Draft report of the sub-group constituted by OCC to Review the df/dt or rate of change of frequency relay setting

In Northern Region.
May 2007

Index
1. 2. 3. Introduction/Background Estimation of rate of change of frequency (df/dt): Computation of Inertia Constant (H): 3.1. Based on inertia constant (H) of Individual Generators in the system [1]: 3.2. Based on rate of change of frequency using field data [2,3] 3.3. Based on rate of change of frequency using simulation studies df/dt Measurement principle by relays: Initial findings and conclusion: 5.1. df/dt estimation for combined North-Central System. 5.2. Available df/dt relay settings: 5.3. Recommended df/dt settings and further work: References/Bibliography

4. 5.

6.

Annex-1 Analysis of incident of loss of Generation Analysis of incident of System separation Annex-II Observed Frequency response at Vindhyachal following loss of generation incident. Annex-III Observed frequency response at Vindhyachal following system separation. Annex-IV Frequency response obtained through simulation studies. Annex-V ABB document on Frequency relay behavior. Annex-VI Extract from Toshiba Corporation document on Frequency and Voltage protection. Annex-VII Extract from Technical data sheet of AREVA manufactured MICOM relays.

1. Introduction/Background
The df/dt settings were carried out for the individual regions separately in past as a safety net of the respective regions. However, with the synchronous interconnection of Northern Regional grid and central grid comprising of Eastern region, Western region and North Eastern Region on 26th August 2006 at 1222 hrs the system size has increased from the order of 25000 MW to 60000 MW. Consequently inertia of the combined system has increased, resulting into lower rate of change of frequency for a given loss of generation or load. Therefore, the existing defense mechanism based on rate of change of frequency relay (or df/dt relay) for protection the system from collapse following a loss of generation has become practically ineffective. Present df/dt setting in the Northern region is as tabulated below. Table-1 Existing df/dt relay setting in Northern Region Stage Initiating Hz/Sec Frequency (Hz)

The present sub-group has been constituted by the Operation Co-ordination SubCommittee (OCC) of the Northern Region Power Committee (NRPC) in its 9th meeting held on 15th Dec 2006 to review the setting of df/dt relays. The sub-group was advised to submit its report by 12th Feb 2007. Due to other various pressing issues such as weather related trippings in Northern Region during January-07, February-07 and March-07, the sub-group could not finalise its recommendations. The first sub-group meeting was organized on 18th Jan 2007 and the following was decided. 1. The combined North & Central Grid requires relief through df/dt relays to take care of network loading conditions following a large loss of generation. 2. The combined system has witnessed several incidents of loss of generation up to 1500 MW since the synchronization of Northern Grid with the Central Grid. However, in none of the above occasions, the df/dt relays with present setting have not operated. A list of such incident in the Northern Region is enclosed at annex-I. 3. It was observed that some df/dt relays have a limited storage facility for frequency data. However, this was not archived and analyzed as a matter of practice and therefore practical observation on actual df/dt recorded for different events is not available. Therefore the df/dt relay settings for the combined North-Central grid would be worked out through the following methods.

Northern Region

Load Relief (MW)

