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ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

1. What is Ecology? Root Words: Oikos-house or place to live; home Logos-study

Study of organisms at home or in places where they live. Total relations of the animal to its inorganic and organic environment (Ernst aec!el"#$%&' Study of plants and animals in relation to their environment. Scientific (atural istory ()harles Elton"#&*+' Scientific study of the interactions that determine the a,undance and distri,ution of organisms through space and time(-re,s"#&$.' Study of the structure and function of nature (/dum"#&%0' Study of the relationship ,etween living things and their environment. 1 composite entity "incorporating natural sciences and social sciences 2t also involves history math and statistics" technology" ,usiness and management" law" ethics" philosophy" religion" morality" and aesthetics

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Subdivisions of Ecology: *.# Autecology-deals with the study of the individual organism"its life history" ,ehavior "characteristics and its adaptation to the environment. *.* Synecology-deals with the study of groups of organisms which are associated as a unit in relation to its environment.

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Why do we have to elate to the su oundings? Relate(interact--------Survive3334istri,ution----------5erpetuation 6666666 6666666666 Reproduce 1,undance Levels of O gani"ation 1tom-molecule-organelle-cell-tissue-organ-system-organism-populationcommunity-ecosystem-,iosphere-earth

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$nte action in an ecosyste%&'abiotic and biotic facto s( ..# abiotic-abiotic-relationship among physical factors in the environment ..* biotic-biotic-interactions7relationships among ,iotic factors in the community ..0 biotic-abiotic-relationship ,etween living and non-living things in a community.

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Ecosyste (Tansley"#&0.-coined' Eco-environment! Syste -indicates a comple8 of coordinated or organi9ed units 1ny-spatial or organi9ational unit made up of living organisms and nonliving su,stances or conditions that interact to produce and e8change materials and energy.

Refers to a situation where living or ,iotic units function together with their environment 1 system which is made up of interdependent living and non-living structures enclosed within a defined ,oundary.

)wo *asic )y+es of Syste%s: #. T"e Close# Syste -where no materials or energy pass through the e8ternal ,oundaries of the system *. T"e O$en Syste - wherein materials and energy enter and leave the system In$uts-entries or gains of materials and energy T"%oug"$ut-e8change of materials or energy ,etween su,systems or components within the system Out$uts-losses or e8its of materials and energy Ecosyste #. Co $onents&

Biotic 'a%t& ()( '%o#uce%s #.#.# #.#.* #.#.0 ()* Consu e%s #.*.# #.*.* #.*.0 #.*.< ()+ Deco $ose%s #.0.# #.0.* ;acteria =ungi er,ivores )arnivores /mnivores 4etritivores :reen plants 5hotosynthetic ;acteria )hemosynthetic ;acteria

*) Abiotic 'a%t *)( Cli atic ,acto%s *.#.# >ight *.#.* Temperature *.#.0 1tmosphere and Wind E#a$"ic ,acto%s *.*.# (utrient )ontent *.*.* 1cidity *.*.0 ?oisture )ontent To$og%a$"ic ,acto%s *.0.# 1spect *.0.* 1ngle of Slope *.0.0 1ltitude

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W,)E-: 1n inorganic su,stance which plays an important role in the ecosystem 2rregularly distri,uted on the earth@s surface. With an important ,earing on the character of the organisms that live on various types of ha,itats.

$%+o tance of wate : elps in the germination of seeds Transports su,stances 1ids in the erosion and ,rea!ing of roc!s (eeded to support plant tissues )omprises a large percentage of the ,ody tissues .lant wate -e/ui e%ents -y#%o$"ytes-thrive in places where water is a,undant -alo$"ytes-thrive in places where the water availa,le contains much dissolved salts Meso$"ytes-(eed moderate supply of water .e%o$"ytes-)an tolerate scanty water supply T%o$o$"ytes-can adapt itself though there is mar!ed seasonal changes in the amount of water

SO$L: 4etermines largely the character of vegetation and the tyopes of animals that maintain themselves upon it. Ty$e o/ soils: 1ccording to the !ind of materials and si9e of its particles San#y-inorganic soil particles that are larger than clay or silt Clay-smallest inorganic particle of soil Loa -made up of particles of gravel sand and clay with the addition of humus Silt-made up of very fine particles of soil or clay deposited as sediments. Sunlig"t& 1n important physical factor /ldest of all energy sources Bu#get& *+0-reflected ,y clouds *0-relected ,y surfaces of snow "glaciers" and oceans (10-lost ,y diffusion (0-used for pholtosynthesis 230-a,sor,ed ,ut eventually lost ,y radiation -EL,)$O0S1$.S: Int%as$eci/ic- ,etween or among the same species.

