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43.501 First published 1973 Second edition 1986 Third edition 1998

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ISBN 07210 1541 7 Price Group F British Cement Association 1998

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IFC

Designed and detailed


(BS 8110: 1997)
J. B. Higgins and B. R. Rogers MA. CFng, MI(I

Contents
2

Foreword
This third edition ofDesignedand detailedhas been revised to BS 8110 : Part I: 1997, and the amendment dated 15 September 1998. Althoughthere havebeen several amendments to the code since 1985, the latest and most significant change in the partial safety factorfor reinforcement m from 1.15 has been the reduction . . to 1 .05. With higher stresses, less steel is required. However, the total saving may not be fully realised becausethere are other considerations such as choosinga practical arrangement of bars, and the deflection in the case of shallower
members.

Introduction

3 6 7 8
10 16 18

BS 8110 and limit state design


Design information Structural summary sheet

Floor slab First-floormain beam Edge beam


Columns
Foundation

The calculations have also been revised for the loading requirements ofBS 6399 Part 1: 1996 and Part 2: 1995.
Designcharts in BS 8110: Part 3: 1985 may still be used to providea conservative solution, and one ofthese charts has been includedfor the design of columns. Lap lengths for these members have also been takenfrom BS 8110, Table 3.27, but adjusted for the design stress of 087f. The tie reinforcement for robustness is designed at its characteristic strength. If the characteristic bond stress is used for calculating laps and anchoragelengths, then the values in Table 3.27 may be multiplied by I 05/l4. This publication takes a conservative practical approach and usesdirectly the values given in Table3.27. Observant users of previous editionswill appreciate the skill that is evidentin the setting out of the calculations and the drawings. This is the work of the late Jim Higgins, whose care in the production of the original artworkwas meticulous. Sadly, he never saw the second edition in print. I hope that my amendments to this thirdedition will not detract from his fine workmanship. Special thanks are due to Tony Threlfall for his advice and suggestions for this edition.
.

22 24 26 28
29

Shear wall
Staircase

Columndesignchart Further information

Railton Rogers

Introduction

The purposeof this publication is to apply the principles of limit stale design given in BS 8110 by means of a simple worked example for a reinforced concrete building frame. The calculations and details arc presented in a form suitable for design office purposes and are generally in accordance with the following
pLihIications.

BRITISHSTANDARDS INSTITtJTION Siructural use 0/concrete. Part I . Code of practice/ordesign and construction. Milton Keynes, BSI. 1997. 120 pp. BS 8110

Part

I:

1997.

H MSTATIONERY OFFICE. Building and buildings. The Building Regnlation.v 1991 (Amended 1994). HMSO, London. 21 pp. Statutory Instruments No. 2768.
BRITISHSTANDARDS INSTITUTION Loading/or buildings. Part I . Code 0/practice

br deadand inposed loads. Milton Keynes. BSI. 1996. It) pp. BS 6399 : Part
1996.

Jiir wind loads.Milton Keynes,BSI. 1995.82 pP BS 6399 : Part 2:

BRITISH STANDARDSINSTITUTION.Loading/or

buildings. Part 2. Code 0/practice


1995.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION.Loading buildings. Part 3. (ode 0/practice loads. Milton BSI. 1988. 23 pp. BS 6399 : Part 3: 1988. roo/ imposed Keynes.

/r

/ir

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTlThTIO'J. Specification /or scheduling, dimensioning, bendin' (111(1 cutiin' steelrein/irceinent/r concrete. Milton Keynes, BSI. 1989. 20 PP BS 4466 : 1989.

IIIE C()NCR VIE SOCIETY. Modelprocedure the presentation0/ calculation,r. London (now Slough). 1981 . Technical Report 5, second edition. 18 pp.
THE CONCRETE SOCIETY ANDTHE INSTITUTIONOF STRUCTURAL F.NGINEERS, 5iandardmethodo/detailnig structural concrete. London. The Institution. 1989. 138 pp.

/ir

BS 8110 and limit

state design

c:)bjective

To serve its purpose, a structure must be safe against collapse and be serviceablein use. Calculations alone do not produce safe, serviceableand durable structures. Equally important are the suitability of the materials, quality control and supervisionof the workmanship.
Limit state design admits that a structure may become unsatisfactory through a number of ways which all have to be considered independently against defined limits of satisfactory behaviour. It admits that there is an inherent variability in loads, materials and methods of design and construction which makes it impossible to achieve complete safety against any possible shortcoming. By providing sufficient margins of safety, the aim of limit state design is to provide an acceptable probability that the structure will perform satisfactorilyduring its intended life. Limit states can he classified into two main groups: (I) the ultimate limit state, which is concerned with the provision of adequate safety; (2) the serviceability limit states, which are essentially concerned with
durability. Generally, in practice, there are three limit states which are normally considered for reinforced concrete and these are given in the Table below.

