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N A S A T E C H N I C A L T R A N S L A T I O N

NEW METHODS OF STUDYING NOISE A N D VIBRATION A N D CYBERNETIC DIAGNOSIS OF MACHINES A N D MECHANISMS Edited by K . M . Ragidskis
Abstrczcts of papers from the All-Union Symposizrm
held June 29 to JuZy 1, 1970 at Kaanas Polytechnical Institate, Kaunas, 1970

N A T I O N A L AERONAUTICS A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

WASHINGTON,

D. C.

M A Y 1972

TECH LIBRARY KAFB, NM


i

!.

NEW METHODS OF STUDYING NOISE AND VIBRATION AND CYBERNETIC DIAGNOSIS O F MACHINES AND MECHANISMS Edited by K. M. Ragul'skis

Translation of "Novyye Metody Issledovaniy Shumov i Vibratsiy i Kibe me ticheskay a Diagnosti ka Mashin i M ekhanizmov. A b str acts of p a p e r s f r o m the All-Union Symposium held June 29 to July 1, 1970 at Kaunas Polytechnical Institute, Kaunas, 1970

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


. . . .~

For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151

$3.00

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
1 Optimal Determination o f Changes i n P r o p e r t i e s of Random Phenomena References .................................................~...........2 The Problem o f Optimal S y n t h e s i s of Dynamic Models B y t h e Method of LP Search 3 References. 5 Est5mation of Dominant Parameters of Dynamic Systems 6 Adaptive Model For Evaluation o f Weight Function and Level of Noise of Linear Dynamic System 8 Study o f S t o c h a s t i c Approximation Algorithm B y t h e "Monte Carlo" Method, Used To Estimate The Weight Function 9 Estimation of Parameters of Nonlinear Hammerstein Operator 11 Estimation of Parameters and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Nofllinear Dynamic Systems 13 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n A s A Task of S e q u e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 15 D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Random Forced O s c i l l a t i o n s and S e l f - O s c i l l a t i o n s Perturbed B y Random Actions 16 Determination of P a r t i a l Damping C o e f f i c i e n t s of Linear Systems From Mean Periods of Enveloped of Random O s c i l l a t i o n s 17 I n t e g r a l Equations A s A Method of Determining The Spectrum of Normal Modes o f Background V i b r a t i o n s 18 A p p l i c a t i o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n Analysis For Diagnosis o f t h e Condition O f Mechanisms 19 Method and Device For Q u a s i - P a r a l l e l Analysis of Sh.ort-Term Acoustical S i g n a ~ s 21 Use o f d C o r r e l a t i o n Based On Orthogonal F i l t e r s I n A c o u s t i c a l Machine Diagnosis 22 Determination of Equivalent Random P e r t u r b a t i o n During Modeling of Complex Dynamic Systems ............................................ 23 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Model Of Human Operator With Random V i b r a t i o n Actions 24 Multichannel Diagnosis o f Machines By D i g i t a l Computer ................27 Cybernetic Method of Studying V i b r a t i o n Acoustical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Complex S t r u c t u r e s 29 References 30 Automation of P r o c e s s i n g of Experimental Data and Development Recommendations For S e l e c t i o n of Optimal Vibration-Absorbing Coating..31 References 33 Random O s c i l l a t i o n s and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Parameters of P r e c i s i o n Ball Bearings 34 Use o f D i g i t a l Computer For Determination of E f f e c t o f V i b r a t i o n -Damping Coating By D i s p l a c e m h t of Resonant Frequencies of S t r u c t u r e . 3 6 F a c t o r s Determining V i b r a t i o n A c o u s t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B a l l Bearings ..............................................................37 Study of Noise Formation I n T h r o t t l i n g Devices For Measurement of Noise C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Fans 38

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Page . Method o f Studying Relaxation O s c i l l a t i o n s o f A Ball I n t h e S e p a r a t o r o f A Ball Bearing Unit 40 The S t a t i s t i c a l S t r e n g t h Reserve of Discrete Syste,,1 s 42 Influence o f Methods o f Fastening o f Accelerometer On I t s Frequency C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 44 Study o f C o l l i s i o n s o f Machine Elements On t h e Basis of Phenomen o l o g i c a l Models of I n e l a s t i c Media 45 Methods of Studying V i b r a t i o n s of High-speed Diesels 46 D i f f e r e n t i a l Equation For H o r i z o n t a l Loop o f S i g n a l C a r r i e r 48 Shudy o f F l e x u r a l O s c i l l a t i o n s of Magnetic Drums 49 V i b r a t i o n s of A S t o r a g e Drum of A BESM-6 Computer 50 Study o f V i b r a t i o n and Dynamic Balancing o f Mechanisms. Including Several P a r a l l e l . S h a f t s 51 Analog Computer S t u d i e s of O s c i l l a t i o n s of Systems Having H y s t e r e s i s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ........................................................ 52 Electromagnetic Impact Machines 54 Estimation and Normalization of Operating Modes o f V i b r a t i o n Technological Machines ................................................. 56 Analysis o f t h e Dynamics of Multi-Mass E l a s t i c Systems By A Frequency Method 57 Study of Repeated Impact I n f l u e n c e of P r e s s u r e R o l l e r O n Magnetic Tape 58 Diagnosis o f S t a t e s o f P l a n e t a r y Gear Reduction For Certain Parameters 59 P o s s i b i l i t y of T e s t i n g t h e Technical Condition of I n t e r n a l Combustion Engines On t h e Basis of Noise And V i b r a t i o n Parameters 60 P o s s i b i l i t y of Estimating Wear By Vibration-Acoustical Methods 61 Diagnosis o f Rear Axle Reduction Gear o f ZIL-130 Motor Vehicle By Acoustical Method ...................................................... 62 Use o f ' S t a t i s t i c a l Methods I n t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f V i b r a t i o n s And t h e Dynamics o f Mechanisms and Machines ................................ 63 Optimization of t h e Cross S e c t i o n of t h e Frames o f A M u l t i s t a g e V i b r a t i n g Stand ........................................................ 65 A S e l f Tuning Control System For t h e Motion of A V i b r a t i n g Stand .......66 Compensation of t h e I n f l u e n c e of An Electrodynamic V i b r a t i n g Stand On C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mechanical S t r u c t u r e s I n V i b r a t i o n T e s t s 68 Low Frequency V i b r a t i n g Stand For P h y s i c a l Modeling o f t h e Movements of Complex Dynamic Systems 69 Optimalizing Input C o n t r o l l e r of O s c i l l a t i n g Amplitude For F a t i g u e T e s t i n g o f Parts 70 Analysis o f Mechanical System With Matched V i b r a t o r 72 Muftichannel Apparatus For Diagnosis o f V i b r a t i n g Mode o f Main Ship Engines ................................................................ 73 Problems of t h e Dynamics And S t a b i l i t y o f A C y l i n d r i c a l S o l i d On An A e r o s t a t i c Support 74 References 74

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Page Study o f V i b r a t i o n s o f A Magnetic D r u m With Pneumatic Drive And Pneumatic Suspension 75 V i b r a t i o n Damping o f Bearing Units 76 I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f V i b r a t i o n s With Random Amplitudes and Frequencies 78 Some S p e c i f i c s o f t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f Dynamic Systems With D i s t r i b u t e d And Lumped Parameters 79 A S e t o f Apparatus For Measurement o f O s c i l l a t i o n s o f A Moving Tape 81 Study of V i b r a t i o n D i s k s With Magnetic Coatings 82 Some Problems of P r a c t i c a l Analysis o f Vibration-Acoustical P r o p e r t i e s o f C e n t r i f u g a l Pumps 84 Determination of Primary Sources of Noise In Machines By C o r r e l a t i o n Mathods 85 Study of O p t i c a l Dynamic Models o f F l e x i b l e Rotor Systems By t h e LP-Search Methods 86 Study of Methods o f S e p a r a t i n g Useful S i g n a l s From General Noise o f Duplicating Machines I n Solving The Problem of Automatic Recognition of Origin o f Noises I n Concrete Mechanisms Using D i g i t a l Computers ....87 S t a t i s t i c a l S t u d i e s o f Random V i b r a t i o n s o f A R a i l r o a d Car Body .......89 Method of Measurements During I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Motorcycle Noise ....... 91 Determination and C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Noise Created by Turboprop Passenger A i r c r a f t I n t h e Area o f A i r p o r t s .......92 93 Study o f A i r Noise of Pneumatic Loom By S t a t i s t i c a l Methods A Water Spray A s A Source of Random Force For Acoustical Measurements.94 References ............................................................ 95 Noise A t Acoustical Receiver R e s u l t i n g From S p a t i a l l y Noncorrelated Sources D i s t r i b u t e d Over A S u r f a c e .................................... 96 Study o f t h e Noise o f A D i e s e l On A T r a c t o r ........................... 98 Automatic Method of Studying Sound I n s u l a t i o n o f C y l i n d r i c a l Tubes With Various Sound Radiation Conditions .............................. 100 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Information O n C e r t a i n t y of Unstable Noise In t h e Process o f I t s Action O n t h e H u m a n Organism .......................... 103 The Problem o f t h e S t a t i c C a l c u l a t i o n of Vibration I n s u l a t i o n Systems With S i x And Twelve Degrees o f Freedom ....................... 105 Reduction o f Noise And V i b r a t i o n o f Pneumatic Loom Using V i b r a t i o n - I n s u l a t i n g Supports ........................................ 106 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Hypothesis o f Y e . S Sorokin To Include Nonlinear E l a s t i c Damping Elements 107 O s c i l l a t i o n s o f E l a s t i c a l l y Supended Body With Center of Gravity Mismatched To Center o f E l a s t i c i t y o f Support 109 One Method o f Damping Parametric O s c i l l a t i o n s o f A Rod Considering A Damping Suspension 110 Study of Noise And V i b r a t i o n Upon Impact 112 Theory of Multichannel Compensation System For O s c i l l a t i o n s In S t r u c t u r e ( F i e l d ) of A r b i t r a r y Form 113 C e r t a i n Types o f Multichannel Systems For Compensation of Structural Oscillations 115 Measurement o f t h e A t t e n u a t i o n F a c t o r In O s c i l l a t i n g Systems 117

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V

References.......................................................... Study of Dynamic Pulse Type Loads Transmitted To Foundation By New Types of Shuttleless Looms ...................................... 119 Damping of Oscillations of Rods By Electromechanical Feedback ....... 120 Study of Noise In Vibration At Industrial Enterprises of the 123 Lithuanian SSR ...................................................... Development of Multichannel Vibration Measuring Instrument..........124 The Problem of Performing Studies of Harmonic Loads and Loads Which Attenuate With Time........................................... 125 New Developments of Vibration-Measuring Devices With Expanded Frequency Range ..................................................... 127 Study And Elimination of Influence o f Pressure Oscillations In Pipe Systems On Operating Process And Vibration of Elements of Piston Compressor Station ........................................... 129 Analysis of Hydrodynamic Noise Arising As Liquid Flows Over Rough Surfaces............................................................ 130 Method And Installation For Study o f Processes of Vibration Movements of Parts And Accompanying Phenomenas ................................ 131 Experimental Determination of Changes o f Dynamic Characteristics of High-speed Rotors 0pera.t ing In Ball-Bearing Mounts With Passage of Time ............................................................. 132 References .......................................................... 132 Calculation of Vibrations of Distributed Elastic Systems By Finite Elements Me~hod . .................................................... ~ 3 3 The Problem of Decreasing Vibrations of Electric Machines ...........135 Oscillations of A Rotor Resulting From Inaccuracy of Manufacture of Ball Bearings .................................................... 137 Study of the Influence of Resonant Twisting Oscillations In A Motor Vehicle Transmission On Vibration And Noise In the Cab .............. 138 Application of Dimensional Analysis To Study of Vibration Activity of Piston Engines ................................................... 139 Study of Vibtations In the Direction of Increasing And Decreasing Time ................................................................ 142 Contactless Method of Measuring Velocity of Impacting Elements ......144 Study of Mechanical Oscillating Systems Using Natural Vibrators 146 The Excitation of Periodic And Random Torsional Oscillations In 148 Rotating Systems .................................................... Identification of Characteristics o f Dynamic System of Cylindrical Grinder By "Black Box" Method During Grindings ...................... 149 Spectral-Correlation Analysis of Vibrations of Aviation Engine Under' Test Stand Conditions ............................................... 150 Regression Analysis of Noise of An Aircraft Engine .................. 152 Some Problems In the Application of the Two-Dimensional Probability Distribution Function For Analysis of Acoustical Noise and 6ignals..153 One Contactless Method of Studying the Natural Oscillations of Elastic Structuses.................................................. 155 Design of Vibration-Protective Systems With Random Vibration Action 157

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Page Certain Problems of Machine Acoustics .............................. 158 160 References Determination of the Parameters of Mechanical Oscillating Systems On the Basis of the Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics As A Means of Vibration Diagnosis of Machines..... ............................ 161 Problems of Identification of Parameters of Dynamic Systems Based On Tape Drives ..................................................... 162 New Methods of Studying the Dynamics of Impact Processes ...........164 New Methods of Studying And Increasing the Dynamic Accuracy of Precision J I G Boring Machines ...................................... 166

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vii

N A S A TT F-694
NEW METHODS OF STUDYING NOISE AND VIBRATION AND CYBERNETIC DIAGNOSIS OF MACHINES AND MECHANISMS

ABSTRACT. Brief summaries are p r e s e n t e d of r e s e a r c h work performed i n t h e a r e a o f t h e s t u d y of n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n and c y b e r n e t i c d i a g n o s i s of machines and mechanisms. The r e p o r t s were o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t e d a t an All-Union Symposium h e l d June 29, 1970 through J u l y 1, 1970.
OPTIMAL DETERMINATION . . _ _ OF ..C - HANGES I N~PROPERTIES OF R A N D O M PHENOMENA
L. A. Telksnys

(Vilnyus)

The problem i s s t u d i e d of determining t h e most probable moments i n time f o r a change i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f random phenomena on t h e b a s i s of s i n g l e o r r e p e a t e d r e a l i z a t i o n s , f i x e d i n o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l s of f i n i t e length. This problem arises i n many a r e a s , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n , as well as i n t h e d i a g n o s i s of machines and mechanisms. Statement of problem.
Let
X ( t )=

/?*

L
{ {
k1

. P J ( r ) , t~ bo, u)
2)

(t )

f E ( u , u2),

be a random phenomenon with mathematical e x p e c t a t i o n


m
(1) =

m ( l ) ( t ) ,I
tn((t),

E(Uo,

u)

E ( u , u2),

and with c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n k (4,

T )=

(%,

T ) ;

8, T E ( U o .
8,
TE(U,

U)

k8(8,7);

up).

X(l) ( t ) , X(2) ( t ) a r e normal. X ( t ) , t E (u,u,)

Eioment i n t i m e u, when random phenomenon The

changes i t s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i s unknown o r random.

a p r i o r i d i s t r i b u t i o n a ( u ) a t i n s t a n t u e i t h e r i s known, o r i t i s assumed t h a t
it i s c o n s t a n t over t h e i n t e r v a l i n q u e s t i o n , i . e . , a(u) = c o n s t .