i.e mating; assistance gregariousness "competition(space" food" mate Inte%s$eci/ic-,etween or among the different species (competition for food" space" commensalism" sym,iosis" mutualism'

02)-$E0) 343LES =low of energy-one way7(on-cyclic; flow of essential nutrients-cyclic. Termed as ;iogeochemical cycle on a glo,al scale The processes in the ,iosphere where,y chemical su,stances" especially the essential nutrients are removed from and later returned to the a,iotic environment ,y living organisms through energy flows and the action of the decomposers.

Nut%ient co $a%t ent-where the nutrients reside at a given point of time. Ma4o% co $a%t ents& () Non-#yna ic reservoir pool in the a,iotic environment which is inaccessi,le to living organisms *. Dyna ic-e8change or nutrient pool from where the nutrient is moved ,ac!-and-forth ,etween the ,iotic and a,iotic compartments. Distinct /eatu%es: /nly autotrophs can e8tract nutrients from the e8change pool 4ecomposers are mainly responsi,le for the return of nutrients to the e8change pool * a4o% ty$es( ,ased on the location of the reservoir pool' () Gaseous cycles-reservoir pool is the atmosphere (glo,al cycle' e.g. )ar,on .o8ygen" (itrogen" water *) Se#i enta%y cycles-earth@s crust as their reservoir pool.(local cycle' e.g. 5hosphorus ,lu5 %ate-measure of the amount of a nutrient passing from one compartment to another per unit time. :aseous nutrients are usually cycled faster than sedimentary su,stances The growth of the ,igger living organisms in the community will affect the a,sorption rate of the nutrients and its flow through food chains. The rate of decay of organic matter depends primarily on the a,undance of decomposers which is determined ,y climate and soil type. =aster rates of organic decay speeds up the return of nutrients to the e8change pool and hence" the completion of the cycle is also faster.

Ma4o% "u an acti6ities that have significantly and sometimes disastrously influenced nutrient cycles in the ,iosphere: The ever increasing rates of com,ustion of fossil fuels have released great Auantities of )ar,on and Sulfur into the atmospheric pool and created air pollution pro,lems E8tensive deforestation has depleted the nutrient pools and hence" impoverished sedimentary cycles of once-productive environment. Biogeoc"e ical Cycles& Water )ar,on 5hosphorus Sulfur 'O'7LATION& 1 group of similar species living in a certain place at the same time 1 group of individual organisms that inter,reed located in one ha,itat 1 group of inter,reeding individuals in a prescri,ed area

C"a%acte%istics o/ a $o$ulation& #. *. 0. Si9e-pertains to the num,er of individuals in a population =actors that contri,ute to the si9e of a population (natality(B'" mortality (-'"immigration(B'"emigration(-' 4ensity num,er of individuals per unit area 4istri,ution- tells how individuals are located in one area

'atte%ns o/ Dist%ibution& #. *. 0. Random distri,ution-no specific order Cniform distri,ution-evenly distri,uted )lumped distri,ution-concentrated in an area

Biotic 'otential-the num,er of offsprings that could theoretically e8ist if all offsprings survived and produced young: depends not only on the num,er of offsprings produced at a time ,ut also upon how freAuently they are produced and how long the reproductive life of the organism may ,e. En6i%on ental Resistance-the collection of factors that reduces the growth rate of a population. Ca%%ying Ca$acity- num,er of individuals in a particular population that the environment can support over an indefinite period of time in terms of food" space" and shelter.

Li%iting 5acto s: Density De$en#ent-,iotic factors dependent on the density of the population e.g.competition" predators" diseases" etc.' Density In#e$en#ent ,acto%s-factors that influence all population regardless of their density. e.g. weather"temp. etc. '"ili$$ines )onsidered the &th most populated country in 1sia and #<th in the world with a high ,irth rate and a declining death rate (83+-(889

'"ili$$ine $o$ulation /%o

%$.% million (#&&.' million Dyearly increase **. =ilipinos7sAuare !m. *.#-*.0E yearly population growth rate #*% million-est pop ,y the year *F*F 5redominantly rural /ut of +"#F+ islands only #"FFF are populated With *$ provinces and #F* municipalities ense g%o:t" o/ $o$ulation&

Reasons :"y ,ili$inos "a6e an i #. *. 0. <. .. %. +.

