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ADVERTISNG DESIGN

& PRINCIPLES
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Contents
UNIT 1-ADVERTISING DESIGN & PRINCIPLES
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Unit Objectives, Introduction, Appeals of an Advertisement, Makin an Advertisement,
Advertisin !esins, "ackround of Makin an Advertisement, #unctions of la$out,
%a$out &teps, %a$out and !esin, '$pe of !esins, (rinciples of )ood Advertisement,
*eulation of an Advertisement, &ummar$, +uestions and Ans,ers,
#urt-er *eadin
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UNIT 1-ADVERTISING DESIGN
& PRINCIPLES
Structure
1/1 Unit Objectives
1/. Introduction
1/3 Appeals of an Advertisement
1/4 Makin an Advertisement
1/0 Advertisin !esins
1/6 "ackround of Makin an Advertisement
1/1 #unctions of la$out
1/2 %a$out &teps
1/3 %a$out and !esin
1/14 '$pe of !esins
1/11 (rinciples of )ood Advertisement
1/1. *eulation of an Advertisement
1/13 &ummar$
1/14 +uestions and Ans,ers
1/10 #urt-er *eadin
1/1 UNIT OB1ECTIVES
5 'o understand t-e meanin and makin of an Advertisement
5 'o kno, t-e sinificance of la$out steps in Advertisement
makin
5 'o kno, t-e principles and steps of la$out in Advertisin
5 'o understand t-e role of la$out and desin in Advertisin
5 'o discuss t-e appeals of an Advertisement
5 'o learn t-e principles of ood Advertisin
5 'o understand t-e importance of *eulation of an
Advertisement
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1/. INTRODUCTIO
N
Advertisin is 6The dissemination of information concerning an idea, service
or product to compel action in accordance with the interest of the advertiser`.
'-is definition tells us about advertisin bein a kind of communication about a
product, service, or idea, and is bein oal-oriented/ 7o,ever, it does not include
man$ important aspects of advertisin/
'-us, Advertisin can be best defined as8 any paid for non-personal
communication used with persuasive intent by identified sponsors though
various media to promote goods, services and ideas, etc.`
Today advertising is a part of our everyday life. It is all around us/ 9e cannot
escape lookin at it or listenin to it/ :ven if ,e are not consciousl$ lookin at it or
listenin to it, t-e messae of advertisin reac-es and influences us/ It is often
recorded some,-ere at t-e back of our minds and is recalled ,-en ,e are bu$in
somet-in or lookin for a particular service/
#rom mornin to ni-t, ,e are usin advertised oods and services/ 9e start t-e
mornin ,it- a cup of tea or coffee, use toot-paste and toot-brus- on our teet-, at
breakfast ,e -ave bread, butter, etc/ our ,orkplace is also full of mac-ines,
computers, etc ,-ic- are t-e advertised oods/
1/3 APPEALS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT
Appeal, in advertisements, is an$t-in t-at motivates a person to action/ 7uman
beins are called bundles of ,ants/ A -uman bein is a strane mi; of -opes,
ambitions, needs, interests, oals, etc/ All t-ese t-ins ,ork as motivatin factors/
'-ese are also called motives. <arious advertisements tr$ to appeal to some of
t-ese manifold motives t-at force people to take action/ An advertising appeal is
nothing but a promise of a benefit the advertised product will provide to the
buyer. #or e;ample, t-e possible promises or appeals for a -ome appliance could
be - comfort, convenience, econom$ of installation, econom$, cleanliness,
dependabilit$ and durabilit$, safet$, multiple operations, man$ varied features,
trouble free operation and smart look/
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Advertisin appeal refers to t-e basis or approac- used in t-e advertisement to
attract t-e attention or interest of consumers and=or to influence t-eir feelins
to,ard t-e product, service, idea, or cause/ Advertisin appeals can be broken
do,n into t,o cateories-informational/rational appeals (hard sell) and
emotional appeals (soft sell).
Informational/Rational Appeals (Hard Sell)
'-ese appeals focus on t-e consumer>s practical or functional need for t-e product
or service and emp-asi?e features of a product or service and=or t-e benefits or
reasons for usin or o,nin a particular brand/ Man$ rational motives can be used
as t-e basis for advertisin appeals, includin comfort, convenience, and econom$/
Emotional Appeals (Soft Sell)
'-ese appeals use an emotional messae and are desined around an imae
intended to touc- t-e -eart and create a response based on feelins and attitudes/
Advertisers can use emotional appeals in man$ ,a$s in t-eir creative strate$/
7umor and se; appeals, or ot-er t$pes of appeals t-at are ver$ entertainin, upbeat,
and=or e;citin, affect t-e emotions of consumers and put t-em in a favorable
frame of mind/ #ear appeals can be e@uall$ dramatic in arousin emotions but -ave
an opposite effect on t-e vie,er>s frame of mind/
Humor appeals: consumers -ave -istoricall$ iven -i- ratins to -umorous
advertisin/ '-e advertisement attempts to persuade b$ invokin feelins of ood
-umor and lau-ter/ Often t-e ad takes t-e form of a cleverl$ ,orded or -umorous
sloan/ '-e fallac$ of Appeal to 7umor e;ploits our natural response to bravel$
spoken trut-/ '-e fallac$ presumes t-at an$ vie, t-at can be e;pressed in a ,a$
t-at elicits lau-ter must be true/ 7o,ever, ,e actuall$ lau- for man$ reasons,
onl$ one of ,-ic- is t-e reconition of t-e trut- of t-e sentiment e;pressed/ 9e
ma$ also lau- at a sloan because it is cleverl$ ,orded/ 9e ma$ lau- onl$
because ever$one around us is lau-in/ 9e lau- at slapstick -umor/ An
arument mimics our response to bravel$ spoken trut- ,-en it ets us to lau- for
a reason t-at is unrelated to our reconition of trut-, $et seems to impl$ t-at
lau-ter entails assent/
Sex Appeals: t-e old adae sex sells` ma$ not al,a$s be true/ Man$ advertisers
vie, se; appeal as one of t-e most effective marketin practices toda$/ In t-e
endless number of advertisements out t-ere no,ada$s, ad aencies are desperate to
-ave t-eir ads stand out/ &everal researc- studies -ave found t-at se; appeal in
0
advertisin is attention rabbin, likable, arousin, and memorable/ Ads t-at
contain se; appeal usuall$ evoke positive feelins in t-e audience, suc- as
e;citement and desire/ Ot-er studies state t-at se; appeal in advertisin is also
effective in elicitin fantas$/ 9-ile se; can be an effective tool in advertisin, it
also can be counterproductive/
Man$ consumers become so focused on t-e use of se; in t-e ad t-at t-e$ inore t-e
brand name, t-us producin t-e opposite of t-e desired result/ '-e e;tensive use of
se; appeal in ads also tends to stereot$pe ,omen as ,ell as distortin societ$As idea
of -o, ,omen s-ould look/ &ome advertisin e;ecutives see t-e use of se; appeal
as BmenAs desperate attempt to make t-eir advertisin break t-rou- t-e clutterB/
&e; in advertisements tends to focus on ,omen ,it- t-eir taret audience bein
men, forettin about t-e major consumer demorap-ic ,omen make up/
Overall it is understandable ,-$ advertisers see se; appeal as bein suc- an
effective tool/ If used appropriatel$ se; appeal dra,s attention to ads, makes t-em
memorable, and -elps sell t-e product/ If overdone, se; appeal can -ave t-e e;act
opposite effect/ Cot onl$ can it distract t-e audience from t-e messae of t-e ad but
it can offend t-e audience as ,ell/ !ependin on -o, se; appeal is used it can eit-er
make or break an advertisement/
Fear appeals8 '-e use of fear as a motivation in advertisin places emp-asis on t-e
severit$ of t-e t-reat/ #ear appeals rane in intensit$ from mild to severe/ '-e fear-
based messaes s-ould present a mild to moderate t-reat and provide a do-able
solution/ If t-e fear instilled is eit-er too severe or not follo,ed up ,it- a reasonable
solution, t-e vie,er ,ill not be able to surmount -is=-er sense of dread and process
t-e advertisin messae/ In a similar vein, neative ads Dads in ,-ic- t-e vie,er is
e;posed to anno$in or unpleasant creative contentE can also be effective if t-e
neative tec-ni@ue is used to promote a product benefit/ '-is situation is often
referred to as t-e "love that product, hate that ad". #ear appeals -ave been used
-eavil$ in campains desined to combat dru addictions and ot-er -ealt--related
problems
Combination Appeals8 t-ese appeals combine informational=rational and emotional
appeals/ In man$ advertisin situations, t-e creative specialist does not c-oose an
emotional over a rational appeal, but rat-er decides -o, to combine t-e t,o/
Fonsumer purc-ase decisions are often made on t-e basis of bot- t-e emotional and
rational motives, and cop$,riters must ive attention to bot- elements in developin
effective advertisin/
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'-ose ,-o prefer strai-tfor,ard, no-nonsense, factual advertisements like appeals
t-at deliver relevant facts in support of t-e product/ '-e$ ,ant presentations to be
professional, but t-e$ do not believe it is important for t-e advertisements to be
artistic/ Ot-ers favor a creative, emotionall$ based approac-/ '-e$ believe t-at
advertisements focusin -eavil$ on information are likel$ to be inored, and t-at
focusin on emotion is more likel$ to create t-e desired response/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at are t-e motives and appeals of an advertisementI
+./ 9-at is soft sell appeal in advertisinI
1/4 MAKING AN ADVERTISEMENT
Advertising is both an art and a science/ '-e art comes from ,ritin, desinin,
and producin e;citin messaes/ '-e science comes from strateic t-inkin and
plannin, includin researc-/ '-e creative specialist or team must first deal ,it-
t-e problem of comin up ,it- a concept/ '-en t-e specialist or team must develop
a creative strate$, determine appropriate appeals, and select a st$led of e;ecution/
'-e ad must t-en be cast into a print, television, radio, or ot-er format/ At t-is
stae, cop$,riters enerall$ collaborate ,it- artistic or production teams to create
t-e actual advertisements/ From start to finish, the process of ad creation
involves a multitude of decisions that require understanding of both the
product and the consumer as well as knowledge of the various formats and
media.
"e-ind ever$ ood advertisement is a creative concept, a bi idea t-at makes t-e
messae distinctive, attention ettin, memorable/ '-ou- reat ideas ma$ be -ard
to come b$, but some advertisin e;perts arue t-at for an advertisin campain to
be effective, it must contain a big idea` t-at attracts t-e consumer>s attention, ets
a reaction, and sets t-e advertiser>s product or service apart from t-e competitors/
7o,ever, several met-ods can uide t-e creative team>s searc- for a major sellin
idea and offer alternative solutions or options for developin effective advertisin/
'-ese met-ods include t-e incubation` tec-ni@ue, t-e process of lateral
thinking, and t-e storytelling process/
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Technique for Producing Ideas8 it ,ill basicall$ involve t-e follo,in8
1/ Gathering information8 at-er specific information, Delements directl$ related
to t-e product or servicesE and eneral information Dobserved information
about life and eventsE/ '-en, diest t-is material and ive it a mental ,ork
over/
./ Incubate: ne;t is t-e 6incubation> period, foret about it and let t-e
subconscious mind o to ,ork, and eventuall$ t-e idea ,ill appear 6out of
no,-ere>/
3/ Mull, develop, and adapt8 finall$, s-ape, develop, and adapt t-e idea to
advertisin/ '-e idea of consciousl$ forettin about t-e project and lettin
t-e subconscious mull ideas over time is t$pical of t-e creative ,ritin
process/ Insi-ts ma$ come from sub-conscious mind as mental pictures and
imaes/
Lateral Thinking: t-is process e;plores ne, relations-ips, breakin establis-ed
t-ou-t patterns to enerate ne, ideas and escape old ,a$s of t-inkin/ &ince ideas
are turned upside-do,n and looked at in ne, ,a$s, t-is concept is also called out-
of-the-box thinking.