1st 2nd 3rd 4th

48.8 49.2 49.6 50.0

0.125 0.2 0.3 0.4

750 1500 1500 1250

1

Subsequent to the first meeting of sub-group on 18th January 2007. discussions with relay manufacturers shall be held. The RRVPN and BBMB were also requested to revise the df/dt setting as above in their system at selected few locations. Eastern. two instances of separation of Northern Region from the Central Grid have occurred. analysis and discussions this report has been prepared and covers estimation of df/dt for different situations.9 Hz) at 220 kV Gazipur and 220 kV Narela in the DTL system. This might be on account of its limited efficacy in large systems. The estimated values through real time data. It can be appreciated that these values give us good indication of rate of change of the frequency in the system. simulation data and other findings were discussed and analyzed at second meeting of the subgroup at 10th April 2007.e.1 Hz per second or very close to it as per relay limitation) at higher frequency (i. 49. In the intervening period literature survey was carried out and work was done as decided in first meeting of the subgroup. Estimation of rate of change of frequency (df/dt): Power system frequency drops when the power supply in the system becomes insufficient due to loss of generation or tie line support. Estimation of system inertia constant (H) through studies and real time frequency transient response. causing a 2 . It was observed that internationally not much literature was available on df/dt relay setting philosophy. the measuring principle adopted for df/dt relaying. Based on these study. 2. Thus this goldmine of field data was also used to evaluate ‘H’ for some of the tripping incidents. To analyze the incidents data from number of the substations is collected. Overloading of the generators is followed by considerable change in system voltages. 4. The group also felt that to have greater insight into functioning of the relay specially rate of change of frequency measuring principle and limitations if any. International experience of df/dt relaying in very large power grids might also be studied separately. The operation of df/dt relay (actual response of the grid under contingencies) shall be monitored by revising the relay settings as follows: Revise setting with lower slope (0.Estimation of system inertia constant (H) from individual machine’s inertia constant and MVA and assuming that all the units swing coherently (although this would strictly not be true in a real time wide spread interconnected system). It was observed that the Vindhyachal HVDC back-to-back station had a digital recording of frequency at 100ms interval. The findings of the same are given at annex-I & II. It is also suggested that the findings of this sub-group might be circulated in Western. limitations and the initial recommendations of the sub-group. 5. North-East and Southern regions for their valuable comments.

Therefore the simplified equation without significant loss of information is 2H . df f o dt H fo df/dt PL PG D ∆f ∆P + Dx ∆f = ∆ P -----(1) Where = System Inertia Constant on system base (seconds) = Frequency at the time of disturbance (Hz) =Rate of change of frequency (Hz/Sec) =( PL-PG)/PG . altering frequency ‘f ’ and its rate of change df/dt. The time taken by the system to settle to a low frequency would depend upon the inertia of the system. These oscillations depend on the response of the generators and are seen differently at different locations. Higher the inertia of the system larger would be the time and vice versa. The system inertia constant is defined as the kinetic energy stored in the system per MVA. Therefore it is important to grasp the characteristics of the frequency response of the power system to loss of generation in order to stabilize the system faster and avoid catastrophe. In addition. However. refer [3] 2H . df/dt can be computed if we have the value the system inertia constant (H). While the low frequency ‘f ’ is the final result of the power deficiency. However. df = ∆ P f o dt -----(2) Therefore.fluctuation in load power Pelec. its rate of change df/dt is an instantaneous indicator of power deficiency and can enable recognition of the MW imbalance. before frequency settles to lower level. changing Pmech. protection systems for the low frequency may be activated in the power plants and the consequent shutdown of plant may lead to the separation of the interconnected system or black-out of the power system. there are oscillations and these could lead to the higher line loading and consequently tripping of the generators/tie lines. If the amount of frequency drop is large. The general equation of the system behavior following a loss of generation or load is as below . the change in machine speed is oscillatory in nature. Thus Pmech and Pelec change in time. The typical values of the H as given below: 3 . the generator’s governing system utilizes the spinning reserve (if available). Power change (per unit in system load base) =Load prior to generation Loss in MW =System Generation after Loss in MW =Power/frequency characteristic of the system in pu/Hz =Change in frequency This general equation can be simplified by considering the damping effect to be negligible during early onset of the event.

