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- AIChE Journal Volume 15 Issue 6 1969 [Doi 10.1002%2Faic.690150602] George Thodos -- The Properties of Gases and Liquids, Second Edition, Robert C. Reid and Thomas K. Sherwood, McGraw-Hill, New York(19
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INTRODUCTION

and this study is vitally important for the design of aircraft, missiles and rockets.

level. As we go higher it becomes thinner i.e., the pressure and density are lower. The

sensible atmosphere is up to a height of 90 km (Homosphere) beyond which is

heterosphere. The temperature also varies with height. The layer of atmosphere nearest to

earth is called troposphere. Above that are stratosphere, ionosphere and the last

exosphere. The very high-speed fighter aircraft fly up to altitudes of about 30 km, while

transport jets fly up to about 10-11 km.

Aerodynamics: Classification

(a) Put them in a large closed container, solid will not change i.e., its shape

and boundaries will remain the same; whereas the liquid will change its shape to

conform to that of the container and will take on the same boundaries as the

container up to the maximum depth of the liquid and the gas will completely fill

the container, taking on the same boundaries as the container.

(b) Fluid denotes either a liquid or a gas. When a force is applied tangentially

to the surface of a solid, the solid will experience a finite deformation, and the

tangential force per unit area-the shear stress-will usually be proportional to the

amount of deformation. In contrast, when a tangential shear stress is applied to

the surface of a fluid, the fluid will experience a continuously increasing

deformation, and the shear stress will be proportional to the rate change of

momentum.

(c) The most fundamental distinction is at atom and molecular level i.e.,

spacing between molecules. In solids, molecules are closely packed while in

liquids and gases spacing is large. Hence intermolecular forces are much weaker

and motion of molecules occurs freely particular throughout gases.

4. Fluid Dynamics: - The study of dynamics of fluid can be subdivided into three

areas as follows: -

(b) Gas Dynamics-flow of gases

(c) Aerodynamics-flow of air.

5. Aerodynamics: - The applications in prediction of forces and moments on, and

heat transfer to (aerodynamics heating), bodies moving through a fluid is called external

aerodynamics since they deal with external flows over a body. In contrast, the

applications in determination of flows moving internally through ducts, calculation and

measurement of flow properties inside rocket and air-breathing engines, engine thrust or

flow conditions in test section of wind tunnel is called internal aerodynamics.

6. The four basic aerodynamic quantities are pressure, density, temperature and flow

velocity. A fifth quantity is streamlines.

(a) Pressure is the normal force per unit area exerted on a surface due to time

rate of change of momentum of the gas molecules impacting or crossing that

surface (point property).

P = lim (dF/dA), dA tending to zero

Where dA = elemental area

dF = force on one side of dA due to pressure.

(b) Density is defined as the mass per unit volume (point property).

ρ = lim(dm/dv), dv tending to zero

where dv = elemental volume around a point

dm = mass of fluid inside dv

energy of the molecules of the fluid. In fact, if KE is the molecular kinetic energy,

then temperature is given by

KE = (3/2)kT, where k is Boltzmann constant.

velocity is important. The velocity of a flowing gas at any fixed point B in space

can be defined as the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid element as it

sweeps through B. The flow velocity V has both magnitude and direction and

hence is a vector quantity (p, ρ and T are scalar quantities).

(e) A moving fluid element traces out a fixed path in space. As long as the

flow is steady (no fluctuations with time), this path is called a streamline of the

flow. Drawing the streamlines of the flow field is an important way of visualizing

the motion of the gas.

(f) If two streamlines are rubbing at each other, friction plays a role and

exerts a force of magnitude dFf on one of the streamlines acting tangentially in the

direction of the force. The shear stress τ is the limiting form of the magnitude of

the frictional force dFf per unit area dA where dA is perpendicular to the y axis

and has shrunk to nearly zero i.e.,

τ = lim(dFf /dA) as dA tends to zero.

In aerodynamic applications, the value of shear stress at a point on a streamline is

proportional to the spatial rate of change of velocity of normal to the streamline at

that point i.e.,

τ α dV/dy or

τ = µ (dV/dy)

where the constant of proportionality, µ , is defined as the

viscosity coefficient and dV/dy is the velocity gradient.

7. No matter how complex the body shape may be, the aerodynamic forces and

moments on the body are due entirely to only to two basic sources:

(a) Pressure distribution over the body surface (force per unit area normal to

the surface)

(b) Shear stress distribution over the body surface (force per unit area

tangential to the surface)

8. The net effect of p and τ distributions integrated over the complete body surface

is a resultant aerodynamic force R and moment M on the body.

N

L

R

α

α M

V∞ D

α

A

c

L = lift = component perpendicular to the relative wind V∞ (also called

free stream velocity)

D = drag = component of R parallel to V∞

(b) The chord c is the linear distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge

of the body. Sometimes, R is split into components perpendicular and parallel to

the chord and by definition

N = Normal force = component of R perpendicular to c

A = Axial force = component of R parallel to c.

