
1
= 40 GPa, E
2
= 8 GPa,
12
= 0.3, G
12
= 3 GPa]

3. (a) A simple cross-ply laminate is made from two plies of a composite material comprising
60vol% of continuous glass fibres in a polyester matrix. The shape of the laminate is a
rectangular strip, with its sides parallel to the two fibre directions. Describe, with the help of
sketches, the shape changes you would expect to see when it is subjected to: (i) uniaxial
tensile loading, along the length of the strip and (ii) an increase in temperature.
(b) For case (i) in part (a) above, the applied stress level is 100 MPa. Using equal strain and
equal stress models, estimate respectively the axial and transverse Youngs moduli of the
composite material, and hence calculate the axial strain exhibited by the laminate.
(c) It is observed that, over the central region of the specimen (ie remote from the constraint
imposed by the grips), it exhibits curvature in the plane normal to the testing axis. Briefly
explain the origin of this effect and indicate whether the axial or the transverse ply will lie on
the concave side of the specimen. If each ply has a thickness of 0.5 mm (so that the laminate
is 1 mm thick), calculate the expected radius of curvature in this region, stating your
assumptions.
(d) How could a cross-ply laminate be constructed which would be free of such curvature
when loaded in this way?
[Youngs moduli: glass; E = 76 GPa : polyester; E = 3 GPa
Poisson ratios: glass; = 0.22 : polyester; = 0.37
Axial and transverse Poisson ratios are related to the corresponding Youngs moduli by

12
E
1
=

21
E
2

The curvature, , exhibited by a pair of bonded strips, each of thickness h, when there is a
misfit strain between their natural (stress-free) lengths, is given by
=
12
h
E
1
E
2
+14 +
E
2
E
1








] {from 2005 Tripos}
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H67
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4. An angle-ply (50) laminate of a polyester-50%glass composite is subjected to an increasing
tensile stress in the
x
(=0) direction. Use the facility at the end of the section entitled
Failure of Laminates and the Tsai-Hill Criterion, within the Mechanics of Fibre
Composites TLP (www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/fibre_composites/index.php), to establish the
applied stress at which the laminate will fail (according to the maximum stress criterion),
given that
1*
= 700 MPa,
2*
= 20 MPa and
12*
= 50 MPa. Carry out the same calculation,
just using simple analytical equations, for one of the two plies (ie ignore the presence of the
other) and compare this value with the first result. Account for any difference between the
two.

5. Candidate materials for a gas pipeline are steel and a glass fibre reinforced polymer
composite. The diameter of the pipeline will be 1 m and the maximum gas pressure will be
100 bar (10 MPa). The composite would be filament-wound, at 45 to the hoop direction.
There are no concerns about stiffness, so the key design criterion is to avoid phenomena which
could lead to failure (which would be likely to be plasticity in the case of the steel and some
type of microstructural damage in the case of the composite). The main design variable will
be the wall thickness. Using the von Mises yield criterion (steel) and the Tsai-Hill failure
criterion (composite), and ignoring the issue of safety factors, estimate the minimum wall
thickness in each case and hence deduce which material would allow the lighter pipeline.
Comment on the assumptions and sources of error in your calculation and on whether there
might be a danger of any other types of failure. Without carrying out any further calculations,
indicate whether and how you would recommend changing the fibre winding angle of the
composite in order to make it more effective for this application.
[The von Mises yield criterion can be written

1

2
( )
2
+
2

3
( )
2
+
3

1
( )
2
2

Y

where
1
,
2
and
3
are the principal stresses and
Y
is the uniaxial yield stress. The latter
has a value of 150 MPa for the steel. The density of the steel is 7.8 Mg m
-3
.
The Tsai-Hill criterion for failure of a composite ply under plane stress conditions can be
expressed as:

1*

2
+

2

2*

1*
2
+

12

12*

2
1

where
1
,
2
and
12
are the stresses parallel, transverse and in shear relative to the fibre
axis and
1*
,
2*
and
12*
are corresponding critical values (measured respectively to be
900 MPa, 30 MPa and 40 MPa). The composite density is 1.8 Mg m
-3
.
The stresses within a lamina, subject to
x
,
y
and
xy
, are given by

