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Chapter 3

1. A wireless receiver with an effective diameter of 250 cm is receiving signals at 20 GHz from a transmitter that transmits at a power of 30 mW and a gain of 30 dB. (a) What is the gain of the receiver antenna? (b) What is the received power if the receiver is 5 km away from the transmitter? [Solution] Given de = Effective diameter = 250 cm. fc = Carrier frequency = 20 GHz. Pt = Transmitter power = 30 mW Gt = Transmitter gain = 30 dB = 1000. d = Distance of receiver = 5 km. Ae = Effective area = (

d e2
4

) = 4.91 m2
fc

= Wavelength = c( speed of light ) = 0.015 m


(a) Gr = Receiver antenna gain =
4 Ae

= 2.74 *105 = 54.38 dB.


AeG t P t = 4.69*107 Watts. 4 d 2

(b) Pr = Received power at distance of 5 km =

4.

The transmission power is 40 W, under a free-space propagation model, (a) What is the transmission power in unit of dBm? (b) The receiver is in a distance of 1000 m; what is the received power, assuming that the carrier frequency fc = 900 MHz and Gt = Gr = 1 dB? (c) Express the free space path loss in dB. [Solution] (a) 10 log (40 1000) = 46 dBm. (b)

Pr =

G tG r P t
( 4 d 2 )

1 40 11 ( ) 2 3 = (4 1000)2

= 2.82 108

W.

(c) L f (dB)=32.45+20log10 f c +20log10 d = 91.5349dB

11. How is radio propagation on land different from that in free space? [Solution] Propagation in free space does not have any obstacles and hence it characterizes the most ideal situation for propagation. Whereas, radio propagation on land may take place close to obstacles which cause reflection, diffraction, scattering. 12. What is the difference between fast fading and slow fading? [Solution] Slow fading is caused by movement over distances large enough to produce gross variations in overall path length between base station and mobile station. In other words, the long term variation in the mean level is known as slow fading. Rapid fluctuations caused by local multipath are known as fast fading. It is short-term fading. 14. A BS has a 900 MHz transmitter and a vehicle is moving at the speed of 50 mph. Compute the received carrier frequency if the vehicle is moving (a) Directly toward the BS. (b) Directly away from the BS. (c) In a direction which is 60 degree to the direction of arrival of the transmitted signal. [Solution] Given fc = Carrier frequency = 900 MHz c = Wavelength = = 0.3333 m fc v = Velocity = 50 mph = 22.22 m/s. Let Doppler shift frequency be denoted by fd. (a) = 180, (direction is towards BS.)
cos = 67.06 Received carrier frequency: fd= v

f r = f c f d = 900*106 + 67.06 = 900.000067 *106 MHz.


(b) = 0, (direction away from BS.)

cos = 67.06 Received carrier frequency: fd=


f r = f c f d = 900 *106 67.06 = 899.99993*106 MHz.

(c) = 60, (direction is towards BS.)


cos = 33.53 Received carrier frequency: fd=
f r = f c f d = 900 *106 + 33.53 = 900.000033*1010 MHz.

Chapter 5
3. Two adjacent BSs i and j are 30 kms apart. The signal strength received by the MS is given by the following expressions.

P ( x) =
Where

G tG r Pt L( x )

L(x) = 69.55 + 26.16 log10 fc(MHz) 13.82 log10 hb(m) + [44.9 6.55 log10 hb(m)] log10 (x),

[hm(m)]

and x is the distance of the MS from BS i. Assume unity gain for Gr and Gt, given that Pi(t) = 10 Watts, = 100 Watts, fc = 300 MHz, hb = 40 m, hm = 4 m, transmission power of BS j. (a) What is the power transmitted by BS j, so that the MS receives signals of equal strength at x? (b) If the threshold value E = 1 dB and the distance where handoff is likely to occur is 2 km from BS j, then what is the power transmitted by BS j ? [Solution] (a)Assume that the distance of the MS from base station i is x. Since Gt = Gr = 1. Since GR = GT = 1,

= 3.5, x = 1 km, and Pj(t) is the

Pi Pj = L( x) L(30 x)
Pi = 10 log(10) = 10 dB

(1)