Ultimate

Serviceabilitylimit states Deflection Structure should not deflect so as to impair use of structure Cracking Cracking should not be such as to damage finishes or . otherwise
impair usage

limit state

Objective

Provision of adequate safety


Design ultimate

Loading regime

loads

Design service load

Performance limit

Deflection should Crack width Structure should not exceed should not not fail exceed 03 mm specified
limits generally

Characteristicvalues

For the testing of materials, a statistical approach can be applied to the variations within materials which occur in practice. A normal or Gaussian distribution curve is assumed to represent the results of the tests and a value known as the characteristic value can be chosen below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to lie. The characteristic strength is given by the equation: Characteristicstrength = Mean or Averagestrength L64 X Standarddeviation Ideally, a characteristic load should be similarly defined, as a load with a 5% probability of being exceeded during the lifetime of the structure. Flowever, it is not yet possible to-expressloading in statistical terms, so the Code uses the loads defined in BS 6399: Parts 1, 2 and 3.
3

Desiqn toads

The design load is given by the equation: Design load = Characteristic load X

where 'r is a partial safety factor for loading. This factor takes into account the possibility that the loads acting on the structure may be greater than the characteristic values. It also takes into account the assumptions made in the method of analysis, and the seriousnessof failure to meet the design criteria for a particular limit state. The consequence of collapse is much more serious than exceeding the serviceability limits and so this is reflected in the higher values of the partial safety factors. Components of load have to he considered in their most unfavourable combinations, Sc) sets of values of for minimum and maximum design loads are required. For example, the worst situation for a structure being checked for overturning under the action of wind load will he where the maximum wind load is combined with the minimum vertical dead load. Lower values of ;' are used for the combination of wind, imposed and dead loads than for the combinations of wind and dead, and dead and imposed loads, as the probability Df three independent design loads achievingtheir maximum value at the same time is less. The table below gives the partial load factors for the ultimate limit state.

Partial safety factor to be applied to Combination of loads dead load imposed load
wind

when effect of load is adverse beneficial adverse heneficEal 16

load

1 Dead and imposed 2 Dead and wind 3 Dead and wind

14 14 12

10

1)

10
12

12

with imposed

12

14 12

Deiin strenqths

The design strengthis given by the equation: Characteristic strength [)esign strength = ______________________ is a partial safetyfactor on the material strength. This factor takes into account the variation in workmanship and quality control that may normally be expectedto occur in the manufacture of the materials. The values of to he used for the two materials when designingfor the ultimate limit state are given below:
where

Values of

for theultimate limit state


I .05

Reinforcement

(oncrete Flexure or axial load Shear strength without shear reinforcement Bond strength Others (e.g. bearing stress)

IS 125

14
15

iOLisiuest

In addition to providing a structure that is capable of carrying the design loads, the layout should be such that damage to small areas of a structure or failure of single elementswill not lead to a major collapse. The Code requires that in all buildings the structural members should be linked together in the followingmanner: (a) by effectively continuous peripheral ties at each floor and roof level:

(b) by internal ties in two directions approximately at right-angles, effectively continuous throughout their length and anchored to the peripheral ties at each end (unless continuing as horizontal ties to columns or walls); (c) by external column and wall ties anchored or tied horizontally into the structure at each floor and roof level; (d) by continuous vertical ties from foundation to the roof level in all columns and walls carriing vertical loads.

In the design of the ties, the reinforcementmay be assumed to be acting at its characteristic strength with no other forces present but the tie forces. Reinforcementprovided for other purposes can often be used to form part or the whole of these ties, so that in the design process, when the required reinforcementfor the usual dead, imposed and wind loading has been found, a check can be made to see whether modifications or additions to the reinforcementare required to fulfil the tie requirements.

Durabflty and re resislance

At thecommencementof the design, the following should be considered: the climate and environmental conditions to which the concrete will be

exposed; the concrete quality; the cover to the reinforcement.

It should also be noted that the quality of the construction process and the Iirst hours after casting of the concrete have a major influenceupon the subsequent durability of the structure. The cover for protection against corrosion may not be sufficient for fire protection, so this should be considered at the onset of the design, and also the dimensionsof the members.
The Code gives maximum water/cement ratios, minimum cement contents and minimum characteristic strengths for concretes suitable for use in various environments with specified covers and using 20 mm nominal maximum size aggregate. The minimumgrades will generallyensure that the limits on free water/cement ratio and cement content will be met without further checking.

Appflcation

Durability and fire resistance requirements are considered at the onset of the design process because this determines the grade of concrete, the cover, and the size of the members. Usually,for most structures, Part 1 of the Code will be used in which it is assumed that the ultimate limit state will be the most critical limit state. Design will therefore be carried out at this limit state, followed by checks to ensure that the serviceabilitylimit states of deflection and cracking are not reached. In special circumstances,other limit states, such as vibration or the effects of fatigue, may require consideration. Should it be necessary to calculate deflectionsand crack widths, methods are given in Part 2 of the Code. The serviceability limit state of deflection may be the limiting requirement for floor slabs with large span/effective-depthratios. This can he checked before the reinforcementis determined, although some engineers may prefer to followthe procedure where the check is made after thereinforcementhas been found. Simplifieddetailing requirements for the curtailment of the reinforcement may be used for beams and slabs which fulfil certain design conditions. Nowever, for other situations, the curtailments should be taken from a bending moment envelopeand be in accordance with the general recommendationsof the Code.