12
=
c
2
s
2
2cs
s
2
c
2
2cs
cs cs c
2
s
2

xy

where c = cos and s = sin, and is the angle between x and 1 (fibre) directions.]
{from 2012 Tripos}
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H68
TWC - Lent 2014
Question Sheet 2
[Can be attempted after lecture 12; property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]
1. A strut is in the form of a hollow cylinder with an outside diameter of 25 mm and a bore of
20 mm. It is manufactured from MMC material composed of 70 vol.% SiC monofilaments in
a titanium alloy matrix, with the SiC fibres aligned approximately parallel to the axis of the
strut. However, the limitations of the manufacturing process are such that fibre misalignments
of up to 4 are present. The crushing strength of the SiC monofilaments is known to be about
8 GPa and the yield stress of the Ti alloy is 600 MPa, while the critical shear stress of the
composite, on planes parallel to the fibre axis, is measured to be about 200 MPa.
(i) Estimate the shear modulus of the composite and hence the stress for failure by kink band
formation. Would failure of this type occur under an axial compressive load of 25 kN?
(ii) Would any other type of failure or deformation be expected under this applied load?
[Shear moduli: Ti alloy; G = 44 GPa: SiC monofilament; G = 170 GPa
Youngs moduli: Ti alloy; E = 115 GPa: SiC monofilament; E = 400 GPa]
{from 2006 Tripos}
2. (a) A 1 mm thick unidirectional ply of epoxy-25vol% glass fibre composite is bonded at
120C to a steel plate with the same dimensions, and curing goes to completion at this
temperature. The bonded pair is then cooled (elastically) to room temperature (20C).
Describe the out-of-plane distortion that arises and calculate the associated curvature(s).
(b) When the bonded pair is loaded in compression parallel to the fibre axis of the ply, it is
observed that the curvature(s) it exhibits starts to reduce. Account for this effect. Calculate
the applied stress at which the specimen would become flat and comment on whether this is
likely to be achievable.

[For glass fibres: E = 76 GPa, = 5 10
-6
K
-1
, = 0.22

for epoxy resin: E = 3.5 GPa, = 58 10
-6
K
-1
, = 0.40
for steel: E = 210 GPa, = 11.4 10
-6
K
-1
, = 0.26
For an aligned long fibre composite. axial and transverse thermal expansivities,
c, tr
and
c, tr
,
are given by the following (force balance and Schapery) expressions

c, ax
=

m
1 f ( ) E
m
+
f
fE
f
1 f ( ) E
m
+ fE
f

c, tr
=
m
1 f ( ) 1+
m
( ) +
f
f 1+
f
( )
c, ax

12c

The curvature, , exhibited by a pair of bonded plates, each of thickness h, when there is a
misfit strain between their natural (stress-free) lengths, is given by
=
12
h
E
1
E
2
+14 +
E
2
E
1








]
{from 2008 Tripos}
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H69
TWC - Lent 2014
3. (a) During formation of a coating on a substrate, its common for a misfit strain, , to be
created, representing the difference between the (stress-free) in-plane dimensions of the two
constituents. For example, this often arises during deposition and/or subsequent cooling. This
misfit creates stresses and stains in the coating (and possibly in the substrate). Show that the
relation between the stress and strain in the coating, in any (in-plane) direction, can be
expressed