Storytelling: Advertisin at its best is a form of stor$tellin/ The most compelling
advertisements have all the components of a short story. '-e$ introduce
c-aracters, identif$ tensions and problems, develop to,ard a conflict, and t-en offer
a resolution t-at is usuall$ provided b$ t-e product or service/ &ome of t-e best
television commercials could be called l$ricalJ t-e$ -ave t-e poetic @ualit$ of
condensin leendar$ and m$t-ic stories familiar to t-e taret>s culture into spots as
brief as fifteen seconds/ #or instance, an award- winning Australian commercial for
Levis 5! "eans alludes, to both the m#th of the American cowbo# and the
legendar# rebelliousness of the !$5s% &ith no dialogue, the spot uses the classical
roc' single be my baby as the musical bac'drop for a si(t#-second fantas#%
)mplo#ing the familiar "ourne# motif of American film, the commercial begins with
an establishing shot of an isolated stretch of desert highwa#%
To create effective advertisements, ad creators must be familiar with the
target`s cultural interests, e.g. the music, books and magazines they enjoy; the
movies they are likely to have seen; the problems that typically occupy their
minds. #amiliarit$ ,it- t-e classics and ,it- various film enres allo,s creative to
envision memorable commercial spots/ 7o,ever, creativel$ t-e bi Idea ma$ be
conceived, t-e ad must do more t-an resonate ,it- t-e consumer/ '-e consumer,
,-o vie,s t-e ad must be able to understand, amon ot-er t-ins, t-e product
benefit and sellin messae/
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Creative strategy
'-e creative aspect of advertisin is uided b$ specific oals and objectives t-at
re@uire development of a creative strate$/ A creative strate$ focuses on ,-at t-e
advertisin messae ,ill sa$ or communicate and uides t-e development of all
messaes used in t-e advertisin campain/ Some of the best-known approaches
are:
5 Unique selling-proposition approach8 an advertiser makes a superiorit$
claim based on a uni@ue product attribute t-at represents a meaninful,
distinctive consumer benefit/ Man$ of t-e successful U&(s, result from
identif$in real, in-erent product advantaes/
5 Brand image approach8 ,-ereas U&( approac- is based on promotin
p-$sical and functional differences bet,een t-e advertisers product and
competitive offerins, t-e brand-imae approac- populari?ed b$ David
Ogilvy, founder of t-e Oilv$ K Mat-er Aenc$, involves ps$c-oloical
rat-er t-an p-$sical differentiation/ Advertisin attempts to develop an imae
identit$ for a brand b$ associatin t-e product ,it- s$mbols/ (er-aps t-e
most successful imae advertisin of all times is t-e Marlboro campain/
'-e campain -as focused on ,estern imaer$ Dco,bo$s, -orses, ranc-inE/
&ince t-e United &tates is said to -ave t,o major m$t-s s$stems-t-e Old 9est
and t-e Old &out-- t-e co,bo$ is a stron and compellin imae/
5 Positioning approach: t-e concept of positionin as Lack 'rout introduced a
basis for advertisin strate$ in t-e earl$ 1314s/ Accordin to t-is approac-,
successful advertisin must implant in t-e customer>s mind a clear meanin
of ,-at t-e product is and -o, it compares to competitive offerins/
5 Generic brand approach: ,-en $ou are t-e number one brand, $our -ave no
need to ackno,lede t-e competition or claim superiorit$/ &uc- an approac-
can be used onl$ as lon as a product or service trul$ does dominate t-e brand
cateor$/ %eo "urnett c-ose to use a eneric approac- for Kellogg`s 6:at it
for life> campain, a surprisin but innovative c-oice/
5 The resonance approach: t-is approac- re@uires t-at t-e creative team -ave
a deep understandin of t-e taret audience>s ,orld, includin t-eir
e;periences and emotions/ Advertisin created ,it- t-is approac- 6does not
focus on product claims or brand imaes, but rat-er is desined to present
situations or emotions t-at evoke positive associations from t-e memories of
t-e respondents>/ #or e;ample, Hallmark uses t-is approac- in appealin to
t-e emotions of t-ose ,-o bu$ reetin cards ,it- t-eir familiar taline>
,-en $ou care enou- to send t-e ver$ best>/
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The copy platform, or creative brief, is t-e ,ritten document t-at specifies t-e
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basic elements of t-e creative strate$/ '-e format of t-e cop$ platform varies
from aenc$ to aenc$, but it enerall$ contains some variations of t-e follo,in8 a
profile of t-e taret audience, t-e problem, issue, or opportunit$ t-at advertisin is
e;pected to addressJ t-e advertisin objective, t-e ke$ customer benefitJ supportive
benefitsJ and a creative strate$ statement/
Creative Execution Styles
Once t-e specific advertisin appeal t-at ,ill be used as t-e basis for t-e
advertisin messae -as been determined, t-e creative specialist or team must t-en
turn its attention to e;ecution. Creative execution refers to the way in which an
advertising appeal is carried out or presented. In addition to usin -umor, an
advertisin messae or appeal can be presented in numerous ,a$s8
? Testimonial- also called ,ord-of-mout- advertisinJ t-is approac- uses
,ell-kno,n fiures or an unkno,n, 6t$pical> person to provide product
testimonials/
? Problem-solution- t-is tactic presents t-e vie,er ,it- a problem to be
solved and t-e solution is provided b$ t-e advertiser>s product
5 Demonstration- t-is is desined to illustrate ke$ advantaes or
benefits of t-e product or service b$ s-o,in it in actual use or in some
contrived situation
5 Slice-of-life- a variation of t-e problem-solution approac-, t-is
tec-ni@ue portra$s a real-life situation involvin a problem or conflict t-at
consumers face in dail$ life/ '-e ad t-en focuses on s-o,in -o, t-e
advertiser>s product or service can resolve t-at problem
5 Fantasy- t-is approac- uses special effects to create an imainative
place, events, or c-aracters/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at are t-e meanin and sinificance of U&( in advertisinI
+./ 9-at is a cop$ platformI
+3/ !iscuss steps of Freative :;ecution &t$les/
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1/0 ADVERTISING DESIGN
Once creative strate$, appeals, and e;ecution st$les -ave been decided, it is time
to create t-e actual advertisement/
'-e t-ree basic components of a Print ad are the headline, body copy, and visual
or illustrations. '-e -eadline and bod$ cop$ portions of t-e advertisement are t-e
responsibilit$ of t-e cop$,riters, ,-ile artists, often ,orkin under t-e direction of
an art director-are responsible for t-e visual presentation of t-e ad/ Artists also
,ork ,it- cop$,riters to develop a la$out/ '-e layout involves t-e arranement of
t-e various components of t-e ad, suc- as -eadlines, sub-eads, bod$ cop$, and
talines/ The tagline is a memorable saying or slogan that conveys a selling
message.
Television copy consists of, t,o elements- the audio and the visual/ '-e video
Dvisual elementsE is ,-at t-e vie,er sees on t-e television screen/ '-e visual
enerall$ dominates t-e commercial so it must attract t-e vie,er>s attention and
communicate a ke$ idea, messae, and=or imae/ '-e audio includes suc- elements
as voices, music, and sound effects/ "roadcast commercials are demandin to
make and t-e$ must be credible and relevant/ *esearc- s-o,s t-at t-e follo,in
tec-ni@ues ,ork best8 the opening should be short, compelling attention getter,
demonstrations should be interesting and believable; the content should be
ethical, in good taste, and entertaining; and the general structure of the
commercial and copy should be simple and easy to follow.
Radio copy presents a particular c-allene to advertisers and t-eir aencies
because it lacks t-e visual aspects of bot- print and television/ &uccessful radio
spots usuall$ enable listeners to visuali?e t-e product or somet-in related to it/
#or t-is reason, radio advertisin is often referred to as theater of the mind`.
One of t-e most c-allenin aspects of ,ritin for radio is makin t-e script fit t-e
time slot/ '-e cop$,riter s-ould read t-e script out loud for timin/ 9it-
electronic compression, recorded radio advertisements can no, include 14 to 34
percent more cop$ t-an te;t read live/
'o appear professional and to be eas$ to produce, cop$ must ad-ere to t-e
appropriate industr$ format/ All cop$ beins ,it- t-e name of t-e advertisers in t-e
upper left--and corner/ '-e si?e of t-e print ad or lent- of t-e broadcast script
1.
follo,ed b$ identification of t-e medium to be used appears on t-e second line/
'-e name iven to t-e advertisement appears on t-e t-ird line/ Often a series of
advertisements are created for a specific advertisin campain/ In t-is case, all t-e
ads created for t-e campain ma$ -ave one name, ,-ic- unifies t-e series/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is a 6taline>I
+./ 9-at are t-e elements of 'elevision Advertisement cop$I
+3/ 9-at are t-e main components of a (rint AdvertisementI
1/6 BACKGROUND OF MAKING AN ADVERTISEMENT
In Print advertising, t-e ke$ format elements are t-e headlines, the visuals,
subheads, body copy, slogans, seals, logotypes (logos), and signature.
Fop$,riters can correlate t-e -eadline, visual, and sub-ead to t-e attention step
of t-e creative p$ramid/ '-e interest step t$picall$ corresponds to t-e sub-
-eadline and t-e first pararap- of bod$ cop$/ "od$ cop$ -andles credibilit$ and
desire, and t-e action step takes place ,it- to loo, sloan, and sinature block/
The Headline
:ffective -eadlines attract attention, enae t-e audience, e;plain t-e visual, lead
t-e audience into t-e bod$ of t-e ad, and present t-e sellin messae/ '-e
-eadline is t-e most important t-in as advertiser sa$s to t-e prospect/ It e;plains
or ive s reater meanin to t-e visual and t-en immediatel$ dictates t-e
advertiser>s position in t-at person>s mind, ,-et-er or not t-e prospect c-oose to
read on/
Ideall$, -eadlines present t-e complete sellin idea/ 9orkin off t-e visual, t-e
-eadline creates t-e mood and tells t-e reader to take action Dt-rou- implicationE
and triers a reconition response, ,-ic- reinforces brand reconition and brand
preference/ Also, t-e -eadline s-ould present product ne,s/ Fonsumers look for
ne, products, ne, uses for old products, or improvements on old products/ If
t-e$ -aven>t been overused in a cateor$,
Power` ,ords t-at impl$ ne,ness can increase readers-ip and s-ould be
emplo$ed ,-enever -onestl$ applicable/ :;amples include free, no,, ama?in,
suddenl$, announcin, introducin, its -ere, improved, at last, revolutionar$, just
arrived, and important development/
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Subheads
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'-e sub-eads, an additional smaller -eadline, ma$ appear above t-e -eadline or
belo, it/ A sub-ead above t-e -eadline, called a kicker Dor over lineE is often
underlined/ &ub-eads ma$ also appear in bod$ cop$/
&ub-eads are usuall$ set smaller t-an t-e -eadline but larer t-an t-e bod$ cop$ or
te;t/ &ub-eads enerall$ appear in boldface D-eavierE t$pe or a different color/ %ike
a -eadline, t-e sub-ead transmits ke$ sales points fast/ "ut it usuall$ carries less
important information t-an t-e -eadline/ &ub-eads are important for t,o reasons8
most individuals read only the headline and subheads, and subheads usually
support the interest step best/ &ub-eads are loner and more like sentences/ '-e$
serve as steppin-stones from t-e -eadline to t-e bod$ cop$, telerap-in ,-at>s to
come/
Body
Copy
'-e advertiser tells t-e complete sales stor$ in t-e bod$ cop$ or te;t/ '-e bod$
cop$ comprises t-e interest, credibilit$, desire, and often even t-e action steps/ It is
a loical continuation of t-e -eadline and sub-eads, set in smaller t$pe/ "od$ cop$
covers t-e features, benefits, and utilit$ of t-e product or service/
'-e bod$ cop$ is t$picall$ read b$ onl$ one out of ten readers, so t-e ,riter must
speak to t-e reader>s self Minterest, e;plainin -o, t-e product or service satisfies
t-e customer>s need/ The best ads focus on one big idea or one clear benefit.