Design information

Client Architect

Co#.ai

Engineer responsible

BRJZers

TLe.
'a,

LIL14 5SiO

Pout

tnj L P

/j,

Building Regulation authority or other and Date of submission


Relevant Building Regulationsand Design Codes

Cocre.tc Past 'j. S7 of 2 IO5)ckr PCU B8

Lbon
Roof

Intended use of structure

Fire resistance reqLnrements

F1'oo

General loading conditions

Sjr-

LXc Co4 Fors a


Speed Factors

irvoecj

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4.QkW/ 4O k4/

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Wind loading ccnditrons

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1.0 e.'Jere.

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Other relevant information

ore

Structural summary sheet

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7

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175

5000

BS 8110 ref.

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

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Commentaryon bar arrangement
BS 8110 ref Bar marks
Notes All bars are labelled in the form described in the Standard methodofdetailing structural concrete, e.g. 45T12-l-300B1 means that in the bottom outer layer there are45 Grade 460 Fype 2 deformed 12 mm nominal size bars at 300 mm centres and the bar mark is -I-. The bars are numbered in the likely sequence ot fixing; the positionsofthe first and last bars in a stringare indicated in plan and section. Intermediate bars have been omitted for clarity. Minimumarea of tension reinforcement= 00013 X 1000 >< 175 = 228 mm2/m. Maximum clear spacing of tension bars = lesser of 750 mm or 3d, i.e. 3d = 3 )< 149 = 447 mm. h < 200, therefore no further check on spacing Main tension bars Tl2 @ 300, A = 377 mm2 > minimum 228 mm2/m. OK. If curtailed, A = 377/2 = 189 mm2 minimum228 mm2/m not OK. Bars lapped 300 mm at bottom support to provide continuous tie.

CovE.R

toote

5= 20

$cale; i;o-

Table3.25
3.12.11.2.7

<

3.12.3.4

Table 3.25
3.12.8.11

2,3 4,5
7

3.4.1.5

Table 3.25

3.12.10.3

Secondary bars use T10 @ 300 (262 mm2/m). Minimum lap = 300mm > IS )< 10 = 150 mm. Lapping reduces bar lengths for easier handling on site. Laps are shown staggered for effectivecrack control. Minimum transverse reinforcement is placed across the full flange width of the edge beam (minimum width = 650 mm, see page 16). Minimum area = 00015 )< 1000 >< 175 = 263 mm2/m use TlO @ 300 (262 mm2/m). Main tension bars over support 112 @ 300 as bar mark I. One curtailment shown at 03 effective span from face of support. Further curtailments prevented by minimum area and spacing requirementssimilar to mark I. 9

.............
8000

tto
6000
300

=460

First-floor main beam


two-span flanged beam

BS 8110 ref.

CALCULATIONS

OUTPJT

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CALCULATIONS

CASE

I
II
III

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II

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BS 8110
ref.

CALCULATIONS

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+ 232

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BS 8110 ref

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

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r
.stcxxce

/4o.9i2)MJ7 = 0., M13'5km.

M= a=

O.5fx4x,

M o 2T2S ('3&2
(3.4.4.4.)

4LY Mo Ev.ve1opii.

1o

l_o.I_

____ _____

1s

'75
bOO

Extntot QIon4 T.C.P(3.1,S


a.

153kNn

2)

b
C

CURTA1LMT DIAGRAM.
Commentaryon bar arrangement
US 8110 ref Bar marks
Noics

cL450. 300. (. t.Lo. ct. 5 = /IT.C.P


to pt, we4- M
2

3.3.1.2 3.12.9.1 3.12.8.14

I
2

lius beam shows loosesplicebars at each column intersection. Ihis met hod simplifiesdetailine and 0sing and the span cage can readily he prefabricated. Tension bars arc stopped 50 mm from each column lace to avoid clashing with the column bars shown in section A--A. Nominal cover 20 + 12 32 mm > 25 mm, say 35 mm. Remainingtension bars stopped off as shown in the curtailment diagram above. ('heck masimum amount of reinforcement at laps < 40 breadth
4 >< 25 = 100 mm < 0-4 X 300 =
12))

mm

OK.

3.12.3.4

3
4

as shown in section BB. Although designed as compression bars, these bars also act as internal ties and lap 1000 mm with the adjacent span bars for continuity. The two tensioil bars are stopped 51) mni from the column Oice to avoid the column bars beyond.

loose bars arc fixed inside column bars

3.12.11.1 3.12.9.1

5,10

'4

loose Ibars are bxcd insidc the column bars and provide continuitS for column and internal ties. ('heck minimum distance between tension bars 25 mm (aggregate si/c 5 mm). 30)) 200 - 100 mm 25 mm OK. Top legs propect from centre-line into span. minimum dimensions shown in the curtailment diagram.