=
E
1 ( )

where E is the Youngs modulus and is the Poisson ratio.
(b) The curvature, , arising from a misfit strain, , between a coating (deposit) of thickness
h and a substrate of thickness H is given by
=
6E
d
E
s
h + H ( )h H
E
d
2
h
4
+ 4E
d
E
s
h
3
H + 6E
d
E
s
h
2
H
2
+ 4E
d
E
s
h H
3
+ E
s
2
H
4

where E
d
and E
s
are the Youngs moduli of deposit and substrate. Show that, in the limit of
h<<H, this reduces to the Stoney equation, giving the curvature in terms of the stress in the
deposit, its Poisson ratio, the Youngs modulus of the substrate and the thicknesses of the two
constituents.
(c) A glass sheet of thickness 3 mm has a 10 m layer of Al evaporated onto one side, to form
a mirror. The production process generates negligible stress in the coating. The sheet is
subsequently heated from room temperature (20C) to 170C. Calculate the curvature
exhibited by the sheet after heating, assuming that the system remained elastic.
(d) Decide, stating any assumptions, whether yielding is in fact likely to occur in the Al layer
during heating, given that it has a uniaxial yield stress at 170C of 100 MPa.
(e) Hence give an opinion as to whether any detectable distortion of the reflective
characteristics of the mirror is likely to be present after it has cooled to room temperature.
[For the glass: E = 75 GPa, = 8.5 10
-6
K
-1
,
for the Al: E = 70 GPa, = 0.33, = 24.0 10
-6
K
-1
] {from 2009 Tripos}


4. (a) Show that the curvature, , of a beam (reciprocal of the radius of curvature, R) is equal to
the through-thickness gradient of the strain, with the strain being zero at the neutral axis.
{15%}
(b) A vibration-damped sheet material is made by bonding a 1 mm thick rubber layer
between two steel plates of thickness 1 mm. The sheet is pushed against the surface of a large
cylindrical former, which has a radius of 0.5 m. Sketch the through-thickness distributions of
strain and stress in the sheet, assuming that both the steel and the rubber remain elastic.
{25%}
(c) This forming operation is actually designed to generate plastic deformation, creating a
shaped component with a uniform curvature in one plane. Taking the steel to have a yield
stress of 300 MPa (in compression or tension), and assuming that the rubber remains elastic,
show that the above operation would in fact induce plastic deformation in outer layers of both
metal sheets and calculate the thickness of the layers that would yield in this way and the
plastic strain at the free surfaces.
{20%}
Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H70
TWC - Lent 2014
(d) Show that, if the width of the sheet (length along the axis of the cylinder) is 0.5 m, then the
beam stiffness ( = EI) of the sheet is 216.7 N m
2
and the bending moment that would be
needed in order to bring the sheet into contact with the cylindrical former would be 433 N m,
assuming that the steel remained elastic. Calculate the required bending moment for the actual
case, with the steel undergoing plastic deformation at a yield stress of 300 MPa (but
neglecting any work hardening).
{40%}
[Steel: Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa;
Rubber: Youngs modulus value more than 4 orders of magnitude lower]
{2011 Tripos}
5. John Harrison, the famous clock-maker credited with developing a time-keeping system
sufficiently reliable to establish longitude at sea, was reportedly the first to create a bi-metallic
strip (for compensation of the effects of temperature change), which he did by casting a thin
brass layer onto a thin steel sheet. Show that, if both layers have a thickness of 0.1 mm, and
the strip is 100 mm long, then the temperature change required to generate a lateral deflection
of 1 mm at its end is about 4.6 K, assuming that the system remains elastic.
Sketch the (approximate) through-thickness distributions of stress and strain within the above
strip, after it had been heated by 100 K. Give your view as to whether such heating would be
likely to cause plastic deformation within the strip, given that the yield stresses of both
constituents are expected to be of the order of 100 MPa.
[The curvature, , of a bi-material strip comprising two constituents of equal thickness (h),
arising from a misfit strain of between them, is given by
=
12
h
E
1
E
2
+14 +
E
2
E
1


where E
1
and E
2
are the Youngs moduli of the constituents. The relationship between
curvature, , end deflection, y, and length, x, of a bi-material strip may be expressed as
=
2sin tan
1 y
x
( )

x
2
+ y
2
( )

For steel: Youngs modulus, E = 200 GPa; thermal expansivity, = 13 10
-6
K
-1

For brass: Youngs modulus, E = 100 GPa; thermal expansivity, = 19 10
-6
K
-1
]
{2012 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H71
TWC - Lent 2014
Examples Class I
[Property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]
1. (a) The components of the compliance tensor of an epoxy-glass fibre composite lamina,
referred to the fibre axis direction and the transverse direction, can be written
S =
S
11
S
12
0
S
12
S
22
0
0 0 S
66
=
1/ E
1