Based on rate of change of frequency. the first figure applies to the smaller MVA sizes.Typical Inertia constant of Synchronous machines. 1 Unit Type of Machine Water wheel generator Slow speed (< 200 rpm) High speed (> 200 rpm) Turbine Generator Condensing 1800 rpm Condensing 3000 rpm Non-Condensing 3000 rpm Synchronous motor with load varying from 1.1980 . Kothari.page-436 3. 3rd edition. that was calculate using field data (100 milisec frequency data recorded at Vindhyachal HVDC back to back station) i. J. P. The computation of inertia constant (H) is being described in subsequent section.00 2 3 * where range is given . New Delhi .0 to 5. Nagrath and D. Based on rate of change of frequency. following three methods has been used to determine the Inertia Constant H (Sec) of the Interconnected North-Central Grid. calculated using simulation studies 3. Computation of Inertia Constant (H): As described above. Tata MacGraw-Hill. 1.1. “Modern Power System Analysis”. the equivalent inertia constant of the multi-machine system can be calculated by adding the inertia Constant of individual machine (on System base) Heq = Σ (Hi x Gi mach) / Σ Gi mach (i=1 to n) -----(3) = Σ (Hi x Gi mach) / Gsystem (i=1 to n) -----(4) Heq Where Heq Hi Gsystem Gi mach n =System Inertia Constant on system base =Individual Generator Inertia Constant on its own base =System Size (MVA) or System Base =Machine rating (MVA) or machine Base =total no. Source: I. Based on inertia constant (H) of Individual Generators in the system [1]: Assuming the machines to be swinging coherently. 4 . Sl.0 and higher for heavy fly wheels H* Constant (Sec) 2 to 3 2 to 4 9 to 6 7 to 4 4 to 3 2.e 10 samples per second 3. No. of machines in the system Based on the individual generator inertia constant on its own base used the PTI-PSS/E system studies model of all India network North Central grid Inertia constant was calculated. The results obtained are as tabulated below in the system load base. Based on inertia constant (H) of Individual Generators in the system 2.

2. It was found that system is regularly observing the rate of change of frequency of 0. Units tripping at Anpara (1450 MW Generation Loss) on 15-112006 at 1119 hrs.2.60 3. Units tripping at Suratgarh (1250 MW Generation Loss) on 04-102006 at 1822 hrs. Two major incidents of loss of generation when df/dt was more than 0. df = ∆ P f o dt H fo df/dt PL PG ∆P Where = System Inertia Constant on system base (seconds) = Frequency at the time of disturbance (Hz) =Rate of change of frequency (Hz/Sec) =( PL-PG)/PG .Table -1 Region NORTH EAST WEST NORTH EAST North Central Grid Size (GW) 29 15 31 2 77 Size (MVA) 40542 22483 42555 2900 108479 H (Sec) 4.85 3. But df/dt of 0.06 Hz/sec were taken for inertia constant calculation.06Hz/sec or more is observed only when there is big loss of generation say more than 500 MW or more.033 Hz/sec.19 3.3] Based on the study of under frequencies following generation outages system inertia can be estimated using the simplified equation of inertia (derived from swing equation) considering damping effects to be small early onset of the events.93 Table-2 Region NORTH CENTRAL North Central Grid Size (GW) 29 48 77 Size (MVA) 40542 67938 108479 H (Sec) 4.05 3. 2H .90 5. 5 . 1.05 3. system inertia constant can be estimated using equation (3) if the system size in MW and frequency prior to event is known. Based on rate of change of frequency using field data [2. A number of incidents since NR-Central grid synchronization were analyzed. Power change (per unit in system load base) =Load prior to generation Loss in MW =System Generation after Loss in MW Knowing the rate of change of frequency following a known loss of generation.93 3.

They operate when the frequency 6 . Some relays measure the change in frequency (∆ f) over a time interval (∆t=100ms). 4.1 Hz/sec was observed. 4. 4. it is inferred that relay adopts following measurement principles. Based on rate of change of frequency using simulation studies Power system dynamics simulation studies were carried out for measuring the frequency transients.2. on one of the occasion of system split on 28th Feb 2007. df/dt Measurement principle by relays: Going through the technical information provided by various relay manufacturers. The measured frequency value for df/dt calculation is averaged over three cycles. 3. Refer Annex-V: ABB document on Frequency relay behaviour.6 to 9. Higher value of df/dt is observed near the node where generation is lost. The measurements static error depends on the quartz crystal’s absolute accuracy. Rate of change of frequency observed at NR and WR side bus of Vindhyachal are different for same incident of loss of generation. Different values of df/dt are observed at different locations for the same loss of generation. df/dt of more than 0.e. To restrain the influence of this component average of rate of change of frequency over 200 milliseconds was taken and from that inertia constant of the system was determined.4 seconds in the system load base. Result of the estimation based on loss of generation simulation shows that the inertia constant of the North-Central combined system is around 6.6 mHz considering the time resolution of 1 micro second. 100 millisecond intervals) at Vindhyachal back to back station for both NR side bus as well as WR side bus was taken for analysis.5 seconds in the system load base. The rate of change of frequency measurement is based on two successive frequency measurements and the time difference between the frequency measurements. The accuracy of df/dt measurement depends on the accuracy of frequency measurements. 1311 hrs rate of change of more than 0.3. This frequency measurement is carried out through time measurement of a cycle (time between two zero crossing).8 to 10.5. Refer Annex-I Result of the estimation based on loss of generation field data shows that the inertia constant of the North-Central combined system is around 5.1 Hz/sec was observed. It is observed that it contain oscillatory component. However. Refer Annex-IV. Refer Annex-II Frequency recorded at 10-samples/second (i. and calculate the df/dt every 5ms.On none of the occasion loss of generation up to 1500MW in the interconnected system.1. The biggest error in frequency measurement is in the range of +/.