.~~ . . .. ..

. . ..

- ... . .

. ..-

~~-~ .-

. .-

..

. -

... . .

- - ..-

-. -~~

*Numbers i n t h e margin i n d i c a t e p a g i n a t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n t e x t .

I t i s r e q u i r e d , u s i n g one o r more r e a l i z a t i o n s x ( t ) , E (u , u ) of random 0 2 phenomenon X(t) , Q ( u u ) , t o f i n d t h e most p r o b a b l e e s t i m a t e u* of parameter 0' 2

/A

u.

That i s , we must determine t h e most p r o b a b l e moment i n time u* when random

phenomenon X(l) ( t ) w i l l b e converted t o random phenomenon X ( 2 ) (t)

The problem i s s o l v e d by determining t h e maximum of t h e a p o s t e r i o r i d i s t r i b u t i o n d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n of t h e d e s i r e d parameter u. I t i s found on t h e b a s i s of t h e maximum o r minimum o f t h e f u n c t i o n , r e l a t e d i n some manner t o t h e

a p o s t e r i o r i d i s t r i b u t i o n d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n 11,4].
C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of u* can be performed i n p r a c t i c e by computer

.
REFERENCES

Examples of s o l u t i o n o f t h e problem by computer a r e p r e s e n t e d .

1.

2.
3.

4.

T e l ' k s n y s , L. A . , V. Yu. Chernyauskas, "Determination of Most Probable Moment i n Time f o r Change i n t h e Nature of a Random P r o c e s s . Report a t F i r s t All-Union Symposium on S t a t i s t i c a l Problems i n Engineering Cybernetics," Moscow, 14-18 February 1967, on f i l e at All-Union Ins t i t u t e of S c i e n t i f i c and Technical Information, 812-69. Telksnys, L. A . , V . Cerniauskas, "Determination of t h e Moments of Time of Change i n S t a t i s t i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of Random P r o c e s s e s , " IFAC Symposium, 1970, I d e n i t i f i c a t i o n and Process Parameter E s t i m a t i o n . Telksnys, L. A . , "Determination of Optimal Bayes Learning Algorithm i n Determination of Moments i n Time f o r Change of P r o p e r t i e s of Random S i g n a l s , ' 1 Avtomatika i TeZemekhanika, No. 6, 1969. Telksnys, L. A . , "Determination of Most Probable Moments i n Time f o r Change i n P r o p e r t i e s of Random S i g n a l s , I T Avtomatika i VychisZiteI 'naya Tekhnika, No. 1, 1970.

-._.. .. -I

c 4
j

THE PROBLEM OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF . DYNAMIC MODELS BY THE METHOD OF LP SEARCH .. - .. . OF .- ... ... . - .. .- .
M. D. Genkin, V . K . Grinkevich, I . M . ,

S o b o l ' , R . B . S t a t n i k o v (Moscow)

The p r e s e n t work s t u d i e s a new u n i v e r s a l method f o r s e a r c h f o r optimal parameters based on t h e u s e o f Haar f u n c t i o n s (2,4). This method can b e c a l l e d LP s e a r c h , s i n c e i n p l a c e o f t h e random p o i n t s i n a multidimensional cube, we u s e t h e p o i n t i n an LP
T

sequence ( 2 ) .

These

p o i n t s a r e n o t random and are d i s t r i b u t e d much more evenly t h a n random p o i n t s . However, c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e s e p o i n t s by computer i s q u i t e simple. For f u r t h e r improvement o f t h e parameters o f t h e models, w e used o r d i n a r y l o c a l methods ( 1 ) . Incidentally, i n many problems, no improvement was r e q u i r e d , s i n c e a s u f f i c i e n t l y good model was achieved i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e .
W e n o t e two more s i t u a t i o n s , i n which t h e u s e of random, and p a r t i c u l a r l y
LP s e a r c h , i s q u i t e expedient:

a) If i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o analyze t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of o p t i m i z a t i o n of a model on t h e b a s i s of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a o r t o s t u d y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f many parameters, t h i s can b e performed u s i n g t h e same t e s t p o i n t s ; b) If c o n d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s s e p a r a t e a nonconvex s e t i n t h e space o f models, convergence of l o c a l methods may occur only i n a c e r t a i n a r e a around t h e optimum; t h i s a r e a can b e reached by random o r LP s e a r c h .

W e s h a l l r e p r e s e n t t h e i n e r t i a l and r i g i d i t y parameters, as well as t h e


damping c o e f f i c i e n t s , by c x l , . . . , c x r . Permissible v a r i a t i o n s within t h e l i m i t s of t h e d e f i n e d kinematic p l a n i n d i c a t e t h a t

Then t h e dynamic model R

(with f i x e d k i n e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e E) i s determined by E t h e p o i n t ( a l , . .a ) i n an r-dimensional p a r a l l e l e p i p e d ( 1 ) . . r. -- __ - . . ~-l T h i s formula f o r R corresponds t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : models r e t e r t o

two systems of o b j e c t s A and B y between which a homomorphic mapping o f system A i n a c e r t a i n system A ' and a homomorphic mapping o f B i n a c e r t a i n system B ' can b e e s t a b l i s h e d such t h a t A ' and B' a r e isomorphic. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f isomorphism (homomorphism, i s o f u n c t i o n a l i s m ) o b t a i n s between t h e model and p r o t o t y p e ( I ) . 3

'In c o n s t r u c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e model, t h e f o l l o w i n g problem arises : from t h e s e t of a l l RE, s e l e c t an optimal model which maximizes a c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a l f u n c t i o n a l , dependent on t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e system, d e s c r i b i n g dynamic model vector

RE.
CY

I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , each such f u n c t i o n a l depends on t h e p a r a Therefore, ..,CY r'

meters a1,.

w e write i t i n t h e form o f

Y -

(a) where t h e

= ( C X ~ , . . . , C Yw ~h ) i,l e y can be c a l l e d t h e q u a l i t y index.

Assuming t h a t i n a c e r t a i n c l o s e d area

belonging t o p a r a l l e l e p i p e d (1)

Then parameter

+ CY

w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e optimal parameter under c o n d i t i o n

r,

while t h e corresponding model RE("

) i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e optimal model
4,

under c o n d i t i o n i n t h e form
4,

Y-

r . For (a( T I .

brevity, t h e values of

( a ) where
-.-

&r

w i l l be w r i t t e n

Using t h e p l a n p r e s e n t e d i n [2] (p. 219)

, the

p o i n t s Q, = (9, ,l , . .qtYN)J , For each

were c a l c u l a t e d , forming t h e LP
p o i n t HQ,, piped [ l ] :

sequence i n t h e N-dimensional cube.

/6

a test point a (2) = (a1 (2) ,.--,aN ( I ) ) was determined i n t h e p a r a l l e l e -

Then t h e system of e q u a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e dynamic o b j e c t b e i n g s t u d i e d w i t h parameter

O l ( ' )

was s o l v e d , and t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f i n t e r e s t were c a l c u l a t e d ,

By looking through t h e sequence o f p o i n t s (2 = 0 , 1, 2 , performed by r e g u l a r methods. the p points.

...,k

- l ) , the p

"best" p o i n t s were s e l e c t e d , from which "improvementll of t h e parameters was However, t h e v a l u e of t h e f u n c t i o n a l s s t u d i e d was improved only s l i g h t l y by r e g u l a r methods i n comparison with t h e b e s t of

Thus, t h e s e s t u d i e s confirmed t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of g l o b a l LP s e a r c h i n comparison w i t h random s e a r c h ( t h e number of s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g t h e g l o b a l extreme f o r f u n c t i o n a l s w i t h m u l t i p l e extremes i s i n c r e a s e d ) , and i n many c a s e s improvements are made i n comparison with any r e g u l a r s e a r c h methods.

t
1.

REFERENCES Chzhu, S. Ya. and V. Prager, "Latest Achievements in Optimal Planning of Structures," Mekhanika, No. 6, (118), 1969.

ESTIMATION OF DOMINANT ___ _ _ P A F T E F S OF DYNAMIC - - SYSTEMS .


I . I . B a l t r u n a s (Vil'nyus)

Statement of Problem.

The term "dominant parameters o f a dynamic system"

refers t o : t h e t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t , t i m e c o n s t a n t and p u r e delay.


The problem c o n s i s t s of c o n s t r u c t i n g a s e l f - t u n i n g model, i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e dominant parameters o f t h e dynamic system. Symbols. x ( t ) i s t h e i n p u t s i g n a l ( i t i s assumed t h a t x ( t ) i s a random

p r o c e s s , s t a b l e i n t h e broad s e n s e ) ; z ( t ) = y ( t ) + n ( t ) i s t h e observed s i g n a l

a t t h e o u t p u t o f t h e o b j e c t ; y ( t ) i s n o i s e (assumed t o b e a s t a b l e Gaussian
p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o "white n o i s e " ) . P ( t ) = A ( t ) + ( x ( t ) , g ( t ) ) i s t h e output s i g n a l o f t h e model, A(t) and B(t)

/z

are i n t h e g e n e r a l , case t h e v e c t o r s of t h e tuned parameters o f t h e model a t . moment i n time t; A ( t ) i s r e l a t e d t o y ) t ) l i n e a r l y and t o --nonlinearly;


n

, .

i(t)
, .

$ ( x ( t ) B ( t ) ) i s a known v e c t o r f u n c t i o n of i t s argument x, B. yA(t) , y g ( t ) are d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n s o f time ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n s t a n t s ) ;


y i s t h e i n t e r v a l of g l i d i n g summation, T i s t h e l e n g t h o f r e a l i z a t i o n s o f pro-

cesses x ( t ) , z ( t )

The s e l f - t u n i n g a l g o r i t h m i s achieved u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s :

The q u a l i t y c r i t e r i o n Q, of t h e a d a p t i v e p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l lowing f u n c t i o n a l s :

Q,(Ar, gr, t )= [z ( t )- A ( t ) 'p (x ( t ) , i ( t ) ) r,

-------.----..-.IIII~111111..11.1.111111111111.11111.1.1.l1ll111

111 1111111111111 1 1 1 1 1 1I 1 1 1 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 111111

!
1

One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of problems o f t h i s c l a s s i s t h a t t h e v e c t o r of parameters o f ( f o r example, t h e time c o n s t a n t of t h e i n e r t i a l l e n g t h , delay) i s i n c l u d e d n o n l i n e a r l y i n t h e e q u a t i o n of t h e c i r c u i t . The a d a p t i v e system is s t u d i e d by t h e method of s t a t i s t i c a l modeling by d i g i t a l computer, i . e . , a d i s c r e t e analog of t h e continuous system i s studied. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e performed f o r :

1. D e t e r m i n a b i l i t y o f t h e dominating parameters of t h e dynamic system a s a

f u n c t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n p u t s i g n a l x ( t ) .
2 . The accuracy of t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e s e parameters a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e

/E

t y p e of a d a p t a t i o n a l g o r i t h m and t h e i n t e n s i t y of n o i s e n ( t ) . with g l i d i n g summation, squares algorithm.

For t h i s pur-

pose, t h e f o l l o w i n g a l g o r i t h m s are compared: t h e g r a d i e n t algorithm, algorithm s t o c h a s t i c approximation a l g o r i t h m and t h e l e a s t

3 . C e r t a i n recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d on u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e a l g o r i t h m s .

ADAPTIVE MODEL FOR EVA&UATION OF WEIGHT FUNCTION AND LEVEL OF NOISE OF LINEAR DYNAMIC S Y S T K M A. A. Nyamura and K. I . Rashchyus (Kaunas)
A s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a d a p t a t i o n i n an a d a p t i v e model,

designed f o r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e weight f u n c t i o n and n o i s e l e v e l o f a l i n e a r dynamic system. S i n c e t h e weight f u n c t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i s n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e weight c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e model i s performed on t h e b a s i s of r e s u l t s Of o b s e r v a t i o n o f p e r t u r b a t i o n of x ( t ) and t h e o u t p u t c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e o b j e c t z ( t ) by g r a d i e n t methods and s t o c h a s t i c approximation. Formulas a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e speed of t h e a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s , i . e . , t h e p r o c e s s of automatic adjustment of weight coe f f i c i e n t s of t h e model i n t h e c a s e o f a q u a s i - s t a b l e o b j e c t and when n o i s e n ( t ) a t i t s output i s white n o i s e . I t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e a d a p t a t i o n time i s l e s s when t h e a d a p t i v e system o p e r a t e s u s i n g t h e g r a d i e n t a l g o r i t h m . The d u r a t i o n of a d a p t a t i o n of a d i s c r e t e a d a p t i v e system o p e r a t i n g u s i n g t h e algorithm of s t e e p e s t d e s c e n t i s s t u d i e d .
An experimental s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d of a d i s c r e t e a d a p t i v e system by t h e

method of s t a t i s t i c a l modeling u s i n g t h e UMI d i g i t a l c o n t r o l machine. turbation of x

Inves-

t i g a t i o n was performed w i t h r e a l i z a t i o n of t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s o f i n p u t p e r with t h r e e l e v e l s of n o i s e n The dependence OS t h e r a t e of i i' tuning of t h e weight c o e f f i c i e n t s on t h e form of c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n of t h e i n p u t s i g n a l and on t h e n o i s e l e v e l a t t h e o u t m t of t h e o b j e c t i s demonstrated.

STUDY OF STOCHASTIC APPROXIMATION ALGORITHM BY THE " M O N T E CARLO" MEMOD, USED TO ESTIMATE THE WEIGHT FUNCTION
N . A. Arbachyauskene (Kaunas)

The e s t i m a t i o n of t h e weight f u n c t i o n o f a l i n e a r dynamic system by t h e method o f s t o c h a s t i c approxiniation i s analyzed f o r t h e case when t h e number of r e s u l t s of observations i s f i n i t e .

1 9

Estimates of t h e v e c t o r o f weight co-

e f f i c i e n t s B are c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e formula:

&+,
n

(I+

1)=&+1

(i)+y(i) [ z ( i + 1) -FT,, (i) Bl+l (i)] F/+, (i),

(1)

where BZ,l

i s an estimate o f t h e v e c t o r weight c o e f f i c i e n t B (bo,bl,.

f f ( i ) i s t h e i n p u t signal; F Z + l ( i ) = ( f ( i ) , f ( i - 1)

...f ( i
m

.. ,bZ]T.,

Z))T i s t h e v e c t o r

o f t h e i n p u t s i g n a l ; z z ( i ) i s t h e o u t p u t s i g n a l observed with n o i s e , i . e . , z ( i ) = x ( i ) + n ( i ) ; n ( i ) i s t h e n o i s e a t t h e o u t p u t of t h e o b j e c t ; y ( i ) i s a series of p o s i t i v e numbers, s a t i s f y i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n

c
i=O

y ( i ) -+ a;
i =O

Yz(i) <

03*

i i s t h e i t e r a t i o n number, Z i s t h e number of components of v e c t o r B and F .


A s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e e s t i m a t e of v e c t o r

6 z + 1 by

t h e method o f

stochas-

t i c approximation, p a r t i c u l a r l y with a high n o i s e l e v e l , can b e produced o n l y 4 5 a f t e r a tremendous number o f i t e r a t i o n s (10 -10 ) . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h i s

g r e a t number o f p o i n t s of r e a l i z a t i o n s of i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l s r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l of time. Litvakov Therefore, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y i s s t u d i e d of using a repeated l i s t i n g algorithm, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f which was provided by B. M .