Tradition of having ,ig families Guestion of gender The male macho image Cnsatisfactory7ineffective family relationship Economic reasons )ontraceptive method Educational ,ac!ground

'%oble s on 'o$ulation G%o:t" in t"e '"ili$$ines #. *. 0. <. .. %. +. $. Environmental Social Economic Education ealth Spiritual and moral =ood supply 4estruction of nature 3O6620$)$ES: ?ade up of a group of populations that live together and interact with each other

:roups of different populations interacting with each other in a definite space and time

S$ecial %elations"i$s a ong o%ganis s: #. competition *. predation 0. sym,iotic relationships (sym,iosis-living together' 0.# mutualism 0.* parasitism 0.0 commensalism Co unity %oles& #. producers(autotrophs' *. consumers(heterotrophs' 0. decomposers

Ecological "abitats an# nic"es -abitat-living place of an organism in a community Nic"e-life style of a population in a ha,itat

Ene%gy /lo:;Ene%gy T%ans/e%;,oo# C"ain T%o$"ic $atte%n-the transfer of energy from the autotrophs to the heterotrophs T%o$"ic le6el-position of an organism in the trophic pattern '%o#uce%s-generally green plants Consu e%s-dependent on plants -e%bi6o%es-primary consumers-animals that feed on plants. Ca%ni6o%es-secondary consumers;animals that feed on other animals O ni6o%es-animals that eat ,oth plants and animals. Sca6enge%s-organisms that feed on dead organisms. ,oo# c"ain-the passage of energy in a community from one organism to another;seAuence of organisms related to one another as prey and predators ,oo# :eb-pattern of food chain that interloc!s and forms a networ! '%o#ucti6ity-refers to the amount of energy stored in chemical compounds among plants G%oss $%i a%y $%o#ucti6ity-the rate at which organic matter is produced during photosynthesis Net $%i a%y $%o#ucti6ity-the rate at which organic matter stored in plants produces growth.

Ecological 'y%a i# '%o#uce%-,ase!consu e%s-top Co #. *. 0. on ty$es o/ Ecological 'y%a i#s: 'y%a i# o/ '%o#ucti6ity (Energy'-upright 'y%a i# o/ Nu be%s-upright 'y%a i# o/ Bio ass-might ,e inverted

Ma4o% ty$es o/ Ecosyste s () G%asslan# #.#. ste$$es-with short grasses; semi-arid grassland #.*. $%ai%ies-with tall grasses; grassland in humid climates #.0. t%o$ical sa6annas-with coarse grasses; dry in winter and rainy in Summer ,o%est-a large area of land covered with trees Strata: T"e Cano$y- consists mainly of tall trees T"e 7n#e%sto%y-consists of shorter trees" the shru,s"which receive less sunlight. T"e S"%ub Laye%-consists mainly of shru,s T"e -e%b Laye%-made up of ferns" grasses and wild flowers T"e ,o%est /loo%-covered with clumps of mosses and with the wastes from upper layers A<uatic Ecosyste -divided into maHor classes ,y salinity Ma%ine-with high salinity ,%es":ate%-with no salinity(standing or flowing waters'

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Ecological Succession-the seAuence of replacement in a ha,itat

T:o ty$es& #. '%i a%y succession-an ecological succession ta!ing place in an environment which is not previously covered ,y vegetation" roc!s" volcanic lava. Coloni=e%s o% $ionee%s-first plant to dominate. Cli a5 co unity-a modified sta,le community. Secon#a%y succession-ta!es place in a ha,itat already previously occupied ,y vegetation. -o eostasis in t"e ecosyste -refers to the ,alance in an ecosystem. E6olution-change in gene freAuencies of a population over a period of time. Natu%al selection-is the pro,a,le survival and reproduction of species with favora,le conditions. MutationIchange in the genetic material; main source of genetic variation Mig%ation- movement of organisms from one location to another. S$eciation-the most dramatic event in evolution in the formation of new species.

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