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Chapter 1 Aerodynamics: Some Introductory Thoughts

Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
By John D. Anderson
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Road Map

Road Map

Road Map

Fundamental Aerodynamic Variables


!! Four

of the most frequently used words in aerodynamic: !! Pressure !! Density !! Temperature !! Flow velocity

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Pressure
!! Pressure

Density
!! Defined

is the normal force per unit area exerted on a surface due to the time rate of change of momentum of the gas molecules impacting on (or crossing) that surface.

volume.

as the mass per unit

Temperature
!! Play

Flow velocity
!! The

an important role in high-speed aerodynamics (Chapter 7) !! KE = 3/2 * !T, where ! is Boltzmann constant

velocity of a flowing gas at any fixed point B in space is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid element as it sweeps through B.

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Streamline
Shear stress

Shear stress
!! The

constant of proportionality is defined as the viscosity coefficient.

Tangentially along the streamline

is not really a constant; it is a function of the temperature of the fluid.

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Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! On

Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! P !! "

the body are due to only two basic sources: 1. Pressure distribution over the body surface 2.Shear stress distribution over the body surface

acts normal to the surface acts tangential to the surface

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Aerodynamic forces and moments


is relative wind, defined as the flow velocity far ahead of the body. (freestream velocity)

Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! Geometrically,

deduced

the relation can be

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Aerodynamic forces and moments

Aerodynamic forces and moments

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Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! Upper

Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! The

surface:

total normal and axial forces per unit span

!! Lower

surface:

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Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! Upper

Aerodynamic forces and moments


!! Three

surface

basic equations:

!! Bottom

surface

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Dimensionless force and moment coefficients


!! Predefined: !! Dynamic !! Let

Dimensionless force and moment coefficients


!! For

quantity) S be a reference area and l be a reference length

pressure: (dimensional

different shapes, S and l may be different

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Dimensionless force and moment coefficients


!! !!

Dimensionless force and moment coefficients


!! For

For helicopter Thrust coefficient: Torque coefficient: Power coefficient:

2D bodies

!!

!!

S = c(1) = c !! Two additional dimensionless quantities:

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Dimensionless force and moment coefficients

Dimensionless force and moment coefficients


!! For

the force and moment coefficients

!! The
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lift and drag coefficients


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Dimensional analysis
!! Q:

Dimensional analysis
!!

What physical quantities determine the variation of these forces and moments?

A given body and given AOA. The resultant aerodynamic force is R We expect R to depend on:

!!

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Dimensional analysis
!! Is

Buckingham ! theorem:

based on the obvious fact that an equation dealing with the physical world, each term must have the same dimensions.

!! To

make it dimensionless

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Dimensional analysis
!! K

Dimensional analysis
!! From

= 3, N K = 6 3 = 3

Equation 1.25

!! From

Equation 1.26

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Dimensional analysis
!! Assume

Dimensional analysis
!! Then

that

!! ! 1

is dimensionless

!! Force

coefficient

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Dimensional analysis
!! Similarly,

Dimensional analysis
!! Inserting

to the equation

Reynolds number (Re)

or
Mach number (M) Important!
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Dimensional analysis

Center of pressure
!! Q:

If the aerodynamic force on a body is specified in terms of a resultant single force R, or its components such as N and A , where on the body should this resultant be placed?

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Center of pressure

Center of pressure
!! AOA

is small, sina =0 and cosa = 1, thus L = N

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Flow similarity
!! Consider

Flow similarity

the flow over two circular cylinders.

M1=M2 Re1=Re2

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Flow similarity
!! 1.The

Fluid Statics
!! Buoyancy

bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically similar for both flows. !! 2.The similarity parameters are the same for both flows.

force: no fluid motion

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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics
!! Integrating

between point 1 and 2

Hydrostatic equation
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or
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Fluid Statics
!! For

Types of flow

a solid body immersed in a fluid

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Types of flow
!! Inviscid

Types of flow
!!

vs Viscous Flow

There are some flows that are dominated by viscous effects


Stalled

A flow that is assumed to involve no friction, thermal conduction, Or diffusion is called an inviscid flow (70% in the book) Re goes to infinity
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Types of flow
!! Incompressible:

Types of flow
!! Mach

Number Regimes

A flow in which the density # is constant. !! Compressible: A flow where the density is variable M<0.3 , it is always safe to assume # = constant

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Applied aerodynamics
!!

Applied aerodynamics

Q: What are some typical drag coefficients for various aerodynamic configurations?

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Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics

The

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Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics

For the large streamlined body, for a circular cylinder is relatively independent of Re Between Re=10e4 and 10e5. The drag force on the small cylinder is 1/10 smaller than that in the figure (b)
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For the small circular cylinder,

The same!
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Applied aerodynamics

Applied aerodynamics
!! With

Why has number ?

decreased so precipitously at the higher Reynolds

based on the frontal projected area, the values of range from a maximum of 2 to numbers as low as 0.12. These are typical values of for aerodynamic bodies. !! Values of Re in the millions are typical of practical applications in aerodynamics.
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Applied aerodynamics
!! Let

Applied aerodynamics
!! From

us examine more closely the nature of the drag exerted on the various bodies. Since these bodies are at zero AOA, the drag is equal to the axial force

the equation

The drag is composed of pressure drag and skin friction drag

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Applied aerodynamics
The freestream velocity density and viscosity are the same Comparing b and e, the value of freestream velocity is much larger in e, then the Drag is much larger.

Applied aerodynamics
!! The

definition of two generic body shapes:

1.Blunt body: Pressure drag dominates 2.Streamlined body: Skin friction drag dominates
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Summary
!! The

Summary
!! For

normal, axial, lift, drag, and moment coefficients for an aerodynamic body can be obtained by integrating the pressure and skin friction coefficients over the body surface from the leading to the trailing edge.

a two-dimensional body,

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Summary
!! The

Summary

center of pressure is obtained from

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Summary

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