The accuracy o f r e s t o r a t i o n of a parameter i n a l i m i t e d number of i t e r a t i o n s depends on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n p u t s i g n a l f ( i ) , n o i s e l e v e l n ( i ) and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a t u n i n g s t e p l e n g t h y ( i ) . meter y ( i ) can b e changed f r e e l y . I n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e Monte C a r l o method allowed c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c s o f t h e algorithm with r e p e a t e d l i s t i n g t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e following f a c t o r s on t h e accuracy of e s t i m a t i o n was determined: a) I n p u t s i g n a l c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n ; b) n o i s e a t t h e o u t p u t o f t h e o b j e c t ; c) number o f reOnly p a r a -

/E

, ,,

... . . ..

...

~.

results o f observations.

Practical recommendations are given for selection of

the tuning step length T(i) as a function of these factors.

1 0

____...-_..,.,...

... ,. ..

.,._,. ,.,.,,., ,, .,

..

I I I.

, . I

I ,

,1111

I I,

111

i.

ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS OF NONLINEAR HAMMERSTEIN OPERATOR ... .


G. A. Rubikas (Kaunas)
A n o n l i n e a r , u n i v a r i a t e , i n e r t i a l o b j e c t of known s t r u c t u r e i s i d e n t i f i e d

by a Hammerstein model of t h e following form: l,= here I


Yk

m
u k

a
vjCi(P(Xk-j)+%

=
J - 0 1-0

k=l, 2,

.. -

(1)

i s t h e measured o u t p u t of o b j e c t yk t o g e t h e r with a d d i t i v e n o i s e

a c t i n g on t h e o u t p u t ; { + i ( x ) ) i s a system o f l i n e a r l y independent f u n c t i o n s of i n p u t s i g n a l x, v j

= O,m,

j' = O,n a r e

unknown c o e f f i c i e n t s , e s t i m a t i n g t h e corresponding

parameters of t h e o b j e c t s . Various mathematical methods allow us t o c r e a t e v a r i o u s algorithms f o r c In o r d e r t o improve t h e i t e r a t i o n procedure, we r e i' j' p l a c e t h e p a i r e d products w.c by a s i n g l e c o e f f i c i e n t h j i . C a l c u l a t i o n can J i be performed u s i n g t h e following two a l g o r i t h m s : 1) an algorithm produced by t h e l e a s t s q u a r e s method ( t h e MNK algorithm) and 2) an algorithm produced by t h e s t o c h a s t i c approximation method ( t h e SA algorithm) The MNK a l g o r i t h m : hv+l=r,-:IL+l
A

d e t e r m i n a t i o n of v

h e r e hv+l i s t h e v e c t o r h i n t h e (v + 1 ) - t h i t e r a t i o n ,
-1 rw+l i s a m a t r i x c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n p u t s i g n a l x i n t h e (v + 1 ) - t h i t e r a -

tion

r ; : l
where when

= (1

+ t ) r;l-

(v

+
@v

r ; l

'pv+l)-l v 'r ; r

Q ~ r+ yl ~

= 'pv (Pi.

cp:'[cp"(xv-o).
cpa(Xv-l),

. . ., 9 . (Xv-0).

cPoj+)r
* *

--

. .. ,

90(xv-m)9

* cP,(x.-31 ;

11

h e r e Zu+l i s t h e o u t p u t o f t h e o b j e c t measured t o g e t h e r w i t h n o i s e uU + l ' L = 2 'l 0 - l = aI, where I i s a u n i t m a t r i x ; 0 0 3 ' 0

a i s a c e r t a i n number, 1
The SA a l g o r i t h m -

2 1000.

h e r e h U + l , q = 0, m, E , = O,n i s t h e En-th c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e (v + 1) t h e i t e r a t i o n 5n { + i ; (x) i s a system of l i n e a r l y independent f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n p u t s i g n a l

=>
u i s t h e j t e r a t i o n number, 0

<

<

1 ( a = 0.55).

The algorithms s u g g e s t e d allow t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of e x p r e s s i o n (1) t o b e determined with a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f n o i s e a t t h e o u t p u t .


S A algorithm.

I t should be noted

t h a t t h e i t e r a t i o n speed and q u a l i t y o f t h e MNK a l g o r i t h m i s b e t t e r t h a n o f t h e

12

ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS ___ ...


A. K. Nenorta (Kaunas)

C e r t a i n methods are s t u d i e d f o r determining t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r a -

meters o f n o n l i n e a r dynamic systems on t h e b a s i s of o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e i r i n p u t q u a n t i t i e s x ( t ) and o u t p u t q u a n t i t i e s y ( t ) .


A n o n l i n e a r dynamic system can b e d e s c r i b e d approximately by a segment of

/z

t h e f u n c t i o n a l v o l t e r r a series
0

P 0)= wo(t) + J
0
m m

Wl(U x (t

- Xl) dh, + - h8)~


h A,,

+JJ
0 0

wg(L AJ x ( t -A,) x ( t

where w ( t ) i s a f u n c t i o n , dependent on t h e i n i t i a l s t a t e o f t h e system; 0 w ( A ) i s a weight f u n c t i o n , d e f i n i n g t h e l i n e a r p o r t i o n of t h e o u t p u t 1 1 quantity; w2(A1,A2) i s a weight f u n c t i o n , d e f i n i n g t h e second o r d e r component of t h e output q u a n t i t y ; y ( t ) i s t h e output v a l u e of a model of t h e dynamic system. I n o r d e r t o estimate t h e n o n l i n e a r dynamic system o p e r a t o r b e i n g s t u d i e d , we assume w ( t ) = 0. 0 Estimates w i l l b e sought i n t h e following form:

where + j (A1) ,$(A2)

i s a system o f known continuous f u n c t i o n s , s a t i s f y i n g t h e

( A ) , i f j = p and A condition $.(A ) = 1 1 P 2 1 which i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t ;

= A2,

t h e method of s e l e c t i o n of

(j = 1,2, k ; p = 0 , l ,. , k ) a r e unknown c o e f f i c i e n t s , e s t i m a t e s of jp which must be found. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e weight f u n c t i o n s wl(A1) and

...,

..

w2(A1,A2) can be p r e c i s e l y approximated by f u n c t i o n s ;(Al) pectively.

and w (A ) res2 2 Considering (2) and (3), e x p r e s s i o n (1) can b e w r i t t e n a s f o l l o w s :

13

where we r e p r e s e n t

If i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f d a t a , a l l v a l u e s o f t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t
q u a n t i t i e s x ( t ) and y ( t ) are p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d , c a l c u l a t i o n o f estimates of r e q u i r e s as many v a l u e s o f q u a n t i t i e s x ( t ) and y ( t ) as are jp But i n p r a c t i c e w e can r e q u i r e d t o determine e s t i m a t e s o f c o e f f i c i e n t s a jp' measure p r e c i s e l y only i n p u t q u a n t i t y x ( t ) . The measurement e r r o r n ( t ) i n coefficients a output q u a n t i t y y ( t ) w i l l be considered a d d i t i v e n o i s e , normally d i s t r i b u t e d .
A

/E

can b e sought by s o l v i n g t h e redundant system of equations Then e s t i m a t e a jp

by t h e method o f l e a s t s q u a r e s o r t h e method of s t o c h a s t i c approximation, where z ( i ) = y ( i )

n ( i ) i s t h e r e s u l t o f o b s e r v a t i o n of v a l u e y ( t ) i n t h e
S '

presence o f n o i s e n ( t ) a t d i s c r e t e moments i n time t

s = l,Z,.

..

The accuracy o f t h e e s t i m a t e s produced was determined by experimental s t u d i e s o f t h e s e methods u s i n g t h e B E S M d i g i t a l computer by t h e method o f s t a t i s t i c a l testing.

14

\I
IDENTIFICATION AS -A. TASK . OF . . SEQUENTIAL STATISTICAL __ ANALYSIS - .
~

A. A. Nyamura (Kaunas)

For t h e problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y first of a l l t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c l a s s e s with t h e following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : n o n l i n e a r or l i n e a r , A f t e r a s u f f i c i e n t l y narrow c l a s s of an o p e r a t o r has been d e f i n e d , t h e o p e r a t o r i t s e l f becomes known with an accuracy t o a c e r t a i n v e c t o r parameter c, i . e . , we have t h e following funct i o n a l dependence:
P ( r ) = A r y ( t ) ] = ~ . [ 1 1 ( S ) ,O < . s < r ;

stable o r unstable, i n e r t i a l o r noninertial.

c(s), p < s < t ;

?I,

where A [ * ] i s t h e mathematical o p e r a t o r of t h e system, unknown i n advance, r e q u i r i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; u ( t ) and y ( t ) a r e t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t g e n e r a l i z e d v e c t o r c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e system, which may b e d e t e r m i n i s t i c o r random f u n c t i o n s of s c a l a r argument T . dependence The l a s t t i n t h e formula i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l
I t t h e n remains t o estimate t h e unknown

@['I

/14 may change as time p a s s e s . V a r i a b l e u ( t > and y ( t ) a r e observed -

under t h e i n f l u e n c e of random n o i s e . v e c t o r parameter c .

C r i t e r i a of o p t i m a l i t y o f p l a n s of o b s e r v a t i o n and some problems of r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e c l a s s of o p e r a t o r A a r e s t u d i e d , and a complete a n a l y s i s of methods of e s t i m a t i o n of v e c t o r parameter c i s performed.

15

DIFFERENTIATION OF RANDOM FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND SELF-OSCILLATIONS PERTURBED BY RANDOM ACTIONS


A . A. Gorbunov and M.

F . Dimentberg (Moscow)

The problem c o n s i s t s i n determining whether a measured narrow band random p r o c e s s a t t h e o u t p u t o f an o s c i l l a t i n g system c o n s i s t s o f f o r c e d o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e system under t h e i n f l u e n c e of e x t e r n a l wide band random p e r t u r b a t i o n s o r whether t h e system i s i n t h e s t a t e of s e l f - o s c i l l a t i o n s , modeled by random n o i s e as a r e s u l t o f random p e r t u r b a t i o n s a t t h e i n p u t o f t h e system. The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem i n many cases can i n d i c a t e what s o u r c e o f e x c i t a t i o n i s making t h e b a s i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e v i b r a t i o n of t h e mechanical system. Two r e c o g n i t i o n c r i t e r i a a r e suggested f o r an o b j e c t which can be r e p r e I

s e n t e d by a second o r d e r e q u i v a l e n t q u a s i - l i n e a r system, based on a n a l y s i s of t h e p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t i e s of t h e envelope o f t h e o u t p u t p r o c e s s o r t h e p r o c e s s itself. The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n f o l l o w s from s o l u t i o n of t h e Fokker-Planck The e q u a t i o n , corresponding t o an a b b r e v i a t e d e q u a t i o n f o r t h e amplitude.

second c r i t e r i o n i s produced on t h e b a s i s of t h e known i n t e g r a l dependence between t h e p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t i e s o f a narrow band random p r o c e s s and i t s envelope. The accuracy of t h e second c r i t e r i o n has been t e s t e d by analog computer modeling and was found t o b e good even i n t h e c a s e of r a t h e r s h o r t i n t e r v a l s of observation of t h e output process.

16

DETERMINATION OF PARTIAL DAMPING COEFFICIENTS OE LINEAR SYSTEMS FROM MEAN PERIODS OF ENVELOPES OF RANDOM OSCILLATIONS
M. F. Dimentberg and A. R. Abul'khanov (Moscow)

A formula i s d e r i v e d f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of p a r t i a l damping c o e f f i c i e n t s of

/g

l i n e a r systems on t h e b a s i s of v a l u e s o f t h e resonant frequency and mean number of i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e envelope of a narrow band random o s c i l l a t i o n with i t s mathematical e x p e c t a t i o n . The formula i s concluded i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from experimental i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f i l t e r - a n a l y z e r used t o s e p a r a t e t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e degree o f freedom b e i n g s t u d i e d . checks o f t h e accuracy o f t h e method u s i n g e l e c t r i c a l models.

17

O D E S INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AS A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE SPECTRUM OF NORMAL M OF BACKGROUND VIBRATIONS P . F. Ovchinnikov (Odessa) Methods a r e s t u d i e d f o r determining t h e spectrum of n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of systems, t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of which a r e d e s c r i b e d by l i n e a r , loaded i n t e g r a l e q u a t i o n s w i t h an e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e k e r n e l and a non-monotonic d i s t r i b u t i o n function. I n c o n t r a s t t o a spectrum with a monotonic d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n , t h e n a t u r a l spectrum of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s f a l l s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e number a x i s I t i s demonstrated t h a t n e i t h e r methods of composicion o f frequency e q u a t i o n s and t h e i r conversion t o s e c u l a r form, nor methods o f expansion o f t h e s e c u l a r e q u a t i o n t o a polynomial can be extended t o e q u a t i o n s with non-monotonic d i s tribution functions. The p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g t h e method of s u c c e s s i v e approximation l o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l number with t h e lowest a b s o l u t e v a l u e i s demonstrated. Extension o f t h e method o f wakes allows any n a t u r a l number t o be d e f i n e d

as t o a b s o l u t e v a l u e .

A f t e r demonstrating t h a t t h e problem of d e t e r m i n a t i o n

o f n a t u r a l numbers can be reduced t o a c e r t a i n v a r i a t i o n a l problem, t h e poss i b i l i t y of u s i n g t h e method o f R i t z i s e s t a b l i s h e d .

18

i'

1
APPLICATION OF CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF THE CONDITION OF MECHAN ISMS I . V. Alekseyev and E . P . Pyshkina (Moscow)

Knowledge of such o s c i l l a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t s o f mechanisms a s t h e damping f a c t o r , n a t u r a l frequency and s p e c t r a l n o i s e power d e n s i t y i s o f i n t e r e s t f o r purposes o f a c o u s t i c a l d i a g n o s i s . I n o r d e r t o determine t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e s t i m a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f design parameters o f p a r t s on t h e p r o c e s s of n o i s e formation, t h e Department o f Engines of t h e Moscow Highway I n s t i t u t e has produced a motorless modeling i n s t a l l a t i o n , a block diagram o f which i s shown on Figure 1. This i n s t a l l a t i o n , u s i n g a c o r r e l a t o r produced i n Department E - 9 of t h e Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, has been used t o determine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s mentioned above.
7

/E

The p a r t s t e s t e d were models

of c y l i n d e r heads o f i n t e r n a l
combustion engines. Four v e r s i o n s o f heads were s t u d i e d , d i f f e r i n g from each o t h e r i n t h i c k n e s s o f end w a l l and c o n s t r u c t i o n mate-

rial.
Figure 1.

The c y l i n d e r heads have t h e


k

following r a d i a t i n g wall t h i c k nesses: 3 0.05 nun; 4 . 5


k 0.05 k

mm; 5 . 2 5

0.05 mm; and 6

0.05 mm, and were made o f type 45 and 18Kh s t e e l s .

