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PHY1122(A) Fundamentals of Applied Physics III Problem Set # 2, Winter 2014 Posted February 4, 2014. Due on February 14, 2014, at 5:00 p.m. Place assignment in PHY1122(A) drop box on second oor of MacDonald Hall (outside Physics help centre). Lateness policy: Late assignments will not be accepted, except under extraordinary circumstances. Do a total of SEVEN questions. You must do question 1. You can then pick any 6 others from questions 2 - 8. If you do all of the problems, the mark from question 1 and best 6 from 2 - 8 will be counted toward the total assignment mark. 1. Figure 1 shows a cycle undergone by 1.00 mol of an ideal monatomic gas. The temperatures are T1 = 300 K, T2 = 600 K, and T3 = 455 K. (a) For 1 2, what are the heat Q12 , the change in internal energy U12 , and (c) the work done W12 ? (b) For 2 3, what are Q23 , U23 , and W23 ? (c) For 3 1, what are Q31 , U31 , and W31 ? (d) For the full cycle 1 2 3, what are Q123 , U123 , and W123 ? (e) The initial pressure at point 1 is p1 = 1.00 atm. What are the volume V2 and pressure p2 at point 2 and the volume V3 and pressure p3 at point 3?

FIG. 1: Thermodynamic cycle for an ideal monatomic gas.

2. When 20.9 J was added as heat to a particular ideal gas, the volume of the gas changed from 50.0 cm3 to 100.0 cm3 while the pressure remained at 1.00 atm. (a) By how much did the internal energy U of the gas change? If the quantity of gas present was 2.00 103 mol, nd (b) Cp and (c) CV . 3. The lowest possible temperature in outer space is 2.7 K. What is the rms speed of hydrogen molecules at this temperature? You will need to look up the molar mass of molecular hydrogen. 4. 12.0 g of oxygen (O2 ) gas is heated at constant atmospheric pressure from 25.0 C to 125.0 C. (a) How many moles of O2 gas are present? (b) How much energy is transferred to the oxygen as heat? (Note: The molecules rotate but do not oscillate.) (c) What fraction of the heat is used to raise the internal energy of the oxygen?

5. Bottled champagne has a pocket of gas (primarily CO2 ) between the liquid and the cork at a pressure of pi = 5.00 atm. After popping o the cork, the gas undergoes an adiabatic expansion until its pressure matches the ambient air pressure of 1.00 atm. Assume that the ratio of the 4 . If the gas has initial temperature Ti = 5.00 C, what is its nal molar specic heats is = 3 temperature Tf at the end of the adiabatic expansion? 6. A mixture of 1773 g of water and 227 g of ice is in an initial equilibrium state at 0.00 C. The mixture is then, in a reversible process, brought to a second equilibrium state where the water:ice ratio, by mass, is 1:1 at 0.00 C. (a) Calculate the entropy change of the system during this process (The heat of fusion for water is 333 kJ/kg). (b) The system is then returned to the initial equilibrium state in an irreversible process (say, by using a Bunsen burner). Calculate the entropy change of the system during this process. (c) Are your answers consistent with the second law of thermodynamics? 7. A Carnot refrigerator transfers heat from its inside (6.0 C) to the room air outside (20.0 C). (a) Find the coecient of performance of the refrigerator. (b) Determine the magnitude of the minimum work needed to cool 5.00 kg of water from 20.0 C to 6.0 C when it is placed in the refrigerator. 8. A nuclear-fueled electric power plant utilizes a boiling water reactor. In this type of reactor, nuclear energy causes water under pressure to boil at 285 C (the temperature of the hot reservoir). After the steam does the work of turning the turbine of an electric generator, the steam is converted back into water in a condenser at 40 C, and then the rejected heat is transported away by water from a river. (a) The plant operates at three-fourths of the eciency of a Carnot engine. What is the eciency of the plant? (b) The output power of the plant is 1.2 109 watts. What is the heat input QH per unit time? (c) What is the heat output QC per unit time?