Fop$,riters often read t-eir cop$ aloud to -ear -o, it sounds, even if it>s intended
for print media/ '-e ear is a po,erful cop$,ritin tool/
Slogans
Man$ sloans Dalso called t-eme lines or talinesE bein as successful -eadlines/
'-rou- continuous use, t-e$ become standard statements, not just in advertisin
but also for salespeople and compan$ emplo$ees/
&loans -ave t,o basic purposes8 to provide continuit$ to a series of ads in a
campain and to reduce an advertisin messae strate$ to a brief, repeatable, and
memorable positionin statement/ DeBeers` ads, for e;ample, still use t-e famous
sloan ~Diamonds are forever.
Seals, Logos, and Signatures
A seal is a,arded onl$ ,-en a product meets standards establis-ed b$ a particular
orani?ation/ &ince t-ese orani?ations are reconi?ed aut-orities, t-eir seals
provide an independent, valued endorsement for t-e advertiser>s product/
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%oot$pes and sinatures cut Dsin cutsE are special desins of t-e advertiser>s
compan$ or product name/ '-e$ appear in all compan$ ads and, like trademarks,
ive t-e product individualit$ and provide @uick reconition at t-at point of
purc-ase/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is a 6sub-ead>I
+./ 9-at is t-e main purpose of usin a sloan in an
advertisementI +3/ 9-at do $ou mean b$ 6kicker>I
1/1 FUNCTIONS OF LAYOUT
A Layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an
ad: headline, subheads, visuals, copy, captions, trademarks, slogans, and
signature.
'-e la$out serves several purposes/ #irst, it -elps bot- t-e aenc$ and t-e client
develop and evaluate the ad`s final look and feel. It ives t-e client Dusuall$ not
an artistE a tanible item to correct, c-ane, comment on, and approve/
&econdl$, t-e la$out -elps t-e creative team develop the ad`s psychological
elements- t-e nonverbal and s$mbolic components/ '-e 6look> of t-e ad s-ould
elicit an imae or mood t-at reflects and en-ances t-e advertiser and t-e product/
'-erefore, ,-en desinin t-e initial ad la$out, t-e creative team must be ver$
sensitive to t-e desired imae of t-e product or business/
'-ird, once t-e best desin is c-osen, t-e la$out serves as a blueprint/ It s-o,s
t-e si?e and placement of eac- element in t-e ad/ Once t-e production manaer
kno,s t-e dimensions of t-e ad, t-e number of p-otos, t-e amount of t$pe settin,
and t-e use of art elements suc- as color and illustrations, -e or s-e can determine
t-e cost of producin t-e ad/
Advertising Layout Strategy
Proportional guideline:
1/ Illustration 60 N
./ Headline 14 N
16
3/ Copy .4 N
4/ Logo 0N
144 of space allocation D.4NO ,-ite
N spaceE
Illustration
In most ads, t-e illustration is used to attract attention/ %are, sinle illustrations
attracted t-e most attention/ '-ou- t-e -eadline ma$ be t-e BstopperB, t-e
illustration is the most critical element in the ad's success/ It can also visuall$
communicate product benefits and concept, and lead t-e reader into t-e -eadline
and cop$/
Headline
'-e -eadline is used to attract attention, arouse interest, and make t-e ad more
attractive and readable/ 7o,ever, it s-ould not be over 14 ,ords and more t-an 10
N of t-e adAs total area/
Copy
&t$le of t$peface used in t-e -eadline, sub-ead and cop$ ,ill impact t-e mood and
readabilit$ of t-e ad/ Mi;ed t$pe s-ould be eit-er ver$ similar or ver$ different/
Mi;in more t-an t,o Dor t-ree at mostE different t$pefaces makes an ad bus$ and
confusin/
Logo
"ecause ,e read left to ri-t and top to bottom, t-e loo or compan$ sinature can
be strateicall$ placed in t-e lo,er ri-t -and corner of an ad/ 9it- t-is position,
t-e loo is t-e last element ,e see and most likel$ remember/
Direct the viewer's eye
from t-e paeAs top, do,n t-rou- t-e center and end at t-e paeAs bottom/ '-e e$e
sees t-e illustration first, and t-en ,e read do,n from t-ere/ 7eadlines located
belo, t-e illustration pull 14N more readers/
Emphasis
'-e optical center of an ad is in t-e center and t,o-t-irds up from t-e bottom/ '-is
s-ould be t-e adAs focal point/
Proportional use of space
'-e proportional use of space in an ad is dependent upon t-e product and market
taret/ (roduct ads t-at tr$ to communicate an imae Dperfume, je,elr$, etc/E ,ill
11
-ave a reater proportion of illustration and little cop$/ Fonversel$, an ad for a
tec-nical product ,ill -ave more cop$/
White Space
At least .4 N of an ad s-ould be blank D,-ite spaceE / Ample ,-ite space -elps
ain attention, create contrast, and unif$ t-e ad/ 9-ite space is probabl$ t-e most
underestimated element in advertisements/
Bleed
A page without a border is called a bleed because the ink bleeds through the
surrounding white border into the trim space. An obvious benefit of t-is
tec-ni@ue is t-at t-e ad itself becomes larer/ Alt-ou- most publis-ers c-are
e;tra for bleeds, t-is cost is often justified b$ t-e ads e;tra impact/ A bleed carries
t-e implication of action, freedom, and adventure and tends to make t-e ad more
lifelike/ In researc-, it is found t-at nearl$ -alf of all -i- readers-ip ads used
bleeds/ Fonversel$, onl$ 14N of lo, readers-ip ads used t-is tec-ni@ue/
Borders
In contrast, borders set up continuit$, structure, and formalit$/ "orders can isolate
t-e ad from surroundin cop$ and ot-er ads -forcin $ou to focus on t-e ad/
7o,ever, t-e$ tend to make t-e ad appear smaller/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is a 6%a$out> in (rint AdvertisinI
+./ 9-at is t-e meanin of 6bleed> in Advertisin la$outI
+3/ 7o, muc- ,-ite space is re@uired in an advertisement la$outI
1/2 LAYOUT STEPS
'-e various steps in t-e la$out are t-e proression from visuali?ation to t-e final
art,ork, ,-en it is read$ for sendin for production/ '-e art director or t-e
visuali?er starts ,it- t-e thumbnail sketches also kno,n as idea-eneration
miniatures/ '-ese are simple dra,ins t-at contain an ad>s basic elements/ A ood
la$out s-ould -ave t-e follo,in basic elements8
12
Balance
"alance is a fundamental la, of nature and life/ Odd t-ins stand out/ "alance ,a$
is defined as a matter of ,ei-t distribution/ In la$out, it is related to t-e optical
center of an advertisement/ '-e optical center is t-e point, ,-ic- t-e e$e
desinates as t-e center of an area/
Proportion
(roportion is related to balance but is concerned primaril$ ,it- t-e division of t-e
space and t-e emp-asis needed to be accordin to eac- element/ (roportion also
involves t-e tone of t-e ad, i/e/ t-e amount of li-t areas in relation to t-e dark one
and t-e amount of colour re@uired and t-e decision to avoid color/
Movement
:$es follo, a particular movement/ '-is is t-e result of readin a particular kind of
script earl$ from life/ *eaders of ,estern and *evanagri script are -abitual of
lookin at t-e readin material from left to ri-t and t-en from top to bottom/ '-e
Arabic script, in ,-ic- (ersian and Urdu are ,ritten, oes from ri-t to left/
Unity
Unification of t-e la$out is ,-at is meant b$ t-e term unit$/ All t-e elements in t-e
ad, must be united to be a composite ,-ole/ '-is is ac-ieved ,-en t-e element tie
into once anot-er b$ makin use of t-e same basic s-apes/
Unit$ can be ac-ieved b$ roupin t-e elements, b$ encasin t-e ad in a border, b$
alinin one element ,it- anot-er or b$ t-e overlappin of elements/
Mood
&i?es, te;tures, colours, illustrations, and t-e t$pe also contribute to create a mood
for t-e ad/ It is al,a$s ideal to c-oose t$pe from one famil$ to create t-e ri-t
-armon$ and mood/ &imilarl$ t-e ,-ite space ,ill also create t-e appropriate
mood/ '-e t,o basic devices of illustratin an ad are p-otorap-$ and dra,in/
DaE Photography: (ictures in advertisements create a feelin of immediac$, live
action, speed, empat-$, association, and fle;ibilit$/ And it is not a matter of
coincidence t-at t-e majorit$ of ads contain pictures/ '-e pictures
encompass a variet$ of subjects, like, people, animals, flo,ers, monuments,
birds, objects, etc/ '-ese are selected on t-e basis of t-e aim of t-e ad/ '-e
selection of ri-t c-aracters is ver$ important/ (rofessional p-otorap-$ is a
speciali?ed area, and aencies enerall$ -ave on t-eir panel p-otorap-ers
13
from various fields of speciali?ation, like fas-ion, nature, profiles, table top,
industr$, c-ildren, etc/
DbE Drawings: Illustration is used in an ad, ,-en visuali?er feels t-at its impact
,ill be more t-an t-at of a p-otorap-/ A number of tec-ni@ues are used in
producin dra,ins/ In line drawing, ever$t-in is s-arp, precise and in
black and ,-ite ,it-out an$ ra$ tones/ Fartoons are enerall$ done as line
dra,ins/ Wash drawing is defined as an illustration, usin tones and
s-ades and can be in one or more colours/ It can be bot- in realist or
impressionist st$le/ #as-ion and furniture ads at times use t-is tec-ni@ue, as
t-ese look attractive and distinct/
Colour Psychology
Co reference to advertisin can be complete unless one speaks about colour, or
rat-er t-e role of colour/ Folour adds realism, besides beaut$ and distinctiveness/
'-e ri-t blend of colours adds a das- of maic to t-e ad/ &ome sc-olars feel t-at
people>s reaction to colour is based on a person>s national oriin and culture/
Folours also -ave a ps$c-olo$ of t-eir o,n and various colours depict various
moods/
Typography
'$porap-$ is t-e art of selectin t$pefaces, of ,-ic- t-ere are -undreds of
desinsJ blendin different t$pefacesJ castin off t-e number of ,ord to fit spaces>
and markin up cop$ for t$pesettin, usin different si?es and ,ei-ts/
)ood t$porap-$ leads to leibilit$ Dreadabilit$E, and attractiveness, and certain
desins of t$pe can create st$le and c-aracter or be c-aracteristics of t-e advertised
subject/ '$porap-$ is $et anot-er area t-at needs to be considered carefull$,
especiall$ in print advertisin material/ '$pesetters and p-oto composers s,ear b$
various t$pes, conve$in specific moods and ambience/ '$pe st$les are c-osen,
keepin in vie, t-e objectives and strate$ of t-e campain/
Stages of Advertising Design Process
'-e desin process serves as bot- a creative and an approval process/ In t-e
creative p-ase, t-e desiner uses t-umbnails, rou-s, dummies, and
compre-ensives-in ot-er ,ords, non-final art M to establis- t-e ad>s look and feel/
'-e final art,ork ,it- t-e actual t$pe in placed alon ,it- all t-e visualsJ t-e
printer ,ill need to reproduce t-e ad/ '-e approval process takes place t-rou-out
t-e entire desin process/
.4
DiE Thumbnail Sketches M t-e t-umbnail sketc-, or t-umbnail, is a small, rou-,
rapidl$ produced dra,in t-e artist uses to visuali?e la$out approac-es ,it-out
,astin time on details/ '-umbnails are ver$ basic/ "locks of strai-t or
s@uil$ lines indicate te;t placement, and bo;es s-o, placement of visuals/
'-e best sketc-es are t-en developed furt-er/
DiiE Rough Layout M in a rou-, t-e artist dra,s to t-e actual si?e of t-e ad/
7eadlines and sub-eads suest t-e final t$pe st$le, illustrations and
p-otorap-s are sketc-ed in, and bod$ cop$ is simulated ,it- lines/ '-e aenc$
ma$ present rou- to clients, particularl$ cost-conscious ones/
DiiiE Comprehensive - t-e compre-ensive la$out, or comp, is a -i-l$ refined
facsimile of t-e finis-ed ad/ A comp is enerall$ @uite elaborate, ,it- elaborate,