The s e l e c t i o n o f a design f o r a t h i n wall head was based on t h e following considerations : a) The end w a l l o f t h e head i s made s o t h a t i t s r i g i d i t y i s much less t h a n t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e remaining elements o f t h e design of t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n , allowing t h e assumption t h a t t h e primary s h a r e o f a c o u s t i c a l energy r a d i a t e d by t h e cover i s determined by o s c i l l a t i o n s of i t s t h i n w a l l p o r t i o n ; b) The design of t h e head allows a n a l y t i c c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l f r e quency of i t s r a d i a t i n g s u r f a c e , making i t p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e experimental d a t a .

/E

19

Experimental d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e damping f a c t o r and n a t u r a l frequency o f heads was performed on t h e b a s i s of t h e parameters o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n funct i o n o f t h e random p r o c e s s , measured u s i n g a v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r i n s t a l l e d on one s i d e of t h e r a d i a t i n g s u r f a c e o f t h e head. The v i b r a t o r was i n s t a l l e d symmetrically t o t h e v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e head, allowing t h e form o f e x c i t a t i o n during t h e experiment t o approximate t h e form o f a c t u a l e x c i t i n g f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e r a d i a t i n g element and t h u s a v o i d i n g u n d e s i r a b l e asymmetrical o s c i l l a t i o n s and t h e i r corresponding n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s . Voltage from a n o i s e g e n e r a t o r was s e n t t o t h e v i b r a t o r . mine t h e parameters o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n . correlation function. The v o l t a g e

from t h e v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r was s e n t t o a c o r r e l a t o r , which was used t o d e t e r The o s c i l l a t i n g charact e r i s t i c s o f t h e head a r e unambiguously r e l a t e d t o t h e parameters of t h e The a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l and experimental d a t a f o r The r e determination o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed good correspondence. f a c i l i t a t e s t h e measurements performed. The use o f c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s h a r d l y excludes t h e u s e o f c l a s s i c a l methods o f a c o u s t i c a l measurements. The expediency o f t h e use o f any given method i s determined by t h e p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n : a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a p p a r a t u s ,

s u l t s produced demonstrate t h a t t h e use o f a c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y z e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y

i t s complexity, c o s t , n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s b e i n g s t u d i e d , e t c .

20

. .

-. .. ........ .. .. . .. .

....

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR QUASI-PARALLEL ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM ACOUSTICAL SIGNALS

I . V. Alekseyev and V . N . Lukanin (Moscow) W e have developed a measurement channel f o r s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s o f n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n s o f engines during o p e r a t i o n (Figure 1 ) .
I t c o n s i s t s of a s e t

of 24 o n e - t h i r d octave f i l t e r s , t h e i n p u t s o f which r e c e i v e t h e s i g n a l t o b e analyzed from t h e v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r i n s t a l l e d on t h e engine and f i r s t subjected t o amplification.


A s w i t c h i n g d e v i c e , c o n t r o l l e d by p u l s e s marking t h e

/=

t o p dead c e n t e r p o i n t , connects t h e o u t p u t s o f each o f t h e f i l t e r s i n t u r n t o t h e r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e , an 8-beam cathode r a y o s c i l l o s c o p e with a photographic attachment. The s w i t c h i n g device used i s a s t e p p i n g s w i t c h , t h e c o n t a c t s o f This connection o f c o n t a c t s allows t h e s i g n a l from which a r e c l o s e d i n p a i r s .

each f i l t e r t o b e f e d t o t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e during two f u l l crank s h a f t r o t a t i o n s , which corresponds t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e o p e r a t i n g c y c l e i n a f o u r s t r o k e engine. Thus, t h e s i g n a l b e i n g s t u d i e d i s recorded a f t e r having been passed through t h e o n e - t h i r d octave f i l t e r s . The c o i l o f t h e s t e p p i n g switch i s connected t o t h e anode c i r c u i t of a t h y r a t r o n , which i s opened by a p u l s e . Recordings o f n o i s e , v i b r a t i o n s , as well as t h e p r o c e s s e s d e f i n i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e engine, t h e i n d i c a t o r d i a gram and t r a v e l o f t h e s p r a y e r n e e d l e , performed u s i n g t h i s channel, demons t r a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s u t i l i z a t i o n f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes. The p u l s e s
o f v i b r a t i o n and n o i s e r e s u l t i n g from t h e impact i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s

of t h e engine a r e s e p a r a t e d and can be analyzed t o f i n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s with parameters c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e engine.

21

USE OF A CORRELATOR BASED ON ORTHOGONAL FILTERS I N ACOUSTICAL MACHINE DIAGNOSIS Yu. I . Bobrovnitskiy, M. D . Genkin and K . D . Morozov (Moscow) I t i s suggested t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l parameters o f machines ( d i a g n o s i s p a r a meters) b e measured u s i n g an orthogonal f i l t e r c o r r e l a t o r . I t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e parameters of t h e f i l t e r a t t h e i n p u t o f one o f t h e channels can be s e l e c t e d s o t h a t a s i g n a l i s produced a t t h e o u t p u t of t h e c o r r e l a t o r which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e measured machine d i a g n o s i s parameter. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such a f i l t e r r e q u i r e s t h a t c e r t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n measurements b e performed i n advance w i t h s e v e r a l known v a l u e s o f t h e d i a g n o s i s parameter, i . e . , t h a t a " l e a r n i n g process

i s needed.
The model o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c

A model d i a g n o s t i c experiment i s performed.

s i g n a l was a mixture o f two random, s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d s i g n a l s , t h e amplitude o f one o f which was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e measured d i a g n o s i s p a r a m e t e r , 10%.

After

l e a r n i n g , t h e c o r r e l a t o r measured t h i s parameter with an e r r o r never exceeding

22

1
1

DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT RANDOM PERTURBATION DURING MODELING OF COMPLEX DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

L. A. Manashkin and N. G . Baranov (Dnepropetrovsk) Optimization o f t h e parameters of damping d e v i c e s r e q u i r e s t h a t a model o f t h e equipment be p e r t u r b e d so t h a t t h e damping devices o p e r a t e under n e a r normal c o n d i t i o n s . This i s done by f e e d i n g a v o l t a g e from a n o i s e g e n e r a t o r The s i g n a l formed by t h e synThe o u t p u t q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e model a r e The r e s u l t s o f The with a r a t h e r broad spectrum t o a s y n t h e s i z e r . t h e s i z e r i s f e d t o an e l e c t r i c a l model. /19

formed s o t h a t t h e y can b e compared with t h e r e s u l t s of experimental s t u d i e s from a ( s t a n d a r d ) a c t u a l device under a c u t a l c o n d i t i o n s . i n v e s t i g a t i o n of o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e l i n k of i n t e r e s t i n t h e a c t u a l device a r e represented a s t h e s p e c t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these o s c i l l a t i o n s . of t h e u n i t being s t u d i e d i s s e n t t o an a n a l y z e r . e l e c t r i c a l v o l t a g e produced i n t h e model and corresponding t o t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s The r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s B y c o n t r o l l i n g t h e syna r e compared with t h e f i x e d spectrum produced p r e l i m i n a r i l y during experimental s t u d i e s of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e a c t u a l equipment. and by modelling can be achieved. t i o n s of the u n i t being studied.
A block diagram o f t h e system as a whole, a block diagram o f t h e s y n t h e -

t h e s i z e r , approximate correspondence of t h e s p e c t r a produced e x p e r i m e n t a l l y The corresponding p e r t u r b a t i o n w i l l be e q u i v a l e n t t o a c t u a l p e r t u r b a t i o n from t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t h e o p e r a t i n g condi-

s i z e r and of t h e a n a l y z e r a r e developed.

23

IDENTIFICATION OF __ MODEL OF HUMAN OPERATOR WITH . . .RANDOM . . VIBRATION ACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .... -. .

L. V. Goykhaman, B . A. Potemkin and K . V . Frolov (Moscow)


A dynamic human o p e r a t o r system i n f l u e n c e d by wide band random (white

n o i s e ) p e r t u r b a t i o n i n t h e frequency range up t o 200 Hz i s s t u d i e d . The problem i s s o l v e d o f determining t h e parameters of t h e dynamic human o p e r a t o r system and c o n s t r u c t i o n of a model f o r each p o s i t i o n . connected a b s o l u t e l y r i g i d b o d i e s with masses m damping elements k
i

The body of t h e

/20

o p e r a t o r i s looked upon as a l i n e a r dynamic model c o n s i s t i n g o f s e r i e s i

connected by e l a s t i c and

and C i .

*.

+----I

4tt

__

-~

J, rad/sec

Figure 1.
A method i s p r e s e n t e d f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e

i n p u t process t o a s s u r e i t s s t a b i l i t y .

D i s t r i b u t i o n r u l e s o f t h e o u t p u t pro-

c e s s a r e found f o r each p o s i t i o n , and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s and s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y f u n c t i o n s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e i n p u t and output p r o c e s s e s .


24

Figure 2. The number o f e q u a t i o n s of motion o f t h e model i s determined by t h e form o f t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r each p o s i t i o n . The e q u a t i o n s s t u d i e d were

/=

used t o f i n d a n a l y t i c e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e amplitude- frequency responses:

G(O)= ! ? i
i

c c
II

BIW'
I

(1)

Aim'

The area l i m i t a t i o n s are f i x e d i n t h e form Emi = M, where M i s t h e mass o f t h e human o p e r a t o r . By s e l e c t i n g N v a l u e s of t h e experimental frequency response a t frequencies w q u e n c i e s , a system of n o n l i n e a r a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s i s produced r e l a t i v e t o t h e model parameters t o b e determined.
I n t h i s c a s e , t h e nodal f r e q u e n c i e s correspond t o t h e extreme p o i n t s of
j

and s e t t i n g them equal t o e x p r e s s i o n (1) f o r each o f t h e f r e -

t h e experimental frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . meters m


i'

C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e model p a r a -

c and k . was done on t h e BESM-3M computer. i 1 In t h i s case, t h e


25

The p o s s i b i l i t y i s demonstrated o f u s i n g an a l g o r i t h m allowing c a l c u l a t i o n o f parameters by t h i s method w i t h a f i x e d accuracy,

/ z

number of nodal f r e q u e n c i e s N may exceed t h e number o f unknown p a r a m e t e r s .


As a r e s u l t o f t h e work, dynamic models a r e produced f o r each o f t h e p o s i -

t i o n s with numerical v a l u e s of t h e parameters.

26

MULTICHANNEL DIAGNOSIS OF MACHINES BY _DIGITAL COMPUTER ... - * . . . . . .. - . . . . _ . . . __ _ ___ B. D. Tartakovskiy, A. I . Vyalyshev and B. A . Kanayev (Moscow)

E x i s t i n g methods o f d i a g n o s i s of machines and mechanisms based on measurement of t h e i r v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s h o r t coming t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a c o u s t i c a l elements o f s t r u c t u r e s o f machines and t h e b a s e s on which t h e y r e s t , a s w e l l a s s e c t o r s o f t h e sound conductors along which v i b r a t i o n s and a c o u s t i c a l waves propagate f o r r e c e p t i o n by t h e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s , i n f l u e n c e t h e recorded r e s u l t s . This i n f l u e n c e , However, b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y dependent on t h e p o i n t o f placement of t h e t e s t v i b r a t i o n and sound s e n s o r s , i n most cases cannot b e t h e o r e t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d . p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e i t by p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of t h e p o i n t . One method o f s u p p r e s s i n g t h i s i n f l u e n c e , which must be analyzed f o r most c a s e s o f r e a l i z a t i o n o f d i a g n o s i s systems as a random c a t e g o r y , c o n s i s t s i n u s i n g multichannel a c o u s t i c a l d i a g n o s i s systems (MSD) experimental checks of t h i s i n f l u e n c e have shown t h a t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m -

An experimental s t u d y

was performed f o r s e l e c t i o n of M S D parameters, c o n s i s t i n g i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of expedient frequency bands and d i s t a n c e s between s e n s o r s . The machine s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y was a d e f e c t i v e e l e c t r i c motor, i n s t a l l e d on a long, r i g i d frame. The s e n s o r s used were p i e z o e l e c t r i c v i b r o m e t e r s , The measurements placed on t h e frame a t v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e s from t h e motor. widths o f frequency band.

performed i n t h e s t a b l e mode u t i l i z e d f i l t e r s of v a r i o u s t y p e s with v a r i o u s The r e s u l t s were processed by d i g i t a l computer u s i n g a s p e c i a l algorithm based on s t a t i s t i c a l methods. Values c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e average change i n v i b r a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e appearance o f a d e f e c t were found. The minimum band widths of f i l t e r s and minimum d i s t a n c e s between v i b r a t i o n r e c e p t o r s p r o v i d i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o analyze t h e s i g n a l v a l u e s produced a t t h e c e r t a i n p o i n t s on c e r t a i n frequency bands a s noncoherent were determined. This allowed t h e maximum number o f independent v a l u e s of v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e experiment t o be determined, and on t h i s b a s i s allowed t h e confidence i n t e r v a l s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l e s t i m a t i o n of t h e rel i a b i l i t y o f t h e mean d i f f e r e n c e between s i g n a l s r e l a t e d t o a d e f e c t t o be
27

/z

found, i . e . ,

allowed e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c e f f e c t .

I n t h e experiment performed, t h e random change i n t h e mean s i g n a l l e v e l res u l t i n g from n o i s e a t i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s was only s l i g h t l y l e s s than t h e d i f f e r e n c e between l e v e l s r e s u l t i n g from t h e d e f e c t . However, t h e u s e of t h i s method o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g f o r d a t a produced u s i n g multichannel measurements allowed t h e e x i s t e n c e of a d e f e c t i n t h e e l e c t r i c motor t o be e s t a b l i s h e d with a p r o b a b i l i t y o f no l e s s t h a n 0.8.

28

CYBERNETIC M E T H O D . OF STUDYING VIBRATION ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEX . . .. .. STRUCTURES


~~

B. D . Tartakovskiy and G . S . Lyubashevskiy (Moscow)


The essence o f an a l g o r i t h m which minimizes a s e t o f measurements [l] cons i s t s o f c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e most s u i t a b l e increment f o r t h e argument (from a f i n i t e series of d i s c r e t e v a l u e s accepted) f o r t h e n e x t s i n g l e measurement based on information a l r e a d y accumulated i n d i g i t a l computer s t o r a g e concerning behavior of t h e r e l a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . AS a r e s u l t , t h e d e n s i t y o f p o i n t s o f measurement becomes uneven: i t i n c r e a s e s n e a r s e c t o r s o f high information value--extremes--and d e c r e a s e s between them.

