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Lesson Planning

Waynesburg University

Pre-Instructional Planning:
The thought process that leads to the development of quality,
meaningful lesson plans

Guiding questions that will provide the framework for the lesson. (Respond to each question.)
Who will you be teaching? (Identify student grade level as well as academic functioning level and specific needs of individual students)

The target classroom consists of 10th – 12th grade coed students. The students range in age from16 to 18 years old. The population size of the
student body is 23 students, 13 male and 10 female. The mathematics class is a “general” probability and statistics classroom. When taken as a
whole the functioning level of the students can be considered average. However, academically there is a variance in the individual’s overall
abilities. 4 of the students are quite advanced and require activities that are challenging and engaging. Three of the male students have been
struggling to achieve passing grades. These students require additional support and modified instructional pacing. Additionally, the low
achieving students prefer activities of a kinesthetic nature. Furthermore, the three boys struggle with reading from a statistics textbook. The
student’s grades have improved markedly through the use of graphic organizers, small group instruction, and cooperative learning.

Who (if anybody) will assist with the presentation of this lesson, and what will their role be?

The computer teacher will be invited to provide the students with a presentation of the procedures to using Microsoft PowerPoint. The computer
teacher will provide the students with a lecture and assistance as students develop their presentations using MS PowerPoint. The mathematics
teacher will provide supplementary instruction and assistance to the students as necessary. The math teacher will ensure that the student’s are
correctly applying mathematical algorithms. Finally, a member of the school paper will help evaluate the student’s presentations and determine
if the project should be included in the school paper.

What is the long range goal(s) that is tied to this lesson?

The main purpose of the project is to learn how to plan, collect, organize, and write using statistical information. In actually attempting to do
research, a potential researcher becomes acutely aware of the problems that all researchers must face. Problems such as missing data,
measurement, accurate reporting and recording, and depth of analysis must be faced. The researcher becomes a more critical consumer of other
statistical information by attempting to do a project. Ultimately the student should be able to research a topic, use statistics to support an
argument, and present the study to an audience as a persuasive piece.

The project has seven specific learning objectives for the student: (1) selection of a central idea and population of interest, (2) selecting and
measuring the variables of interest, (3) sampling from the population, (4) collection of data, (5) data analysis, and (6) writing the results in a
understandable form and (7) presenting those results as a persuasive piece to an audience.

What is the specific learning objective(s) for this lesson?

The specific learning objectives for this lesson are for the students to use their rough draft of their presentation and use PowerPoint to improve
the presentation. Additionally, the students will present their findings to the class. The PowerPoint presentation will serve as vehicle for
delivering the findings of their research.

What prerequisite skills/knowledge will students need to effectively access and participate in this lesson?

The student will be required to read for comprehension, learn and apply vocabulary words, complete scientific charts, form and test a hypothesis,
engage in discussions, use the computer and excel, , interpret results, graph/chart data, , and make comparisons. Additionally, the student will
be required to work cooperatively, obey classroom rules and instruction, adhere to a schedule, self monitor, think abstractly and concretely, and
operate in a student based educational setting.
When within the stages of learning will this lesson be presented? (Is it a learning acquisition lesson, learning fluency lesson, learning
maintenance lesson, or learning generalization lesson?)

The lesson will address all four stages of learning. The students will acquire skills in PowerPoint through direct instruction and guided practice.
Additionally, the students will learn how to fluently interact with the software. Finally, maintenance and generalization will be encouraged
through independent practice and incorporation of the survey into their final project.

When will this lesson be completed? (Will it be a one-day lesson or a multiple day lesson?)

The lesson will take 3-5 days to complete. One day will be required for the introduction to PowerPoint and the students will have an additional
day or two to complete their group’s surveys. Finally, one to two days will be allotted for the presentation of the students findings.

Where should this lesson be presented to ensure maximum student access and participation? (computer lab, classroom, science lab…) AND
what materials will be needed?

The lessons will occur in the computer lab. The lessons will require the following materials: pens, pencils, markers, dry erase board, Smart
Board, computers with PowerPoint, journals, and Survey Project handout.

Why are you planning to teach this lesson? Why must this information/skill be presented to the students?

This lesson serves as an important step in the creation of statistical study (presenting findings to an audience). The students will discover the
potential difficulties of presenting their findings in an understandable manner to a particular audience. Additionally, the lesson will be taught to
the students because it serves as an investigation of the real life application of statistics. Students will come to realize the importance and power
of using a statistics and technology to support an argument.

How does this lesson relate to the PA Academic Standards?