12
/ E
1
0

21
/ E
2
1/ E
2
0
0 0 1/ G
12

Using information in the Data Book, show that the interaction compliance giving the shear
strain arising from a normal stress, when the lamina is loaded at an angle to the fibre axis, is
S
16
= 2S
11
2S
12
S
66
( )c
3
s 2S
22
2S
12
S
66
( )cs
3

in which c = cos and s = sin.
(b) Using the following measured values of elastic constants of the composite
E
1
= 50GPa, E
2
= 5GPa,
12
= 0.3,G
12
= 10GPa
calculate the shear strain induced in the lamina when a normal tensile stress of 100 MPa is
applied at an angle of 30 to the fibre axis.
(c) The dependence of this interaction compliance on is shown below for a different
composite. Sketch the corresponding plot for a 0/90 crossply laminate of the same material,
obtained by assuming that the laminate compliance, at any given , can be taken as the
average of those for the constituent plies at their corresponding values.
{from 2009 Tripos}

[The questions below involve use of the DoITPoMS TLP Mechanics of Fibre Composites]
2. On the page Stiffness of Laminates, use the facility at the end to create an epoxy-50% glass
composite (dragging the materials icons concerned to the matrix and reinforcement boxes) and
to estimate the ratio of maximum to minimum Youngs modulus it exhibits when loaded at
different angles to the fibre axis. Now create a 0/90 (cross-ply) laminate of the same
composite and repeat the operation. Find a sequence giving complete in-plane isotropy and
confirm that the Youngs modulus in this case is about 22 GPa for all in-plane directions.

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H72
TWC - Lent 2014
3. On the page Failure of Laminates and the Tsai-Hill criterion, use the facility at the end to
create a polyester-50%glass angle-ply laminate (40). Taking this to be a filament-wound
tube, with the plies at 40 to the hoop direction, and a radius/wall thickness ratio of 20,
subjected to internal pressure, P, estimate the value of P at which failure will occur, according
to the Tsai-Hill criterion, given that
1*
= 700 MPa,
2*
= 20 MPa and
12*
= 50 MPa. Using
analytical equations, carry out the same calculation for one of the two plies (ignoring the
presence of the other). Account for the difference between this value and the one you
obtained treating the laminate as a whole (using the numerical procedure in the TLP).

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H73
TWC - Lent 2014
Examples Class II
[Property data on C16H65 can be used if necessary.]
1. (a) Outline the function of silane coupling agents, which are sometimes applied to glass
fibres prior to composite manufacture.
(b) Show that the contribution to the fracture energy of a directionally-reinforced long fibre
composite (loaded parallel to the fibre axis) from fibre pull-out is given by
G
cp
=
f s
2
r
i*
3

where f is the fibre volume fraction, s is the fibre pull-out aspect ratio (pull-out length /
diameter), r is the fibre radius and
i*
is the fibre-matrix interfacial shear strength, which may
be taken as the shear stress during frictional sliding.
(c) Inspection of the fracture surface of an epoxy-50% glass fibre (8 m diameter) composite
reveals an approximate distribution of fibre pull-out aspect ratio of: 25% with s~10, 50% with
s~20 and 25% with s~30. Estimate the expected contribution from fibre pull-out to the
fracture energy of this composite, assuming the interfacial shear strength to be 20 MPa. What
characteristic of the fibre determines the average pull-out aspect ratio?
{from 2007 Tripos}