The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a l g o r i t h m w i t h v a r i a b l e s t e p i n t h e change o f t h e argument depends, of c o u r s e , on t h e c l a s s o f dependence being s t u d i e d . Machine modeling of an a l g o r i t h m as a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e frequency response of an o s c i l l a t i n g l i n k w i t h one degree o f freedom i n t h e audio frequency range with o p t i m a l l y s e l e c t e d c o n t r o l parameters included i n t h e algorithm i n d i c a t e d that 1) Reduction of t h e measurement t i m e (number of measurements) u s i n g t h i s algorithm i n comparison with e q u i d i s t a n t d i v i s i o n of t h e argument w i t h e q u a l accuracy o f t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e extreme i s

where n i s t h e number o f terms i n t h e series o f d i s c r e t e values of t h e i n c r e ment of t h e argument, Q i s t h e f i g u r e of m e r i t of t h e o b j e c t b e i n g s t u d i e d ,


A < 10
2

/E

i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e extreme v a l u e of t h e f u n c t i o n t o t h e zone o f i n < m -

s e n s i t i v i t y , below which v a l u e s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a r e n o t of i n t e r e s t and a r e


< n o t used i n c a l c u l a t i o n , 1 E

i s t h e q u a l i t y parameter included i n t h e

algorithm;
2) The r e d u c t i o n i n measurement time u s i n g t h e algorithm suggested i n com-

p a r i s o n t o a continuous l i n e a r change i n frequency with c o n d i t i o n s of equal accuracy o f s e a r c h f o r t h e extreme v a l u e o f t h e f u n c t i o n i s

29

where A f i s t h e width o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n band o f t h e a n a l y z i n g channel, F i s t h e range o f change of frequency, 6 i s t h e f i x e d e r r o r i n s e a r c h f o r t h e ex-

treme.

Furthermore, when reproducing f u n c t i o n s according t o t h e algorithm

suggested, t h e displacement of t h e extreme by frequency and i t s expansion, a r i s i n g with a continuous change i n frequency, are e l i m i n a t e d i n p r i n c i p l e , Thus, f o r example, where
A = 10, t h e g a i n i n time B
E

m,

4 A f = 1/3, Q = 20, F = 2 - 1 0 , 6 = 5*10-2,

lo4,

which i n d i c a t e s th.e h i g h e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f

t h e algorithm, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a high-Q system w i t h a narrow t r a n s m i s s i o n band i n t h e analyzinp channel. 2q


1.

A s the number o f extrema1 maxima q i s i n c r e a s e d ,

t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e algorithm decreases approximately i n t h e r a t i o of


+

REFERENCES Lyubashevskiy, G . S . , Yu. I . Matveyev and B. D. Yaratkovskiy, Tr. V I Vssesoyuznoy A k u s t . Konf.. S e k t s f y a B [Works of S i x t h All-Union A c o u s t i c a l Confer e n c e , S e c t i o n B] , Moscow, 1968.

30

,/ ,;

AUTOMATION OF PROCESSING OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND DEVELOPMENT VIBRATION-ABSORBING COATING RECOMMENDAT-IONS FOR SELECTION - . - - ._ - .OF.OPTI-MAL - - .-

B. D . Tartakovskiy and B . A. Kanayev (Moscow) Automation o f t h e s e l e c t i o n of recommendations designed f o r improvement o f t h e v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f an o b j e c t by v i b r a t i o n a b s o r p t i o n on t h e b a s i s of d a t a from experimental s t u d i e s o f v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e o b j e c t assumes knowledge o f t h e dependence o f t h e q u a n t i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g v i b r a t i o n (mean amplitude, mean s q u a r e amplitude, e t c . ) on t h e parameters of t h e v i b r a t i o n - a b s o r b i n g c o a t i n g s (VC) t o be used.
For example, assuming i n t h e

/g

f i r s t approximation

( < A i ) and ( 2 : ) w e t h e mean s q u a r e amplitude o f o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e o b j e c t be-

f o r e and a f t e r use of t h e c o a t i n g , n o i s t h e l o s s f a c t o r of t h e u n t r e a t e d obj e c t , n l i s t h e l o s s f a c t o r c r e a t e d by t h e c o a t i n g ) , we can c a l c u l a t e t h e parameters o f t h e c o a t i n g p r o v i d i n g a f i x e d decrease i n mean square v i b r a t i o n amplitude with minimum weight. F o r rods and p l a t e s when e x c i t a t i o n i s by a monochromatic s i g n a l o f f r e quency w, t h e mean s q u a r e v i b r a t i o n amplitude can b e r e p r e s e n t e d a s

(A2>=c
U J

CkZkr

k-l

where m i s t h e s p e c i f i c mass, B i s t h e bending r i g i d i t y ,


h

r\

i s the loss factor,

i s a c o e f f i c i e n t corresponding t o t h e K-th r o o t of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c k e q u a t i o n . I t follows from t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r Zk t h a t i f Pk u, then

zK

- 1/q2B2;

where

r(

<

i and pk = w ,

t h e v a l u e of (A2>- 1 / n 2 ~ 2 from , which


9

VC).=$f=($-)(I+~) where B

and B1 a r e t h e bending r i g i d i t y of t h e s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e and a f t e r 0 treatment.


Let us now assume t h a t t h e spectrum o f t h e modes o f t h e s t r u c t u r e e x c i t e d

by t h e o s c i l l a t i n g f o r c e s i s v e r y b r o a d , and i n t h e f i r s t approximation w e can c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e amplitudes o f t h e modes e x c i t e d a r e approximately i d e n t i c a l .


31

I n t h i s c a s e w e can l i m i t o u r s e l v e s t o t h e power approximation, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e change i n k i n e t i c energy of t h e s t r u c t u r e i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the loss factor.

W e then obtain

The l o s s f a c t o r and bending r i g i d i t y o f a two l a y e r c o a t i n g depend on t h e r a t i o o f l a y e r t h i c k n e s s e s of t h e c o a t i n g [1,2]. on r a t i o H2/H1 The dependence o f (VC), of t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l a y e r i n a t h r e e l a y e r The n a t u r e of t h e change i n frequency

s t r u c t u r e t o the thickness o f the p l a t e f o r various values o f r e l a t i v e c o a t i n g weight i s shown on Figure 1. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f (VC) and (VC) as a f u n c t i o n o f t h i c k n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n 2 3 a two l a y e r c o a t i n g i s shown on Figure 2 . Knowledge o f t h e s e r e g u l a r i t i e s

allows u s , on t h e b a s i s o f p r o c e s s i n g o f experimental d a t a , t o perform comp u t e r c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e c o a t i n g parameters most f u l l y meeting t h e r e q u i r e ments f o r r e d u c t i o n i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l o f t h e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g measured.

P.0.4/

32

1 0 lg (VC)
qo I

Figure 2 .

REFERENCES
1.

2.

Tartakovskiy, B . D . , "Longidutinal Rending O s c i l l a t i o n s of Compound Rods C o n s i s t i n g of Rigid Layers , I 1 Vi'ib24a-t.sii i Shumy ( F i z i e h e s k i y e IssZed o v m i y a ) [ V i b r a t i o n s and Nois e ( P h y s i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ) - -Col l e c ti o n o f Works], Nauka Press, Moscow, 1969. Ross, E . , E . Ungar and E . M . Kerwin, "Damping o f P l a t e F l e x u r a l Vibrat i o n s by Means o f V i s c o e l a s t i c Laminae," i n t h e book: "StructuraZ Damping," Pergamon Press, 1960.

33

RANDOM OSCILLATIONS . AND = . ~ - - - . . . OF- PARAMETERS- OF - - = PRECISION ..= i ~. BALL.. . . . . BEARINGS . --.-- . . . . . - . .IDENTIFICATION . .
_-?

__

_ _ _ I . _ .

A-E.

Yu. V i t k u t e (Kaunas) The reasons f o r v i b r a t i o n o f b a l l b e a r i n g s a r e e r r o r s i n t h e shape of t h e

r o l l i n g s u r f a c e c o n s i s t i n g of s o - c a l l e d waviness, changes i n l o a d s , changes i n t h i c k n e s s o f l u b r i c a n t l a y e r , which cannot be d e s c r i b e d as d e t e r m i n i s t i c functions. T h e r e f o r e , c a l c u l a t i o n and s t u d y o f t h e corresponding dynamic system r e q u i r e s t h a t p r o b a b i l i s t i c o r s t a t i s t i c a l methods b e used. Within t h e framework o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o n s , t h e degree

o f i n f l u e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s on t h e t o t a l v i b r a t i o n l e v e l can b e determined by s o l v i n g an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem, i n which t h e optimal e s t i m a t e o f t h e o p e r a t o r of a system i n a c l a s s o f l i n e a r o p e r a t o r s i s sought on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e a c t i o n s o f i n p u t s and t h e o u t p u t . Determination o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of system v a r i a b l e s as t h e f u l l charact e r i s t i c o f system b e h a v i o r a t each moment i n time can be performed by s t a t i s t i c a l testing. A n a l y t i c s t u d y o f t h e mathematical model i s r e p l a c e d by experimentation with a p h y s i c a l model, reproduced u s i n g a d i g i t a l computer. The p r i n c i p l e s t a g e s i n t h e s o l u t i o n a r e : a) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p r o b a b i l i s t i c models of a c t u a l random p r o c e s s e s ; b) g e n e r a t i o n of a sequence of random p r o c e s s e s corresponding i n t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a c t u a l proc e s s e s i n t h e system being s t u d i e d ; c) conversion o f t h e sequence i n c o r r e s pondence t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l system; d) s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s i n g of t h e o u t p u t s i g n a l s produced. During i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e b e a r i n g a r e measured i n t h e washed s t a t e and a f t e r l u b r i c a t i o n . corded u s i n g Indiron. The a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s a r e r e p l a c e d with l a t t i c e f u n c t i o n s . The r e c o r d i n g Deviations from t h e o r e t i c a l c i r c u l a r i t y o f t h e t r a c k s o f t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l b e a r i n g r i n g s a r e re-

/E

i n t e r v a l and r e s u l t a n t sample space a r e determined according t o t h e r e q u i r e ments f o r unbiased, c o n s i s t e n t and optimal e s t i m a t e s i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e minim u m v a r i a n c e of e s t i m a t e s of t h e p r o b a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - - t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , mathematical e x p e c t a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n and s p e c t r a l densit.y. When random i n f l u e n c e s a r e formulated by computer, Gaussian white n o i s e i s used a s t h e

34

i n i t i a l p r o c e s s , passed through l i n e a r f i l t e r s . parameters o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s .

S t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of

t h e o u t p u t s i g n a l s i s performed u s i n g o r d i n a r y methods f o r e s t i m a t i o n of t h e

The t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s o f systems are determined: vibration i n the a x i a l direction.

t h e e r r o r i n manufac-

t u r e o f b e a r i n g r a c e s - - t h e v a r i a b l e drag t o r q u e , t h e e r r o r i n manufactured--

35

USE OF DIGITAL COMPUTER FOR DETERMINATION OF EFFECT OF VIBRATION-DAMPING . - .- . . C E M E N T .~ . OF RESONANT. . FREQUENCIES . . . . OF- sTRUCTU-RE .. .
V. B. Stepanov and V. D . Tartakovskiy (Moscow)

The i n t e g r a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e l a t i n g t h e displacement o f r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c i e s o f a s t r u c t u r e when c o a t i n g s are a p p l i e d t o t h e change i n l o s s f a c t o r a r e s t u d i e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , allowing t h e l o s s f a c t o r t o b e e s t i m a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c a l c u l a t e d o r measured frequency s h i f t , t h e l o s s f a c t o r i n t u r n characterizing t h e decrease i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l . I n t h i s connection, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of v i b r a t i o n amplitudes i n v a r i o u s modes o f o s c i l l a t i o n of t h e s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e and a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e coating is studied. The p r o c e s s i n g o f measurement r e s u l t s produced as t h e dependence of o s c i l l a t i n g amplitude on frequency and p o i n t o f placement o f vibrometer was performed by d i g i t a l computer u s i n g an a l g o r i t h m allowing t h e s t a t i s t i c a l mean v a l u e s o f t h e r e q u i r e d p a r a m e t e r s , measurement e r r o r and c a l c u l a t i o n e r r o r , confidence i n t e r v a l s f o r t h e t r u e v a l u e s of p a r a m e t e r s , mean d e c r e a s e i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l and n e c e s s a r y secondary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s t r u c t u r e t o be determined.

36

FACTORS DETERMINING _ _ VIBRATION ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BALL BEARINGS B. Y e . Bolotov and V. B . Marnin (Kuybyshev) R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from a combined s t u d y o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f o l lowing i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s on t h e v i b r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a b e a r i n g . c o n t a c t i n g s u r f a c e s of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r i n g s and r o l l i n g b o d i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e s o f r o l l i n g bodies. The s t u d i e s were performed u s i n g a commercially manufactured v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l a p p a r a t u s and a number of s p e c i a l d e v i c e s : i n s t a l l a t i o n s f o r measurement o f v i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l b e a r i n g elements, a device analyzing v i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f t h e assembled b e a r i n g , device f o r t e s t i n g waviness o f r o l l i n g b o d i e s . Recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r d e c r e a s i n g t h e l e v e l of v i b r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l purpose b a l l b e a r i n g s , and a new v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l apparatus i s d e s c r i b e d , allowing v i b r a t i o n flaw d e t e c t i o n t o be Performed, i n d i c a t i n g t h e c o n c r e t e cause o f i n c r e a s e d v i b r a t i o n s o f b e a r i n g s . a semiautomatic Radial c l e a r a n c e , c l e a r a n c e o f b e a r i n g s i n s e p a r a t o r h o l e s , f l a t s p o t s and waves on

/E

37

STUDY OF NOISE FORMATION I N THROTTLING DEVICES FOR MEASUREMENT OF NOISE CHARAC~. __ TERISTICS OF FANS
~

Ye. Ya. Yudin and N . N. S e v e r i n a (Moscow) In t h i s work, w e s t u d i e d t h r o t t l e s of t h e washer-and-screen type, used i n aerodynamic t e s t s o f f a n s . (e.g., The advantage o f t h i s t y p e over o t h e r t y p e s o f chokes They t h e r e f o r e do n o t c r e a t e s l i d e g a t e s , b u t t e r f l y v a l v e s and o t h e r s ) i s t h a t t h e y create a d i s t r i -

buted r e s i s t a n c e which does n o t t w i s t t h e flow. i t i o n a l n o i s e formation i n t h e f a n .

a d d i t i o n a l t u r b u l e n c e which, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n an i n t a k e l i n e , may cause addFurthermore, s t u d i e s o f n o i s e formation i n

a i r l i n e elements (A. V. Tolmachev, Ye. Ya. Yudin) have demonstrated t h a t t h e


l e a s t n o i s y elements are t h o s e with c e n t r a l placement of t h e a p e r t u r e f o r a i r transmission. Devices which compress t h e flow through a s l i t a g a i n s t one

w a l l of t h e a i r l i n e ( s l i d e g a t e s , b u t t e r f l y v a l v e s cause a d d i t i o n a l (7-10 db

more) n o i s e g e n e r a t i o n . The measurements d e s c r i b e d were performed u s i n g a method and experimental i n s t a l l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t h e diameter o f a l l s c r e e n s was 150 mm. a p p a r a t u s produced by t h e "Bruel and Kjaer" flrm was u s e d . An Measurements were
/30

performed by t h e r e f l e c t e d f i e l d method with minimum n o i s e l e v e l ( a t n i g h t ) . The range o f r e q u i r e d change i n a i r stream v e l o c i t y d u r i n g t h e t e s t s was determined on t h e b a s i s o f t h e range o f flow r a t e f a c t o r s i n g e n e r a l purpose fans (0.2 t o 0.8).

