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IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2010
1682-0053/10$20 2010 ACECR
92

AbstractThis paper presents the low voltage Dynamic
Voltage Restorer (DVR) based on application of Space
Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) for three phases
Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and it is the standard PWM
techniques to utilize the DC-AC power conversion. A control
technique based on SVPWM is also proposed for dynamic
voltage restorer. The DVR was a power electronics device
that was able to compensate voltage sags on critical loads
dynamically. By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR
restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load
voltage. The compensating signals are determined
dynamically based on the difference between desired and
measured values. The DVR consists of VSC, injection
transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid
battery). The efficiency of the DVR depends on the efficiency
of the control technique involved in switching of the inverter.
In this paper a novel structure for voltage sags mitigation
and for power quality improvement are proposed. There was
an increasing trend of using Space Vector PWM (SVPWM)
because of their easier digital realization and better dc bus
utilization. The proposed control algorithm is investigated
through computer simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC
software and hardware implementation using DSP
TMS320F2812. The results of the simulation and
experimental show the performance of the proposed low
voltage dynamic voltage restorer and prove the validity of the
proposed topology. It was concluded that the proposed low
voltage dynamic voltage restorer works well both in balance
and unbalance conditions of voltages.

Index TermsVoltage source converter, voltage sag,
dynamic voltage restore, space vector pulse width modulation
(SVPWM).
I. INTRODUCTION
OWADAYS power quality problems in the distribution
system due to the increased use of sensitive loads are
the main issues that need to be addressed [1], [2]. Power
quality problems such as voltage sags and swells, flicker,
interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortions to
the sinusoidal waveform of the customer voltage affect the
performances of the sensitive loads. The current
technologies like custom power devices are emerged to
provide mitigation against power quality problems in the
network [2].
The voltage sags as defined by IEEE Standard 1159,
IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric

Manuscript received March 11, 2009; revised June 5, 2010.
R. Omar and M. Sulaiman are with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
Technical University Malaysia Malacca, Ayer Keroh Malacca, Malaysia (e-
mails: rosliomar@utem.edu).
N. Abd Rahim is with the Faculty of Engineering, University Of Malaya,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (e-mail: narudin@um.edu.my).
Publisher Item Identifier S 1682-0053(10)1790
Power Quality, is "a decrease in RMS voltage or current at
the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1
minute, reported as the remaining voltage". Typical values
are between 0.1 p.u. and 0.9 p.u., and typical fault clearing
times range from three to thirty cycles depending on the
fault current magnitude and the type of over current
detection and interruption. Voltage deviations, commonly
in the form of voltage sags, are not always possible to
avoid because of the finite clearing time of the faults that
can cause severe process disruptions and result in
substantial production loss. Several recent surveys attribute
that 92% of the all disturbances in electrical power
distribution systems are due to voltage sags [2], [3].
The DVR with energy storage can be used to protect
sensitive loads from voltage sags at distribution system [1],
[4]. Normally the DVR that is connected in series with the
network and it is capable to inject an appropriate missing
voltage in order to compensate any disturbances affecting
on the sensitive load. The output of the DVR inverter is
usually provided with an output LC filter to attenuate the
harmonic contents appearing in injected voltage. The
capability of the maximum voltage injection of a particular
DVR is totally depend on the energy storage which
produced active power that can be delivered to the DVR
through injection transformer.
II. OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF DVR
Generally the DVR can be installed at both sides of low
voltage and medium voltage level, and its capable to
protect high power applications from voltage sags [5].
There are several circuit topologies and control schemes
that can be used to implement a DVR. The DVR shows
promise in providing a most cost effective solution for any
disturbances in the network [6]-[8]. Fig. 1 shows the
existing schematic diagram of a DVR in the low voltage
distribution system. The general configuration of the DVR
consists of an injection/booster transformer; low pass
harmonic filter, a three phase Voltage Source Converter
(VSC), DC charging circuit and a control and protection
system. In most sag correction techniques, the DVR is
required to inject active power into the distribution line
during the period of compensation. Hence, the capacity of
the energy storage unit can become a limiting factor in the
disturbance compensation process especially for sags of
long duration.
The main objective of this paper is to propose a new
approach to the DVR control solution. The proposed
controller using space vector modulation techniques obtain
higher amplitude modulation indexes if compared with
Voltage Sag Mitigation Using Dynamic Voltage
Restorer Based on Space Vector PWM
(SVPWM)
R. Omar, M. Sulaiman, and N. Abd Rahim
N
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OMAR et al.: VOLTAGE SAG MITIGATION USING DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER 93
Battery
Cdc
VSC
Injection
Transformer
AC Source
S
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
e