(c) The angle of attack α is defined as the angle between c and V∞. Hence, α

I

is also the angle between L and N and between D and A. The geometrical relation

between these two sets of components is D

L = N cos α - A sin α

α

D = N sin α + A cos α L

N D

α

cos α = adjacent/hypotenuse = L/N = D/A

sin α = opposite/hypotenuse = -L/A(since α =-ve) = D/N A L

A’ in this case i.e., force per unit span), we are interested in the contribution to the

total normal force N’ and the total axial force A’ due to the pressure and shear

stress on the elemental area dS.

N’u θ

pu

A’u

θ τ

LE u

A’l

α TE

V∞

θ

pl

τ

θ N’ l

l

(i) The elemental normal and axial forces for upper and lower body

surface will be given as

dNu’ = -pudsucos θ - τ udsusin θ

dAu’ = -pudsusin θ + τ udsucos θ

dNl’ = pldslcos θ - τ ldslsin θ

dAl’ = pldslsin θ + τ ldslcos θ

cos θ = adj/hyp = -dNu’/pu = dAu’/τ u

sin θ = opp/hyp= dNu’ / τ u = -dAu’/ pu

(ii) The total normal and axial forces per unit span are obtained by

integrating above equations from leading edge (LE) to the trailing edge

(TE):

N’ = ∫ dNu’ + ∫ dNl’

A’ = ∫ dAu’ + ∫ dAl’

point about which moments are taken and leading edge is taken. By

convention, moments that tend to increase α (pitch up) are positive and

the vice versa and y is a positive number above the chord and negative

below the chord. Thus the moment per unit span about the leading edge

due to p and τ on the elemental area dS on the upper surface is

dMu’ = (pucos θ - τ usin θ )x dsu + (-pusin θ + τ ucos θ )y dsu

dMl’ = (-plcos θ + τ lsin θ )x dsl + (plsin θ + τ lcos θ )y dsl

(iv) The moment about the leading edge per unit span is obtained by

integrating the above equations from the leading to trailing edges.

MLE’ = ∫ dMu’ + ∫ dMl’

aerodynamic lift, drag and moments on a body are the pressure and shear

stress distributions integrated over the body. A major goal of theoretical

aerodynamics is to calculate p(s) and τ (s) for a given body shape and free

stream conditions thus yielding the aerodynamic forces and moments.

(e) Dimensionless force and moment coefficients are quantities even more

fundamental in nature than the aerodynamic forces and moments themselves.

(i) Let ρ ∞ and V∞ be the density and velocity, respectively, in the

free stream far ahead of the body. We define a dimensional quantity called

the free stream dynamic pressure as

q∞ = ½(ρ ∞ V∞2)

(ii) Let S be a reference area and l be the reference length.

(iii) The dimensionless force and moment coefficients are defined as

follows:

(aa) Lift coefficient: CL = L/( q∞ S)

(bb) Drag coefficient: CD = D/( q∞ S)

(cc) Normal force coefficient: CN = N/( q∞ S)

(dd) Axial force coefficient: CA = A/( q∞ S)

(ee) Moment coefficient: CM = M/( q∞ Sl)

(f) The symbols in capital letters above denote force and moment coefficients

for a complete three-dimensional body. In contrast, for a two-dimensional body

the forces and moments are per unit span and the coefficients are denoted in

lowercase letters (c is the chord length): -

(i) Lift coefficient: cl = L’/( q∞ c)

(ii) Drag coefficient: cd = D’/( q∞ c)

(iii) Moment coefficient: cm = M’/( q∞ c2)

(iv) Pressure coefficient: Cp = p-p∞/ q∞ where p∞ is the free stream

pressure

(v) Skin friction coefficient: cf = τ /q∞

q∞ , the eqns for N’ and A’ can be re-written in terms of dimensionless coefficients

as below: -

9. Centre of Pressure

The normal and axial forces on the body are due to the distributed loads imposed

by pressure and shear distributions. Moreover, these distributed loads generate a moment

about the leading edge as given in eqn 8 (d) (iv). Therefore, N’ and A’ must be placed on

the airfoil at such a location to generate the same moment about the leading edge. If A’ is

placed on the chord line as shown in fig below, then N’ must be located a distance xcp

downstream of the leading edge such that

MLE’ = - (xcp)N’ or

xcp = - (MLE’/N’) (since MLE’ is shown as pitch-up, N’ is – ve)

N’

MLE ’

A’

xcp

(a) Thus center of pressure (xcp ) is defined as the location where the resultant

of a distributed load effectively acts on the body. If moments were taken about the

center of pressure, the integrated effect of the distributed loads would be zero.

(b) An alternate definition of the center of pressure is that point on the body

about which the aerodynamic moment is zero.

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