A s a p p l i c a b l e t o a f a n with a b l a d e diameter of 150 mm,


The minimum v e l o c i t y i n t h e i n -

t h e upper l i m i t of v e l o c i t y was 1 8 . 5 m/sec. t a k e t u b e was determined by t h e n o i s e l e v e l .

The a c o u s t i c power l e v e l s of t h e g r i d s were t h e n compared with t h e n o i s e spectrum o f t h e f a n i n t a k e , measured i n t h e same room.

With a flow v e l o c i t y corresponding t o a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . , i n t h i s

case t h e v e l o c i t y i n t h e i n t a k e t u b e o f t h e f a n ) , t h e t o t a l a c o u s t i c power l e v e l
of one g r i d w a s 84.5 db. Under t h e s e same c o n d i t i o n s , t h e t o t a l a c o u s t i c power l e v e l o f t h e f a n (measured i n t h e same room) was 9 2 db.
A comparison o f t h e n o i s e spectrum o f t h e s c r e e n and f a n showed t h a t n o i s e

formation i n t h e t h r o t t l i n g d e v i c e , with t h e e x c e p t i o n of low f r e q u e n c i e s , i s

38

1J

B
s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h e fan n o i s e .
w i l l be even g r e a t e r .

Since t h e f a n t e s t e d i s one of t h e

most q u i e t (of s e r i e s produced f a n s ) , t h e d i f f e r e n c e with o t h e r t y p e s of f a n s

39

METHOD OF STUDYING RELAXATION OSCILLATIONS OF A BALL I N THE SEPARATOR OF A .. . . . ... . . BALL BEARING W-Ir-

B. Y e . Bolotov and V . V . Trubinikov (Kuybyshev) The i n s t a l l a t i o n diagrammed i n Figure 1 c o n s i s t s of t h e b e a r i n g b e i n g s t u d i e d 1 with t e x t o l i t e s e p a r a t o r 2 , s u p p o r t s 3, on which t h e i n n e r r i n g of t h e b e a r i n g i s s e a t e d and clamp 4 around t h e o u t e r r i n g o f t h e b e a r i n g . clamp c a r r i e s load 5, c r e a t i n g a r a d i a l load on t h e b e a r i n g . r i n g s 6 and 7 are glued t o t h e s e p a r a t o r , and c o n t a c t carbon brushes 8. b r u s h e s a r e mounted i n b r a c k e t 9 made o f p l e x i g l a s s w i t h s p r i n g 10. and 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Brass c o n t a c t The The t e x -

t o l i t e s e p a r a t o r c o n t a i n s b r a s s c o n t a c t s 11 and 1 2 , connected w i t h r i n g s 7 I n o r d e r t o determine t h e p o s i t i o n o f a b a l l i n t h e The e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t c o n s i s t s o f a 4 . 5 V The o s c i l l o g r a m s produced In t h i s s e p a r a t o r space and i t s movements with v i b r a t i o n s , t h e mount around which t h e bearing i s s e a t e d i s ro t a t e d . b a t t e r y , v i b r a t o r s 1 3 and 14 o f a loop o s c i l l o s c o p e , s p r i n g 10, brush 8 , r i n g s 6 and 7 , c o n t a c t s 11 and 12 and t h e b a l l . w i t h v a r i o u s t e s t c o n d i t i o n s ( l o a d , r o t a t i n g speed, e t c . ) can b e analyzed t o determine t h e v i b r a t i o n displacements o f t h e b a l l i n t h e s e p a r a t o r .

/=

/z

manner i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a t c e r t a i n moments i n time t h e b a l l performs r e l a x a t i o n o s c i l l a t i o n s n e a r t h e w a l l o f t h e s e p a r a t o r a t a frequency o f about 200-300 H z . Oscillograms of t h e s e o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d and analyzed. By changing t h e working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e b e a r i n g and i t s parameters, t h e v i b r a t i o n s can be reduced o r completely e l i m i n a t e d , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e efficiency of the r o l l i n g surface bearings.

40

F i g u r e 1.

41

THE STATISTICAL STRENGTH RESERVE ...--. OF DISCRETE .. .. - SYSTEMS .. . . . M. L . Sverdan and Ye. F. Tsar'kov (Chernovitsy)
A method i s s u g g e s t e d f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s t r e n g t h r e s e r v e of

d i s c r e t e systems, t h e b e h a v i o r of which i s d e s c r i b e d by an e q u a t i o n i n t h e form

where b

are c o n s t a n t s . j and A s we know, a n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r asymptotic s t a b i l i t y

of t h e t r i v i a l s o l u t i o n o f (1) i s : A) The r o o t s o f t h e polynomial


~

L
J-0

m-1

k-0

a r e l o c a t e d i n a c i r c l e I z l < 1. This c o n d i t i o n i s considered f u l f i l l e d throughout t h e f o l l o w i n g . Theorem 1. b. is 1


I -

The s t a t i s t i c a l s t r e n g t h r e s e r v e S with r e s p e c t t o parameter j

2tci
c

' 1

(c
m- I

% 2-k)
rW(2)

(E *e")
W(+)

m-l

-I-

1 II = I

k=o

o f e q u a t i o n (1) are e x c i t e d by t h e i n j with zero means and v a r i a n c e o the t r i v i a l solution dependent sequences a nj j' of t h e e x c i t e d system i s a s y m p t o t i c a l l y s t a b l e i n t h e mean s q u a r e i f and only
Theorem 2 . If the coefficients b
if

/E

c s,-'
L
j=l

o j

< I

(3)

i n d i c a t e d i n theorem 2 have If t h e random q u a n t i t i e s a n j 1i m t h e n ( 3 ) i s a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r mean variances o where n-xa o = o j' nj' nj square asymptotic s t a b i l i t y o f t h e t r i v i a l s o l u t i o n o f t h e e x c i t e d system. Theorem 3 .

42

f t

This r e p o r t p r e s e n t s c o n d i t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s s t a b l e modes of simple v i b r a tion-impact systems on t h e assumption t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e s t i t u t i o n upon impact i s a random q u a n t i t y .

43

INFLUENCE OF METHODS OF FASTENING OF ACCELEROMETER ON ITS FREQUENCY CHARAC.~ TERISTICS

Yu. M. V a s i l ' y e v , Yu. K . Konenkov and L . F . Lagunov (Moscow) Based on an a n a l y s i s o f an a c c e l e r o m e t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r i g i d i t y o f i t s mounting, an a n a l y t i c e x p r e s s i o n i s produced f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y s e t frequency
) depending on i t s n a t u r a l frequency (w ) , r e q u i r e d t o set 0 p r o v i d e a frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h f i x e d unevenness o v e r a predetermined

o f t h e c o n v e r t e r (w frequency range

where w

i s t h e upper boundary frequency o f t h e range used, up t o which t h e b unevenness o f t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c does n o t exceed A ,
E

i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e mass o f t h e i n e r t i a l element t o t h e mass of t h e

body o f t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r . The e x p r e s s i o n produced can be used t o determine t h e n e c e s s a r y value of e l a s t i c i t y o f mounting o f a c o n v e r t e r t o an o b j e c t f o r measurement. The frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c c e l e r o m e t e r s w i t h v a r i o u s mounting methods are s t u d i e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n t h i s work. The i n f l u e n c e which i n t e r m e d i a t e f a s t e n i n g elements such as c o l l a r s , b a r s and o t h e r devices used when t h e s e n s o r cannot be i n s t a l l e d d i r e c t l y a t t h e r e q u i r e d p o i n t on t h e o b j e c t have on t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s e n s o r s i s studied analytically. A n experimental d e v i c e i s recommended f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e r m e d i a t e s e n s o r f a s t e n i n g elements.

/E

44

STUDY OF COLLISIONS OF MACHINE ELEMENTS ON THE BASIS OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODELS OF INELASTIC MEDIA
A. N . Lenskiy, V. M. Loboda and L . P . Fabrika (Dnepropetrovsk)

The experience gained i n a p p l i c a t i o n o f analog models f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o r c e modes of o p e r a t i o n o f elements o f heavy machines i n t h e mining and metallurgical i n d u s t r y i s discussed. The g e n e r a l problems involved i n t h e statement and s o l u t i o n of t h e problem of determining impact parameters ( d u r a t i o n , magnitude and form of impact p u l s e , impact energy, c o e f f i c i e n t of r e s t i t u t i o n ) , as well as problems of determining t h e dynamic r e s u l t s o f impact loads between t h e e l a s t i c l i n k s o f machines r e s u l t i n g from impact i n t e r a c t i o n of masses are p r e s e n t e d . systems using analog models.
A g e n e r a l i z e d model f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n of an elementary volume o f a medium A method i s d e s c r i b e d f o r determining

areas o f s t a b i l i t y o f p e r i o d i c modes o f motion of impact and v i b r a t i o n - i m p a c t

i s suggested.

The c o l l i d i n g bodies a r e considered as c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e t of Each elementary volume and i t s coupling t o neighboring Rheological

elementary volumes.

volumes a r e r e p l a c e d by a r h e o l o g i c a l model, t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f which a r e determined by t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e c o l l i d i n g b o d i e s . studied. mode 1s o f v i s coe 1as t i c , e l a s t o - p l as t i c and v i s c o e l a s t i c - p l ast i c media are
I t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e s e models d e s c r i b e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f

s t m c t u r a l m a t e r i a l s used i n machine b u i l d i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y completely ( f o r purposes of modeling of c o l l i s i o n s ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n models a r e c a l c u l a t e d o r d e t e r mined on t h e b a s i s o f r e s u l t s of s t a t i c and dynamic t e s t s of m a t e r i a l s . The mathematical models suggested d e s c r i b e t h e c o l l i s i o n s of b o d i e s , t h e p e r i o d of n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s o f which i s s h o r t i n comparison t o t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e c o l l i s i o n s . The use of t h e models suggested f o r t h e s t u d y o f c o l l i s i o n s of machine elements i s j u s t i f i e d . Examples a r e p r e s e n t e d of modeling concrete impact and v i b r a t i o n - i m p a c t systems: a v e r t i c a l v i b r a t i o n t r a n s p o r t e r , an unbalanced r o t o r , r o t a t i n g i n a b e a r i n g without l u b r i c a t i o n , and a Geneva mechanism. a r e compared with p r e c i s e a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f modeling

/E

45

METHODS OF STUDYING VIBRATIONS OF HIGH-SPEED DIESELS - .. .. .. . . L . V. Giuzov, M. A. Miselev and I . M. Chirkov (Leningrad) Determination o f t h e i r i b r a t i o n l e v e l s o f high-speed d i e s e l s by c a l c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n of complex mechanical r e s i s t a n c e s (impedances) o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s o f t h e d i e s e l , i t s combined u n i t s , shock a b s o r b e r s and foundation.
A t t h e p r e s e n t time, mechanical r e s i s t a n c e i s c a l c u l a t e d only f o r

rods with d e f i n i t e boundary c o n d i t i o n s .

For p a r t s with more complex configucrankcases, longiThe d i f f i c u l t y of t h e

r a t i o n with v a r i a b l e c r o s s s e c t i o n s such as x a n k s h a f t s , b l o c k s ,

e t c . , mechanical r e s i s t a n c e s a r e n o t c a l c u l a t e d .

problem i s t h a t when a s i n g l e t y p e o f o s c i l l a t i o n i s e x c i t e d , e . g . , of f l e x u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s and v i c e v e r s a . t o c o n s i d e r i n advance.

t u d i n a l o s c i l l a t i o n s , f u r t h e r propagation i s accompanied by t h e development Furthermore, i n t h e high frequency a r e a t h e r e a r e many p o s s i b l e r e s o n a n t phenomena, which a r e extremely d i f f i c u l t

T h e r e f o r e , experimental s t u d i e s a r e f i r s t r e q u i r e d , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s of which would make p o s s i b l e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d e f i n i t e mathematic a l apparatus. S t u d i e s were performed with a s t a n d a r d high-speed, lightweight
V - 1 2 d i e s e l t y p e ChN 18/20 w i t h an e f f e c t i v e power r a t i n g o f 1200 hp a t 1850

rpm with a l e v e l of v i b r a t i o n o f support lugs of 118 db ( a c c e l e r a t i o n ) and an a i r n o i s e l e v e l o f 125 db. Measurement o f combined mechanical r e s i s t a n c e s

was performed i n t h e mode of s t a b l e s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g


d i e s e l p a r t s and u n i t s : b l o c k , upper and lower crankcases, p i s t o n s , cranks h a f t s , connecting rods and assemblies. The p o i n t and t r a n s f e r impedances were determined i n t h e 20 Hz-10 KHz frequency range. The measuring a p p a r a t u s i n c l u d e d a channel f o r measurement o f o s c i l l a t i n g speed w i t h a f i l t e r and phase i n v e r t e r and a channel f o r measurement of o s c i l l a t i n g power w i t h a f i l t e r . The v o l t a g e from t h e o u t p u t s of each channel
An impedance head was

was f e d t o a phase meter o r t o t h e p l a t e o f a cathode o s c i l l o g r a p h f o r measurement o f t h e phase s h i f t angle between f o r c e and speed.

/E

made according t o a design developed by N . N . Kupriyanov and I . L . Orem, with s e v e r a l design improvements, allowing t h e accuracy of measurements i n t h e high frequency a r e a t o b e improved. The source o f e x c i t a t i o n used was an e l e c t r o dynamic v i b r a t o r f o r t h e a r e a o f low and middle f r e q u e n c i e s and a p i e z o e l e c t r i c

46

1
i"

i'

v i b r a t o r f o r t h e high frequency a r e a .

C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e impedance modulus,

i t s imaginary and r e a l p a r t s was performed u s i n g known formulas.

47

DIFFERENTIAL-~ EQUATION . FOR HORIZONTAL LOOP OF SIGNAL CARRIER

P . A. Varanauskas (Kaunas) I n magnetic r e c o r d e r s u s i n g f r e e t a p e l o o p s , an impact occurs as t h e t a p e

i s fed.

This causes n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n o f t h e t a p e , which h a s a n e g a t i v e

i n f l u e n c e on t h e accuracy of magnetic r e c o r d i n g and r e p r o d u c t i o n of s i g n a l s i n t a p e d r i v e mechanisms.


I t has been n o t e d t h a t t h e impact i s decreased i f t h e w a l l s a r e curved.

The optimal r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e corresponds t o t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e t a p e loop. defined by t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n

and t h e equation
M=a,y

where a

i s t h e f o r c e of compression o f t h e ends of t h e loop.

Solving, we o b t a i n

Here

The e q u a t i o n has t h e form o f e l l i p t i c a l i n t e g r a l s . by t a b u l a r methods o r by computer.

T h i s i s e a s i l y solved

48

STUDY OF FLEXURAL OSCILLATIONS OF MAGNETIC D R U M S Yu. Yu. Getsevichyus, Z . I . Potsyus and K . M . Ragul'skis (Kaunas) Problems o f t h e f l e x u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s o f magnetic drum recording media a r e s t u d i e d , as well a s means f o r reducing and measuring them. The primary sources and causes of o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y

are determined f o r v a r i o u s t y p e s of magnetic drums.


detail.