Initial findings and conclusion: 5. for a 2000 MW loss it would be 0.9 Hz /0. The system inertia constant value based on individual generator’s inertia constant as calculated above (3. Technical data sheet of AREVA manufactured MICOM relays indicates that for frequency supervised rate of change of frequency ‘f + df/dt’ protection accuracy is +/. From the response of df/dt relay set at 49.1.1 Hz/sec can be achieved even with a loss of only 960 MW.On one occasion it has operated on 9th Feb 2007 when there were multiple trippings going on in the system due to fog and on another occasion it has operated on 28th Feb 2007 when Northern region system (Size about 18000 MW) got separated from central grid losing about 600 MW generation through tie line.6 to 10. Refer Annex-VII 5.11 Hz/sec 7 df dt = ∆P . However.075 Hz/sec is observed. Analysis of 100 millisecond interval frequency received from Vindhyachal also indicates that on none of the occasion of loss of generation listed in Annex-I frequency trend of more than 0.1 Hz per sec as decided in the first meeting of sub group it has been observed that these relay had not operated on any of the occasion of loss of generation listed in Annex-I. Based on this a 1500 MW loss at a frequency of 50 Hz in a 60. The wide variation in system inertia may be due to daily variation in generation dispatch and system load.3.5 % or +/-55m Hz/s.08 Hz/sec and. whichever is greater. 4.change exceeds the setting value 50 consecutive times.fo . Without a significant loss of information in the result inertia constant value of 8.4 sec. The system inertia constant for the combined North-Central grid based on simulation studies and field data works out to about 5. DTL has reported that df/dt relays with modified settings have operated on two occasions during the observation period . Refer Annex-VI: Toshiba Corporation document on Frequency and Voltage protection. df/dt estimation for combined North-Central System.0 can be taken for the finding out the frequency trend following a loss of generation.93 secs) seems to be inaccurate since with this value of inertia constant frequency trend of 0.000 MW system would result in 2H =50 x 1500/(60000-1500) 2x8 =0.

Based on the proximity of loss of generation some relays will pick up and some will not because df/dt will not be same everywhere. The quantum would depend on net import by any zone/flow gate. Further work is required to be done in the area of employing Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to detect loss of generation & activating load shedding in neighbouring nodes.9 Hz based on single largest contingency. Available df/dt relay settings: The minimum df/dt relay setting available is 0.1 Hz/sec at 50 Hz /49. • Recommended df/dt settings and further work: The combined North Central system could have a large number of df/dt relays at minimum setting of 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Contingency Loss of Talchar STPS (StageI & Stage II) Loss of Vindhyachal STPs Loss of Korba STPS Loss of Singrauli STPS Loss of Rihand STPS MW Loss 3000 3260 2100 2000 2000 Approximate load relief through such relay may be taken as 4000 MW spread over combined North Central system.2 Hz /Sec and above as that would signify separation of system. Some of the single largest contingency in the combined system are: Sl No.2 Hz/sec only. 8 .mHz (whichever is greater) is expected.3.5 % or +/. 5. • • Each region could have a df/dt setting at a higher value say 0. Further as mentioned in section – 4 error of +/.5.2.1 Hz/sec Many df/dt relays have a minimum setting of 0.

