You are on page 1of 25

INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is one of the happiest moments for a family.

In time when pregnant woman is willing to make medication of life style and attitude because of her wanting to have a healthy body during pregnancy, self-health practices and beliefs must be conserving by the pregnant woman and the family. If she becomes negligent, complication may occur. This may not compromise not only her health but also her baby. Before, there is no family planning in Iranon culture. It is un-acceptable among the Iranon culture. Islam also prohibits artificial family planning, only natural family planning is allowed. They practice natural family planning, but the most common is by setting the uterus on the side, with the help of the walian. The walian will position the uterus on the left or right side of the stomach so that she will not get pregnant. If she wants to get pregnant, she will ask the walian to return it to its normal position.Also, before; early pregnancy should not be announced to the public. Since people do not know that sperm cells can easily fertilize the egg if intercourse is done during fertile days, other people might think that the couple had sexual encounters prior to their marriage. They dont also believe that a woman can get pregnant after one sexual encounter. Iranon women were also shy to tell other people that they are pregnant because this will indicate their sexual activities or other people might think that they are promiscuous. In the case of parentally-arrange marriages, women are also shy if they will get pregnant few months after their marriage. (Zaidi, 2003). From the early stage of conception and pregnancy, the Iranon women are extra careful of themselves and the things around them that may adversely affect their pregnancy. The

mother of a pregnant woman and all her Relatives are much concerned of her welfare and that of the child. This is shown by the reminders on even very minors ad does and donts, some superstitious beliefs while other are scientific. Brgy. Pob.2, Parang Maguindanao Iranon woman they place in high value on tradition and culture and so certain beliefs and practices, whether beneficial or harmful are still observe and practices. Most of them have access already in primary health care and even inform and aware of modern trends in maternal care during pregnancy, but they still prefer the old way of health practices. Childbirth is a time of transition and social celebration in many societies, signal an adjustment of cultural responsibilities. Womens progression from birth to childbearing is influenced by economy, religion, kinship system and a growing sophistication of communications and medical technology. In some societies, there is a continuum between traditional and modern care, with some households operating at the traditional end, others at the modern end, with the majority somewhere in between. Internationally, many studies describe the traditional beliefs and practices surrounding childbearing [for example,] some traditional practices are beneficial to the mother and baby, whereas other practices are not. (k. Bodo and N.gibson March 1999) There are clear exemption in Islam for pregnant women from fasting was found in the Hadith Sharif referred to by Abdullah Ibn Abbas "If a pregnant women fears for herself (i.e., for her health) or the breastfeeding woman fears for her child in Ramadan, they should break their fast and feed a poor person for each day (they miss) and they do not have to make up the fast. Hadith Sharif is a report of saying based on the teachings and practices of the prophet

Muhammad. It is considered to be a main source of religious law after Quran. Islam protects the child even before its birth which explains why Muslim scholars exempt a pregnant woman if she believes that fasting may cause harm to her health and/or to her unborn baby (Josooph et al., 2004). Chapter II Review Relater Literature Philippine beliefs and superstition have grown in number throughout the various regions and provinces in the country. These beliefs have come from the different saying and superstitions of our ancestors that aim to prevent danger from happening or to make a person refrain from doing something in particular. These beliefs are part of our culture, for one derives their beliefs from the influences of what their customs, traditions and culture have dictated to explain certain phenomena or to put a scare in people. Some are practiced primarily because Filipinos believe that there is nothing to lose if they will comply with these beliefs. The following are some of the different superstitions in the Philippines. (Sta. Romana Cruz, Tahanan Books, 1996.) Muslim women have been famous for their superstitious beliefs and practices. They are also known for passing these traditional beliefs from generation to generation. The Philippines, being an Asian country, has maintained and passed on a lot of customary beliefs that are being practiced by their ancestors. These practices may be based on religious beliefs, opinions, and/or real-life experiences of those who share it. These superstitious beliefs of Muslim women portray how people view the unknown and its means to appease the God who controls the

