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Introduction:

Ship-shaped offshore structure

IHIAP Offshore Engineering Div Mohamad Faeze 14TH Jan 2014 Ver 1.0

Contents
1.1 Historical Overview of Offshore Structure Developments 1.2 Process of Offshore Oil and Gas Developments 1.3 System concepts for Deep/Ultra deep-Water Field Developments 1.4 Brief history of FPSO Installations 1.5 Trading Tankers vs Ship-Shaped Offshore Units 1.6 New Build vs Tanker Conversion 1.7 Layout and General Arrangement of FPSOs

1.1 Historical Overview of Offshore Structure Developments


Early History Energy is important to progress of civilization Industrial advances needs coal, oil, then gas Exploration initiated ashore then moved to offshore(late 1800s in California) Early 1930s, oil drilling was undertaken by derrick systems(timber) located in waters more than a mile World War II to Early 1970s In 1946, first steel offshore platform of tubular members was build to 8km off coast GoM (4.5m water depth, length 53m long, 23m wide) In 1947, more advanced bottom-supported platform or jackettype(JT) that includes drilling rig and equipment By 1970, the operating water depth for JT reach >80m After Early 1970s Impact of world oil shock in early 1970s had moved development of offshore oil into deeper water Late 1970s, fixed-type offshore structure reach 300m, >550m in late 1980s In 1970s, first concrete gravity platform build on land(new design concept) In 1990s began new design concepts that could be placed and operated in deeper water, hence era of FPSO began

1.2 Process of Offshore Oil and Gas Developments

Exploration

Exploratory drilling

Development drilling

Production

Storage and offloading

Transportation

1.3 System Concepts for Deep- and Ultra deep-Water Field Developments
Selection criteria
Environment, including water depth

Performance requirements for floating-type offshore


Appropriate work area, deck load capacity, possible storage capacity Acceptable stability & station-keeping

Production capacity Distance from field to shore or supporting infrastructure such as pipelines Required number of drilling centers and wells for each center Well-fluid chemistry, pressure and intervention or well-entry frequency for optimum well performance Risk to personnel

Sufficient strength to resist harsh environment

Durability to resist fatigue and corrosion actions

Possible capabilities for both drilling and production

Mobility when needed

Floating-type offshore structures


Semisubmersibles Spars Tension Leg Platforms(TLP) Ship-Shaped Offshore Units

1.4 Brief History of FPSO Installations


Oil storage and shuttle tanker-mooring facilities using converting trading tankers existed in late 1960s. The first vessels were connected by hawsers to catenary anchor leg mooring(CALM) systems. First dedicated FPSO was by Arco in Ardjuna field in Java Sea(1976). This was a concrete barge with steel tanks to storage refrigerated LPG moored using a rigid arm system. First tanker-based single-point moored FPSO facility is to be Castellon for Shell Offshore Spain(1976) In early 2000s, more than 90 FPSOs were in service and 24 FPSOs were under construction.

Fig1 FSO Ifrika in side-byside export arrangement

Fig2 FPSO Castellon at Castellon field offshore Spain in 1976

1.5 Trading tankers versus Shipshaped Offshore Units


Trading tankers Design condition : North Atlantic wave environment 20 to 25-year return period Predominantly wave actions Limited number of loading/offloading cycles At open sea for about 70 percent of the time Weather in any direction; rough weather avoidance possible Regular dry-docking every 5 years Without topsides Ship-shaped Offshore Units Design condition : Site-and tow-route specific environments 100-year return period Current as well as wind and wave actions More frequent loading/offloading cycles Offshore for 100 percent of the time Highly directional weather and weathervaning; rough weather avoidance not possible once on site Continuous operation usually without dry-docking With topsides and associated interaction effects between hull and topsides

1.6 Newbuild versus Tanker Conversion


Newbuild Design and fatigue lives for a field can be achieved easier Tanker Conversion Capital costs can be reduced

Technical, commercial, and environmental Design and construction schedule can be risks can be more easily contained faster and less extensive A system can be more easily designed to survive harsh environments Resale and residual values can be maximized Reusability opportunities can be improved Construction facility availability is increased Overall project supervision requirements can be less

1.7 Layout and General Arrangement of FPSOs


Factors affect deck area and GA
Hull form Turret location and size Accommodation location and size Ballast capacity and distribution Accommodation Double-side or double-bottom requirement Escape, evacuation, and rescue arrangements Offloading arrangements Margins for future process upgrading and expansion Machinery room Cargo and ballast tanks Offloading area

Layout can be divided into:


Main deck Topsides deck Mooring system

FPSO with an accommodation forward and internal turret

Reference
Guide of building and classing floating production installations. ABS(2004) Introduction to offshore structures Design, fabrication, installation. Graff,W.J(1981) Floating storage units and shuttle tankers of the world. OPL(2002) Handbook of ocean and underwater engineering. Myers,J. J., Holm, C.H., and McAlister,R.F.(1969)