,it- coloured p-otos, press-on-learnin, (-otostats of sub visuals, and a loss$
spra$ coat/ 'oda$, a cop$ for t-e comp is t$peset on computer and positioned
,it- t-e visuals, and t-e ad is printed as a full-colour proof/ At t-is stae, all
visuals s-ould be final/
DivE Art work-t-is is t-e final stae of la$out/ 7ere care is taken to look into eac-
minute detail/ '-e cop$ is properl$ composed or lettered/ (roper p-otorap-s,
paintins, sketc-es, or rap-ics are used/ Ot-er elements like borders etc are
properl$ places/ Folourin is done/ #inis-in artists ive t-e final touc-es/ '-is
stae is no, read$ to be printed/ All t-ese various staes of preparin t-e la$out
are beneficial in a man$ ,a$s/ #irst t-ese staes save time, mone$ and efforts/
If $ou prepare a final la$out ,it-out takin t-e approval and it ets rejected,
t-en all t-e material used, efforts and time spend are ,asted/ Also ,orkin on
onl$ one idea curtails t-e various ot-er possible options/
A la$out starts ,it- a blank piece of paper/ 9-at t-e la$out artist does is
to place t-e cop$, visuals, and ot-er elements on it/ '-is placin of
elements is not just mere decoration/ 9-at is re@uired is a ood, clear
vision and interpretation of t-e sellin concept of t-e stor$/ A ood
la$out allo,s all its elements-visuals, -eadlines, sub-eadins, bod$ cop$,
c-arts, maps, loo, borders, and ot-er elements-to ,ork toet-er to do t-e
job of tellin t-e product stor$/
A ood la$out takes into consideration t-e principles of balance,
proportion, unit$, contrast, -armon$, r-$t-m, and direction/ And finall$ a
.1
ood la$out must be attractive, must create an appropriated mood or
feelin, must -ave individuall$ to stand out from t-e clutter of
advertisements/
DvE Dummy - a dumm$ presents t-e -and-eld look and feel of broc-ures,
multipae materials, or point-of-purc-ase displa$s/ '-e artist assembles t-e
dumm$ b$ -and, usin color markers and computer proofs, mountin t-em on
sturd$ paper, and t-en cuttin and foldin t-em to si?e/ A dumm$ for a
broc-ure, for e;ample, is put toet-er, pae b$ pae, to look e;actl$ like t-e
finis-ed product/
DviE Mechanical (paste-up) - t-e t$pe and visuals must be placed into t-eir e;act
position for reproduction b$ printer/ 'oda$, most desiner does t-is ,ork on
computer, completel$ b$passin t-e need for a mec-anical/ &ome aencies,
-o,ever, still make traditional mec-anicals ,-ere black t$pe and line art are
pasted in place on a piece of ,-ite art board- called a paste-up- ,it- overla$
s-eets indicatin t-e -ue and positionin of colour/ (rinters refer to t-e
mec-anical or paste-up as camera-read$ art because t-e$ p-otorap- it usin a
lare production camera before startin t-e reproduction process creatin colour
ke$s, prints, and films of t-e finis-ed ad/ At an$ time durin t-e desin process-
until t-e printin press la$s ink on paper- c-anes can be made on t-e art/
7o,ever, t-e e;pense ma$ ro, tenfold ,it- eac- step from rou-s to
mec-anicals to printin/
DviiE Approval - t-e ,ork of cop$,riter and art director is al,a$s subject to
approval/ '-e larer t-e aenc$ and t-e larer t-e client, t-e more formidable
t-is process becomes/ '-e aenc$>s creative director first approves a ne, ad
concept/ '-en t-e account manaement team revie,s it/ Ce;t, t-e client>s
product manaers and marketin staff revie, it, often c-anin a ,ork or t,o
or sometimes rejectin t-e ,-ole approac-/ "ot- t-e aenc$>s and client>s leal
departments scrutini?e t-e cop$ and art for potential problems/ #inall$, t-e
compan$>s top e;ecutives revie, t-e final concept and te;t/
'-e biest c-allene in approval is keepin approvers from corruptin
t-e st$le of t-e ad/ '-e creative team ,orks -ard to ac-ieve a co-esive
st$le/ '-en a roup of non-,riters and non-artists -ave t-e opportunit$ to
c-ane it all/ Maintainin artistic purit$ is e;tremel$ difficult and
..
re@uires patience, fle;ibilit$, maturit$, and t-e abilit$ to articulate an
important point of vie,/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is a 6!umm$> in (rint AdvertisinI
+./ 9-at are t-e various staes of advertisin desin processI +3/
7o, muc- ,-ite space is re@uired in an advertisement la$outI +4/
9-at is a 69as- dra,in>I
1/3 LAYOUTS AND DESIGN
Design is the art side of communication- t-e visual side of printed pieces,
television, presentations, packaes, trade marks, publication- all t-e t-ins t-at
affect in visual ,a$s as ,ell as verbal ,a$s, all t-e t-ins ,e look at in
communications/ !esin comes from a backround of art trainin/ '-e rap-ic
desiner brins t-e understandin of line, colour, te;ture, mass, and form to -is
,ork-all t-e visual influential t-ins into t-e field of communication/
Design is art term meaning the arrangement of elements that make up a work
of art. (ainters call it composition/ In film it is called editin/ It is t-e sense of
visual elements ,orkin toet-er to influence t-e vie,ers/ It ma$ be t-e visual
imaes ,orkin one after anot-er on t-e paes of an annual report/ In ma$ be t-e
se@uence of imaes -ittin t-e vie,er in fast cut scenes in a television spot/ It ma$
be t-e se@uence of elements arraned in important and dominant st$le on a sinle
pae of makin an ad p-oto, t$pe, and loo/
Layout &
Design
Once -eadlines and bod$ cop$ -ave been ,ritten, cop$,riters prepare rou-
sketc-es to conve$ t-eir concept to t-e art directors/ '-ese sketc-es rou- out t-e
desired placement of -eadlines, sub-eads, and bod$ cop$, t-e compan$ loo, and
visuals/ "asic advertisin la$outs include t-ese t$pes8 Copy Heavy Dad space
dominated b$ te;tE, Frame Drap-ics or ot-er imae frame t-e cop$E, Grid Dspace
divided b$ s@uares of e@ual si?eE, Mondrian Dspace divided into bo;es or sections,
not necessaril$ of e@ual si?eE, Picture Window Dspace larel$ occupied b$ art- a
p-oto, dra,in, or ot-er imaeE, and Type Specimen Dspace dominated b$ t-e
-eadline ,-ic- substitutes for artE/ &ub-eads are often used to break up lon cop$/
Italici?ed cop$ and reverses D,-ite print on blackE s-ould be used sparinl$/
.3
Typography
'$porap-$ is t-e art of selectin and settin t$pe/ "ecause almost ever$
advertisement -as some readin matter, t$pe -as tremendous importance/
'$pefaces affect an advertisement>s appearance, desin, and readabilit$/ Art
directors rel$ on stark, e$e -catc-in t$pefaces to -elp break t-rou- t-e clutter of
competin advertisements/
Type Families
All t$pefaces Dor t$pe fontsE come in families, just as -uman faces do/ Man$ of
t-em -ave proud famil$ names, usuall$ in-erited from t-e oriinal desiner of t-e
t$peface, suc- as Bodoni, Gothic, Goudy/ Fertain families offer all kinds of
variations/ 'o present -is client>s product ,ell, creative e;ecutives use various
t$pefaces/ Most traditional t$pes -ave small cross strokes, called 6Serifs` t-at
appear on t-e arms of certain letters/ &ome of t-e more modern t$pe desins do not
-ave t-ese tin$ e;tensions on t-e end of letters/ &uc- t$pefaces are called Sans
Serif`/ :ac- famil$ offers capital letters and small letters referred to b$
t$porap-ers as uppercase and lowercase` and ma$ usuall$ be italici?ed/
Typefaces
#amilies of t$pe fall into one of several faces` / '-ese include Roman D"ookman,
Ce, Fentur$, &c-oolbook, and 'imesE, Sans Serif D#ranklin, )ot-ic, #utura ., and
7elveticaE, Square serif, or Egyptian DAac-en "oldE, Script DFallirap-er and
CuptialE, and Pi faces D9ood t$pe Ornaments and Papf !inbatsE/
Typographic noise is said to occur ,-en t$pe families of t-e same face are mi;ed
in an advertisement, &ans &erif t$pes are best used for -eadlines and serifs for bod$
cop$ as t-e serif en-ances readabilit$/ '-e serif makes readin easier because 6it
cuts do,n t-e reflection of li-t from around t-e letter into t-e reader>s e$e
D-alationEJ it links t-e letters in a ,ord and provides a -ori?ontal uidelineJ and it
-elps distinuis- one letter from anot-er/ "ecause of t-eir superior readabilit$,
serif t$pes are also preferred for cop$ t-at ,ill be fa;ed as individual letters lose
clarit$ in fa;in/ Most of the type one sees in a textbook, novels, newspaper
stories, and a magazine article is Roman type.
.4
Points
'$pe is measured in points/ '-ere are 1. points to 1 inc- verticall$/ Most families
of t$pe offer si?es from tin$ 6 point to iant 1. point and larer/ 9-en fairl$ lon
te;t is bein set in t$pe, 14-point, 1. point, or 14-point si?e makes for ood
readin/ "e$ond 14 point are t-e displa$ or -eadline si?es/ '-e ad la$out included
t-e amount of actual lent- and ,idt- of t-e advertisement itself/
Pica measurements
In typography the unit of area measurement is called a pica. '-ere are 1.
points in a pica, 6 picas to an inc-/ A cop$ block mi-t be termed 16 picas ,ide
b$ 36 picas deep/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is a 6!esin> in (rint AdvertisinI
+./ 9-at are t-e various t$pefaces used in advertisement
desininI +3/ 9-at is meant b$ t$porap-ic noiseI
1/14 TYPES OF DESIGNS
Creative Visuals Role in Advertising
<isual recall is becomin increasinl$ important, and corporate s$mbols and
advertisin ,ill need to be stroner and e$e-catc-in to capture consumer
attention/ Converbal communication ,ill not onl$ become a means for dra,in
attention to a verbal messae, but it ,ill also become t-e messae itself in man$
instances/ '-e use of imaer$, visual associations, dra,ins and paintins,
models, visual memor$ devices, product and corporate s$mbols, are pervasive in
advertisin/
Advertisin visual and its rap-ical components -as lon been t-e taret of
studies since marketers bean to adopt full -scale marketin activities in t-e late
nineteent- centur$/ '-e important t-eme ,as -o, t-e visual appeal could be
translated into an effective sellin messae/
'-e role of advertisin visuals includes obtainin attention, creatin impact, and
stimulatin interest from an indifferent audience t-rou- conve$in a main
sellin point of products or brands/
.0
Advertisin visuals perform t,o main functions - literal and s$mbolic/ %iteral
visuals provide factual information on products or services, and s$mbolic visuals
perform an indirect role to connect t-e imaes of products or services ,it- t-e
meanins t-at are appropriatel$ assined to t-em/
Advertisin is part of t-e c-anin social, economic, and cultural environment, and
its visuals mi-t -ave been created in a ,a$ t-at could reflect t-ose c-anes t-at
people ,ould ,ant to adjust t-emselves to/
Anot-er ,a$ of linkin advertisin and its visuals to societ$ and culture is, t-e
cultural approac- to advertisin/ Fultural -istorians arue t-at advertisin is an
important ,indo, t-rou- ,-ic- different aspects of societ$ and culture can be
e;plained/
"ut also, t-e advertisin itself can be e;plained to determine -o, it mi-t -ave
been s-aped b$ societ$/ '-is approac- reconi?es advertisin not onl$ as a ,indo,
to culture but also a mirror t-at reflects t-e culture, or t-e cultures/
Hour ad becomes an e;tended imae of $our business/ It conve$s $our st$le and
-ence attracts customers ,-o appreciate t-at st$le/ It s-ould reflect t-e product $ou
-ave to offer - sop-isticated, ,-imsical, classic, etc/ :ver$t-in $ou do s-ould
reflect t-e feel of t-e product/ Develop an ad that's a stopper! One that gets a
reader's attention, and causes a reaction.