The evenness o f t h e

v e l o c i t y of e l e c t r i c d r i v e motors used t o d r i v e magnetic drums i s s t u d i e d i n I n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e performed u s i n g v a r i o u s methods f o r s t a b i l i z i n g E f f i c i e n t d e s i g n s f o r d r i v e mechanisms with i n c r e a s e d the rotation rate.

r o t a t i o n smoothness a r e s u g g e s t e d . The o s c i l l a t i o n s i n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y were measured u s i n g tandem p i e z o s e n s o r s of u n i v e r s a l v i b r a t i o n measuring a p p a r a t u s , o r by a frequency method i n v o l v i n g comparison o f t h e phase of p e r i o d s of s t a n d a r d and measured p u l s e sequences. The d a t a from experimental s t u d i e s were processed by a s t a t i s t i c a l method on a computer.

49

VIBRATIONS OF A STORAGE DRUM. OF . _ COMPUTER . ... _ A. BESM-6

v . - R . V. Atstupenas, Yu. Yu. Getsevichyus, I-M. s k i s (Kaunas)

P . P a k a u s h i t e and K. M. Ragu1'-

V i b r a t i o n s o f a memory drum i n f l u e n c e t h e constancy o f t h e r e c o r d i n g spaci n g and t h e r a t e of movement of t h e r e c o r d i n g s u r f a c e o f t h e drum i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e magnetic heads. This v a r i a b l e component i n r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y i s added
A change i n t h e spacing d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n

/E

t o t h e c i r c u l a r v e l o c i t y o f t h e drum. corded and read. of t h e s i g n a l .

o f a memory device causes p a r a s i t i c amplitude modulation o f t h e s i g n a l s reChanges i n r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y , a s w e l l as v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e magnetic drum i n t h e a x i a l d i r e c t i o n , r e s u l t i n p a r a s i t i c phase modulation

An experimental s t u d y of drum v i b r a t i o n was performed u s i n g a high-

s en s i t i v i t y m u 1ti ch ann e 1 m e as u r ement apparatus and con t a c t 1e ss capa c i t i ve


s e n s o r s developed f o r t h e purpose. The r e s u l t s of r e c o r d i n g o f drum v i b r a t i o n s The p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s o f Measures t o d e c r e a s e t h e v i b r a -

were processed by s t a t i s t i c a l methods on a computer.


v i b r a t i o n of a magnetic drum a r e determined.

t i o n s o f t h e magnetic drum a r e i n d i c a t e d and s t u d i e d a n a l y t i c a l l y .

50

STUDY OF VIBRATION AND DYNAMIC BALANCING OF MECHANISMS, INCLUDING SEVERAL .__ PARALLE i SHAFT s I . Yu. Yurgaytis, Rem. A . Ionushas and K . M. R a g u l ' s k i s (Kaunas) The p o s s i b i l i t y i s s t u d i e d o f b a l a n c i n g r o t a t i n g o b j e c t s i n an assembly w i t h s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l s h a f t s i n t h e form o f a g e a r box u s e d , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,

i n p r e c i s i o n machine t o o l b u i l d i n g .
D i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s o f motion a r e d e r i v e d f o r a system i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l s h a f t s r o t a t i n g a t various angular v e l o c i t i e s . S o l u t i o n o f t h e e q u a t i o n s o f motion o f t h e system i s used as a b a s i s f o r d e r i v i n g a n a l y t i c dependences between t h e parameters o f unbalanced r o t a t i n g s h a f t s and t h e o s c i l l a t i n g parameters o f t h e system. This allows determination of t h e magnitude and p o i n t of imbalance f o r a l l s h a f t s simultaneously. R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from experimental s t u d i e s confirming t h e t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions. Analysis i s performed of v i b r a t i o n s o f g e a r box mechanisms.
This

Oscillograms of t h e v i b r a t i o n s a r e p r o c e s s e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y by computer. by t h e unbalanced r o t a t i n g s h a f t s .

r e v e a l s t h a t t h e graphs of s p e c t r a l power a r e dominated by f r e q u e n c i e s e x c i t e d

51

ANALOG COMPUTER STUDIES OF OSCILLATIONS OF SYSTEMS HAVING HYSTERESIS . . . - - .. . C+RAC. . . .. . . . ... . . ~ . -_ _ . . . . TERISTICS

Yu. A. Kozlov, V . F. Rakhmanov and A. A . Samarin (Moscow) The methods and r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d from a computer s t u d y o f dynamic p r o c e s s e s i n systems having h y s t e r e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The a u t h o r s have developed an o p t i c a l - e l e c t r o n i c f u n c t i o n a l c o n v e r t e r (OFC) c o n s i s t i n g of an attachment t o an o r d i n a r y a n a l o g computer f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n -of h y s t e r e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d u r i n g modeling. The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e OFC i s based on t h e u s e o f t h e ambiguous dependence o f p h o t o c u r r e n t o f s e v e r a l t y p e s o f i n d u s t r i a l p h o t o r e s i s t o r s on a p p l i e d v o l t a g e , which h a s t h e form o f a h y s t e r e s i s loop with branches c o n t a c t i n g a t t h e c o o r d i n a t e o r i g i n , w i t h a n a t u r a l counterclockwise course. Changing t h e l e v e l of l i g h t f l u x and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e s e n s i n g s u r f a c e o f t h e photographic emulsion a r e used t o r e g u l a t e parameters o f t h e loop during s e l e c t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o s c i l l a t i n g system being modeled. loop a r e r e g u l a t e d . The form, a r e a and degree o f asymmetry o f t h e h y s t e r e s i s Connection of t h e OFC i n t h e Znput c i r c u i t and t h e feedThis allows modeling o f dynamic processes Some o f t h e charac-

/E

back c i r c u i t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l a m p l i f i e r allows t h e d i r e c t i o n o f movement o f t h e loop contour t o be changed. c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h accumulation and d i s s i p a t i o n o f energy i n o s c i l l a t i n g s y s -

tems, r e s u l t i n g from t h e presence o f h y s t e r e s i s p r o p e r t i e s .


p u t o f OFC, U

t e r i s t i c s reproduced u s i n g t h e OFC a r e shown on F i g u r e 1 (U1 i s v o l t a g e a t i n 2

i s voltage a t output of OFC).

When u s i n g t h e OFC, t h e analog computer can s o l v e n o n l i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s , one o r more terms o f which a r e ambiguous h y s t e r e s i s dependences of t h i s type :
a, x(") a,-

1 x("-1'

+ .. . + a , X + a , f ( x ,

i;.)=F(d.

(1)

The symbols used h e r e a r e : a a r e constant c o e f f i c i e n t s , f(x,K) i s t h e hysn t e r e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , F(t) is the external excitation. The s o l u t i o n o f an e q u a t i o n such as (1) was s t u d i e d where n = 2 , a 1 = 0 and F ( t ) = F ( t + T), where T i s t h e p e r i o d o f o s c i l l a t i o n s produced by a n a l y s i s of forced o s c i l l a t i o n s o f mechanical systems c o n s i d e r i n g damping by i n t e r n a l
52

~. .

....

._.,,,

. ..._

f r i c t i o n , a s w e l l as s e l f - o s c i l l a t i o n s caused by i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n .

I t is

demonstrated t h a t t h e use o f t h e method suggested f o r reproduction of h y s t e r e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r analog computer modeling o f such problems p r o v i d e s new c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s and u n i t s of machines and apparatus s u b j e c t e d t o v i b r a t i o n .

Figure 1 .

53

ELECTROMAGNETIC . __ __ IMPACT . . - MACHINES . N . P . Ryashentsev (Novosibirsk)

T h e o r e t i c a l and experimental s t u d i e s were performed on t h e f o l l o w i n g problems i n o r d e r t o a i d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c machines w i t h i n c r e a s e d power c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :

- - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c energy t o magnetic energy, t h e n magnetic energy


t o mechanical work;

- - power supply, c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i o n system;


-- c a l c u l a t i o n o f magnetic system;

-- e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t r a n s l e n t p r o c e s s e s ;
- - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f optimal parameters o f machines ; - - development o f p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l systems

f o r operating processes;

- - thermal p r o c e s s e s , r e l i a b i l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y o f machines.


A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c system h a s been l i t t l e s t u d i e d
f o r reciprocating engines. The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t r a n s i e n t p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e system are d e s c r i b e d by n o n l i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s , d u r i n g t h e composition o f which i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r s a t u r a t i o n o f a magnetic c i r c u i t , mechanical l o s s e s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f eddy c u r r e n t s , h y s t e r e s i s l o s s e s and a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s which s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e o p e r a t i n g inode o f a machine.

The effect which eddy c u r r e n t s and block d r a g have on t h e opera-

t i n g p r o c e s s o f a machine i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r due t o t h e small amount o f s t u d y t o which t h e s e p r o c e s s e s have been s u b j e c t e d . T h e o r e t i c a l and experimental s t u d i e s performed have allowed t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c e r t a i n system parameters on t h e working p r o c e s s and t h e power c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an engine t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . The r e s u l t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n were used i n developing impact u n i t s f o r impact engines o f 0 . 2 , 0 . 4 , 1 . 0 and 60 kg with an impact frequency o f 1500 and 3000 p e r min, designed f o r impact and impactr o t a r y machines. The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e impact u n i t s developed r e a c h e s 43-45%. An impact u n i t h a s been t e s t e d with an impact energy o f 200 kgm and a frequency o f 50-60 impacts p e r min, designed f o r c r u s h i n g o f odd s i z e s ; a range of

54

impact u n i t s o p e r a t i n g a t v a r i o u s e n e r g i e s and impact f r e q u e n c i e s and r e c i p r o c a t i n g engines a r e being developed.

55

ESTIMATION . AND - NORMALIZATION OF OPERATING M O D E S OF VIBRATION TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES K . A. Olekhonovich ( P o l t a v a ) Estimation of t h e dynamic mode o f v i b r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i c a l machines ( v i b r a t i n g platforms, v i b r a t i o n mixers, v i b r a t i n g m i l l s , v i b r a t i n g tumbling

machines, e t c . ) i s u s u a l l y based on t h e amplitude o f movement and t h e o s c i l l a t i n g frequency of t h e working element. With t h i s approach, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t dependence between t h e i n t e n s i t y o f v i b r a t i o n and i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r machines o f similar purpose, b u t u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s ( c i r c u -

l a r and d i r e c t e d harmonic, v i b r a t i o n - i m p a c t , v i b r a t i o n - s h a k i n g , e t c . )
S i n c e a f i x e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of v i b r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , w i t h o t h e r -

wise e q u i v a l e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i s provided b a s i c a l l y due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of


f o r c e s o f i n e r t i a ( t h e i r magnitude, d i r e c t i o n , n a t u r e o f a p p l i c a t i o n ) , and t h e a c t u a t i n g element of a v i b r a t i o n machine can be looked upon as a g e n e r a t o r of t h e s e f o r c e s , t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e v i b r a t i o n mode can be e v a l u a t e d by t h e work

o f f o r c e s o f i n e r t i a p e r second, r e l a t e d t o each u n i t o f o s c i l l a t i n g mass.


This c r i t e r i o n i s c a l l e d t h e r e l a t i v e power o f dynamic e f f e c t and can be e s t a b l i s h e d a n a l y t i c a l l y for t h e types o f v i b r a t i o n machine l i s t e d a s a funct i o n of t h e i r design parameters and o p e r a t i n g modes. Direct measurement o f t h e c r i t e r i o n d u r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a v i b r a t i o n machine seems p o s s i b l e u s i n g t h e p r o p e r a p p a r a t u s . S i n c e t h i s c r i t e r i o n r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f energy o f t h e v i b r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g mode, t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a v i b r a t i o n machine and i t s d u r a b i l i t y a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n and t h e o p e r a t i n g time, which should allow automation o f p r o d u c t i o n of p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v i n g v i b r a t i o n , and a l s o should allow d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f optimal maintenance i n t e r v a l s f o r v i b r a t i o n machines.

56

- I

ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF MULTI-MASS ELASTIC SYSTEMS BY A FREQUENCY METHOD


~~

S. S . Ivanov and V. F. Preys (Tula)


A g r a p h o - a n a l y t i c method i s d e s c r i b e d f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f chain and branched multi-mass e l a s t i c systems (MES) with regard t o damping under s t e a d y - s t a t e

c o n d i t i o n s , based on t h e u s e of l o g a r i t h m i c frequency r e s p o n s e s . M E S are d e s c r i b e d by a system of r e l a t e d l i n e a r second o r d e r d i f f e r e n t i a l equations f o r which t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e c o n s i s t s o f semi-logarithmic f u n c t i o n s of t i m e . Conversion o f t h i s system o f d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s allows a
E S i n t h e form o f t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e construction of s t r u c t u r a l plans f o r M

t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s o f t y p i c a l l i n k s and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l o g a r i t h m i c M E S frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Cumbersome c a l c u l a t i o n s are r e p l a c e d by g r a p h i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s performed using templates and V. V. Solodovnikov monograms. I n t h i s manner, M E S with more t h a n f o u r masses 'can b e c a l c u l a t e d with s e v e r a l semi-logarithmic p e r t u r b i n g a c t i o n s on t h e system, i n cases where a n a l y t i c c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e q u i t e cumbersome. The t a s k o f s y n t h e s i s o f a branched MES of a machine i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y simplified

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57

STUDY OF REPEATED IMPACT INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE ROLLER ON MAGNETIC TAPE .. _ _ _ .. . _

Ye. V . Rozanov and Yu.-K. V . Rozenkrants (Moscow)


I n s t a r t - s t o p t a p e d r i v e mechanisms, t h e r e p e a t e d impact e f f e c t o f t h e
p r e s s u r e r o l l e r on t h e magnetic t a p e causes t a p e breakage, d e c r e a s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of reproduction o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e Experimental breakage of magnetic t a p e depends on t h e f r i c t i o n f o r c e a r i s i n g between t h e elements i n t h e d r i v e system and t h e t a p e during a s t a r t .

s t u d i e s have demonstrated t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d e c r e a s e i n l e v e l of s i g n a l reproduced and t a p e d r i v e mechanisms causing f r i c t i o n . Recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e development o f t a p e d r i v e mechanisms w i t h r e p e a t e d impact e f f e c t o f t h e p r e s s u r e r o l l e r a g a i n s t t h e magnetic t a p e .

58

d
i

DIAGNOSIS OF STATES OF PLANETARY GEAR REDUCER FOR CERTAIN PARAMETERS


~

F. Ya. B a l i t s k i y and A. G . Sokolova (Moscow)

The problem o f a c o u s t i c a l d i a g n o s i s of g e a r d r i v e systems i s s t u d i e d as a p p l i c a b l e t o an experimental p l a n e t a r y reducing g e a r designed by t h e a u t h o r s .


A s parameters o f t h e s t a t e o f t h e g e a r system, t h e p l a y and loads upon

engagement were s t u d i e d .

The s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e v i b r a t i o n proThe cosine of t h e angle between

c e s s e s ( i n d i s c r e t e form--multivariate v e c t o r s ) o r t h e v a r i o u s parameters o f

s t a t e s e r v e d as p a t t e r n s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n .

t h e v e c t o r s determines t h e d i s t a n c e between p a t t e r n s . Tables o f c o i n c i d e n t s o f t h e parameters o f t h e s t a t e s and t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s are produced, allowing d i a g n o s i s of s t a t e s f o r t h e parameters s t u d i e d .

