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Outline

Network layer functions Radio Resource Management (RRM)


RRM Functions Handover Whiteboard: relation between power control and handover

Lecture 8
RRM Mobile IP

Mobile IP
Suggested reading: Garg chapter 12 Garg chapter 14.6
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Lecture Plan

Network Layer Functions

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Network Layer Functions


Host-to-host delivery
Routing Addressing When communicating on the Internet this is performed by the Internet Protocol (IP) However, IP doesnt support mobility What to do?
Radio specific protocols

Solution #1
Special designed network layer Common in Mobile telecommunication systems
E.g. GSM, UMTS
GPRS transmission plane (Signaling plane not shown here)

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Solution #2
Use Mobile IP as network layer
The solution suggested in mobile data communication systems
E.g. WLAN

Mobility Support
The support for mobility is often divided into three parts
Keeping track of the user location (MM) Maintain channel when moving (RRM) Keep the connection between end users
Communication Management (CM)
Connection management for circuit switched

Mobile IP Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Mobile IP Data Link Layer Physical Layer

Session management for packet switched

We focus on MM and RRM

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RRM basics

Radio Resource Management (RRM)

Goal: Maintain the radio connection when the user moves Located in the network layer
But affect parameters in the data link and physical layer

Connected terminals

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Some Important RRM Functions


Power Control Time Alignment Admission Control Handover (Handoff)

RRM Functions
Power Control
Near and far terminal QoS objectives

Time alignment
Timing Advance (TA) value (TDMA-based systems)
Shift transmission due to distance (propagation delay)

RTT in CDMA-based

Admission Control
Allow a new user radio resources?

Channel Assignment
Fixed/dynamic

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Handover
Change point of attachment to the network in order to keep connection alive Phases
Measurement Decision Execution

Handover Reasons
SNR or SIR Capacity Distance
E.g. max 35 km in GSM (TA value) Interference

Velocity Service capabilities

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Handover Features

Handover Performance
Call blocking/dropping probability
Guard channels
Dedicate channels for handover traffic (why?)

Probability of unnecessary handover Handover decision delay


Cell dragging (interference)

Quality of service
Duration of interruption Quality degradation before handoff
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Handover Types
Hard handover
Break before make Only connected to one BTS at the same time

Handover Types
Vertical handover
Between systems
E.g. GSM/UMTS, UMTS/WLAN, GSM/Satellite

Soft handover
Make before break Possibly connected to several BTS at the same time ~20-40% of the time in UMTS

Within a system
Between micro and macro (umbrella) cells
vertical handover campus-based in-car, in-house, personal area
horizontal handover

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Handover Decision (Protocols)


Network evaluated handover (NEHO)
The network monitors the channel quality and instructs the terminal when to handover Problem: uncorrelated uplink/downlink

Handover Decision (Protocols)


Mobile assisted handover (MAHO)
The mobile terminal assists the network in the handover decision
Monitors the downlink and send measurement reports (associated signaling channel)

Mobile evaluated handover (MEHO)


The mobile terminal monitors the channel quality and determines when to handover A.k.a. cell update Typically fast handover decision but large interruption delay (are resources prepared in the new cell or not?)
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Network side monitors the uplink Network decides when to handover Signaling channel required (SACCH)

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Decision Variables
Received Signal Strength (RSS)
Power of received signal Averaged over time

Handover Reduction Methods


Avoid oscillations and unnecessary handovers Increased delay
Thresholds Timer Margin Hysteresis Combination E.g. TA-value

Distance Traffic conditions


E.g. traffic load on neighbouring cells

Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)


Power of the signal compared to the interference Estimated with bit error rate (BER)

Statistics
Time since previous handover, handover probability between different cells

Velocity
Fading rate or dwell time

Transmit power
Minimize Close to max. power?

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Motivation
Objectives
Reachable

Mobile IP

Maintain connection

Problems
IP-adresses structured in hierarchy E.g: in the subnetwork 129.13.42.0/24 are the addresses 129.13.42.1 129.13.42.254 included I.e. you will not be able to receive packets as soon as you leave your subnetwork

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Why not
assign new address when changing network?
DHCP No one knows where you have gone Interrupts current sessions

Why not
change routing tables?
Host-specific routing Long updating time Not scalable

update the IP address with dynamic DNS? (reachable via hostname)


Long updating time Not scalable Interrupts current sessions

use Mobile IP?


That could be something!

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DHCP
A host needs to have
An IP address A subnet mask A default router A name server

DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Example IP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130.236.132.119 Subnet mask . . . . . . 255.255.254.0 Default gateway. . . .130.236.133.1 DNS server . . . . . . . 130.236.132.4 Supports temporary (dynamic) IP addresses Mobility between different networks

Difficult to provide this information manually when


A host is diskless A host moves

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Requirements
Compatibility
Compatible with current applications Routers shall generally not need to be updated

Components
Mobile Node (MN)
Mobile terminal that can change connection point to the network without changing the IP address

Transparency
Mobile IP shall not be noticed by other functions

Home Agent (HA)


Function in the home network for the MN (usually located in the default router) Keeps track of MN location and uses tunneling to send the traffic to COA

Scalability
There can not be too much signalling traffic generated per mobile node

Foreign Agent (FA)


Function in the foreign (visited) network (usually located in default router) Forwards tunneled datagrams to the MN

Security
At least authentication

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Components
Care-of Address (COA)
The topologically correct IP address Destination for the tunneled datagram Can be located in FA or MN Can be obtained with DHCP

Example
HA MN
router home network Internet

FA foreign
network router (current physical network for the MN)

Correspondent Node (CN)


The host with which the MN is communicating
CN
end-system router

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Traffic to MN
HA

Overview
MN

COA

home network Internet

3
FA

receiver foreign network

3. home network router HA 2. router FA 4. Internet foreign network MN

CN
sender

1. Sender sends to the IP address of MN, HA intercepts packet 2. HA tunnels packet to COA, here FA, by encapsulation 3. FA forwards the packet to the MN

1. CN router

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Signaling
Agent Advertisement
Sent via ICMP Broadcast from FA

Tunneling
Tunneling between HA and COA
original IP header original data

Agent solicitation
MN looks for a FA
new IP header outer header new data inner header original data

Registration
Inform HA of current COA Requires authentication

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Optimizations
Prevent triangular routing Two swedes in Japan Solution
HA informs CN about current COA CN tunnels directly to COA

Next lecture
RRM
Performance and (analytical) modeling

Signaling Authentication

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