Some guidelines for ad design:
5 Make sure t-e ad reflects $our product and imae/
5 !onAt let t-e desin overs-ado, t-e messae/
5 7ave a loo professionall$ desined and use it/ A loo desin is t-e visual
e@uivalent of $our name/ Hour name ives form to $our identit$, and a
reconi?able identit$ is t-e name of t-e ame in advertisin/
5 Make sure t-e ad contains clear information on ,-ere $ou are, ,-en $ou are
open, and -o, to reac- $ou/
5 (-otorap-s, rap-ics, illustrations, or t$porap-$ alone can be e@uall$
effective at rabbin t-e readerAs e$e/ Use ,-at best ets $our ,ell t-ou-t-
out, clear messae out t-ere/
5 :stablis- a look and maintain it/ *epetition is important in advertisinJ it
,ould defeat $our purpose to c-ane t-e look of ever$ ad/ Once $ouAve
establis-ed a basic desin, $ou can use creative ,a$s, suc- as var$in t-e
illustration, to c-ane it/
.6
.1
!o $ou often see, as muc- as $ou see ,-en $ou surf t-rou- t-e 9ebI Its prett$
sure t-at $ou -ave entirel$ different vie,s and reactions upon seein and actuall$
takin notice to t-ese t,o different kinds of advertisin/ '-e differences ma$ var$
in print advertisements outdoors and 9eb advertisements in t-e use of color,
t$pefaces, and space/
9-atever else t-e difference is bet,een (rint Ads and 9eb Ads, many would still
prefer the traditional print advertisements in order to promote their business,
products, or services. Cot all people -ave access to t-e 9eb, suc- t-at (rint Ads
are still ,idel$ used and appreciated/ It is also practical for a s-ort-term marketin
plan or strate$/
Here are several useful things to remember if you are launching a Print Ad:
5 'ake advantae of a small space b$ not cro,din too muc- information into
it/ %eave a ,-ite space, ,-ic- can actuall$ lead $our reader to t-e important
information/
5 Ads ,it- lare p-otos or illustrations of merc-andise et -i-er readers-ip
and appreciation t-an t-ose ,it- small illustrations or no art/
5 (eople do not actuall$ read $our cop$, but take a look at $our visuals/ '-us,
make $our p-otorap-s or illustration occup$ at least -alf of $our entire Ad/
5 Hou must kno, -o, $our readers read, so t-at $ou could strateicall$ place
$our content and not be left unread/
5 '$porap-$ is an important ke$ to effective communication/ In $our print
ads -eadlines, avoid all capital letters/ Our e$es and brains are conditioned
to identif$ lo,er case letters and ,ords/ %etters and ,ords in lo,er cases
ma$ just be lanced over, but ,it- full compre-ension since people are
familiar ,it- t-em/ (eople also tend to read ,ords b$ t-e s-ape of t-e ,ord
and not b$ readin individual letters t-usJ $our print ads ,ords must be of a
distinctive s-ape/
5 Hour print ads must be consistent ,it- important information placed ,-ere
readers ,ould e;pect to see it/ Fonsistenc$ is an important aspect of $our
print ad since most readers must be e;posed to it seven times before t-e$
notice it or take action on it/
5 Hour ad must -ave consistenc$ in8
.2
o %oo
o Folor
o '$porap-$
o Marins and borders
o
%a$out
o &pacin
o (-otorap-s and captions
o Hou must also be consistent in $our pae la$ out and ot-er desin
elements like contrast, balance, etc/
o On top of ever$t-in else, $ou -ave to make sure t-at $our print ad communicates t-e
main point of $our advertisement t-e main attraction and t-e necessar$ information
for $our prospective clients/
.1
#or $our print ads to turn out successfull$, $ou must -ave at least a sinle reat
idea, on top of several ood ideas/ *emember, t-ere is a ,orld of difference
bet,een a reat idea and a ood idea/
Tips for Successful Print Ad Designing:
5 !o not place a period at t-e end of a -eadline/ (eriods tend to indicate to
readers t-at t-ere is no need to read on/
5 "ein -eadlines at top left/ &tudies -ave s-o,n t-at t-e readerAs e$e
naturall$ falls to t-e upper left corner/
5 B&erifB t$pefaces are rearded as t-e most leible fontJ nearl$ ever$
ne,spaper in t-e ,orld uses t-em due to t-eir -i- readabilit$/ *eaders are
comfortable ,it- t-em/
5 Avoid color -eadlinesJ researc-ers -ave noted t-at readers find colored
-eadlines distractin/ &tudies -ave also s-o,n t-at t-e darker t-e color, t-e
reater t-e compre-ension/ Geep t-e te;t black if possible/
5 "lack te;t on a tinted backround also increases compre-ension/ It is easier
on t-e readersA e$es t-an t-e black and ,-ite contrast/
5 Avoid reverse print De//, ,-ite te;t on black backroundE/
5 Geep $our la$out clean, includin usin consistent t$pe st$les/
5 A traditional ad la$out is8 p-oto=illustration over -eadline over bod$ cop$/
'-is is not etc-ed in stone, but it -as been proven effective/
5 *emember t-at for ever$ advertisin rule, t-ere is an e;ception t-at is just as
effective/
34
Visual personality of ads
Identit$ marks -ave been around for as man$ $ears as civili?ation t-e sinature
marks on primitive -andcraft, t-e uild marks, and -eraldr$ of medieval era, t-e
trade marks of our commercial time/
&ome trademarks identif$ onl$ one product/ "ut no, ,it- t-e increase
diversification of corporation, man$ are meant to identif$ t-e ,-ole corporate
entit$/ '-ese emblems, or 6service marks> Dleal termsE, serve as visual
reinforcements of t-e advertiser>s name/
A trademark does not in itself constitute a corporate personality -that is the
total impression a company may make on the public through its public
relations and advertising efforts. '-e trademark ,ill ro, or suffer in relation to
t-e ot-er factors/
Forporate emblems -ave become important-as certification identities in t-e
commercial arena/ <isual identification -as become so important t-at man$
companies -ave e;tended t-eir proramme to include e;clusive letterin alp-abets,
distinctive colour sc-eme, matc-in arc-itectural considerations, coordinated
product desin, and consistent formattin for printed material/
'-ese attentions -ave created stron personalities for bi firm ,it- t-eir desined
products, controlled trademark use, special letterin st$le, and carefull$ planned
colour mi;es/
9-ile our verbal lanuae is t-e most tec-nical of our messae s$stems, visual
lanuae operates as a simple and more easil$ absorbed form of communication on
t-is reconition lanuae, t-e better identit$ proramme ,ill reflect t-e c-aracter
of compan$>s product or service/ It ,ill provide 6content clues> for easier
reconition/
Use of Emblems
'-e best emblems are simple in form, readable in lare si?e on a poster/
*econi?able in 1-inc- si?e in an ad, emblem and name st$le must be individual
and suitable for all t-e places a compan$ identified itself/ '-e$ are man$8 letter-
-eads, envelopes, business cards, utilit$ stationer$, compan$ literature, ads,
television, products, deliver$ trucks, packaes, ,rappin papers, announcements,
!i,ali or F-ristmas cards, cataloues, buildin sins etc/
31
'-e rap-ic desiner, artist, and -uman bein, tries to put a stor$ into t-e emblem-
a stor$ of common s$mbolism or a stor$ ,it- reconition clues ,ill relate t-e
identif$in mark to a dinified -uman value/
Basics of Ad Designs
Ad desin is an art unto itself/ Freatin effective banners ads can be an elusive
task/
Colors and Designs - 9-en color is used correctl$, it can add impact and clarit$ to
$our ad messae/ Folor can emp-asi?e, -i-li-t, and lead $our end users to a call-
to-action/ Folor can also be used to trier emotion/
1/ Be professional: (eople are oin to et t-eir first impressions of $our ad,
so $ou need to be certain t-at it presents $ou in t-e best possible manner/
'-is means $ou s-ould be e;tra careful t-at all $our spellin and rammar
are correct/ Also, select font si?es, st$les, and colors t-at ma;imi?e $our adAs
readabilit$/ If $our banner ad is of poor @ualit$, people ,ill assume $our
product is too/
./ Ask for an action: 9-at do $ou ,ant people ,-o see $our ad to doI Most
likel$, first and foremost, $ou ,ant t-em to simpl$ read furt-er on it, so be
sure $our ad makes t-em do so/
3/ Keep it simple: Hour ad ma$ onl$ -ave a fe, seconds to make its impact on
t-e vie,er/ As a result, it must be able to conve$ $our messae in a small
amount of time/ "$ keepin $our adAs concept and ,ordin clear and
concise, $ou increase t-e likeli-ood t-at t-e vie,er ,ill actuall$ et $our
messae/ Use t-e fe,est Dand most simpleE ,ords $ou can/ Lust because $ou
can fit more ,ords in $our ad doesnAt mean $ou s-ould/
4/ Use words that raise attention or emotion: 9ords like BfreeBQ, special
offerB, BsecretsB, etc/ -elp rab t-e vie,erAs attention and increase -is=-er
curiosit$ in $our offer/ 'r$ t-is tec-ni@ue8 pretend $ou are readin $our adAs
te;t for t-e first time8 ,ould HOU be interested in or e;cited about ,-at it
offersI If not, t-en most people probabl$ ,ouldnAt be eit-er/
0/ Emphasize benefits, not features: 9-at is t-e difference bet,een a
BbenefitB and a BfeatureBI In simple terms, a BfeatureB is a service or an
aspect of a service t-at $ou offer/ A BbenefitB is t-e actual impact it -as on
$our customer/
3.
