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ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR OF TOURISTS TOWARD CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACHIEVING VOLUNTARY REDUCTIONS IN THE CARBON FOOTPRINT

OF TOURISM

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study It is now accepted that tourism is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (Scott et al., 2008) in general and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in particular. This realization has led an increasing number of authors and organizations to call on tourists to change their travel behaviors (Leahy, 2008; Scott, McBoyle, & Mills, 2003). Simpson, Gssling, Scott, Hall and Gladin (2008), for example, suggest that tourists should travel less often and stay longer in the destination, minimize their air travel by taking terrestrial transport, choose destinations that are closer to home, participate in carbon offsetting programs, and purchase goods only from certified tour operators, hotels and destinations. The joint United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2007) Davos Declaration encourages tourists to reduce their carbon footprints or offset their emissions, opt for environment-friendly activities that contribute to the preservation of the natural environment and cultural heritage and consider the climatic, economic, societal and environmental impacts of their travel options. However, as the evidence suggests, most tourists have yet to take notice of these calls and have not shown much willingness to adopt voluntarily mitigation strategies to reduce their personal carbon footprint. According to Gssling, Scott, Hall, Ceron and Dubois (2011), tourists have the largest adaptive capacity of elements within the tourism system because of their flexibility to substitute the place, timing and type of holiday, even at very short notice. Consequently, understanding

tourist perceptions and reactions to the impacts of climate change is essential to anticipating the potential geographic and seasonal shifts in tourism demand, as well as the decline or increase of specific tourism markets. Yet, despite a wide range of publications assessing reactions of tourists to various environmental and climate-related changes, little is actually known about their attitudes and behavior. As such, this study will examine the behavior and attitudes towards climate change of selected tourists traveling to Tagaytay City. This study aims to evaluate their willingness to voluntarily modify travel behaviors to reduce carbon footprint of tourism. Previous studies on environmental behavioral change identified a significant gap between awareness and action, with some studies even suggesting that the most aware individuals are unlikely to change their behaviors.

Statement of the Problem The present study will be carried out to examine the attitudes and behaviors towards climate change of selected tourists traveling to Tagaytay City. Specifically, this study will answer the following research problems: 1. What is the demographic profile of food court workers in shopping malls in Dasmarias City in terms of: 1.1 age, 1.2 gender, 1.3 years employed at the shopping mall, 1.4 education, 1.5 employment status, and

1.6 type of work? 2. What is the attitude to climate change of tourists traveling to Tagaytay in terms of: 2.1 awareness, 2.2 acceptance? 3. What is the behavior of tourists towards climate change grouped according to: 3.1 Transportation, 3.2 Destination, and 3.3 Purchasing?

Significance of the Study The study will be primarily conducted to assess the hygienic and sanitary practices of the food court workers in three shopping malls in located in Dasmarias City. The data that will be gathered and collected to hopefully benefit the following: CITHM students. This study will serve as a basis or guideline to the CITHM students, to help them propagate the right and reliable food safety and hygienic teaching to the community/ clients regarding the importance of sanitation in foods and the methods to decrease the likelihood of acquiring food-borne diseases. This will also enhance CITHM students awareness of the proper practices in food hygiene and sanitation that should be followed in food service establishments. Food court customers. Through this study, this would enhance customers understanding on food safety/hygiene of food court workers that would promote customer confidence on the food products purchased and services offered. This study will benefit the customers of food

courts since relevant information will be available to them through this study on how food products are handled, prepared, processed and stored. Shopping mall management. The result of this study will serve as a helpful source of information for the management of shopping malls determining the hygiene and sanitary practices of the food court workers that they supervised, whether they are complying with the correct policies and protocols in their food service and thus, will prompt them to take necessary actions to ensure the quality and safety of food products being sold to the customers of the mall. Through this study, more specifically targeted and effective training programs can be identified for food court workers in order to promote safety food practices. Sanitation Department. The results of this study will also be helpful to the Sanitation Department as it serves as a reminder to continually monitor and manage the food sanitation particularly in food service sector in their area and to pursue complete adherence from every food service under their jurisdiction. Future researchers. Lastly, the results of the study can be used as a reference or basis for conducting future researches that are related to the present study.

Conceptual Framework The system approach (Input- Process- Output system) was used in describing the conceptual framework of the study. Figure 1 shows the IPO model that served as a basis for the conceptual paradigm of this study.

INPUTS
1. Demographic profile of food court workers o Age o Gender o Years employed o Education o Employment status o Type of work 2. Personal hygiene practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach o Communicable diseases/injuries o Hand washing and maintenance o Personal cleanliness and conduct 3. Sanitation practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach o Crosscontamination o Time-temperature control o Pest control o Waste management

PROCESS Sampling and identification of target participants Conduct of surveys with target participants Statistical analysis of data gathered Interpretation of results

OUTPUT

Proposed Strategies to Enhance Personal Hygiene and Sanitation practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach

Figure 1. The Conceptual Paradigm

As shown in Figure 1, the inputs consisted of the following: 1) the demographic profile of food court workers in terms of: age, gender, years employed at the shopping mall, education, employment status, and type of work; 2) the personal hygiene practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach in terms of: communicable diseases/injuries, hand washing and maintenance, and personal cleanliness and conduct; and 3) the sanitation practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach in terms of cross-contamination, time-temperature control, pest control, and waste management. The process of system approach refers to the data-gathering procedures that were applied in analyzing and evaluating the information obtained or conditions determined in relation to the hygienic and sanitary practices of food court workers which include: a) sampling and identification of target participants; b) conduct of surveys with target participants; c) statistical analysis of data gathered; and d) interpretation of results. The output of the study focused on the ultimate goal of this research work the proposed strategies to enhance personal hygiene and sanitation practices of food court workers based on HACCP approach.