future. Beliefs are paniniwala, kasabihan ng mga matatanda, and pamahiin. These beliefs tend to talk about life, family, luck, wealth, and health and one of the talked-abouts womens reproductive health during and after pregnancy. One of the awaited stages of a womans life is their reproduction. Not only it is being excitingly anticipated, it is also the most susceptible part with regards to a womans health. Families, especially husbands and parents give their all-out care and support to the woman who is pregnant. Pregnant women seek for advices from hilot, elderly, and those who have experienced it and have been successful in overcoming it, about how they will have a normal delivery and a healthy baby. However, advices coming from the elderly and those who experienced it are most often than not considered to be superstitious but it still remain to be very influential to those who are pregnant, those around her. (Sta. Romana-Cruz, 1996) The cultural phenomenon of social organization, according to Giger and Davidhizar (2004), includes groups in the social environment that influence cultural development and identification. The family, an important aspect of the social organization phenomenon, strongly influences cultural behavior through a process of socialization or enculturation of children and group members (Giger&Davidhizar1999). These learned cultural behaviors guide individuals through life situations, events and health practices. Understanding family from a cultural perspective is a significant element in providing nursing care to Mexican-Americans since Giger and Davidhizar identify the family as being most values in this culture. Women health in Rural areas affect everything in their environment from their families to their economics and vice versa. A Womans health, especially among the poor illiterate even

those educated is often neglected not just by family but by the woman herself, they still practice during their pregnancy they still on their traditional beliefs and practices. (Ustaza Sauya D. Adtugan, teaching Islamic Values.) A belief about activities during pregnancy is something to be actual or true on t5he basis of a specific rationale or explanatory model. They are still apply their cultural beliefs during pregnancy, they are not following modern ways because of their strong faith in superstitions belief where their ancestors imported from generation to generation. (Ustadz Ibrahim Kaul: Teaching Islamic Values, SKIA) The Islamic marriage is declared publicly by a responsible person after delivering a sermon to counsel and guide the couple. It is not required, though customary, that the person marrying the couple should be religiously qualified. The Qur'an tells believers that even if they are poor they should marry to protect themselves from immorality [1][Quran 24:33]. The Qur'an asserts that marriage is the only legitimate way to satisfy one's sexual desire. Islam recognizes the value of sex and companionship and advocates marriage as the foundation for families. Marriage is highly valued and regarded as being half of faith, according to a saying of Muhammad: "Marriage is my Sunnah (practice or action of the Prophet) and whoever does not follow my Sunnah is not my true follower." (Ibn Haiah, Babun Nikah). Marriage customs vary in Muslim dominated countries. Cultural customs are sometimes implemented under the cover of Islam. However Islamic law allows limited polygyny under strict conditions. According to Islamic law (sharia), marriage cannot be forced. According to Islamic Sunnah Aisha did not consent to marry Mohamed, and a hadith says that a girl's silence is her consent. Islamic jurists have

traditionally held that Muslim women may only enter into marriage with Muslim men, On the other hand, the Qur'an allows Muslim men to marry women of the People, a term which includes Jews and Christians, but they must be chaste. However, fiqh law has held that it is makruh (reprehensible, though not outright forbidden) for a Muslim man to marry a nonMuslim woman in a non-Muslim country. One explanation for marriage restrictions is that they are pursuant to the principle that Muslims may not place themselves in a position inferior to that of the followers of other religions. Marriage within some predominantly Muslim countries still retains practices from pre-Islamic times. Endogamy, virilocality and polygyny are practiced in some Islamic countries. In some countries, however, polygamy is outlawed or restricted by new family codes; for example the Moudawwana in Morocco. Polygamy is permitted under restricted conditions, but it is not widespread. However, it is strongly discouraged in the Qur'an, which says, 'do justice to them all, but you won't be able to, so don't fall for one totally while ignoring other wife (wives)'. This also must be taken in historical context, as this was actually a restriction on the number of wives men of the Arabian tribes can take. Sometimes Pre-Islamic men had up to eight wives. Women are not allowed to engage in polyandry, whereas men are allowed to engage in polygyny. (Hallaq, M. S. (Ed.). (2007) Muslim women are not allowed to divorce during pregnancy. It is believed that the couple should have peace and be thankful during the pregnancy, and then see if perhaps the birth of the baby will change their minds about separating. (Hallaq, M. S. (Ed.). (2007)

Scope and limitation Study focused on the cultural beliefs and practices of Iranon mothers during pregnancy in Brgy. Pob.2, Parang Maguindanao. It aims to determine how the educational attainment and mixed marriage of Iranon mothers influences their beliefs and practices during pregnancy. Thesis is limited only to Iranon mothers in Brgy. Pob.2, Parang Maguindanao who are in their reproductive age and have been one of many time pregnant.