H.Z. E.] I. 487 Dwarkanath. 1994 [5. 12 no.E. Yoshida.1999. Iowa. Nagrath and D.pdf [4. Kothari. 1977 Kundur. Y. Ray . (I). Tata MacGraw-Hill . 12-14 January. Nagpur. P. P. References/Bibliography [1.. “Power System Stability and Control. pp. “Power System Engineering”. International Seminar on “Grid Stability and Load Management”. Taniguchi. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. The Iowa State University Press. Inoue. J. “Power System Control and Stability”.A. 1 .New Delhi . pp. Fouad. New Delhi . M.] [7. Ames. “Modern Power System Analysis” . Tata MacGraw-Hill . 1997 . “Estimation of power system Inertia Constant and Capacity of spinning reserve support generators using measured frequency transients”. vol. P. 435-439 I. Paul M.1980. 3rd edition.] [3. and K. Chassin . Feb. New York. Estimation of WECC System Inertia Using Observed Frequency Transients Anderson. Huang. “Under Frequency Trend Relay as Power System Savior”. Hassler .] T. Ramirez and C. I. and A.6.pp. P. Ikeguchi. K. Nagrath and D. Donnelly.org/ftp/nlin/papers/0409/0409036. J. Kothari. GRIDSAFE – 1995.] [6. 136-143 D.] [2. C. McGraw-Hill. India http://arxiv.] 9 . 1996.

10 .

03 --- Analysis of incident of System separation S No.0 --9.37 0. Flow on 400 kV Purnea-Muzaffarpur one circuit touched 1000 MW (other ckt out) Fault on 400 kV Biharsharif-Kahalgaon ckt-II fed from Biharsharif end for 2.86 48. 49.067 --- 5 7th Feb 2007 (0610 hrs) 1200 49. 1 2 System separated NR system separated from rest of the Central grid NR system separated from rest of the Central grid Date & Time 25th Feb 2007 (1634 hrs) 28th Feb 2007 (1311 hrs) Loss of generation (MW) 165 600 NR Grid Size (MW) 17500 18000 Df/dt (Hz/Sec) 0.19 48.06.71 0.4 HZ/sec (on NR Side) 11 .075 5.5 minutes.5 4 Farraka.03 0.014 HZ/sec (on NR Side) 0.6. 1 2 3 Station Date & Time Generation Loss in MW Remarks Freq prior to incident (Hz) Df/dt (Hz/Sec) Observed at Vindhyachal North Bus H (Sec) Suratgarh Singrauli Anpara 4th Oct 2006 (1822 hrs) 13th Nov 2006 (1432 hrs) 15th Nov 2006 (1121 hrs) 1250 (750 + 500) 800 1450 600 MW load throw off in Rajasthan CW pump failure Fault on 132 kV Pipri bus. 0. 6.Annex-1 Analysis of incident of loss of Generation S No . Kahalgaon & Tenughat Anpara 6th Jan 2007 (1610 hrs) 1750 48.97 0.03 0. Auxiliary supply failure.

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80 WR Frequency 48.04 Hz /Sec (WR Side) 49.67 48.68 48.027 Hz /Sec (WR Side) Hz 49.70 48.0 Sec Based on NR Side Frequency of Vindhyachal 49.60 H= 9.15 49.09 H=5.65 48.6to 6.Annex-II Observed Frequency response at Vindhyachal following loss of generation incident.20 0.71 48.19 49.10 49.03 Hz /Sec (NR Side) 49.06 Hz /Sec (NR Side) 0.04 Hz/Sec 48.85 48. Loss) on 04-10-2006 at 1822 hrs 49.16 0.71 NR Frequency Hz 48.13 49.00 18:23:00 18:23:06 18:23:12 18:23:18 18:23:24 18:23:30 18:23:36 18:23:42 18:23:48 18:23:54 18:24:00 Time 13 .55 11:17:45 11:17:51 11:17:57 11:18:03 11:18:09 11:18:1 Time Frequency Profile during Units tripping at Suratgarh (1200 MW Gen. Units Tripping at Anpara (1450 MW Loss) on 15-11-2006 at 1119 hrs 48.08 Hz/Sec 48.5 Sec Based on NR Side Frequency of Vindhyachal 0.25 49.75 0.05 0.