'

M A1P4

EAM

cer
LNK DARAIY\
3.12.3.6 Bottom lcts lap minimum 00)) mm with span bars to provide continuity for the internal tie. + 450 1315 mm ) let both legs 'lop legs Bottom lees 200 100)) 1200 mm ) project 350 mm. say. Note that the bottom lees are raised to avoid the 40i rule in the lower layer. ('heck hearing stress inside bends. Jy 55 br each radius to simplify bending. 535 450 05 mm ) let both legs 'lop legs Bottom legs 20(1 1001) 1200 mm ) project 1200 mm. say. Else r 4d minimum radnis bends.

3.12.8.14 3.12.8.3 3.12.8.3 3.12.9.1 3.12.4.1


3.12.8.12

10

4-

'

6.9 7.8

link hangerbars arc same length as bar marks I and 4. Bar is onesize largerthan links(n' inimum 12 mm).
'Ihe tension bars over the support stop as shown in the curtailment diagram. These hai's arc Oxed inside the column reinforcement as shown in section BB. 'Ihese bars are bundled vertically in pairs to reducecongestion andthis also allowsa gap(ninimuni75 mm) for insertmii of a vibrator. ('hosed links, shape code hi. are arranged to suit the link diagramabove. Opentop links, shape code 77. arc not suitable for the sites shown. Note that links it laps are spiLed at ilot greater than 200 mm since cover I'S bar size.
15

II

Edge beam

1= '350
t
5000

interior-span flangedbeam

300

BS 8110 ref.

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

To.bIe

DL,RAILITY NDw2aJ Cver

33,34 Ie44

Ovc cf ex?oure 3OOwde. be.4 for

tjqr

FIRE.

'S1iCE

ir.ero

4OA..

4O%W%

/vLLMtA Co/e.r

LoAi
CooA 4!rov

2x2
544o
12Sx

294
6-3 25.0

.'

TAb(e..35

byi (o.4 ULTtMATE .M'S IrorsorC Wtt4. a:


os:

ose4 i osab(p.t W'25

o-7kL
2.sokM.

125.0kg.

k= QO.7kJ 2Ok. k= F =i'zsok. 2w


2C)o

M.oo8F
M E

OO&xt?x5
O.07

4S
OO5

O.OkW
ob0

444 t.rLor
3.415

Ta'5

Cu
bd

0Xi0 442. fj A:o5,46OxO'S7x2&D (o.s+a;J L.jio. M4-Ltcuy; e.fewi4t = .LJ4O


40X650x2902 002.,
A

0'O)
o.is

bd2

5Qx0' 4ox oox'2So

2T2O

43.9x

4;,Io

SrorceO5SF*12S6875kN,
'Larforce 1oo4
3oo,'2PO

G8'75_(D. I+ 0.28) 2S

fc'ot reforea.rc2T20

vri

(4o2

Tcbk7

M. L.j
M -

v <ea+ 0.4)

ZI0P4 AS/ O'75>2&O &C2OOMs' Sv


44L.C

'
/

5BxD
3oox2.BO

=
1

= o.4,( 300

0.G3N)

oSx2O
'200

- O.7> Oi
272N/rn

0'

1ce3

4.'(.1

D,FL.CT%O,.J

Te,g .

,1Aow*bLe.

2 Moft.a,.
T0p

43.SIo' 5ox29O fi*4or 153


1

22o

tLccgct.

R.io200

2 x 4o

b7b_ o.4>o3)
3x 4o2

s&r/cff.dLp rto

= 22 x

ooo
2O
CC

l2cI.2A
Tcbe
3.12

(.2.4

CAc A(oJb
U'L'Tt2,

17.2

.'.

k.
,1
I

OFO rs
=

d&rcpczc

oiIc27

QvJLQ CtE'oe 5.Cj'%


TIE. PR.oVl,O4

3..U

. -eLF4. A5j 4t= . x74 45 3oc


,coc

27/ (sedeco) 7o 2g \9>1s 2 ar5o chkC ok 41000 220 rdtsre


2L

O0

To

'ZTVZ.

'23R405-200

A1
2 T '2O
n

je-co

-75

EL EV Ar
COVE

iot

ScaL1e1tO

44 3

ks =40
t
U

21

A-A
Sc4, t:"ZO
Commentary on bar arrangement ItS 8110ref
3.12.8.11

Bar marks

Notes

I
3.12.10.2

Horizontal bars in this member provide the peripheral tie. Minimum lap = 300 mm. The two tension bars are stopped 50 mm from the column lace to avoid clashing with the column bars shown in section A-A.
Separate splice hars are fixed inside vertical column bars. = 03 x 364 = 109 rnm. Use2'T 12 = 226 mrn. Minimum area = 30% I ap = 35 >< 12 >< 109/226 = 203 mm > 15 x 12 = 180 mm < 300 nim. Use 300 mm lap. Link hanger bars also provide support for slabtop reinorcenienI. Minimum area = 20% sI1pT1 = 02 436 = 87 mm. Use 2T 12 = 226 mm.