2. (a) A small aircraft is being designed and a choice must be made between an aluminium alloy
and a composite for the fuselage material. The fuselage, which will approximate to a cylinder
of diameter of 2 m, is expected to experience internal pressures up to 0.6 atm (0.06 MPa)
above that of the surrounding atmosphere, axial bending moments of up to 500 kN m and
torques of up to 600 kN m. The composite fuselage would be produced by filament-winding
at 45 to the hoop direction. It may be assumed that this is a strength-critical application,
with the airframe stiffness expected to be adequate in any event. Using the Tresca yield
criterion (aluminium) and the Tsai-Hill failure criterion (composite), and ignoring the issue of
safety factors, estimate the minimum wall thickness in each case and hence deduce which
material would allow the lighter fuselage.
(b) Comment on the main sources of error in your calculation and also on whether there might
be a danger of any other type of failure.
[For the aluminium alloy, the yield stress in uniaxial tension = 250 MPa
For the composite, failure stresses for loading transverse and in shear relative to the fibre
axis are both 50 MPa: the possibility of failure by fracture of the fibres can be neglected.
Densities: Al = 2.70 Mg m
-3
, composite = 1.50 Mg m
-3

The peak axial stress in a thin-walled cylinder subjected to a bending moment M is R M/I,
where R is the radius and I is the moment of inertia, which is given by R
3
t, where t is the
wall thickness.]
{from 2006 Tripos}

3. The transverse thermal expansivity of an epoxy-55vol% glass fibre lamina is measured as
38 10
-6
K
-1
. Two identical such laminae are bonded together to make a cross-ply laminate.
The laminate is given a prolonged annealing treatment at 50C, after which it may be assumed
to be free of any thermal residual stress. It is then quickly cooled to 0C. Estimate the axial
stress in the fibres within a ply.
{from 1998 Tripos}

Part II Materials Science: Course C16: Composite Materials - Student Handout C16H74
TWC - Lent 2014
4. A diamond coating of 1 m thickness is deposited by CVD onto a 1 mm thick titanium
substrate, at a temperature of 600C. Neglecting any deposition stresses, calculate the
curvature it is expected to exhibit after cooling to room temperature. Compare the values you
obtain using Eqn.(12.7) and Stoneys equation. Estimate the average stresses within the
coating and the substrate, and hence the driving force (strain energy release rate) for interfacial
debonding. In view of the magnitude of your value, comment on whether spallation of the
coating is likely to occur during cooling, given that the interfacial fracture energy in this
system has been estimated to be about 1 kJ m
-2
.

5. Steel sheet of thickness 1 mm is given a thin protective layer of vitreous enamel. This coating
is created by adding glassy powder to the surface and holding at around 700-800C, causing
the powder to fuse and form a layer of uniform thickness. The sheet is then furnace cooled,
taking several hours to reach room temperature, such that the thermal misfit strain is
completely relaxed by creep down to about 220C, after which cooling is elastic. Assuming
that the coating / substrate thickness ratio, h/H, is sufficiently small for the Stoney equation to
be valid, estimate the elastic strain in the coating, stating your assumptions.
{20%}
The adhesion of the enamel to the steel is excellent, so the system is highly resistant to
debonding, but its found that, if the coated sheet is progressively bent in one plane (with the
steel undergoing plastic deformation), then through-thickness cracks appear in the enamel
layer (on the convex side) when the local radius of curvature reaches 60 mm. Assuming that
such cracking starts when the tensile strain in the enamel reaches a certain level, use this
information to estimate this critical strain.
{25%}
A fabrication procedure requires bending of the coated sheet to a radius of curvature of
50 mm. The suggestion is made that, instead of furnace cooling the sheet after formation of
the coating, it should be removed from the furnace and cooled more quickly, such that elastic
cooling occurs below about 420C (and stress relaxation is complete until this point). Would
you expect this measure to result in the elimination of through-thickness cracking during
bending of the sheet to this curvature?
{20%}
For the latter case (ie the rapidly cooled sheet), what are the principal stresses within the
coating, before and after the bending operation? (The deformation of the steel sheet can be
taken as entirely plastic.)
{35%}
[Property data:
Steel: = 14 10
-6
K
-1

Enamel: = 5 10
-6
K
-1
; E = 70 GPa; = 0.2
where is the thermal expansivity, E is the Youngs modulus, and is the Poisson ratio]
{2010 Tripos}