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000 -0.5 WR Frequency Hz 50 49. Frequency profile during System separation on 28-02-2007 at 1311 hrs 52.200 -0.200 0.600 0.600 13:10:40 13:10:46 13:10:52 13:10:58 13:11:04 13:11:10 13:11:16 15 .5 51 50.Annex-III Observed frequency response at Vindhyachal following system separation.400 0.5 48 47.5 52 51.5 49 48.5 47 13:10:40 13:10:46 13:10:52 13:10:58 13:11:04 13:11:10 13:11:16 0.400 -0.4 Hz/Sec NR Frequency Time df/dt profile during System Separation On 28-02-2007 at 1311 hrs during system separation 0.

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00 Time (Sec) df/dt (Rihand-1800 MW loss of Generation) df/dt (NJPC-1250 MW Loss of Generation) 17 .5 0.00 2.50 4.50 5.4) 3.4) Freq (Rihand-1800 MW loss of Generation) Freq (NJPC-1250 MW Loss of Generation) df/dt observed through simulation of loss of generation 1.00 Time (sec) Average df/dt (over 200 ms) Rihand 0.00 2.00 0.0 49.8) NJPC 0.50 3.0 -0.5 df/dt (Hz/sec ) 1.10 0.00 3.5 -1.50 Average df/dt (over 200 ms) Rihand 0.0 0.00 1.045 Hz/s (H=10.50 1.8) NJPC 0.5 0.096Hz /s (H=6.0 0.6 49.00 0.50 1.00 3.50 2.05 0.50 2.8 49.50 5.50 4.05 0.00 1.1 Frequency (Hz) 50.00 4. Frequency Profile observed through simulation of loss of generation 50.00 4.9 49.045 Hz/s (H=10.Annex-IV Frequency response obtained through simulation studies.096Hz /s (H=6.10 0.7 49.

Jaipur through simulation for loss of 1250 MW generation at Jhakri. Comparison of fequency response observed at Singrauli. Korba.Tala. Korba.Jaipur through simulation for loss of 1800 MW generation at Singrauli.Comparison of fequency response observed at Singrauli.Tala. 18 .

19 .Annex-V ABB document on Frequency relay behavior.

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Annex-VI Extract from Toshiba Corporation document on Frequency and Voltage protection. 21 .

.. "o ~~..TOSHIBA 6F2S081 I . .. GRF100 . ( Var.. INSTRUCTION MANUAL FREQUENCY. . ~ J L TOSHIBA CORPORATION @ TOSHIBA Corporation 2005 All Rights Reserved..".r'"..0) .:iI!!lJitIJIIi!l... VOLTAGE RELAY.".'" ". 2. !.-.: ..***8 f .

i:'~~:.. . Before installing and using the equiPmeoI. tbis chapter must be thoroughly read and understood. ' .:_- ..'. and two kinds of CAUTION. Indicates a potentially hu.:~rY.'.A. """'~_"IR""'M"".ardous situation which if not avoided.CAUTION CAUTION -1- . Indicates a potentially ha7..' . Explanation of symbols used Signal words such as DANGER. "L:!::.'~..'. may result in property damage.::':.". .ardous situation which could rtSult in death or serious injury if you do nol follow the instructions.. . pIrase read this chapter carefully. will be followed by important safety information that must be carefully reviewed. '\ TOSHIBA 6F2S0816 S~fetyPrec~utions Before using this product. may result in minor injury I)f'moderate itiJuiY: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which if not avoided....~ DANGER I Indicates an inuninently bazardous situation which will result in death or serious injury if you do not follow the instructions. This chapter describes tbe safety precautions recommended when using the GRFlOO." ~. A WARNINGI . WARNING..

