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Fundamentals of Aerodynamics

By John D. Anderson

1 2

Road Map

Road Map

Road Map

!! Four

of the most frequently used words in aerodynamic: !! Pressure !! Density !! Temperature !! Flow velocity

12/21/09

Pressure

!! Pressure

Density

!! Defined

is the normal force per unit area exerted on a surface due to the time rate of change of momentum of the gas molecules impacting on (or crossing) that surface.

volume.

Temperature

!! Play

Flow velocity

!! The

an important role in high-speed aerodynamics (Chapter 7) !! KE = 3/2 * !T, where ! is Boltzmann constant

velocity of a flowing gas at any fixed point B in space is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid element as it sweeps through B.

10

Streamline

Shear stress

Shear stress

!! The

11

12

12/21/09

!! On

!! P !! "

the body are due to only two basic sources: 1. Pressure distribution over the body surface 2.Shear stress distribution over the body surface

13

14

is relative wind, defined as the flow velocity far ahead of the body. (freestream velocity)

!! Geometrically,

deduced

15

16

17

18

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!! Upper

!! The

surface:

!! Lower

surface:

19

20

!! Upper

!! Three

surface

basic equations:

!! Bottom

surface

21

22

!! Predefined: !! Dynamic !! Let

!! For

pressure: (dimensional

23

24

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!! !!

!! For

2D bodies

!!

!!

25

26

!! For

!! The

27

28

Dimensional analysis

!! Q:

Dimensional analysis

!!

What physical quantities determine the variation of these forces and moments?

A given body and given AOA. The resultant aerodynamic force is R We expect R to depend on:

!!

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30

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Dimensional analysis

!! Is

Buckingham ! theorem:

based on the obvious fact that an equation dealing with the physical world, each term must have the same dimensions.

!! To

make it dimensionless

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32

Dimensional analysis

!! K

Dimensional analysis

!! From

= 3, N K = 6 3 = 3

Equation 1.25

!! From

Equation 1.26

33

34

Dimensional analysis

!! Assume

Dimensional analysis

!! Then

that

!! ! 1

is dimensionless

!! Force

coefficient

35

36

12/21/09

Dimensional analysis

!! Similarly,

Dimensional analysis

!! Inserting

to the equation

or

Mach number (M) Important!

37 38

Dimensional analysis

Center of pressure

!! Q:

If the aerodynamic force on a body is specified in terms of a resultant single force R, or its components such as N and A , where on the body should this resultant be placed?

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40

Center of pressure

Center of pressure

!! AOA

41

42

12/21/09

Flow similarity

!! Consider

Flow similarity

M1=M2 Re1=Re2

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Flow similarity

!! 1.The

Fluid Statics

!! Buoyancy

bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both flows. !! 2.The similarity parameters are the same for both flows.

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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics

!! Integrating

Hydrostatic equation

47

or

48

12/21/09

Fluid Statics

!! For

Types of flow

49

50

Types of flow

!! Inviscid

Types of flow

!!

vs Viscous Flow

Stalled

A flow that is assumed to involve no friction, thermal conduction, Or diffusion is called an inviscid flow (70% in the book) Re goes to infinity

51 52

Types of flow

!! Incompressible:

Types of flow

!! Mach

Number Regimes

A flow in which the density # is constant. !! Compressible: A flow where the density is variable M<0.3 , it is always safe to assume # = constant

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54

12/21/09

Applied aerodynamics

!!

Applied aerodynamics

Q: What are some typical drag coefficients for various aerodynamic configurations?

55

56

Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics

The

57

58

Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics

For the large streamlined body, for a circular cylinder is relatively independent of Re Between Re=10e4 and 10e5. The drag force on the small cylinder is 1/10 smaller than that in the figure (b)

59

The same!

60

10

12/21/09

Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics

!! With

based on the frontal projected area, the values of range from a maximum of 2 to numbers as low as 0.12. These are typical values of for aerodynamic bodies. !! Values of Re in the millions are typical of practical applications in aerodynamics.

62

61

Applied aerodynamics

!! Let

Applied aerodynamics

!! From

us examine more closely the nature of the drag exerted on the various bodies. Since these bodies are at zero AOA, the drag is equal to the axial force

the equation

63

64

Applied aerodynamics

The freestream velocity density and viscosity are the same Comparing b and e, the value of freestream velocity is much larger in e, then the Drag is much larger.

Applied aerodynamics

!! The

1.Blunt body: Pressure drag dominates 2.Streamlined body: Skin friction drag dominates

65 66

11

12/21/09

Summary

!! The

Summary

!! For

normal, axial, lift, drag, and moment coefficients for an aerodynamic body can be obtained by integrating the pressure and skin friction coefficients over the body surface from the leading to the trailing edge.

a two-dimensional body,

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68

Summary

!! The

Summary

69

70

Summary

71

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