L
o
a
d
Control
Unit

Fig. 1. Typical schematic diagram of a power system compensated by DVR.

convectional SPWM techniques. Moreover, space vector
modulation techniques can be easily implemented using
digital processors. Space vector PWM can produce about
15 percent higher output voltage than standard Sinusoidal
PWM.
III. MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
A. Materials of the Proposed System
In this paper, the materials of the proposed DVR use a
3-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) configuration.
Fig. 4(a) shows the overall system comprised of power
system supplying three phase loads through a distribution
transformer and a DVR system connected in series to the
secondary side of the distribution system. In general a
DVR system is comprised of a VSI, an energy storage (i.e.
battery) supplying real power, a controller that provides
gating signals for VSI control, three single-phase injecting
transformers, capacitors that filter out inverter switching
harmonic in battery current and LC filter that functions to
filter out switching harmonics in the injecting voltages. It
is important to point out that LC filter will introduce phase
shift in the injecting voltages and complicate the design of
the control algorithm.
B. Control System of DVR Using SVPWM
There are several control techniques to control the DVR
has been discussed in [9]-[10]. Both the feed forward and
feedback techniques have been implemented in the control
unit of the DVR.
The purpose of the control strategy based on SVPWM is
to provide constant voltage magnitude at the terminal
where a sensitive load is connected, under system
disturbances. The control system only measures the r.m.s
voltage at the load terminal, i.e., no reactive power
measurements is required. The VSC switching strategy is
based on a voltage space vector PWM technique which
offers simplicity and good response.
In single and three-phase dc/ac power converters,
normally it is used pulse width modulation (PWM)
technique. However, using techniques such as SPWM
presents some problems such as large noise peaks at the
multiple numbers of carrier frequencies. In this way, a
control method based on space vector PWM is applied to
the power converter of the DVR is proposed.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 2. (a) Typical diagram of a three phase voltage source PWM Inverter;
(b) Space vector eight switching states, and (c) Principle of voltage space
vector PWM.

During a sag condition, the DVR inject a sets of three
phase AC voltage, the correct voltage must be in series so
that the load voltage becomes normal again. The
reference phasor has three components: phase, frequency
and magnitude. During normal network operation all will
vary to some degree [11].
Fig. 4(b) shows the block diagram of the proposed
control system.
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IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2010 94
TABLE I
SWITCHING VECTORS LINE TO NEUTRAL VOLTAGE AND
LINE TO LINE VOLTAGE

Voltage
Vectors
Switching
Vectors
Line to neutral
voltage
Line to line voltage
a b c
an
V
bn
V
cn
V
ab
V
bc
V
ca
V
0
V 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
V
1 0 0 2/3 -1/3 -1/3 1 0 1
2
V
1 1 0 1/3 1/3 -2/3 0 1 -1
3
V
0 1 0 -1/3 2/3 -1/3 -1 1 0
4
V
0 1 1 -2/3 1/3 1/3 -1 0 1
5
V
0 0 1 -1/3 -1/3 2/3 0 -1 1
6
V
1 0 1 1/3 -2/3 1/3 1 -1 0
7
V
1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

This paper presents an extensive analysis to develop
suitable control strategies for the DVRs. The proposed
DVR control system consists of an open loop load voltage
using phase locked loop (PLL). The PLL circuit is
used to generate a unit sinusoidal wave in phase with
mains voltage.
From Fig. 4(b) the three phase voltages can be converted
into o| using o|o transform.
0
1 1
1
2 2
2
3
0 3 2
2
3
1 1 1
2 2 2
A
B
C
V V
V V
V
V
o
|
(

( (
(
( (
(
=
( ( (
( (
(


(


o| Co-ordinate system can be transformed into the
dq plane.
cos sin
sin cos
d
q
V V
V V
o
|
u u
u u
( ( (
=
( ( (