. These elements measure tbe cbaoge in ftequcncy ('" f) over a time interval ( ~t= lOOms). GRFJ 00 provi~ f'.. l' Hz .5. 2..'}' op~tc times. .hown Fi~.17. 'I ~C ~ Frequency Rate-of.ry~ m.4I1('.vQf'l!te-of-<"hangeelemmts.n .2 .1I11I't'. . T'h. freqllt'.fisti~s of{JF i11\dOF elements..1 Frequency Elements 6F2S0816 . i. wben the und~ucnc)' or overm:qucucycondition is detected 16 consecutive Borh lIF end OF dmJe1lt~ output is invalidate'dby undervoltag~ block elemmt (UVBlK) operation dwing uodcrvoltagecondition.ht'. Overfrtqumcy ~Iemeot OF Opmttes wh~n a power systnn hqucocy stays over tM s~tting valu~.\1 .change Element Figure 2. Th~y openlt!". 1 ."" . a fre-queocy d«ay rate ele-mt'nt and II fT~uency rise rateelement. ~- Uncfetfrequency Ind ovetfrequency element Undcr&cqucne)' ~Icmcnt UP operates when II power S)'Stcm fi"cqucney stll)'5 under the settin value.5 Characteristics of Measuring Elements ~ 2.r t~ 'TOSHIBA 2.vt'..) Hzt OF setting UF setting I OF 1--1------UF 0 UVBLK setting t v ~ Figure 2.' IInti(. These clementsmeasurethe &equencyand check the undet&cqucncyor ovcrUequency every5 MS. .1 Frequency nrte-of-change element Underfrequency and O~ertrequency Element - The frequency I"8te-of-cl\ange clement calculates thegradicnt of frequency change (df/dt). I Figufe..wht'. fl...5.\1 -.1 shows cl1ari1~te.5..ht'. 8S . exceeds the setting value 50 consecutive times." c.ncy chllnet'.. .5.

UVIG.3 shows characteristics ofundervoltage clements and overvoltage elements. OVIS find OVIO hav~ invC'rsC'timC'characteristics. OVIS and °YIG / v - 'T0I '\ ) V 1_. Figure 2. find thC'ir charactC'ri~tk~ !!rC'C'...5.ltAg~ ~I~m~nt Th~y ~VM"Y 5 m~ operate when tbe undcrvoltage or ovcrvoltage condition is detected 2 consecutive times.~olt8g~ avo and OVIO operate when 8 JX>.. I I = (VNs)1 . The UVIS. 1'hC'!:C' C'1~t1l mC'ft~1I1"l"th~ V""Ag~ And chC'Ck thC' lmdl"f'VoltagC' Qf OV~.3 Undervoltage (b) Overvollage elements and Overvoltage Elements ~ 18-- I I . voltage setting TMS '" time multipliC'-f~tting Figure 2. UVHSG :md UVIG operoie when 0 power s)'Stemvolwge s~j's under the seNing values.'{pr~~C'd by tbe following equations.2 Undervoltageand Overvoltage Elem~nts 6F2S0816 Pbase-to-pbase uodervoltage clements UVS. t 0:opcmting time = 1 1 ..4 shows operating time characteristics ofUVIS. UVHSS.5..5.5.CVNs) x TMS ./ (a) Undervollage elements Flgur':! 2. PhasC'-to-ph8s~ OVe1'VOltflg~ C'1m1C11tS OVS and OVIS find phas~-to-ground o. lIVIa. I V = power $ystem voltAge Vs .wer system voltage stays over the setting values. I J I .1 x TMS. UVIS and phase-to-ground undervoltage elements UVG.. UVIS and UVIG: t OVIS and OVIG: t where.TOSHIBA 2.

Annex-VII Extract from Technical data sheet of AREVA manufactured MICOM relays. 23 .

~I:DHfj. .'I. .(".):{i.1":r~' ': 'c.. .tf..::.}:c.. .P943 Frequency Based Load Shedding Rela'ys Technical Data Sheet P94x1EN T051 A11 Date: Hardware Suffix: Software Version: Connection Diagrams: 20th January A or C 10 or 11 10P94yxx (y 1 or 3) (x =01 to 06) 2006 = '...""':::~.~"'h!Jt1 '1. ~ ". ."". .~ .fA AREVA MiCOM P941." .