Data gathering procedure Prior to the collection, the researchers will send a letter to the college to seek her approval, also will send a letter to the Brgy. Chairman of Pob.2, Parang Maguindanao to allow the researcher to conduct a researcher on that said Brgy. And also as the permission from the respondents to answer the questions properly and will hand the questionnaire to them. For those respondents who are illiterate, the interpreter will request to interpreter the questions listed on the questionnaires. The researchers retrieved the questionnaires immediately after they answered. All the target of respondents was to answer to questions. Research Instruments The researchers used questionnaires in gathering necessary data. The questionnaires are composed of three (3) parts to answers the various questions.

Part I is the profile of the respondents including the educational attainment and mixed marriage. Part II wherein listed questions are the cultural beliefs of Iranon mother during pregnancy, it consist of 11 items. Part III where also listed the practices of Iranon mothers during pregnancy it consist of 12 questions. Statistical Treatment The questionnaires were retrieved immediately after it was answer by the respondents. It was answer by the respondents. It was counted to determine the total of respondents who were able to answer the question. The necessary data gathered, it was tallied and analyzed for interpretation. In treating this data it requires the use of statistical tools. The researchers used the frequency and percentage for the respondents profile and mixed marriage. In determining how the respondents concern to the cultural beliefs and practices during pregnancy. It was analyzed using the mean to obtain in each items statement by using the scale. Scale: 1.0-1.74 strongly disagree 1.75-2.49 disagree 2.50-3.32 agree 3.25-4.00 strongly agree

Table 6: Mixed marriages to cultural beliefs Test of significance df r tabulated r computed

.01 71 .305 .01

. . If r computed is less than the r tabulated, accept Ho

Table 6 shows that there is no significant relationship between the mixed marriages of Iranon mothers and their Cultural beliefs during pregnancy. Therefore, Ho2 is accepted According to (Sta. Romana-Cruz, 1996). Islam allows men to marry women from the people of the book. Muslim women have been famous for their superstitious beliefs and practices. They are also known for passing these traditional beliefs from generation to generation. The

Philippines, being an Asian country, has maintained and passed on a lot of customary beliefs that are being practiced by their ancestors. These practices may be based on religious beliefs, opinions, and/or real-life experiences of those who share it. These superstitious beliefs of Muslim women portray how people view the unknown and its means to appease the God who controls the future.

Table 7: Mixed marriages to practices Test of significance

df r tabulated r computed

.01 71 .305 .001

. . If r computed is less than the r tabulated, accept Ho

Table 7 shows that there is no significant relationship between the mixed marriages of Iranon mothers and their Cultural beliefs during pregnancy. Therefore, Ho2 is accepted According to (Hallaq, M. S. (Ed.). (2007) Marriage within some predominantly Muslim countries still retains practices from pre-Islamic times. Endogamy, virilocality and polygyny are practiced in some Islamic countries. In some countries, however, polygamy is outlawed or restricted by new family codes; for example the Moudawwana in Morocco. Polygamy is permitted under restricted conditions, but it is not widespread. However, it is strongly discouraged in the Qur'an, which says, 'do justice to them all, but you won't be able to, so don't fall for one totally while ignoring other wife (wives)'. This also must be taken in historical context, as this was actually a restriction on the number of wives men of the Arabian tribes can take. Sometimes Pre-Islamic