The lesson directly relates to the PA Academic Standards set forth for statistics in mathematics. Finally, the lesson utilizes all of the components
of mathematics (as they are recognized by Pennsylvania): nature of math, unifying themes of math, knowledge, inquiry, problem solving,
process skills, and mathematical thinking. The following standards are directly addressed throughout the lesson:
2.6.11.A. Design and conduct an experiment using random sampling. Describe the data as an example of a distribution using statistical measures
of center and spread. Organize and represent the results with graphs. (Use standard deviation, variance and t-tests.)
2.6.11.B. Use appropriate technology to organize and analyze data taken from the local community.
2.6.11.C. Determine the regression equation of best fit (e.g., linear, quadratic, exponential).
2.6.11.D. Make predictions using interpolation, extrapolation, regression and estimation using technology to verify them.
2.6.11.E. Determine the validity of the sampling method described in a given study.
2.6.11.F. Determine the degree of dependence of two quantities specified by a two-way table.
2.6.11.H. Use sampling techniques to draw inferences about large populations.
2.6.11.I. Describe the normal curve and use its properties to answer questions about sets of data that are assumed to be normally distributed.

How does this lesson relate to the previous lesson? How does this lesson relate to future lessons?

During the previous lesson the students created rough drafts of their respective presentations. This lesson will require that the student is able to
utilize technology methodically. The student will develop a presentation using PowerPoint to support a relationship or argument. Ultimately,
the student will gain an understanding of the principles behind statistics and incite into the close connection of statistics and persuasive writing.

How will you determine if students have met the lesson objective? (Think assessment)

The students will be assessed via classroom discussions, observations, summative assessment (The PowerPoint Presentation), journal responses
and formative assessments (submission of drafts).

How should this lesson be presented to ensure maximum student access and participation? (lecture, whole group activities, small group
activities, cooperative learning groups…)
The lesson will incorporate whole group activities, lectures, cooperative learning, interactive media, small group activities, independent
activities, and teacher directed discussions. A variety of activities are used, including: journals, classroom lectures, and classroom discussions.
The lesson will be presented using auditory (direct instruction/discussions), kinesthetic (PowerPoint project/computer lab activity), and visual
aids (sample PowerPoint presentations). Ultimately it is the goal of these interventions to provide differentiated instruction that will address the
learning needs of all students.

Lesson Planning
Waynesburg University

Writing the lesson plan:


Translating thoughts into a plan of action
_____________________________________________
Pennsylvania Academic Standard(s) addressed during this lesson:
(Provide Standard number and statement)

2.6.11.A. Design and conduct an experiment using random sampling. Describe the data as an example of a distribution using statistical measures
of center and spread. Organize and represent the results with graphs. (Use standard deviation, variance and t-tests.)
2.6.11.B. Use appropriate technology to organize and analyze data taken from the local community.
2.6.11.C. Determine the regression equation of best fit (e.g., linear, quadratic, exponential).
2.6.11.D. Make predictions using interpolation, extrapolation, regression and estimation using technology to verify them.
2.6.11.E. Determine the validity of the sampling method described in a given study.
2.6.11.F. Determine the degree of dependence of two quantities specified by a two-way table.
2.6.11.H. Use sampling techniques to draw inferences about large populations.
2.6.11.I. Describe the normal curve and use its properties to answer questions about sets of data that are assumed to be normally distributed.

Lesson Objective(s)
(Stated in observable and measurable terms)

At the end of the lesson the students should complete a final draft of their presentation in PowerPoint. The goal of the lesson is for the students
present data in PowerPoint in accordance with a central idea backed through statistical research. The students will provide the teacher with a
printout of their presentation at the end of class. The students will be graded based on a 15 point rubric, 10 being the minimal passing grade.

The students will be encouraged to discuss their feelings, thoughts, engage in activities, and work cooperatively. The students will demonstrate
these abilities through classroom discussions and participation in classroom activities. Finally at the end of each day’s lesson the student will be
required to hand in a copy of the days work for teacher evaluation. The teacher will provide corrective feedback and ideas that the student might
implement to improve their work. Students will earn 3 points per day for daily classroom participation as observed by the teacher.

Finally, the students will submit their completed project to the class in the form of a presentation. Required components will include a
PowerPoint Presentation, Survey Monkey Survey, Excel Chart/Graph, and statement of purpose, results produced, error analysis/bias, and
recommendations.

Assessment Plan
(What will be done to determine if lesson objectives have been met?)

Informal Assessment: Discussions, observations, oral readings, think-pair-share, journal entries, daily submission of work.

Formative Assessment: Class participation: 3 points/day


Final Draft of PowerPoint computer lab activity: 10 points possible. 10/15 constitutes a passing grade
Summative Assessment: (End of Unit) the students will participate in statistical survey research project. The students will form a hypothesis,
collect results using survey monkey, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, create, a chart using Excel, and present their findings using
PowerPoint. The students will be assessed based upon ideas, content, organization, voice, understanding of adaptations, creativity, and
presentation. A minimum score of 70 out of 100 would be indicative of a passing grade.

Materials:
The lessons will require the following materials: pens, pencils, markers, dry erase board, Smart Board, computers with PowerPoint, journals,
and Survey Project handout.