Figure 3.24 Table3.27


3.12.10.2 Figure 3.24 3.12.10.2 Figure 3.24 3 4 5

Tensionreinforcement over support is fixed inside vertical column bars. Bars are curtailed at 025 span from lace of support = 025 x 5000 1250mm > 45 x 21) = 900 mm Closed linksare shape code 61

17

= 40 lst

14000
8000

15000 1j
6000

300

= 460
300

Columns
slender and short columns

BS 8110 ref

CALCULATIONS

ouTPur

2I2.1

5ue,-FAM A4ALi'$lS Co

rEje.r to

Tk' UR(L4Tt c4 RsTca 3 cover- or U4 4or4 o expo're '

bpMe.iO.
2o

ooootIkreroj

40 2o w...

. xr
4
E2

cover
4Ovst*w,

tvoi 2o(a.3o

-..k',

It4TRAL CoL-u
AXtAL

-- oof) (u..ctaii LOA o4 M*1P'T$ ifrow. ANALX


COLUM

EAML$ k.N

aa
oa
J
3aFL

IMP0cED

t
49

IcAD
d

LoADS

CGLMaMJTS

TcP
1 34

kor
1

Otv\
2 I 8000

1.

2.

244

210 %33

4
100
140

S4

53

5 i4
9 53

J
3 3
1B4 133 9

4
32.

sa

I ooo

2
249

LOAD
32 s&

CA1

29o
117

t3
i3
37

SB
32 S

U7

ivj
6G,7

3'

,
1oo1='
S
-

24.F-(. 298
249

2o
117

37
140
17

I9

i5
32 9

i54
117

5
b93

LoA CASE 2

1
3
&

14
FL 3oo 292 14
252
120

32

ts
134

ics
120
14

liB
873 1

34

5.

i4

(PoLr -,
atfecti.ve

42,

12Th

U82

TabI 319

N-IS

= j3 E4co 4.o(3 c2.SxA.5


D.9
=

4 ,0,

EW
8l '3

O.S

(E4o:
=

boov)

4.5

I52> iS

BS 8110 ref.

Ld Ca
Po_,t

1N1RNAL

COLL4Mt.J
z.

beo4

o.d
0,

tOO

(oo* Q'
CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

t)ot.4

773

M1,

O.4M. 04 M - O.(DW\2 = O+0x

M2 S,
( e'y
kb')

"T
1

i27
fI4 > 7.
.4'

7.k

tDSIx0.xl3S=
2ooo

324
(b M+M
=

DOS3oO

t4 + 544
x
2'2 L

qreLe..s o

Mt.

si

658 k.
=

2''9

k.
'2-44

;5

k.

=
=

5'8xi0_

33.. t Ei 3

I.

oo

a
2.47

3O-4o-i3
N>

__

247.
Q32O
74ik..
CcLrt 9t.2B')
3

O2S 4Qx.OOx47xlci3

t- 4T'S (%oi)
U23x S44

_______ = K 23-741

O2

.4

2.3S <
22

ioox%O

L. (-' b")
k.
oor,
oJ:
cvv.t

cb
S 3'3 Prt I

cLa.-,

fr\

=
1.

42> 29k,

Ce.ck _____ ,
=

oe _______
oc4
=

a2 od,

bove

C'
-

1v1 0,
0

M= - 0. x .34

4 1c,

t'255 _____

L76 cN.

2o.4kNr.,

D
3.

_______
Mow..t

23.9-7 ______ ____

_
fr2 4T'25

c247

204 + O- " 51.


M

5'8
2.o

>

2.7
2

Ti

M =

RO','SiO

(tOGOIvw)

> 358

L0.4

i.os(2i

0/460

(1 0

28i N

ok,
ok.
19

9Ow

BS 8110
ref.

CALCULATIONS

EXTRJAL COLUMt4

AtAL LoA1 cd
u-AM LOADS

MME,.iT

(Foo
L0A
2.

OUTPUT

R..ooF)

AL
CLM0MT$

Ft (t)LCLA1)

k
t

CoLuMtt b$1QN

TOTAL
LDAO
t.
C

C4E

'1

IMPO$E.D 2

'
S4

k. loP
98

oTToA4 2 1 2

i92 i.7
SW.

4?

4
42
k2.o

i0

5
S 25B S

9
S

oS

rt
.

247 25S

4
13
120

i1
25

2a
15
t25
95 95 joS

eti3e 1!5

26

SW.

24.
SW

r.o-v 247

25

c4e

1J2!

& it il5

5Th

G1 L5
L2$

105

125

ti7
E'oO

t.
EO

24e

245 2S3 t'25 2S

ii
--

V74

2&.
U9

7&&

10

25

4
1

'

SW.

ii

4.02

1D54

16O

k-S

ectLie

oor)
c
=
=

0'S Cerc CoAcLo;


LK=

O9x
x

I3\)
top.,

2ZI

= 0.9 0.9
usiv.43

(evct

CD4Ov
=

boo3)
SOT CoLM

Y=
b

'L15

S399
Por
1.

oac

- oO+44-cY924O

Osx
300=

U8

Asu c
0osc.

O5S
z

k,

fr\

N11hi7xJO

4.3
237

'2.3,

2 A5=.2o7o

(4T' i%D2)
kN.