Scope and Delimitation The study was conducted among food court workers at three shopping malls located in Dasmarias City, namely: Robinsons Place Dasmarias, SM City Dasmarias and Waltermart. The scope of the study included the demographic profile of food court workers, and the personal hygiene and sanitary practices employed by food court workers based on HACCP system. The study was conducted from July to October 2013. The study participants consisted of food court workers employed at the three shopping malls in Dasmarias. Total enumeration of

81 food court workers was covered in this study. A survey instrument was used to gather information from the participants.

Operational Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following terms and expressions have the meaning stated:

Cleaning - the removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter. Contaminant - any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substances not intentionally added to food which may compromise food safety or suitability. Contamination - the introduction or occurrence of a contaminant in food or food environment. Cross contamination - the transfer of microorganisms (or other contaminant) from one food product to another. For example the transfer of bacteria from raw to cooked meat. Demographic profile - the personal characteristics of the participants which include age, gender, marital status and education. Disinfection - the reduction, by means of chemical agents and/or physical methods, of the number of micro-organisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability. Food - any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw which is intended for human consumption and including beverages, chewing gum and any substance. Food court- an area in which foods are handled, prepared and sold, the surroundings under the control of the management of Robinsons Place Dasmarias, SM City Dasmarias and Waltermart.

Food court worker -An employee working at the food court of either Robinsons Place Dasmarias, SM City Dasmarias and Waltermart, who directly handles, produces, packaged or unpacked food, or serve customers, and is therefore expected to comply with food safety and food hygiene requirements. Food handler - any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, food equipment and utensils, or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements Food hygiene - all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain. Food safety - assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. Food suitability - assurance that food is acceptable for human consumption according to its intended use. HACCP - a system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety. Hazard - a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. Hygienic practices- the personal hygiene of food court workers aimed to prevent of food contamination and food poisoning. This include practices involving personal hygiene such as use of hair cover, use of apron, absence of jewelry, clean and short fingernails, thoroughly washing and drying hands before handling food, handling of food with gloves, among others.

Sanitary practices- measures or activities performed by food court workers to protect food from contamination. Sanitation is a dynamic and ongoing function and cannot be sporadic or something that can be turned on once a day, once a week, etc. Sanitation- formulation and application of measures designed to protect public health.

QUESTIONNAIRE This is an academic research being undertaken by Tourism students on the topic Attitude and Behavior of Tourists toward Climate Change. I shall be grateful if you could respond to the understated questions. All information shall be treated as confidential.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1) Name (optional): ______________________________ 2) Age of the respondent (years) : _____________ 3) Sex of the respondent: [ ] Male 4) Marital status: [ ] Married [ ] Single [ ] Female [ ] Separated/ Divorced [ ] Widowed

5) Highest level of education: [ ] Primary [ ] Tertiary [ ] Secondary [ ] Post-graduate Other (please specify)___________________________ 6) Occupation

SECTION B: ATTITUDES TOWARD CLIMATE CHANGE Instruction: Please read each statement carefully and check the appropriate column for your response. Respond honestly by using the following scale: 5 = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 = Somewhat Agree/Disagree 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree

ATTITUDE STATEMENTS 5 4 3 2 1 1. I believe that climate change is currently affecting our country. 2. Climate change is a serious threat that requires changes in current life style. 3. I support regulations to reduce carbon emissions to address climate change. 4. I dont believe that climate change will result in any negative impact on wildlife. 5. Global warming is caused mostly by human activities. 6. The actions of a single individual wont make any difference in global warming. 7. New technologies can solve global warming without individuals having to make big changes in their lives. 8. Humans cant reduce global warming, even if it is happening. 9. The consequences of climate change will be severe. 10. If we fail to mitigate climate change, there may be an increased risk of water shortages becoming more of a problem for Filipinos. 11. I am frustrated that not enough is being done to address climate change. 12. I am tired of hearing about climate change and I want to see some action taken. 13. Global warming will mostly affect places that are far away from me. 14. 15.

SECTION B: BEHAVIOR TOWARDS CLIMATE CHANGE Instruction: Please read each statement carefully and check the appropriate column for your response. Respond honestly by using the following scale:

5 = Every time 4 = Almost every time 3 = Occasionally/Sometimes 2 = Almost never 1 = Never

Transportation 1. When traveling, I favor traveling with a train, since train is the best option for the environment. 2. I normally avoid unnecessary flying. 3. I travel less often and stay longer in the destination. 4. I travel for a longer period of time than often for short weekend getaway. 5. I choose direct flights because take offs use the most fuel during the whole flight. 6. I favor the airlines that use the newest technology. 7. I minimize air travel by taking terrestrial transport, 8. At the destination, I try to use public transportation. Destination 9. I favor destinations that are closer to home, 10. When on a holiday, I behave as responsible as in my own country. I pay attention to the local culture, not littering, obeying the rules. 11. On a beach holiday, I choose the most natural destination. 12. When choosing the hotel or other accommodations, I choose that the establishment that is committed to reduce the amount of the carbon emissions. 13. I usually choose small family owned hotels than luxurious hotels. 14. I try to select hotels that have the environmental certificate. 15. On the destination, I choose activities that are nature friendly, like riding, cycling and hiking. Purchasing 16. I purchase goods only from certified tour operators, hotels and destinations. 17. I eat in restaurants where they serve organic food. 18. When on holiday, I buy local souvenirs, especially handicrafts. 19. I dont buy anything made of endangered animals or corals. 20. I buy environmental friendly products to bring home.

5 4 3 2 1

Thank you for your participation.