The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM)
method is an advanced, computation-intensive PWM
method and possibly the best among all the PWM
techniques [12]. The eight switchings are given in Table I
and Fig. 2(a) shows the eight inverter voltage vectors
(
0 7
V V ) [12].
Fig. 2(a) is the typical diagram of the three phase
voltage source PWM inverter model, which consists of six
power switches
1
S to
6
S that control the output. When
an upper transistor is switched on, i.e. when a
1
S ,
3
S and
5
S is 1 and the off state or lower transistor is switched
off. Therefore, the on and off of the upper transistors
1
S ,
2
S and
5
S can be used to determined the output
voltage [12].
Table I illustrates the eight switching vectors, output
neutral phase voltage and output line to line voltages
which referred to DClink voltage. The on-off states of
three phases have eight combinations, which can be
formed eight voltage space vectors (V
0
-V
7
) as shown in
Fig. 2(a).
Define eight voltage vectors j 000
o
V = , j
7
111 V =
corresponding to the switch states
0
S ,,
7
S , respectively.
The lengths of vectors
1
V ,,
6
V are unity and the lengths
of
0
V and
7
V are zero, and these eight vectors form the
voltage vector space as shown in Fig. 2(b). The voltage
vector space is divided into six sectors [12].
u

Fig. 3. Reference voltage space vector in sector one.

In the vector space, according to the equivalence
principle, the following operation rules are obeyed
1 4
2 5
3 6
0 7
1 3 5
0
0
V V
V V
V V
V V
V V V
=
=
=
= =
+ + =
(1)
In one sampling interval, the output voltage vector
0 7 1
0 1 7
( ) ...
s s s
t t t
V t V V V
T T T
= + + + (2)
where
0 1 7
t , ,..., t t are the turnon time of the vectors
1 2 7
, ........., V V V ,
0 1 7
t , ,..., 0 t t >
,
7
0
i s
i
t T
=
=

and
s
T =
Sampling Time and also from Fig. 3 we found that
2 1
b a
s s
T T
V V
T T
= = .
Fig. 3 showing the case of Sector I, where
s
T

is half of the
PWM period,
1
T is the duration of Vector 1 and
2
T is the
duration of Vector 2 in a half PWM period. The
remaining time
1 2

s
T T T is the duration for the zero
vectors. The values of
1
T and
2
T are calculated based on
the values of
ref
V and
ref
u .One sampling interval, vector
V can be expressed as
7 0 1 2
1 2 7 0
s s s s
T T T T
V V V V V
T T T T
= + + + (3)
IV. SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
A. Simulation Results
Some computer simulations with PSCAD/EMTDC
software based on the distribution system as shown in
Fig. 4(a) were performed for the purpose of analyzing the
operation of the proposed system. The controller was
modeled using the built-in control block in the
PSCAD/EMTDC software. The parameters of the
proposed system designed are listed in Table II. The load
has been assumed linear with power factor, 0.85 pf =
lagging and its capacity of 5kVA.
Fig. 4(b) shows the control algorithm for the DVR. It is
also modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. The reference voltages
of the DVR are sensed from the difference between supply
voltages and load voltages. A space vector PWM controller
is used to generate the gating signals for the IGBTs of the
VSI of the DVR.
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OMAR et al.: VOLTAGE SAG MITIGATION USING DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER 95

(a)

SWITCHING
PULSES
VSI
SVPWM
GENERATOR
VDC
SUPPLY
VOLTAGE
PLL
Vsa Vsb Vsc
u
o|
abc o|
and
dq
Vsd
Vsq
dq o|
Vd ref (load voltage)
Vq ref=0
Vd error
Vq error
error Vo
error V |
3-

(b)
Fig. 4. (a) Simulated DVR control system using PSCAD/EMTDC and (b) Implementation of voltage space vector PWM control of DVR.

The performance of the DVR is evaluated for different
supply voltage disturbances such as balanced and
unbalanced sags.
First a case of three phase balanced sag is simulated by
connecting a three phase reactance to the basbar. As a
result balanced voltage sag is created immediately after a
fault as shown in Fig. 5 (a). The load voltage is maintained
when the sags period is recovery with the help of DVR.
The supply voltages, injection voltage and load voltage are
shown in Fig. 5(a), (b) and (c). The injected voltage is in
phase with the supply voltage.
The second simulations considering a single phase to
ground fault. Fig. 6 shows the supply voltage, injected and
load voltages when unbalanced voltage sag is created. The
appropriate voltages are injected to maintain the load
voltage and compensate the voltage sag. The DVR load
voltages and injected voltages are shown in Fig. 6 (b) and
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IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2010 96

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 5. Three phase balance fault; (a) Supply voltages, (b) Compensation voltages, and (c) Load voltages.