-k--

oo

- 079

e (.rt
C

PSQc

PrI

B.o' 1st.c,+fa4
154,

'i
;

iS 7 k1L
4T2B i90
P%

20

I(4TEiNAL
LLv,k, VertcaS
J

COLL..U1M

F'2

it.rs

ExTR.AL Vt.ai Ltrvk_J


c (1
?

COLUMN

Fl

Se4o,

-;------ ----f--

. .

;4

-4 i
I coR t,

Y9J
4
4.

F
SCALES

c-I

L-,

COV.R

t0k'= 40

;1 -

Commentary on bar arrangement BS 8110 ref Bar marks


Notes

i: 5O

'ZO

3.12.5.3

The presentation shownabove is schematic. This tabular method adapts readily to element repetition. The sections are shown in their relativepositions adjacent to the vertical reinforcement. Main bars,area> minimum 04%bh. = Slope of crank at lower end = 1:10 maximum.Crank offset 50 + 10% =55 mm.

3.12.6.2 3.12.8.15 Table3.27 3.12.7.2 3.12.7.1 3.12.8.12

Table 3.27

3.12.8.13b Table3.27
3.12.8.14

5 6

Minimumcrank length = 350 mm (140). Length of short projection beyond crank = compressionlap +. say, 75 mm for tolerance. Reinforcementarea at laps < 10% bh. Bars project above first-floorslab level to provide a compressionlap above the kicker. Bar projection= 35 x 087/095 x 25 mm + 75 mm for kicker= 875 mm, i.e. compressionlap = 800 mm. A single link is provided, since each verticalbar is restrained by a corner. Minimum size = 25/4, use 8 mm. Maximum spacing = 12 x 25 = 300 mm. (R8 @ 300.) of floor slab. Cover to vertical bar = 40 mm> 15 x 25 = 375 mm. Linksextendto underside F2. It can be economic to detail starters Normally, starter bars are detailed with the footing, as column withthe columnabove as shown.In this caseit is advisableto schedulethe starter bars so that they can be processedtogetherwiththe footing.Note with this detail that the sectionat mid-height also applies to the starterbar arrangement. The starter bars would be shown dotted on the footing detail together with a suitable cross-reference. Bars project abovethe top of the baseto providea compression lap above the kicker = 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 875 mm, i.e. lap = 800 mm. As barmark 1, but bars provide a tension lap above 1st floor kicker. Cover = 50 mm. Cleardistancebetween adjacent laps = 100mm<6 x 25 mm; i.e. use factor 1.4 i.e. tension lap = 1125 mm. Projection = 14 x 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 1195 mm, say 1200mm, Sum ofbar sizes at tension lap = 4 x 25 = 100mm. 100/300x 100 = 33% <40% OK. This detail provides the maximum lever arm and is the preferred detail for column/beam intersections. Similar to mark 2 links, but extendingto undersideof main beam. Cover to verticalbars = 50 mm. TheseU-bars are provided to restrain the vertical bars in the external face of the column.
21

Foundation
1 600
A A A A A A A
A

reinforcedpad footing
ground pressure

= 200

2750

BS 8110 ref.

CALCULATIONS

Tob{e33

URAbLITY )Assoi.i U se. ow.sat cover

4o

roder4e*pesire

'0

ourPuT

40M,l.r4$

No..sd

cover

LOADI.JC

ICxr CIu-ec
.. Acio,t
/,(toi 0kN/v etr ov . P,.4 r9uw4
2'7S

'1 (iet paqe19)

De.4
12.7

I&.e'1
718

r0t.kN.

1's1

127/i,4=D
5YC2OO -10)

=443
=

I58

roFk concete4or4.foa4 s
7.

U.L.S.

Dtcv. ressu

rove4

o6t.v aoco1uw'
.4.4.4

:
Sk

Avers c

- c,o-4o-z5
=

63x 'i.7S
543x 10'

fr\

0' 3x 4o,27S0xS52

.
2

= 7.57fw
.
2Jo3kP4w

0.017

o.954xO.9SS35

244Sw

(Q5122)

44
3.i.3.4(')

ULTIP.4ATh

Co4.or I
,

SAR
V

V4f r
V 't

t91 :ookM 2 fI3751so%s) 1375 SO'IO'

force V 4n coLa.=

i5o 's.3S
x

"

2 f37s-a'so-2xS3S} 1375 12.

k4

3 113

4(2)

Co4.or

27SOcS3S

3L7.2

L4.v S\Qr) V
ii

*.e ore.

Crtt ArwL
u

1O - 4xoox5S ,Q.rqk.r 4(3oo +3 xS5)

cka)

SI <soHJ
7.,20
1

Baror.

3'12U27

AC.W4
e

cL
V

(0.1x0.') 2(75.G) 034. .'( O


7G'20 x 535

LI J
Jr .,L

54

3O< 7SOr
2750< 535

317 O.3
1429

C.riK wiftk ok,,

.II. .2
22

pa

OS '276O = 17<O.2.C3cd')_ O.2S(x3O0+9x53)

bctrs

Q.cKoSs

scctov., soc

SOcrs,eo.cA

.4

_J2O-t- &5OI

PLAN

Mn,.