33
6/ Test your banners: *un eac- one for a ,eek or t,o and collect an$ data $ou
can/ Anal$?e $our data to determine ,-at t-e more successful ads -ave in common
and t-en refine $our ads and test t-em aain/
Use of Colors
9-en color is used correctl$, it can add impact and clarit$ to $our ad messae/
Folor can emp-asi?e, -i-li-t, and lead $our end users to a call-to-action/ Folor
can also be used to trier emotion/
9-en color is used incorrectl$, it can compromise $our messae and confuse $our
taret audience/ '-e interpretation of a color depends on culture, p-$siolo$ of t-e
e$e, readabilit$, $our taret audienceAs profession or industr$, and personal
preference/
9-en desinin an ad, $ou s-ould be careful about t-e colors $ou select if $ou are
taretin a specific countr$ or a lobal audience/ #or e;ample, t-ou- t-e color
purple is also associated ,it- ro$alt$ in :uropean countries, t-e color orane is
associated ,it- ro$alt$ in t-e Cet-erlands/ '-e color ,-ite is associated ,it- deat-
in F-ina ,-ereas ,-ite is associated ,it- purit$ in 9estern cultures/
Colors and legibility
7o, t-e -uman e$e processes color is also a consideration for selectin ad colors/
(urple is one of t-e -ardest colors for t-e e$e to discern, so it mi-t not be a ood
overall color c-oice/ On t-e ot-er -and, $ello, is t-e first color t-e e$e processes/
&o if $ou ,ere to tr$ and call attention to some te;t on a dark-colored banner or
poster ad, $ello, can be an e;cellent color c-oice/ "ut if $ou ,ere to use $ello, as
a backround color of a banner, $ou mi-t ,ant to alter t-e color so t-at it is less
stressful on t-e e$e/
In order to make the text on an ad legible, it is very important to use colors
that provide a high contrast/ "lack and ,-ite are t-e t,o colors t-at provide t-e
-i-est color contrast/
Colour versus Black and White
Alt-ou- t-e basic principles of la$out desins and picture composition remain t-e
same for bot- colour and black and ,-ite, t-e decision to use colour or colours
affect t-e development of cop$ and art and complicates t-e rap-ic arts process
re@uired to produce t-e finis-ed print advertisement/
34
As compared t-e black and ,-ite, t-e periodicals c-are a -i-er rate for t-e
colour ads of t-e same si?e/ Fost of art and mec-anical production are muc- -i-er
in colour t-an in black and ,-ite/ In t-is ,a$, addin colours to advertisements
increase t-e cost materiall$ e;cept for simple applications as printin one colour
on a different colour paper for a direct advertisin piece/ "ut still, some advertisers
are ,illin to pa$ 6-i-er costs to colour ads for a number of reasons8
5 Folour adds attention value/ It catc-es t-e e$es of t-e readers, consumers,
and prospects/
5 It -elps emp-asi?e important elements in an ad due to contrasts in colour
5 Folour presents t-e product or situation ,it- a sense of realism or
atmosp-ere impossible in black and ,-ite
5 Folour provides a clear identification of product, its brand name and
trademark
Most of t-e readers e;pect colours in ads for food, beveraes, and travelin as ,ell
as for fabrics and fas-ions and t-e advertisers ,ill ain muc- more/ On t-e ot-er
-and, messaes desined to promote a particular instance polic$ or ne, bankin
services re@uire no colour for effective communication/ '-e advertiser ,ill be
benefited in suc- cases t-rou- t-e use of black and ,-ite/
Types of Newspaper Advertisements Designs
'-e major t$pes of ne,spaper advertisin are displa$, classified, public notices,
and preprinted inserts/
Display Advertisement
!ispla$ advertisin includes cop$, illustrations or p-otorap-s, -eadlines,
coupons, and ot-er visual components/ !ispla$ ads var$ in si?e and appear in all
sections of t-e ne,spaper e;cept pae one, t-e editorial pae, obituar$ pae, t-e
classified section, and t-e first pae of major sections/
One common variation of t-e displa$ ad, t-e readin notice, looks like editorial
matter and sometimes costs more t-an normal displa$ advertisin/ 'o prevent
readers from mistakin it for editorial matter, t-e ,orld advertisement appears at
t-e top/
*etailers often run ne,spaper ads t-rou- cooperative prorammes sponsored b$
t-e manufacturers ,-ose products t-e$ sell/ '-e manufacturers pa$ full$ or
30
partiall$ to create and run t-e ad, ,-ic- features t-e manufacturer>s product and
loo alon ,it- t-e local retailer>s name and address/
Classified Advertisements
Flassified ads provide a communit$ marketplace for oods, services, and
opportunities of ever$ t$pe from real estate and ne, car sales to emplo$ment and
business opportunities/ A ne,spaper>s profitabilit$ usuall$ depends on a -ealt-$
classified section/ Flassified ads usuall$ appear under sub-eads t-at describe t-e
class of oods or t-e need t-e ads seek to satisf$/ Most emplo$ment, -ousin, and
car advertisin is classified/
Special Advertisements
&ome special commodities and products are advertised under specific
advertisements columns/ &ometimes, a fe, paes are devoted onl$ to
advertisements/ '-e$ are ,ell planned and are in colour to dra, t-e attention of
readers/ Advertisements are more effective if t-e$ are speciall$ intended for certain
t$pe so readers i/e/ sportsmen, ,omen, professionals, etc/
Advertisements s-ould be planned loicall$ and judiciousl$ to attract all t$pe of
readers/ '-e first pae is read t-orou-l$/ &o advertisements on t-e firs pae
attract reater attention/ '-e back pae is e@uall$ ood, but it follo,s t-e first
pae/ &imilarl$, t-e middle t,o paes are also read t-orou-l$/ '-e t-ird pae is
devoted to local ne,s/ &o, ads for local s-ops and manufacturers ma$ be placed on
t-e t-ird pae, men read sports ne,s, political ne,s and t-ese columns s-ould be
made, keepin in mind t-eir attitudes/ Advertisements s-ould meet t-e different
re@uirements of t-e different sements of t-e market/
Preprinted Inserts
%ike maa?ines, ne,spapers carr$ preprinted inserts and delivers t-em to t-e
ne,spaper plant for insertion into a specific edition/ Inserts si?es rane from a
t$pical ne,spaper pae to a double postcards, formats include cataloue,
broc-ures, mail-back devices, and perforated coupons/
&ome lare metropolitan dailies allo, advertisers to limit t-eir inserts to specific
circulation ?ones/ A retail advertiser t-at ,ants to reac- onl$ t-ose s-oppers in its
immediate tradin area can place an insert in t-e local-?one editions/ *etail stores,
auto dealers, lare national advertisers, and ot-er find it less costl$ to distribute
t-eir circulars t-is ,a$ t-an to mail or deliver t-em door-to-door/
36
Public Notices
#or a normal fee, ne,spapers carr$ leal public notices of c-anes in business and
personal relations-ips, public overnmental reports, notices b$ private citi?ens and
orani?ation, and financial reports/ '-ese ads follo, a present format/
Advantages of Newspaper Advertising
%ocal advertisin is in fact possible onl$ in ne,spapers/ "arrin a fe, national
advertisements, ne,spapers contain mostl$ local advertisements/ '-is is t-e
biest advantae, for ne,spapers provide advertisin in a eorap-icall$
semented market/ %ocal and reional ne,spapers offer ne,s, editorial,
entertainment, and personal interest stories for local readers, ,-ic- create an
interest in t-e local communit$ and t-e reion/ '-e advertisin messae t-us
delivered in local or communit$ ne,spaper is most effective/
Tips for effective Ad Writing
Make your ad stand out
Flassified ads t-at use art, la$out and=or t$pe in a distinctive ,a$ usuall$
attract more e$es t-an run-of-t-e-mill ads/ Lust c-eck t-e paper - ever$ da$
t-ere are listins t-at stand out from t-e ot-ers/
Use a prominent benefit headline
F-oose t-e main benefit of $our merc-andise and feature it in a compellin
-eadline/ Amplif$ t-is messae in $our sub-eads and cop$/ Avoid
enerali?ed @ualit$ claims/
Make your copy complete
'-is means t,o t-ins8 kno, ,-at is important to people bro,sin in $our
classified cateor$, and make sure $ou touc- on t-ose pointsJ and use complete
sentences - t-e$Are easier to read t-an a series of p-rases and random ,ords/
State a price or a range
+uote a price, even if itAs -i- or lo,/ If $ouAre -i-, e;plain ,-$ itAs ,ort- it,
and if $ouAre lo,-ballin it, support it ,it- facts t-at make it believable Dfor
e;ample8 movin, @uick sale, special purc-aseE/
Specify brand names
If $ou are sellin name brand merc-andise, be sure to name t-e brand Dand model
if pertinentE in t-e ad - t-e more specific t-e better/
31
Include related items
Make t,o sales instead of one b$ offerin related items alon ,it- a featured one/
#or e;ample, list olf ba ,it- clubs, end tables ,it- couc-es, frames ,it-
mattresses/
Use a simple layout
Flassified listins s-ould not be cross,ord pu??les/ A ood ad la$out is planned
loicall$ and intuitivel$ - it carries t-e readerAs e$e t-rou- -eadline, art, cop$,
price, advertiserAs name, and p-one number/
Use a dominant element
A lare visual or -eadline means $our ad ,ill be noticed/ (-otorap-s or realistic
dra,ins attract people, but not-in dra,s t-e e$e like pictures of Breal peopleR/
Let white space work for you
'-is is an important la$out element in classified advertisin because t-e averae
classified pae is -eav$ ,it- small t$pe/ '-e more Bempt$B space in $our ad, t-e
more it ,ill naturall$ be noticed/ "o;in an ad Daddin a simple border around itE
automaticall$ creates ,-ite space around it, ,-ic- in turn automaticall$ dra,s
t-e e$e/
Urge the reader to act now
"$ endin $our ad ,it- a call to action suc- as B1. -our saleR, Qt-is ,eek onl$,B or
Bcall no,, ,onAt last lonB,B $ou add e;tra incentive for t-e interested bu$er to call
$ou first/
Checklist - Every classified should include:
5 '$pe of sale
5 &ale date or da$s and -ours
5 (rice
5 Make and model
5 &i?e and color
5 Ce,, used or reconditioned
5 &ervice or ,arrant$
5 !eliver$ details
5 Came, p-one number
5 Address or directions to location
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
32
+1/ 9-at are t-e various ne,spaper ad desinsI
+./ )ive basic tips for advertisement desinin/
+3/ !efine t-e term 6trademark>/
1/11 PRINCIPLES OF GOOD ADVERTISEMENT
Advertisers and advertisin aencies believe t-at customers -ave needs and
desires, ,-ic- can be fulfilled t-rou- t-e purc-ase and use of products and
services/ Advertisin ,orks larel$ t-rou- appeal of emotions of env$, fear,
an;iet$, about one>s appearance and lack of status/ It is ,idel$ assumed t-at
advertisin ,orks if t-e AIDCA formulas are follo,ed/ '-e formula sums up t-e
principles of advertisin/ '-e name of t-e formula is derived from t-e initial letters
of t-e ,ords8 Attention, Interest, Desire, Conviction, and Action/
'-e formula suests t-at t-e attention and interests of t-e customers must be
ained first before t-e process of stimulatin desire, impartin conviction and
urin action in advertisements can brin about a c-ane in t-e bu$in be-aviors/
9e are not usuall$ carried a,a$ b$ advertisements unless t-e products t-emselves
are of some value or use to us/ After all, ,e do not -ave a lot of mone$ to t-ro,
around/ Advertisements rab attention b$ t-eir si?es, color, visuali?ation la$out,
positionin or b$ a strikin -eadline or sloan or appeal/
#urt-er, t-e$ stimulate desire for t-e product b$ various strateies suc- as makin
$ou feel 6e;clusive> or 6modern> or 6 ,it--it> or per-aps b$ offerin discounts or
ot-er incentives/ #inall$, advertisements impart conviction and ure action/
'-e importance of a ood advertisement cop$ can -ardl$ be overemp-asi?ed/ All
t-e plannin, researc- and e;pense ,ould o ,aste if proper care ,ere not taken in
draftin an advertisement cop$ t-at ,ill ac-ieve t-e purpose of advertisin/ '-e
ps$c-oloical aims of an advertisement are t-at t-e public must be made to8
5 Look
5 Like
5 Learn, and
5 Buy
The aim of advertising copy is that it shall be seen, read the message