By substituting data given in L(x), we get L(x) = 69.55 + 64.801 22.140 14 + 34.406 log(x) = 98.211

L(30 x) = 98.211 + 34.406 log(30 x) = 98.211 + 50.315 = 148.526 Substituting in Equation (1), we have

10 Pj = 98.211 148.526
Solving for Pj , we get

Pj = 15.123 dB = 32.512 Watts

(b) Assume that the distance of the MS from the BS i is x, and if E = 1 dB

then the point of hand d off will be w when Pm (i) + 1dB = Pm(j) Pm(i) = 10 log10 10 = 10 dB Similar to (a), we get L(x) = 69.55 + 64.8 801- 22.140 14 + 34.406 log10(x) = 98.2 211 + 34.406 log l 10(x) = 98.2 211 + 34.406 log10 2 = 108.5682

L(30 x) = 98 8.211 + 34.406 log10(30 x) = 98 8.211 + 34.406 log10(28) = 14 48.0019. tion (1), we get Using Equat (10 + 1) * 14 48.0019 = 108 8.5682 * Pm(j) Thus, Pm(j) = 14 4.995 dB = 31. .589 Watts.

5.

Prove that D = R 3 N . [Solution] at To prove tha

D = R (3 ( N)

Let R be the e radius of the e cell and D th he reuse distan nce.

where i and j are the num mber of cells in n the correspon nding directio ons. In the figu ure as we trav verse from C1-C2 2-C1, we .first t move 1 cell i in the i directi ion, from C1 to t C2 and then n 2cells in the j direction fro om C2 to C1. We have

R1 = R cos 30 =

3 R 2

(2)

The distance e D can be fou und using the cosine law,

D 2 = (i (2 R1 )) 2 + ( j ( (2 R1 )) 2 2i (2 R1 ) j (2 R1 ) cos120 = (i 2 + j 2 )(2 R1 ) 2 + ij (2 R1 ) 2 = (2R1 ) 2 (i 2 + j 2 + ij ) = (2R1 ) 2 ( N ),


where N is the t number of f cells in the cl luster. Using Equat tion (2) descri ibed above, w we get

D 2 = 3NR R 2 D = 3 N R.
9. For the follo owing cell pat ttern,

each cell is 2 kms. (a) Find the reuse distance if radius of e taneously c is mul ltiplexed amon ng 8 users, ho ow many calls can be simult (b) If each channel processed by y each cell if only 10 chann nels per cell ar re reserved for control, assu uming a total bandwidth of o 30 MHz is available a and each simplex channel consists of 25 kHz z? (c) If each user u keeps a traffic channel busy for an av verage of 5% time and an a average of 60 requests per r hour are gene erated, what i s the Erlang value v ? [Solution] (a) D =
0.5 3 N R D = 2 * (3*12) 0

The reuse e distance = 12 2 kms (b) One dup plex channel = 2 (BW of on ne simplex cha annel ) = 2 * 25 2 = 50 kHz

30*103 Number of channels c = ( ) 1 10*12 = 600 0 120 = 480 channels 50


Number of channels c per cell c =

480 = 40 /cell 12

Total numbe er of calls per cell = 8 * 40 = 320 calls/ce ell

(c) The requ uest rate =

60 1 requests/seco ond = 3600 60

Holding tim me = 5% = 0.05 5 * 3600 = 5 * 36 = 180 sec conds Therefore th he offered traf ffic load in Erl langs is

=request rate * holding g time = (

1 ) *180 = 3 Erlangs. 0 60

10. A TDMA-bas sed system shown in the Fig gure, has a tot tal bandwidth of 12.5 MHz and contains 20 control chann nels with equa al channel spac cing of 30 kH Hz. Here, the ar rea of each ce ell is equal to 8 km2, and cells s are required to cover a tot tal area of 360 00 km2. Calculate the follow wing: (a)Num mber of traffic channels/cell (b)Reus se distance

[Solution] (a)
12.5106 20 0 30103

9
(b)

44 traffic c channels/cell

D = 3N R = 3 9 1.75 5 =9 9.12 Km