O5Hzls.. :t:5%or :t55mHz/s.1 Hz/s) Setting -O.Cycles setting = 0 Independent Rate of Change of Frequency 'df/dt+t' Protection [81R] Accuracy Pick-up: Setting:3% or :10mHzls.:' . for df/dt ..v5Hz/s. .01 Hz/s and 0.O5Hz/s. :t:10mHzls (for settings between 0. whichever Is greater (for settings greater than O.. whichever is greater (for settings greater than 0.O5Hz/s.. 8Srelevant) and no intentional time delay. where: Fs start frequency .Protection Functions Over/Under Frequency 'f+t' Protection [81U/810] Accuracy Pick-up: Setting:t10mHz Drop-off: Setting +20mHz. :t10mHz/s (for settings between 0. whichever is greater (for settings greater than 0.Cycles= 0 p~ I f'V4JSuI..:5% or :t:55mHzJs. Setting:t10mHz (frequency threshold) Setting i3% or :!:10mHz/s.end frequency Frequency Supervised Rate of Change of Frequency 'f+df/dt' Protection [81RF) Accuracy Pick-up: Reference conditions: Tested with df/dt. :t:10mHzJs Operating & Reset Time Operating timee (underfrequency): <100ms for FslFf ratios less than 2 <160ms for FslFt ralios less than 6 <230ms otherwise -.' Operating Time Typically<125ms withFreq.1 HzJs) Average Rate of Change of Frequency 'f+Df/Dt' Protection: [81RAV] I Pick-up: Setting:t:10mHz (frequency threshold) Setting to.Cyc/es setting = O.'.Cyclessetting = 0 Re~et time: .~v. 0 and no Intentional (for settings between 0. . :10mHz (tmderfrequency) Setting -20mHz._9J>~rating timee (overfrequency): <125ms tor FslFt ratios less than 2 <150ms tor FslFt ratios less than 30 <200ms othe(Wise Reset time-: <200ms . "':":. :t10mHz (overfrequency) Operating timer: %2%or 50ms whichever is greater Operating & Raiet Time Instantaneous operating time: <125ms for Freq.01 HzJs and 0.1a $1\01. <400ms for df/dt..'" '. P'O4) "-0.Av. 1Hz) ~I. :t10mHz (rising frequency) Operating timer: :t2% or 30ms whichever is greater e Reference conditions:Tomaintain accuracy the minimum time delay set/mg..1 Hz/s) Setting '-0.. :t10mHz (overfrequency) Drop-off (df/dt threshold.Av. :t10mHz/s (for settings between 0. Dt. should be: Dt > 0.1 HZ/s) Setting +0.O05Hz/s. Ve'""n II.1 Hz/s) Drop-off (df/dt threshold..frequency = setting Ff =frequency setting .whichever is greater (df/dt threshold) Drop-off (frequency threshold): Setting +20mHz. :t5% or :t55mHz/s. .1Hz/s) Drop-off (rising frequency): Setting -O. :t5% or :t55mHz/s.23 (for Of setting <: 1Hz) Dt > 0..1Hz/s) SetUng +O.IlI:r . falling frequency): Setting +0.005Hz/s. -.::. . ""~'". rising frequency): Setting -0.>.. :t10mHz (falling frequency) Setting -20mHz.01 Hz/s and 0.3x setting or greater Reset time"': <250ms e Fs/Ff ratios as stated. A v:Cyc/es senlng J timedelay.005Hz/s.375xDf + 0.whichever is greater Drop-off (tailing frequency): Setting +0.1 Hz/s (DfiDt threshold)" Drop-off: Setting +20mHz. whichever is greater (for settings greater than 0.005Hz/s..1Hzls (positiveor negative.Av.156xDf + 0.01Hz/s and 0. :i:10mHz(underfrequency) Setting -20mHz. settlng~greater than 0.47 (for Df setting.1HzJs) Operating t!mer: %2%or QOms whichever is greater Operating & Reset Time Operating timee: <200ms for ramps 2x setting or greater <300ms for ramps 1.Reference conditions: Tested using step changes in frequency with Freq.