conveyed and then acted upon`. An advertisement, ,-ic- fails in attractin t-e
33
attention of t-e prospects and creatin an ure in t-eir minds for possessin t-e
product, ,ill naturall$ be of no use t-ou- a lare sum -as been spent lavis-l$ on
advertisin t-e product b$ t-e advertiser/
A ood advertisement s-ould possess t-e follo,in c-aracteristics or @ualities or
values-
1/ Attention value - an advertisement must attract t-e attention of t-e potential
consumers/ If it fails in t-is mission, t-e ,-ole mone$ and efforts ,ill o
,aste t-ou- it possesses all ot-er values because ever$t-in else follo,s
t-is/ &o, it must -ave displa$ value/
5 Use of Pictures: pictures -ave t-e immense displa$ and attention
value/ '-e old F-inese proverb 6one seein is ,ort- t-ousand sellin>
indicated t-e place of pictures in attention value/ A ood sketc- or
p-otorap-, if appropriatel$ used, ,ill not merel$ attract t-e attention
of t-e consumer but all ,ill tell ever$t-in about t-e product/
5 Use of Display type or Heading8 use of appropriate -eadins
en-ances t-e value of an advertisement to a reat e;tent/ 'o invite
attention, t-e -eadin s-ould be brief and meaninful, made up of
t-ree or four ,ords and s-ould be printed in emp-atic bold displa$
t$pes/ '-e -eadline s-ould, enerall$, be in t-e form of a 6sloan> or a
6@uer$> t-at ,ill compel t-e attention of t-e reader
5 Boarder Type: attractive boarder can be used to compel t-e attention
of t-e readers/ '-e boarder must -ave a distinctive look so as to
separate it from t-e rest of t-e settin, a full pae advertisement ,it- a
ver$ small matter in t-e center and an artistic or novel boarder ,ill
-ave a ver$ reat attention value/ Underlinin of ke$ ,ords or an
attractive arranement of t$pes ma$ also catc- t-e e$es of t-e reader/
5 Price Quotation: prices s-ould not be @uoted on t-e advertisement
cop$ e;cept ,-en t-e$ are ver$ lo, as in clearance sale or special
offers/ "ut if an appeal is bein made to -i- class customers ,-o
care more for @ualit$ t-at for price, a price @uotation s-ould be
avoided and emp-asis s-ould be laid on @ualit$
5 Reply Coupons8 repl$ coupons inserted in an advertisement in an
unusual settin are $et anot-er ,a$ of attractin attention of t-e
readers to t-e cop$/
44
./ Suggestion value- -avin attracted t-e attention of t-e reader, t-e ne;t task
,ould be to offer a suestion about t-e use and t-e utilit$ of t-e product t-at
ma$ remain inscribed on t-e mind of t-e reader even ,-en -e foret ,-ere -e
reall$ sa, t-e advertisement/
3/ Memorizing value- t-e advertisement cop$ s-ould be so drafted and laid out
t-at t-e product ,ill stick to t-e mind of t-e individual reader/ *epetition of
advertisement ,it- sloan is an effective met-od of creatin a memori?in
value/ (ictures and p-otorap-s confirmin to t-e suestion ,ill -ave
tremendous memori?in value/
4/ Conviction value- an advertisement can prove effective and ac-ieve t-e
desired end ,-en convictin aruments backs t-e suestion contained in it/
'-e advertiser must be careful not to include t-e statements in t-e
advertisement cop$, ,-ic- do not confirm to t-e product/
0/ Sentimental appeal- sentiments pla$ a ver$ important role in advertisin,
particularl$ in t-e case of food articles/ &entiments reflect t-e personal feelins
and attitudes of an individual to,ards various t-ins/ '-e$ indicate reactions of
a person in favour or aainst a particular product/
6/ Education value- a ood advertisement must possess educative value
because t-e object of modern advertisin is not merel$ to satisf$ t-e e;istin
demand but to create future demand/ &o a ood advertisement s-ould educated
t-e eneral public about t-e uses of t-e ne, product or t-e ne, uses of t-e same
product/
1/ Instinctive value- -uman t-ou-ts and actions are uided b$ instincts and
inclination/ All t-at one t-inks or does -as its roots in one instinct or t-e ot-er/
Instincts are t-e underl$in forces, ,-ic- compel t-e men to act in certain
,a$s/ '-e most important function of an advertisement is to induce, persuade
and motivate t-e prospects to t-ink ,ell of a product and to take to its use/
aE Self-Preservation Instinct: man$ of out t-ou-ts and actions are
inspired b$ our an;iet$ to preserve our people, -ealt-, our famil$
and our belonins
41
bE Hoarding Instinct: bankin institutions, insurance companies
or ot-er overnment and non-overnment savin
orani?ations serve to -oardin instinct of t-e people
cE Parental instinct: parental instinct takes t-e form of love and
affection for t-e c-ildren/ '-ose advertisers ,-o deal in
c-ildren re@uirements like arments, to$s, bab$ food, etc ma$
promote t-is instinct in parents i/e/ mot-erl$ feelins of
,omen or parental sentiments of men t-rou- t-eir
advertisements
dE Self-Display Instinct: t-e advertisers of read$made clot-in,
,omen>s dresses, je,eller$, etc promote instinct of self-
displa$/
eE Something for nothing Instinct: ever$bod$ -as a vaue
desire to et somet-in ,it-out pa$in an$t-in for it/ '-is
desire is, more or less, present in ever$bod$ irrespective of
t-e statues or income/ &ome advertisers use t-is instinct in t-e
advertisement cop$/
On t-e basis of t-e above basic instincts, t-e follo,in t-emes or central ideas ma$
be laid do,n for advertisements meant to advertise different t$pes of products8
1/ Pride- t-is t-eme can be used to populari?e lu;ur$ articles amon ric-es, t-e
possession of ,-ic- ives t-em a distinctive status and a feelin of pride
./ Beauty- t-is t-eme is used in advertisement for cosmetics, perfumes, toilet
soaps, etc for bot- men and ,omen
3/ Health- in dru and food products advertisements, t-e use of t-is t-eme is
used
4/ Economy- it is central t-eme in advertisement of clearance sales or barain
purc-ases
0/ Comfort- t-e advertisements for fans, electric appliances, refrierator, etc
contain t-is feelin of comfort
6/ Fear- t-emes stressin t-e fear of deat-, accidents, personal loss t-rou-
burlar$, fire, etc and ot-er unto,ard -appenins in life are enerall$ used
b$ insurance companies or bankin companies/ '-e traffic police is also
usin t-is t-eme in t-eir notes of caution i/e/ 6life is s-ort, don>t make it
s-orter>/
1/ Parental affection- all advertisements of products meant for c-ildren suc-
as to$s, bab$ food and dresses, use t-is feelin
2/ Patriotism- t-is t-eme ma$ be used in advertisements for t-ose ,-o use
forein products
4.
3/ Achievements- t-is t-eme is used enerall$ b$ lare concerns
enaed in t-e production of oods necessar$ for t-e development of
countr$>s
econom$/
14/Emulation and imitation- t-is t-eme is use ,-ere people bu$ more not to
satisf$ t-eir enuine re@uirement, but as t-eir nei-bors -appen to possess
t-em
'-us, a ood advertisement must possess t-e above @ualities to make it an ideal
one/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ :nlist t-e @ualities of a ood advertisementI
+./ 9-at is 6AI!FA>I
1/1. REGULATIONS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT
Advertising Regulation refers to t-e la,s and rules definin t-e ,a$s in ,-ic-
products can be advertised in a particular reion/ *ules can define a ,ide number
of different aspects, suc- as placement, timin, and content/ In t-e United &tates,
false advertisin and -ealt--related ads are reulated t-e most/ Man$
communities -ave t-eir o,n rules, particularl$ for outdoor advertisin/ &,eden
and Cor,a$ pro-ibits domestic advertisin t-at tarets c-ildren/ &ome :uropean
countries don>t allo, sponsors-ip of c-ildren>s prorams, no advertisement can
be aimed at c-ildren under t-e ae of t,elve, and t-ere can be no advertisements
five minutes before or after a c-ildren>s proramme is aired/
In t-e United Gindom advertisin of tobacco on television, billboards or at
sportin events is banned/ It is also pro-ibited to advertise cars on t-e basis of
-o, fast t-e$ can move and t-e relations-ip ,-ic- t-e event -as ,it- t-e sport
seen as a -ealt-$ pursuit, unlike smokin/ &imilarl$ alco-ol advertisers in t-e
United Gindom are not allo,ed to discuss in a campain t-e relative benefits of
drinkin, in most instances t-erefore c-oosin to focus around t-e brand imae
and associative benefits instead of t-ose alined ,it- consumption/ '-ere are
man$ reulations t-rou-out :urope as ,ell/ Two of the most highly regulated
forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising.
43
Regulation of Advertisement in India
Q+aash agar mera beta hota Dif onl$ I -ad a sonE,R laments a do,n- on--is-luck
dad in a television commercial for 7industan %ever %td/ 7%%, %ondon-based
Unilever>s Indian subsidiar$, -ad to pull its commercials for #air K %ovel$ fairness
cream follo,in a complaint loded ,it- t-e Cational 7uman *i-ts Fommission
in Ce, !el-i/
&un tannin ma$ be trend$ in ,estern countries, but 6skin li-tenin products -ave
been -istoricall$ popular in Asia>/ '-e commercial s-o,s t-e advertised cream as a
solution to t-e dilemma faces b$ t-e dad>s dark-skinned dau-ter/ After t-e
product li-tens -er skin, s-e is transformed into a successful career ,oman ,-o
can afford t-e lu;uries t-e dad desires/ '-e All India 9omen>s !emocratic
Association filed a complaint, aruin t-at t-e product ma$ be 6safe for t-e skin,
but not for t-e societ$>/ '-us, t-e ad ,as seen as violatin Fable 'elevision
Cet,orks Act of 1330 and directed not to air/ '-is Act pro-ibits advertisements
t-at neativel$ portra$ an$ race, caste, color, creed, or nationalit$ to depict ,omen
in a subordinate role/ '-is incident 6underscores c-anin social morals in India
and -i-li-ts tensions bet,een t-e overnment and t-e Advertising Standards
Council of India, an autonomous industr$ roup, over -o, to reulate Indian
broadcast content, includin advertisin/
In order to monitor and control advertisin a number of different reulator$ bodies
-ave been establis-ed/ Man$ countries -ave an Advertisin &tandards Aut-orit$,
,-ose job it is to listen to complaints from t-e public, and establis- ,-et-er or not
a particular ad or campain s-ould be ,it-dra,n/
Regulate yourself, or someone else
will
Most of t-e &elf-*eulation Orani?ations around t-e ,orld base t-eir ,ork on t-e
Fodes prepared and publis-ed b$ t-e International Chamber of Commerce
(ICC)/ D'-e A&FI in India is no e;ceptionE/ '-e IFF is t-e ,orld business
orani?ation, t-e onl$ representative bod$ t-at speaks ,it- aut-orit$ on be-alf of
enterprises from all sectors in ever$ part of t-e ,orld/
It is t-e reconition of t-e advertisin industr$ Di/e/ advertisers, aencies and t-e
mediaE t-at advertisin s-ould be leal, decent, -onest and trut-ful, ,it- a sense of
social responsibilit$ to t-e consumer and societ$ as a ,-ole, and ,it- due respect
to t-e rules of fair competition/ '-is is ac-ieved t-rou- t-e establis-ment of a set
of rules and principles of best practice, ,-ic- t-e advertisin industr$ voluntaril$
44
arees to conform ,it-/
40
'-e aim is to keep advertisin standards -i- and ensure consumer trust S to t-e
benefit to all/ &elf-*eulation ,orks best ,-en frame,ork leislation sets and
enforces t-e boundaries of ,-at is unla,ful/ %ike,ise, t-e la, operates to best
effect ,-en it tackles issues of broad principle/ Advertisin is often detailed and
subjective in its claims and interpretation/ Fontrols imposed upon it must be
e@uall$ fle;ible/ &elf- *eulation Orani?ations deal ,it- a volume of ,ork eac-
$ear t-at, if disputed in court, ,ould be bot- pro-ibitivel$ e;pensive and
unacceptabl$ slo, to resolve/ '-e la, and self-reulation ,orkin independentl$
but in -armon$, provide t-e s,iftest and most compre-ensive protection for
consumers/
The ASCI in India makes available, t-e benefit of &elf-*eulation in Advertisin
in India to all (ractitioners in Advertisin, at no c-are to t-em, t-anks to t-e .30
plus members DfirmsE ,-o maintain its &ervices t-rou- t-eir Annual contributions