I
COVER.

;
A

4T25 -2
Cover =40

2aB--3oo

BI 4O
2\4

-is
1\oles

Scak, i:SO

Commentary on bar arrangement

It

81 1() ret

Bir rnark
1

3.12.8.1

Table 3.27

3.3.1.4

Table 3.27

Straight bars extend full width of base, less end covers. Bars should project a minimum tension bond length beyond the column face = 35 >< 20 = 700 mm < 1150 nim OK. The underside of base is concrete blinded, cover= 40 mm. Column starter bars are wired to bottom mat. Minimumprojection ahose the top of base is a compression lap + kicker = 35 x 087/095 x 25 + 75 = 875 mm. i.e. lap = 800 mm (see p. 21). Links are provided to stahiImie and locatethe starter bars during construction. These are the same site as the column links above.
23

460
ist

Shear waD
external plain concrete wall

14300

175

4000 250
900

BS 8110 ref.

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

.94.3

14.

2> 2

WALL

T&bk 33

Ft $TAC )PALtT'( NS ccvr ( svexe. 17 kAI


F-y-

rest&-e
C.

x?ocLsre.

40w,

()

LL4

4o
,

'20 = i.2> t4oLsr

lc.rt stc ck..


ye

2Ow.wt.

C&ct.c c4
WIND

5Q V3t

O.7(24x1E

O.S(3Z3+8.S)

49.5k/
GS.1

1t4.kJM a,.r+x4xO.8')

tA

O85'<

VSbS22/ec. V: V5S oG,3' 7.7lD3 O C (CpQr (kc +


3)'>Q.

77/

27.8kN/. ;. c4_
BS

0<1 k

(99 CLf Dt4 2

O.5x4234'O

u:,s4 kWrt (U.L,S.


x

+4x6 +49.7k4/
2O

ktO

l42j

V.RTCA.L
Locu.

T\.21

coaj.
2

LOA1G IEN11'(
1.4 114.G #

4<
c

sg Lcc1;')
204SkN/M.

4
oskJ4J

.4
44
e43

3,

C /tA4
S REAR
L)L.

e3 eoo.

x(44+27S447)
=
,1

(1.3/)

4 \5

V
ThE

24

tt3-cx4S <r otcJ ck5vr.. sk&r

2o.ik\

0,tL botLcs
rce.

\<

144L/

V
N

43.4 ' x4.G14-3 13 0./Av 7(

a
ok

14300

y3
,i2.3.4.2
3, 2 .4. 3.1'Z.3..1

Prpke.J ti.:

PRovtso

attjoor

As

r
tLte.
FOOTIUC

;x3f(4.7+4.o)x 14.3 DQ.rt.t vU 0


cue.dcat#
=
I

40

4A
ZSJQ ;.i_io OKO'

7&2

;o ev

(78.SA)

T1O2oo4R,

u4jc4:
)S

rca4

Mox.

I
24

oDwt.ck)

pA

resr

72E,

2I kf3

+ w4
'1

4 '(a-27 S#497 .

oo4 1,2.4

2So tLc.k) 01 ccec

lox'2Q.

cL

= 2oo

Tv e co

ottd".

(3-772/1...C)

Commentary on bar arrangement

B 8110 ref
fable 3.27 3.3.1.4
Table 3.25

Bar marks

Notes

2 3

3.9.4.19

Wall starters match vertical reinforcement. Minimum projection of horizontal legs beyond the wall face is a design tension bond length = 35 x 182/377 < 12 = 203 mm < 287 mm. This provides the footing reinforcement. Minimum projection above top of base is a compressionlap + kicker = 35 x 2 + 75 = 495 mm, say 525 mm, i.e. lap = 450 mm. Undersideof footing is concreteblinded, cover = 4(1 mm. Minimum longitudal reinforcementprovided. Minimum vertical reinforcement. Area= 254 x 1000>< 175 = 438 mrn'Im. (T 2 @ 300 EF

T 12 bars provide reasonable rigidity for handling and help stabilize the cage during erection.
4,5,6

= 754 mm2/m.j

Table 3.27

Minimum projection above top of firstfloor level is a compression lap + kicker = say 25 mm. Lap = 450 mm. Minimum horiiontal reinforcement. Area = 438 mni7m. (T10 @ 200 EF = 786 mm'/m.) Provide at least a tension lap = 35 x 0 = 350 mm. say 450 mm to satisfy shrinkageand thermal requirements. Bars are placed outside vertical reinfircenient to provide maximum control against shrinkageand thermal cracking. Those bars in the wall 05 in below firstfloor slab act also as interna] ties. Tension lap 6)r tie = 35 >< 10 = 350 mm, say 450 mm. Peripheraltie at first floor. 1,bars at either end provide continuity with edge beams. Laps. say 450 mm. Wall spacers maintain location of each face of reinforcement. 25

3.12.3.4

7,8 9

Staircase
end-span continuous slab

3500
175

5060

BS 8110 ref.

T.$Ie

3?