men had up to eight wives. Women are not allowed to engage in polyandry, whereas men are allowed to engage in polygyny. Table 2: Cultural beliefs of Iranon mothers during pregnancyCultural beliefs interpretation 1.All windows and doors should be wide open (langon a pintuannapesukansamaulad amay ka pembawata so ina). 2.Pregnant woman should avoid witnessing an eclipse.(so magingay na pananggilaniyan e kasilay so kenim). 3. .Pregnant woman should not partake of the food that she would eat.(so magingay na di kapakay tebiyanniyan so keninniyan). 4.Pregnant woman should not cry because they will have a difficult birth.(so magingay a babay na di kapakay muriyang kagia karegenan bata). 5.Pregnant woman should not allow to cut hair.(so magingay na di kapakay tebped sa buk) 6.Pregnant woman must not spread her 2 legs hen sitting.(so mgingay babae di niyan beka so duwa lisenniyan amayka pagayan). 7.Pregnant woman must not pass the river during night time.(so magingay na di kapakay mokit syako lawasaig amakyamagabi). 8.Pregnant woman must not eat twin banana.(so magingay na di kapakay kuman sa reping a saging). Mean SD

9.Pregnant woman must avoid the rope which shield to the roads and pathways.(so magingay a babay na pananggilanniyan su eket a bubulilin siyako ukitan). 10.The couple must lay in one direction.(so karumaya na pagiga sa isabo e kasasangur iran). 11.When visiting the house of a pregnant woman must enter directly inside the house.(amayka mamanipanik siya ko walay o magingay na dumayon sa lusod). Over all Total of Mean/Standard Deviation 2.77

2.66

2.40

2.41 2.56 2.44

2.86

2.61

2.25

2.57 2.69

2.60

.61

.67

.69

.83 .76 .78

.77

.76

.83

.70

.79

.75

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Disagree

Agree Disagree

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Scale: 1.0-1.74 strongly disagree 1.75-2.49 disagree 2.50-3.32 agree 3.25-4.00 strongly agree THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK The health beliefs model provides a framework for understanding the potential influences on an individuals decision to make use of available health services. Although the model provides for understanding factors operating at the individual level to influence the

decision to use reproductive health services, it does not examine factors operating beyond the individual level, nor does it include the role of community and system characteristics in shaping this decision. Thus, previous studies on the use of sexual and reproductive health services focus largely on the barriers and facilitator involved in the decision to seek care, that is, the modifying factors taken into account in the Health Beliefs Models (Abuidhail, J.& Fleming V.(2007)). These studies highlighted a range of potential modifying factors in a womans propensity to seek health care that are broadly categorized as demographic, socio-economic, cultural and health experiences characteristics. Demographic factors that have been shown to increase the likelihood of health services use are low parity. Both demographic and socio-economic determinants of the use of reproductive health services are mediated by cultural influences on health care seeking behavior that are shape the way an individual perceives her own health and available health services. Socio-economic factors, however, have been shown to be of greater importance than demographic factors in influencing the use of health services. Although demographic factors may shape a womans desire to make use of services (for example, younger women may have more modern attitudes towards health care), the socio-economic status of an individual and her household determines her economic factors, the determinants of reproductive health-service use have been found to be most consist with a womans educational attainment (Gharaibeh, M., Al-Amaitah, R. (1996)). Higher levels of educational attainment result in greater use of sexual and reproductive health services. Apparently, increased educational attainment influences services use in several ways, including an increased womans decision making power and awareness of health services, changing

marriage patterns and creating shifts in household dynamics (Gharaibeh, M., Al-Amaitah, R. (1996)). Community beliefs and norms relating to health care seeking behavior are reflected in individuals decisions which are based, to the extent, on hoe the community views their actions (Rutenberg and Watkins, 1997). Community beliefs concerning childbearing preferences and sexual and reproductive health behavior are strong influences on individual attitudes toward family planning and fertility preferences. In addition, Good burn in her colleagues (1995) note that in many cultures, the use of reproductive health services is an alien concept, because services are perceived as existing solely for curative purposes. This belief was also highlighted by Griffiths and Stephenson (2001) who found that women in India would only avail themselves for anatenatal care if they experienced problems during their pregnancies. Thus although demographic and socio-economic factors are key determinants of health services use, the individuals cultural environment and behavior influences the extent to which these factors can lead to services use. Health behaviors are a strong influence on individual attitudes towards family planning and fertility preferences (Gatrad, A. R. (1994)). In addition, Good burn and her colleagues(1994) note that in many cultures, the use of reproductive health services is an alien concept, because services are perceived as existing solely for curative purposes. This beliefs was also highlighted by (De Pacheo, M. R. & Hutti, M. H. (1998), who found that women in India would only avail themselves for antenatal care if they experienced problems during their pregnancies. Thus although demographic and socio-economic factors are key determinants of health services use, the individuals cultural environment and behavior influences the extent to which these factors can lead to service use. A womans previous exposure to health care