TABLE II
SYSTEM PARAMETERS AND CONSTANT VALUES

Main Supply Voltage per
phase
200V
Line Impedance 0.5
s
L = mH, 0.1
s
R = O
Series transformer turns ratio 1:1
DC Bus Voltage 120 V
Filter Inductance 1.3 mH
Filter capacitance 10 uF
Load resistance 40 O
Load inductance 60 mH
Switching Frequency 5 kHz

(c) respectively. From the results show the effectiveness
of the controller to protect load voltages from any
disturbance in the network.
B. Experimental Results
Fig. 4(a) shows the power circuit of the DVR it
consists of a three phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
with IGBT switches. It is connected to a programmable
AC power source 6560/6590 with 5KVA three single-
phase transformers. The ratio of the three single phase
transformers is 1:1. A series low pass filter which
consists of LC and its value are 1.3 mH and 10uF per-
phase respectively. The function of the low pass filter is
to avoid switching noise. The DC-Link value of the
capacitor used in this experiment is 2200 uF and
powered by the battery as energy storage.
The DSP TMS320F2812 is used in order to control
the system based on SVPWM. The source voltage is
measured through feed-forward control and it compared
with the reference voltage. The injected voltage for
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(a)


(b)


(c)
Fig. 6. Single phase unbalanced fault; (a) Supply Voltages, (b) Compensation voltages, and (c) Load voltages.

voltage sag compensation is calculated and switching
pulses is sent to the IGBT switches. An appropriated
voltage is injected through injection transformer to recover
the missing voltage. The injection voltage will caused the
load voltage is maintained at its nominal value.
Fig. 7(a) shows experimental waveform of the supply
voltage during three phase balanced voltage sags. Once
sags voltage is detected in the system the controller will
response immediately and an appropriate voltage is
injected, the injection voltages waveform can be seen in
Fig. 7(b). The recovery of the load voltage when the
process of injection voltage completed is depicted in
Fig. 7(c).
One of the phases of the supply voltage was drop due to
a single phase to ground fault and voltage sags has
occurred in the system. This event can be seen in Fig. 8(a).
The load side voltage decreases from its nominal value as
the supply voltage drop. The DVR restores the voltage sag
successfully by injecting a different voltage as illustrated in
Fig. 8(b). The restoration of voltage sag at the load side
voltage is shown in Fig. 8(c).

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IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2010 98

(a)


(b)


(c)

Fig. 7. Three phase balance fault; (a) supply voltages, (b) compensation voltages, and (c) load voltages restoration.

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(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 8. Single phase unbalanced fault; (a) supply voltages, (b) injection voltages, and (c) load voltages restoration.

V. CONCLUSIONS
The modeling and simulation of a DVR using
PSCAD/EMTDC has been presented. The simulation
results showed clearly the performance of the DVR in
mitigating voltage sags. The experimental results have
demonstrated the voltage restoring capability of the DVR
based on SVPWM technique. The DVR handled both
balanced and unbalanced situations without any difficulties
and injected the appropriate voltage component to correct
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IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, VOL. 9, NO. 2, SUMMER-FALL 2010 100
rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load
voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to thank UM and UTeM for providing
grant under Grant PS124/2009B for this project.
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[4] M. Vilathgamuwa, A. A. D. Ranjith Pcrcra, and S. S. Choi,
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R. Omar was born in Kelantan Malaysia in 1966 He received the degree in
electrical & electronics engineering from University Technology Malaysia in
1991 and M. Eng from University Of Science Malaysia in 2001, where he is
senior lecturer of Faculty of Electrical University of Technical Malaysia
Malacca, Malaysia. His research interests include power electronic, power
quality and renewable energy.

M. Sulaiman was born in Terengganu Malaysia in 1962. He obtained his
B.Sc., M.E.E., and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from University of
Missouri-Columbia (UMC), US, in 1984, 1985, and 1989, respectively.
Currently he is the Dean of Faculty of Electrical, University Technical
Malaysia Malacca. His research interests including all area of power
systems, energy efficient systems, control and instrumentation, and
e-learning.

N. Abd Rahim was born in Muar Johor Malaysia in 1960. He received the
B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. degrees from University of Strathclyde, Glasgow,
UK, and Ph.D. degree in 1995 from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
He is an expert in power electronics and drives in the Department of
Electrical Engineering. Currently, he is the Director of the Center for
Research Power Electronics, Drives, Automation, and Control in Faculty of
Engineering. He has received a University Excellence Staff Award from the
University. His research interests include power electronics and drives, and
related industrial applications.


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