4
z

RLVrt LoA4
Ave.rMe

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

.toor

ri )
c.e.cc o.k...

RE.1STAI4C.

c'=

o.

ctb L

cZt.c ce4 SoaA


(14GS 1.4.o)5.o

..

.0 05
.5

2so

= = 17.5kN/1k F 43.
3$. 3Id/M.

k/ 4.OkJ3/
04

4.Okt/
L2Q

Q,S

kN/

T3S 1tivtor SLLr= o.itFL= Q'11x77.5x'O eo r4et O =

.4'I

TI1AT

.Ms

44

4FOR.CMeNT
jsL. .i-.ter.or sc.pport. ,

A5

2
1\

w*st
d= ToP

0.049

43.1<o
0.040

Co/
Tt2. i'.O
0TTOM

e t2

eox 44-e.4
A5

OSx46OxO.Sx'49

C7s4z/p.)
= O.31/n<v
.

To.bte.38

C&.Jc

344

Dc.-rto
=

SLto.r: V

0 77-Sx 10
cte.t r4o
2

ok

ox.
= =

.3>cO

4O 57t
xi

T.b\3'tO

Mod

s,cvce. strec.c. 232 a

AI.twte. a.ry'e. ctejt. ra.o P

ck

5060
14S

- 340

35. '2

I.

0k. oc, ok,


o1TOM

3VZIt 27

CACKK M.

<2oa.

bcr5<ex 149

1r41 M.

32.34

TE PRov5oP.J

Pre 2T%2 e b-s&L


26

(s ooc co.tt re4 tL 3 srase. -

t-We.ct Ie.r'a T.e.


=
91

cL4e

dcvt c.

- 73

(4t)

4-T2

34 Tio-E

Cove.r

FUCHT '5'
CCVE

Commentary on BS 8110 ref


Table 3.27 Table 3.25

bar arrangement
Notes Main tension reinlorcemcnt. Lap lengths and anchorage bond lengths = 35 x 12 = 420 mm, say 450 mm. Similarfor bar marks 12, 13 and 15. Laps arc located to facilitate likely construction sequences. reinforcement. = Minimum area 00013 x 1000x 75 = 228 inniim. Secondary Use 110 (a) 300 = 262 mm/rn.

Bar marks
1,5,6

2,,9
3,4 7

Fig 3.25
3.12.10.3.2

Table3.25

10,11

Main tension reinlorcement over support .50% curtailed at 03 span, remainder at 0 IS span. both measured from lace of support. Similar for bar mark 14. libars provide 50% midspanreinforcement in both top and bottom at end support = 05 >< 571 = 286 mmlrn. Use 110 @ 15(1 = 524 mill/ni to match spacing of span bars. 1.ap, say450 mm. Optional ruinfoicLnlent Minimum ULd = 228 mm Simil u for h ii maik 16 27

Column design chart

50
45 40

35
CJ

E E 30

z
25

20
15 10

2 44

23 -

4 :3

10

11

12

M/bh 2 N/mm2
fcu
40
460

Rectangular columns

d/h

080

28

nformation from the Reinforced Concrete Council


Spreadsheets
Many of the design principles used in this publication will be covered by spreadsheets for reinforced concrete design now being developedby the Reinforced Concrete Council. Versions for both BS 8110and EC2 are in preparation. For detailswrite to the RCC at Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berks RG45 6YS.

Buildability and whole building economics


It should be stressedthat the structural solution presented in this publication has been chosenfor the purpose:of
illustrating analysis, designand reinforcement detailingprinciples. A typicalbuildingframe accounts for only 10% of the wholeconstruction cost, but affects foundations, cladding and service provision. The choice and details of a building's structure shouldreflect both buildability and overall building economics. Analysis of these factors using a structural optimisation program* or chartsfrom a publication** suggests that a flat slab alternative may save around 2% ofoverall building costs and ten days' construction time. Similarly, rationalisation and simplification ofreinforcement will normally speedconstruction and hence reduce overall construction costs and programmetime. Excessive curtailment and tailoring of reinforcement to save material at theexpenseofrationalisation will provecounter-productive. These aspects are currentlybeing investigated at the EuropeanConcreteBuildingProject at Cardington, and will result in the publication of best practiceguidance. With increasing emphasis on the cost in use ofbuildings, there is a trend towards the use of exposed soffits for passive cooling. This move to whole life costs will modify the optimum solution, and deep ribbedor coffereci slabs area favoured option to meet daylighting, thermal mass, ventilation and acoustic requirements. *Concept - a computer thatallows the rapid semi-automated choice of concrete frame while considering program wholebuildingcosts. Produced by the Reinforced Concrete Council. Available from the RCC on 01344 725733. ** Economic concrete frame elements - a pre-scheme design handbook, basedon BS 8110, that helps designers choose the most viableconcreteoptions. Produced by the Reinforced Concrete Council. Available from the ECA on 01344 7257U4.

IBC

Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1997)

Cl/SfB
(28) 624.04.001.3 q4 (K)

J. B. Higgins and B. R. Rogers


BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION 43.501

UDC 624.073.33.012.45:

(Ofl@rete
OBC