services has been shown to be a strong predictor of her propensity to make use of available reproductive health services (Charlmers, B., & Meyerm D. 1994) found that contact with health care professionals during pregnancy leads to an increased likelihood of postpartum contraceptive use. A womans positive previous experience with health care professionals can isntill confidence in and familiarity with care services, so that she may be more likely to use reproductive health services on future occasions. BIBLIOGRAPHY Sta. RomanaCruz, Neni. Dont Take a Bath on a Friday: Philippine Superstitions and Folk Beliefs. Manila: Tahanan Books, 1996. (Ertem, Kaynak, Kaynak, Ulukol, & Baskan Gulnar, 2001; Josooph, Abu, & Yu, 2004;Pearce & Mayho, 2004; Robinson & Raisler, 2005; Zaidi, 2003). Read more: http://www.beliefnet.com/Love-Family/Parenting/2000/05/Welcome-Your-BabyMuslim-Traditions.aspx#ixzz1y8giwnJ8 Harrison, A. (1991). " Cultural Beliefs about Pregnancy and Birth in Kuwait: The Experiences of Three Groups of Arab Mothers." Journal of Pain and Symptom Management6:466 475. Hallaq, M. S. (Ed.). (2007). Fiqh: According to Qur'an and Sunnah (Vol. l). Darussalam, Riyadh. [Context Link] Abuidhail, J.& Fleming, V. (2007) Beliefs and Practices of Postpartum infant care: Review if different cultures. British Journal of Midwifery, 15(7), 418-421

Chalmers, B., & Meyer, D. (1994). What women say about their birth experiences: a cross cultural study. Journal of Psychosomatic obstetrics & Gynecology, 15(4), 211-218 De pacheo, M. R., & Hutti, M. H.(1998). Cultural beliefs and health care practices of childbearing Filipino mothers. Mother Baby Journal, 3(1), 14-22 Gatrad, A. R. (1994). And Stephenson (2001) Attitudes and beliefs of Muslim mothers towards pregnancy and infancy. Archiveds of Disease in childhood, 71(2) 170-174. Gharaibeh, M., Al-Amaitah, R., Al Jada, N. (2005). Lifestyle practices of Muslim pregnant women. International Nursing Review, 52(2), 92-100. Hall, S., Giger, J., & Davidhizar, R. (1996). Cultural beliefs, values, and healing practices: impact on the perinatal period. Journal of Nursing Science, 1,99-104. Hundt, G. L., Beckerleg, S., Kassem, F., Abu-Jafar, A. M., et al.(2000). womens health custom made: Building on the 40 days for Arab women. Health care for women international, 21(6), 529-542 (Rutenberg and Watkins, 1997). Community beliefs concerning childbearing preferences and sexual and reproductive health behavior. Ustadza. Sauya D. Adtugan: Teaching of Islamic values Ustadz Ibrhim Kaul: Teaching Islamic Studies Values SKIA

Recommendation Based on the result or the findings of the study and the conclusion drawn, the researchers are recommending: 1. The department of health should conduct health Education to pregnant mothers in Brgy.

Pob.2, Parang Maguindanao. 2. The pregnant mother should attend OB class in order for them to have lnowledge in

pregnancies. 3. The pregnant mother should have their prenatal check-up in order for them to monitor

their health and the baby.

Table of Contents Table Page.i Acknowledgementii Chapter I Introduction..1 Statement of the problem..2

Significance of the study..2 Scope and Limitation....3 Conceptual Framework4 Theoretical Framework5 Chapter II Review of Related Literature...8 Chapter III Methodology...11 Research Design..11 Respondents of the study11 Data Gathering12 Research Instruments..12 Chapter IV Results and Discussion...13 Chapter V Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation..24 Bibliography...27

Letter..........i Questionnaires...ii Biography.iii