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A Seminar report on Human Resource Management

Abstract:
Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is the management process of an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible while for also

the attraction, selection, training, assessment,

and rewarding of

employees,

overseeing organizational leadership and culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives (usually a trades union). HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work, such aspayroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advancement, and further research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. In startup companies, HR's duties may be performed by trained professionals. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have created programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner

organizations likewise seek to engage and further the field of HR, as evidenced by several field-specific publications. In the current global work environment, all global companies are focused on retaining the talent and knowledge held by the workforce. All companies are focused on lowering the employee turnover and preserving knowledge. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of the newcomer not being able to replace the person who was working in that position before. HR departments also strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing knowledge.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Personnel management is the specialist branch of management which is responsible for matters related to the employment and regulation of employees and workers . According to the Institute of Personnel Management, personnel management is "that part of management concerned with people at work and with their relationships within an enterprise." Personnel management involves three distinct activities: employee resourcing, employee development and employee relations. Taking these in turn, employee resourcing is concerned with how people are recruited and then used by the employing organisation, and thus involves activities such as recruitment and selection , drawing up contracts of employment , arranging or advising on working patterns, including flexible working patterns , job analysis, health and safety, equal opportunities and the termination of the employment contract. Resourcing thus involves knowledge of employment legislation, as well as the staffing needs of the organisation. Staffing

Staffing is a term used in the sphere of employment. It has been applied to more than one aspect of the working environment. Staffing has been defined as follows by Heneman and Judge in Staffing Organization (5th Edn 2005)[1] Staffing is the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organizations effectiveness. According to this model: Acquisition comprises the recruitment processes leading to the employment of staff. It includes human resource planning to identify what the organization requires in terms of the numbers of employees needed and their attributes (knowledge, skills and abilities) in order to effectively meet job requirements. In addition the selection techniques and methods of assessment to identify the most suitable candidates for a particular job. Deployment involves decisions about how those recruited will be allocated to specific roles according to business demands. It also concerns the subsequent appointment to more advanced jobs through internal recruitment, promotion or reorganization. Retention deals with the management of the outflow of employees from an organization. This includes both managing voluntary activities such as resignation, and controlling involuntary measures whereby employees are managed out of the organization through redundancy programs or other types of dismissal. The overriding objective is to minimize the loss from the organization of valued employees through strategic and tactical measures whilst enabling the organization to reduce employment costs where circumstances dictate. Staffing is also used in a specific sense to refer to the management of employee schedules. Training

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals It of forms improving the core

one's capability, capacity,productivity and performance.

of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[who?] recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Development The business developer is concerned with the analytical preparation of potential growth opportunities for the senior management orboard of directors as well as the subsequent support and monitoring of its implementation. Both in the development phase and the implementation phase, the business developer collaborates and integrates the knowledge and feedback from the organizations specialist functions, for

example, R&D, production, marketing, and sales to assure that the organization is capable of implementing the growth opportunity successfully.[1] The business developers' tools to address the business development tasks are the business modelanswering "how do we make money" and its analytical backup and roadmap for implementation, the business plan. Business development professionals frequently have had earlier experience in financial services, investment banking or management consulting; although many find their route to this area by climbing the corporate ladder in functions such as operations management or

sales. Skill sets and experience for business-development specialists usually consist of a mixture of the following (depending on the business requirements):

marketing legal strategy finance proposal management or capture management sales experience

The "pipeline" refers to flow of potential clients which a company has started developing. Business-development staff assign to each potential client in the pipeline a percent chance of success, with projected sales-volumes attached. Planners can use the weighted average of all the potential clients in the pipeline to project staffing to manage the new activity when finalized. Enterprises usually support pipelines with some kind of customer relationship management (CRM) tool or CRM-database, either web-based solution or an inhouse system. Sometimes business development specialists manage and analyze the data to produce sales management information (MI). Such MI could include:

reasons for wins/losses

Leadership Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task",[1] although there are alternative definitions of leadership. For example, some understand a leader simply

as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, [citation
needed]

while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a common

goal Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits,[2] situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values,[3] charisma, and intelligence, among others. Motivation Motivation is a psychological feature that induces an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action.[1] Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. "It's the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day."[2] These inner conditions such as wishes, desires and goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior. Safety Management Service A SMS provides a systematic way to identify hazards and control risks while maintaining assurance that these risk controls are effective.[1] SMS can be defined as:

...a businesslike approach to safety. It is a systematic, explicit and comprehensive process for managing safety risks. As with all management systems, a safety management system provides for goal setting, planning, and measuring performance. A safety management system is woven into the fabric of an organization. It becomes part of the culture, the way people do their jobs.[2] For the purposes of defining safety management, safety can be defined as: ... the reduction of risk to a level that is as low as is reasonably practicable. There are three imperatives for adopting a safety management system for a business these are ethical, legal and financial. There is an implied moral obligation placed on an employer to ensure that work activities and the place of work to be safe, there are legislative requirements defined in just about every jurisdiction on how this is to be achieved and there is a substantial body of research which shows that effective safety management (which is the reduction of risk in the workplace) can reduce the financial exposure of an organisation by reducing direct and indirect costs associated with accident and incidents. To address these three important elements, an effective SMS should:

Define how the organisation is set up to manage risk. Identify workplace risk and implement suitable controls. Implement effective communications across all levels of the organisation. Implement a process to identify and correct non-conformities. Implement a continual improvement process.

A safety management system can be created to fit any business type and/or industry sector.

Industrial Legislation The objective of the Industrial Disputes Act is to secure industrial peace and harmony by providing machinery and procedure for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes by negotiations. Various studies indicate that Indian labour laws are highly protective of labour, and labour markets are relatively inflexible. These laws apply only to the organised sector. Consequently, these laws have restricted labour mobility, have led to capital-intensive methods in the organised sector and adversely affected the sectors long -run demand for labour. Labour being a subject in the concurrent list, State-level labour regulations are also an important determinant of industrial performance. Evidence suggests that States, which have enacted more pro-worker regulations, have lost out on industrial production in general.[1] Particular attention has been paid to its Chapter V-B, introduced by an amendment in 1976, which require firms employing 300 or more workers to obtain government permission for layoffs, retrenchments and closures. A further amendment in 1982 (which took effect in 1984) expanded its ambit by reducing the threshold to 100 workers. It is argued that since permission is difficult to obtain, employers are reluctant to hire workers whom they cannot easily get rid of. Job security laws thus protect a tiny minority of workers in the organised sector and prevent the expansion of industrial employment that could benefit the mass of workers outside. It is also argued that the restriction on retrenchment has adversely affected workplace discipline, while the threshold set at 100 has discouraged factories from expanding to economic scales of production, thereby harming productivity. Several other sections of the IDA allegedly have similar effects, because they increase workers bargaining strength and thereby raise labour costs eith er directly through wages or

indirectly by inhibiting work reorganization in response to changes in demand and technology. The Act also lays down: 1. The provision for payment of compensation to the workman on account of closure or lay off or retrenchment. 2. The procedure for prior permission of appropriate Government for laying off or retrenching the workers or closing down industrial establishments 3. Unfair labour practices on part of an employer or a trade union or workers.

Conclusion: In practice, HR is responsible for employee experience during the entire employment lifecycle. It is first charged with attracting the right employees through employer branding. It then must select the right employees through the recruitment process. HR then onboards new hires and oversees their training and development during their tenure with the organization. HR assesses talent through use ofperformance appraisals and then rewards them accordingly. In fulfillment of the latter, HR may sometimes administer payroll andemployee benefits, although such activities are more and more being outsourced, with HR playing a more strategic role. Finally, HR is involved in employee terminations - including resignations, performance-related dismissals, and redundancies. At the macro-level, HR is in charge of overseeing organizational leadership and culture. HR also ensures compliance with employment and labor laws, which differ by geography, and often oversees health, safety, and security. In circumstances where employees desire and are

legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employee's representatives (usually a labor union). Consequently, HR, usually through industry representatives, engages in lobbyingefforts with governmental agencies (e.g., in the United States, the United States Department of Labor and the National Labor Relations Board) to further its priorities. The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially pertaining to expatriates; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process. HR is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk

References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television http:/google.com