Inclusion Techniques for Students with Special Needs:


Several techniques for including students with special needs are utilized throughout the lesson. The students will engage in a variety of
independent and cooperative learning tasks. The students will work cooperatively in heterogeneous ability-based groups. This will allow the
educators to provide assistance or enrichment as necessary. Additionally, the teacher will be able to select students to answer questions on
various levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This enables the low achieving student to actively participate in the lesson and attain critical information
through auditory channels. Time accommodations could allow the students to take the assignment home or work on the assignments during a
study period. Instruction is varied as much as possible allowing for kinesthetic (PowerPoint project/computer use), auditory
(discussions/lectures), and visual (examples of student work) approaches to be utilized. Furthermore, the students will engage in a cooperative
learning activity that incorporates technology through Microsoft Office. The students will be encouraged to engage in quiet conversation to allow
for the exchange of ideas. Also, the low-achieving students have shown to be responsive to graphic organizers and checklists. These students
will be provided with checklists and graphic organizers for completing lab and group projects. Finally, summative assessment will occur in the
form of a project. Consequently, the student will be enabled to demonstrate their knowledge of concepts in a non-test format. Ultimately, these
adaptations are merely suggestions and the least restrictive interventions will be utilized to support the learning of each individual student.

Enrichment Techniques:

Students who are advanced could be encouraged to write about research topics in more depth. Additionally, advanced learners may be given
leadership/management roles during group work. Furthermore, the advanced students will be encouraged to study more advanced topics as
suggested by the teacher. Advanced learners may also become engaged by answering questions that require synthesis, evaluation, and an
advanced understanding of statistical concepts. Finally, the open ended nature of the survey project allows the student to be hindered only by
their creativity and time. Accordingly, advanced students will be able to present or create complex components of the statistics survey project.

Lesson Differentiation (What modifications/accommodations will be made to ensure that ALL students have access to and are able to participate
in the lesson):

The lesson will utilize kinesthetic, visual, and auditory presentations to address the needs of all learner profiles and abilities. First, advanced and
struggling learners will be heterogeneously grouped during the unit. Students will be assigned roles to encourage interdependence and
accountability. Advanced students and students that finish quickly will be encouraged to further revise their work and compare their findings to
others. Students who are struggling will be grouped to be provided with additional support from the cooperative learning group and secondary
education teacher. Second, classroom discussions will occur at the guidance of the teacher and the direction of the student. This allows the
teacher to guide and tailor discussions to address the specific learning needs of the class. Advanced students may be asked to answer questions
involving predicting, synthesizing, and evaluating. Students who struggle may be asked to answer lower level questions and reiterate important
concepts. Third, the lesson plan thoroughly addresses differentiation as regards to content, process, and product. Consequently, the class’s
activities are relatively opened ended. The tasks allow the student to express opinions and multiple correct ideas at different levels of
complexity. Furthermore, a variety of types of assignments will be utilized to encourage creative products geared towards the student’s interest..
Fourth, the students will be responsible for a variety of rules during the lesson. At times the student will listen to lecture, work cooperatively and
independently, and lead presentations. Students who struggle with multi-tasking may be provided with graphic organizer and checklists.
Finally, the lesson was designed to engage a variety of students based upon interests and through a variety of activities. It is the goal, of the
instructor that the lesson becomes a unique learning experience that will form a lasting connection with the student.

Lesson Presentation
Introduction/Motivational Activities/Anticipatory Set:

Ask students to respond in their journals to the prompt questions


• Have you used Microsoft PowerPoint in the past, if so what projects have you created using PowerPoint?
• Allow the students to write for 5 minutes and then discuss.
Detailed Teaching Sequence:
(Provide sufficient detail that would enable a substitute to effectively present this lesson. Bulleted statements are preferred)

• Explain to students that today we will be learning how to use the basics of using PowerPoint and the how to import a Chart into
PowerPoint.
• The computer teacher will be the primary instructor. Students will be shown how to select templates and add pictures, speech, and
text to a PowerPoint Presentation. The students will also be taught to save and printout their projects in the slide format. The teacher
will use a Smart Board.

• After the lecture a question-answer session will occur to quickly review procedures.

• The math teacher will then instruct the students to return to their groups and begin entering their data to create their PowerPoint
Presentations.
• Both teachers will monitor the students and provide instruction as necessary.

Guided Practice/Independent Practice/Assessment Activities

Guided practice and assessment will consist of the creation, revision, and publication of a PowerPoint Presentation. The project may take 2-3
days to complete. The time will be adjusted according to the students needs and pacing. The teacher will revise and grade the student’s final
published project.

The students will then present their PowerPoint presentations/Final projects to the class for submission to the school paper.

Closure:

Closure will take the form of a journal question and discussion: Throughout the unit we incorporated technology (Powerpoint, Excel, and the
online Survey). In your opinion, what roles should technology play in statistics?