and more importantl$ ,it- t-e positive responses of Fompliance ,it- t-e
Objective and #air decisions of t-eir autonomous Fonsumer Fomplaints Founcil
DFFFE, on complaints Daainst AdvertisementsE ,-ic- -ave been processed at t-eir
&ecretariat/ &ince 1326, 1330 complaints ,ere Up-eld, t-e FFF -avin deliberated
and decided t-at t-ese Ads contravened t-e A&FI Fode, bein Unfair to
Fonsumers or to Fompetitors/ "ecause of <oluntar$ &elf-*eulation, at least 13N
of t-ese Ads ,ere ,it-dra,n, concluded, or modified appropriatel$ so as to avoid
contravention of t-e Fode and t-ereb$ respectin t-e *i-ts of Fonsumers and
Fompetitors/
In recent $ears t-e @uantit$ of false, misleadin and offensive advertisin -as
resulted in consumers having an increasing disbelief in advertising, and a
ro,in resentment of it/ Misleadin, false advertisin also constitutes unfair
competition/ It could lead to market-place disaster or even litiation/ If t-is kind of
advertisin continues, it ,on>t be lon before statutor$ reulations and procedures
are imposed ,-ic- make even fair, trut-ful, decent advertisin cumbersome if not
impossible/ '-is certainl$ ,ill affect, abilit$ to compete and ro,/
The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) (1985) -as adopted a Fode
for &elf-*eulation in Advertisin/ It is a commitment to -onest advertisin and to
fair competition in t-e market place/ It stands for t-e protection of t-e leitimate
interests of consumers and all concerned ,it- advertisin - advertisers, media,
advertising agencies, and others who help in the creation or placement of
46
advertisements. As t-e Fode becomes increasinl$ accepted and observed pro-
activel$, t-ree t-ins ,ill bein to -appen/
5 #e,er false, misleadin claims
5 #e,er unfair advertisements
5 Increasin respectabilit$
It means more freedom for to practice t-e craft or carr$ on one>s business
effectivel$/ As a member of ASCI, one can mould t-e course of &elf-*eulation
and participate in t-e protection of healthy, effective advertising/ One can -ave
a sa$, t-rou- t-e "oard of )overnors, in t-e furt-er development of t-e Fode and
future appointments to t-e Fonsumer Fomplaints Founcil DFFFE/ Members-ip of
t-e A&FI Dopen onl$ to #irmsE entitles one to appoint a nominee to disc-are
functions as a member, includin standin for election to t-e "oard of )overnors
and votin at eneral meetins/
In India, as in several advanced economies, t-ere is onl$ One "od$ for &elf-
*eulation in Advertisin M t-e ASCI , ,-ic- is concerned ,it- safeuardin t-e
interests of consumers ,-ilst monitorin=uidin t-e commercial communications
of (ractitioners in Advertisin on be-alf of advertisers, for advertisements carried
b$ t-e Media, in t-eir endeavors to influence bu$in decisions of t-e Fonsumin
(ublic/
This Code for Self-Regulation -as been dra,n up b$ people in professions and
industries or in connected ,it- advertisin, in consultation ,it- representatives of
people affected b$ advertisin and -as been accepted b$ individuals, corporate
bodies and associations enaed in or ot-er,ise concerned ,it- t-e practice of
advertisin ,it- t-e follo,in as basic uidelines with a view to achieve the
acceptance of fair advertising practices in the best interests of the ultimate
consumer:
5 'o ensure t-e truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made
b$ advertisements and to safeuard aainst misleadin advertisements
5 'o ensure t-at advertisements are not offensive to enerall$ accepted
standards of public decenc$/ Advertisements s-ould contain not-in
indecent, vular, or repulsive, ,-ic- is likel$, in t-e li-t of enerall$
prevailin standards of decenc$ and propriet$, to cause rave or ,idespread
offence/
41
? To safeguard against the indiscriminate use of Advertisin in situations or
of t-e promotion of products, ,-ic- are rearded as -a?ardous or -armful to
societ$ or to individuals, particularl$ minors, to a deree or of a t$pe, ,-ic-
is unacceptable to society at lare/
5 'o ensure t-at advertisements observe fairness in competition so t-at
t-e consumer>s need to be informed on c-oices in t-e market place and t-e
canons of enerall$ accepted competitive be-avior in business is bot-
served/ "ot- t-e eneral public and an advertiser>s competitors -ave an
e@ual ri-t to e;pect t-e content of advertisements to be presented fairl$,
intelliibl$, and responsibl$/ The Code applies to advertisers, advertising
agencies, and media.
'-e responsibilit$ for t-e observance of t-is Fode for &elf-*eulation in
Advertisin lies ,it- all who commission, create, place or publish any
advertisement or assist in the creation or publishing of any advertisement. All
advertisers, advertisin aencies and media are e;pected not to commission, create,
place, or publis- an$ advertisement, ,-ic- is in contravention of t-is Fode/ '-is is
a self-imposed discipline re@uired under t-is Fode for &elf-*eulation in
Advertisin from all involved in t-e commissionin, creation, placement or
publis-in of advertisements/
'-is Fode applies to advertisements read, -eard, or vie,ed in India even if t-e$
oriinate or are publis-ed abroad so lon as t-e$ are directed to consumers in India
or are e;posed to sinificant number of consumers in India/
An advertisement is defined as a paid-for communication, addressed to t-e public
or a section of it, t-e purpose of ,-ic- is to influence t-e opinions or be-avior of
t-ose to ,-om it is addressed/
'-us, an$ ,ritten or rap-ic matter on packaging, or contained in it, is subject to
t-is Fode/
Advertisin is an important and leitimate means for t-e seller to a,aken interest
in -is products/ The success of advertising depends on public confidence. 7ence
no practice s-ould be permitted ,-ic- tends to impair t-is confidence/
F7:FG HOU* (*O)*:&&
+1/ 9-at is meant b$ self-reulation in advertisinI
42
+./ )ive Fode of &elf-*eulation in Advertisin/
+3/ 9-at is 6A&FI> and discuss its role in IndiaI
1/13 SUMMARY
'oda$ advertisin is a part of our ever$da$ life/ It is all around us/ 9e cannot
escape lookin at it or listenin to it/ :ven if ,e are not consciousl$ lookin at it or
listenin to it, t-e messae of advertisin reac-es and influences us/ It is often
recorded some,-ere at t-e back of our minds and is recalled ,-en ,e are bu$in
somet-in or lookin for a particular service/
Appeal, in advertisements, is an$t-in t-at motivates a person to action/ 7uman
beins are called bundles of ,ants/ A -uman bein is a strane mi; of -opes,
ambitions, needs, interests, oals, etc/ All t-ese t-ins ,ork as motivatin factors/
'-ese are also called motives. <arious advertisements tr$ to appeal to some of
t-ese manifold motives t-at force people to take action/ An advertisin appeal is
not-in but a promise of a benefit t-e advertised product ,ill provide to t-e bu$er/
#or e;ample, t-e possible promises or appeals for a -ome appliance could be-
comfort, convenience, econom$ of installation, econom$, cleanliness,
dependabilit$ and durabilit$, safet$, multiple operations, man$ varied features,
trouble free operation and smart look/
"e-ind ever$ ood advertisement is a creative concept, a bi idea t-at makes t-e
messae distinctive, attention ettin, memorable/ '-ou- reat ideas ma$ be -ard
to come b$, but some advertisin e;perts arue t-at for an advertisin campain to
be effective, it must contain a big idea` t-at attracts t-e consumer>s attention, ets
a reaction, and sets t-e advertiser>s product or service apart from t-e competitors/
'-e t-ree basic components of a Print ad are the headline, body copy, and visual
or illustrations. '-e -eadline and bod$ cop$ portions of t-e advertisement are t-e
responsibilit$ of t-e cop$,riters, ,-ile artists- often ,orkin under t-e direction
of an art director-are responsible for t-e visual presentation of t-e ad/ Artists also
,ork ,it- cop$,riters to develop a la$out/ '-e layout involves t-e arranement of
t-e various components of t-e ad, suc- as -eadlines, sub-eads, bod$ cop$, and
talines/ The tagline is a memorable saying or slogan that conveys a selling
message.
43
A Layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an
ad: headline, subheads, visuals, copy, captions, trademarks, slogans, and
signature.
'-e desin process serves as bot- a creative and an approval process/ In t-e
creative p-ase, t-e desiner uses t-umbnails, rou-s, dummies, and
compre-ensives-in ot-er ,ords, non-final art M to establis- t-e ad>s look and fee/
'-e final art,ork ,it- t-e actual t$pe in placed alon ,it- all t-e visualsJ t-e
printer ,ill need to reproduce t-e ad/ '-e approval process takes place t-rou-out
t-e entire desin process/
Design is art term meaning the arrangement of elements that make up a work
of art. (ainters call it composition/ In film it is called editin/ It is t-e sense of
visual elements ,orkin toet-er to influence t-e vie,ers/ It ma$ be t-e visual
imaes ,orkin one after anot-er on t-e paes of an annual report/ In ma$ be t-e
se@uence of imaes -ittin t-e vie,er in fast cut scenes in a television spot/ It ma$
be t-e se@uence of elements arraned in important and dominant st$le on a sinle
pae of makin an ad p-oto, t$pe, and loo/
Advertisers and advertisin aencies believe t-at customers -ave needs and
desires, ,-ic- can be fulfilled t-rou- t-e purc-ase and use of products and
services/ Advertisin ,orks larel$ t-rou- appeal of emotions of env$, fear,
an;iet$, about one>s appearance and lack of status/ It is ,idel$ assumed t-at
advertisin ,orks if t-e AIDCA formulas are follo,ed/ '-e formula sums up t-e
principles of advertisin/ '-e name of t-e formula is derived from t-e initial letters
of t-e ,ords8 Attention, Interest, Desire, Conviction, and Action/
Advertising Regulation refers to t-e la,s and rules definin t-e ,a$s in ,-ic-
products can be advertised in a particular reion/ *ules can define a ,ide number
of different aspects, suc- as placement, timin, and content/ In t-e United &tates,
false advertisin and -ealt--related ads are reulated t-e most/ Man$ communities
-ave t-eir o,n rules, particularl$ for outdoor advertisin/
1/14 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS
+1/ 9-at are t-e various appeals used in AdvertisementsI
+./ 9-at are t-e tec-ni@ues of makin an AdvertisementI
+3/ :;plain t-e tec-ni@ues for developin idea of an AdvertisementI
04
+4/ 9-at are t-e different Advertisin !esins and -o, are t-e$ e;ecuted in t-e
(rint AdvertisementsI
+0/ 9-at are t-e elements of makin a (rint AdvertisementI
+6/ !efine %a$out/ 9-at are t-e functions of an Advertisement %a$outI
+1/ :nlist t-e various %a$out steps in Advertisement production/
+2/ )ive some 'ips for &uccessful (rint Ad !esinin/
+3/ 9-at are t-e principles of a ood AdvertisementI
+14/:;plain t-e Fode of &elf-*eulation in Advertisin/
+11/%ocate a -istorical advertisement/ !escribe -o, t-e marketers promoted t-e
product or service/ 9-o ,as t-e taret audienceI 9-at ,as t-e attention ettin
tec-ni@ues, messaes, and visualsI 9-at motives are bein addressedI Anal$?e
t-e advertisement>s effectiveness and appropriateness of messaes and visuals/
+1./ &tud$ t-e $ello, paes for a certain business cateor$ suc- as Breal estateB or
BplumbersR/ Fompare and contrast t-e ,a$ businesses in t-at sector advertise and
compete ,it- eac- ot-er t-rou- t-eir advertisin/ (a$ attention to -eadlines, bod$
cop$, t$porap-$, visuals, placement, etc/
+13/ *evie, a current print advertisement/ It can be a displa$ ad, classified, or
outdoor form of advertisin/ Identif$ t-e taret audience, attention ettin
tec-ni@ues, messaes, t$porap-$, and visuals/ 9-at motives are bein addressedI
Anal$?e t-e advertisement>s effectiveness and appropriateness of messaes and
visuals/
1/10 FURTHER READING
1/ (rinciples of Advertisin DMonle lee, Farla Lo-nson, <iva "ooks (rivate
%tdE
./ Advertisin and (ublic *elations D&-ipra Gundra, Anmol (ublicationE
01