59

POSSIBILITY OF TESTING. THE-TECHNICAL CONDITION- . O F. INTERNAL .~.. ... COMBUSTION .. . ENGINES . . ON THE BASIS OF NOISE AND- VIBF~ATION'PARAMETERS
~ ~

V . N . Lukanin (Moscow)

The e q u a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e f o r c e s i n a c r a n k s h a f t - c o n n e c t i n g - r o d mechanism c o n t a i n no i n d i c a t i o n s on t h e impacts which can o c c u r , f o r example, i n b e a r i n g A. The f a c t o f an impact and t h e subsequent e x . c i t a t i o n o f p a r t s can b e e s t a b l i s h e d by u s i n g t h e concept of t h e dynamic r e a c t i o n and by i n t r o ducing a s o - c a l l e d massless l i n k t o t h e c r a n k s h a f t - c o n n e c t i n g rod mechanism, r e p l a c i n g t h e c l e a r a n c e i n t h e b e a r i n g and allowing i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r c e s of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between b e a r i n g elements t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Analysis of t h e e x p r e s s i o n s f o r dynamic r e a c t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t i t v a n i s h e s a t c e r t a i n c r a n k s h a f t r o t a t i o n a n g l e s , which i n d i c a t e s a l o s s o f power c l o s u r e , a subsequent impact i n t h e b e a r i n g and development o f v i b r a t i o n and n o i s e . The parameters of t h e v i b r a t i n g p u l s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e maximum magnitude of o s c i l l a t i o n s , depend on t h e c l e a r a n c e i n t h e j o i n t , and can b e used f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes.

/E

60

POSSIBILITY OF ESTIMATING WEAR BY VIBRATION-ACOUSTICAL M E T H O D S


A. A. S k u r i d i n and G . S . Sabadash (Leningrad)

T h e o r e t i c a l and experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e performed i n t o t h e dependence o f v i b r a t i o n of a D6 d i e s e l and i t s mechanical n o i s e on t h e c l e a r a n c e between t h e p i s t o n and c y l i n d e r l i n e r of t h i s d i e s e l .


I t i s demonstrated t h a t

t h e v i b r a t i o n of t h e cast i r o n block of a D6 d i e s e l i n t h e 2955-3045 H z range (fav = 3 KHz) and i n t h e 6895-7105 H z range (fav = 7 KHz) a t nominal speed and nominal f u e l f e e d p e r c y c l e , and a l s o w i t h two c y l i n d e r s n e x t t o t h e c y l i n d e r s being measured disconnected, increases i n proportion t o t h e increase i n h o t c l e a r a n c e r e s u l t i n g from wear o f

,[

I-- -0.5--

.I.
0.7---

t h e l i n e r f a c e and p i s t o n s k i r t ( s e e
.

figure).
8. +I*

Having a graph of t h i s r e l a -

Figure 1. Change i n V i b r a t i o n o f Cast I r o n Block of D 6 D i e s e l Near Cylinder 6 as a Function o f Change i n Clearance of P i s t o n a t Nominal R o t a t i n g Speed with Nominal Fuel Feed P e r Cycle (Cylinders No. 4 and 5 O p e r a t i n g ) . Width of frequency band = 3 % .

= f ( 6 ) and measuring t h e ecc v i b r a t i o n of t h e block o f a n o t h e r D 6

tion L

/e

d i e s e l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e c l e a r a n c e between p i s t o n and c y l i n d e r l i n i n g , i . e . , t o judge t h e wear o f t h i s f r i c t i o n s l i d i n g pan.

61

DIAGNOSIS OF REAR AXLE REDUCTION GEAR OF ZIL-130 MOTOR VEHICLE BY ACOUSTICAL METHOD
~~

M. P. Kocehv (Moscow)
With t h e u n i t on a t e s t s t a n d , t h e a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f channels and o p e r a t i n g modes were determined and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o i l v i s c o s i t y on o s c i l l a t i o n parameters was e s t i m a t e d . For t h e primary couples o f t h e u n i t , which c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s r e l i a b i l i t y , q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e s are produced of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t r u c t u r a l parameters and t h e a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l .
An e s t i m a t e o f t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r e d u c t i o n g e a r d i r e c t l y on

t h e v e h i c l e , o p e r a t i n g on a t e s t s t a n d w i t h drums beneath t h e wheels, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s of t e s t s t a n d experiments w i l l r e q u i r e c o r r e c t i o n . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of a r e d u c t i o n g e a r under a c t u a l o p e r a t i n g

/46

was determined by information contained i n t h e t o t a l l e v e l o f o s c i l l a t i o n s


with p a r a l l e l r e c o r d i n g o f o s c i l l a t i o n s on magnetic t a p e and by s t r u c t u r a l parameters produced by micrometry o f p a r t s o f t h e u n i t . The range o f change of a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e primary couples i n t h e r e d u c t i o n g e a r i s 9-14 db.

A comparison of t h e v a l u e s of an a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l w i t h s t r u c t u r a l parameters allowed t e s t i n d i c e s f o r d i a g n o s i s o f t h e r e d u c t i o n g e a r t o be


determined.

62

USE OF STATISTICAL METHODS I N THE. INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONS AND THE DYNAMICS OF MEC-RA~~ISMS. AND MACHINESS. P . K i t r a and K . M . R a g u l ' s k i s

(Kaunas)

S t a t i s t i c a l methods were used t o s t u d y t h e p r o c e s s o f o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e t e n s i o n of a magnetic t a p e as one of t h e primary parameters of a magnetic t a p e d r i v e , determining b o t h t h e frequency-amplitude modulation and o t h e r s p e c i f i c d i s t o r t i o n s of t h e s i g n a l s reproduced. Analysis o f t h e estimates of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s produced (Figure 1) of t h e process of unevenness of t e n s i o n produced on t h e b a s i s of r e a l i z a t i o n s recorded a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s g i v e s us reason t o assume t h a t t h e process i s n o t

an e r g o d i c s t a b l e p r o c e s s i n t h e s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n .

Figure 1. The mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t s on t h e l i n e c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g .


t

/c

The s h i f t of t h e

maximum o r d i n a t e o f t h e mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n (Figure 2) t o t h e r i g h t by

m along t h e time a x i s c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e d e l a y and t i m e c o n s t a n t of t h e o b j e c t . The s e c t o r of e s t i m a t i o n of mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s f a l l i n g i n t h e a r e a of


negative
T

i s d i s t o r t e d due t o t h e presence of e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t feedback

i n the object.

The p r o p e r t y o f a random s i g n a l t h a t i t changes when p a s s i n g However, d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e dynamic

through a l i n e a r system i s a b a s i s for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e dynamic charact e r i s t i c s o f u n i t s of t h e mechanism. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e o b j e c t by t h i s method i s h i n d e r e d by a number o f f a c t o r s : a c e r t a i n degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t i v e p e r t u r b a t i o n s , t h e presence o f e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t feedback, t h e absence o f f u l l s t a b i l i t y , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n n o n l i n e a r i t i e s of s t a t i s t i c a l and dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e t c .
63

F i g u r e 2.

64

OPTIMIZATION OF THE CROSS SECTION OF THE FRAMES OF A MULTISTAGE VIBRATING STAND


A . P. S i b r i n (Chelyabinsk)

Using t h e example o f a t h r e e - s t a g e v i b r a t i n g s t a n d - - a gimbal support (Figure l), a method i s d e s c r i b e d of determining t h e optimal r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e dimensions o f t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e frames of a m u l t i s t a g e v i b r a t i n g s t a n d , allowing t h e dimensions of t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n t o b e determined w i t h f i x e d minimum n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i n g frequency of t h e frames w a t t h e p o i n t s o f a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e u s e f u l load o r t h e next frame s t a g e , with p r o v i s i o n of maximum r i g i d i t y C and minimum moment o f i n e r t i a of t h e frame w i t h u s e f u l load I i n s t a l l e d on i t . Corresponding e x p r e s s i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d for c o n c r e t e types of frame c r o s s s e c t i o n ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e optimal v a l u e o f B , equal t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e width o f t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n B t o t h e h e i g h t of t h e frame H , and t h e v a l u e o f B a r e unambiguously determined by t h e n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i n g frequency of t h e frame. These curves can b e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each frame o f a s t a n d with v a r i o u s c r o s s s e c t i o n a l forms. The method suggested a l s o allows t h e optimal form o f frame c r o s s s e c t i o n s t o be determined.

/E

65

A SELF TUNING CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE. . MOTION OF . A . VIBRATING STAND .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . - . . .. . . . .. . .. . . - . . .


i w
. i _ .

A. A. Koshcheyev and A . P. S i b r i n (Chelyabinsk)

I n p h y s i c a l modeling o f complex dynamic systems, t h e problem arises o f c r e a t i n g m u l t i s t a g e v i b r a t i o n s t a n d s , reproducing with t h e r e q u i r e d accuracy t h e p e r t u r b i n g a c t i o n s a c t u a l l y a c t i n g on t h e system b e i n g s t u d i e d . Using a two-stage v i b r a t i n g s t a n d with an electrodynamic v i b r a t o r as an example, t h e p r i n c i p l e s involved i n t h e c r e a t i o n of a c o n t r o l system o f i t s motion a r e analyzed.

I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d accuracy of r e p r o d u c t i o n of i n p u t a c t i o n s ,
c o n t r o l must b e performed i n a c l o s e d c y c l e .
As a s i m i l a r i t y c r i t e r i o n and,

consequently, method o f p r o v i s i o n o f feedback, t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t i e s o f t h e d e s i r e d and a c t u a l s t a n d movements i s s e l e c t e d .

z r T T H T h r
justment of t h e c o r r e c t i n g c i r c u i t s (Figure 1 ) .

The l a t t e r can be performed u s i n g a s e l f - t u n i n g system with extrema1 ad-

Analysis o f t h e motion c o n t r o l

/g

system o f t h e v i b r a t i n g s t a n d produces t h e e q u a t i o n

Control

d= Ak,

(1)

where

i s t h e assigned d i s p e r s i o n

vector;

Task Figure 1.

k is the vector of controlled

coefficients ;
A i s t h e q u a d r a t i c matrix of

c o e f f i c i e n t s , depending on t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f i l t e r s and t h e c o n t r o l o b j e c t i n t h e corresponding frequency band. T h i s equation, w i t h random v a l u e s of t h e elements o f m a t r i x A, can be s o l v e d u s i n g an i t e r a t i v e method o f s u c c e s s i v e approximations. f o r s o l u t i o n o f e q u a t i o n (1) t h u s becomes The algorithm

66

II$

i'
where

Ki'
e
i

K i - 1 r e p r e s e n t t h e i - t h and

i - l t h approximations o f t h e v e c t o r o f t h e

controlled coefficients, respectively. is the e r r o r at the i t h step;


p i s t h e f i r s t norm o f m a t r i x A.

A p o s s i b l e p l a n f o r a hardware r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a l g o r i t h m ( 2 ) f o r one

channel i s p r e s e n t e d (Figure 2 ) .

Uout Figure 2 .

67

COMPENSATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF AN ELECTRODYNAMIC VIBRATING STAND ON CHARACTERISTICS OF MECHANICAL STRUCTUWS .. PRODUCED . I N VIBRATION TESTS
L. A. Manashkin and A. M. Tikhomirov (Dnepropetrovsk) A method i s p r e s e n t e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a compensator f o r t h e mutual i n -

fluence of an electrodynamic v i b r a t i n g s t a n d and a t e s t o b j e c t , and t h e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from s t u d i e s o f c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e compensator-stand system. The a l g o r i t h m f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e compensator i s independent of t h e The compensator i s an automatic c o n t r o l

t e s t o b j e c t and i s determined e n t i r e l y by t h e mathematical d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e


s t a n d and measurement systems s e l e c t e d . system with feedback. The compensator developed c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s : t h e compensator f o r t h e e l e c t r i c p o r t i o n of t h e t e s t s t a n d with c u r r e n t feedback i n t h e moving c o i l o f t h e v i b r a t o r and t h e v i b r a t o r compensator with feedback based on t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e v i b r a t i n g t a b l e . The compensator f o r t h e e l e c t r i c p o r t i o n o f t h e s t a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y dec r e a s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e t e s t o b j e c t on t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e

/=

electric portion of t h e stand.

I n p a r t i c u l a r , i f t h e f o r c e developed by t h e

v i b r a t o r is taken a s t h e o u t p u t q u a n t i t y , i t can be considered t h a t i t i s i n dependent o f t h e o s c i l l a t i n g frequency and t h e t e s t o b j e c t . The compensator o f t h e v i b r a t o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e t e s t s t a n d on t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e t e s t o b j e c t . The compensator was produced u s i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n a l a m p l i f i e r s o f an EMU-8 analog computer. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e compensator was performed with t h e v i b r a t i n g s t a n d loaded by o b j e c t s with l i n e a r and n o n l i n e a r dynamic charact e r i s t i c s , with v a r i o u s i n p u t a c t i o n s (monoharmonic, polyharmonic, random s t a b l e , u n s t a b l e ) and w i t h v a r i o u s n o i s e l e v e l s i n t h e feedback channels of t h e compensators.

68

LOW FREQUENCY VIBRATING STAND FOR PHYSICAL MODELING OF THE M O V E M E N T S OF COMPLEX DYNAMIC SYSTEMS G. S. Chernorutskiy and A. P. S i b r i n (Chelyabinsk)

The p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low frequency v i b r a t i n g s t a n d s f o r p h y s i c a l modeling o f t h e motions o f s e n s i n g elements i n c o n t r o l systems f o r moving o b j e c t s a r e s t u d i e d , i n c l u d i n g s t a n d s for i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n s

of t h e v e s t i b u l a r a p p a r a t u s , which, a s w e know, is t h e b i o l o g i c a l r e g u l a t o r of t h e p o s i t i o n , motion and o r i e n t a t i o n o f man i n space.


Examples are p r e s e n t e d o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f v i b r a t i o n s t a n d motion c o n t r o l systems, s p e c i f i c s of t h e i r operation's and c e r t a i n k i n e m a t i c diagrams.
I t i s demonstrated t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t r o l systems o f t h e motions o f

v i b r a t i n g s t a n d s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e random n a t u r e of t h e parameters b e considered. Methods a r e p r e s e n t e d , allowing s y n t h e s i s of systems c o n t r o l l i n g t h e motions of a s t a n d t o be performed c o n s i d e r i n g t h e random n a t u r e of t h e p a r a meters.

69

OPTIMALIZING . INPUT _ CONTROLLER OF OSCILLATING AMPLI-WDE-FOR FATIGUE TESTING OF PARTS-

V. I . Yermolin and N. Y e . Salamatin (Kazin')

An automatic c o n t r o l system r e g u l a t i n g t h e o s c i l l a t i n g amplitudes o f p a r t s d u r i n g f a t i g u e t e s t s on electrodynamic v i b r a t i n g s t a n d s with simultaneous t r a c k i n g of changes i n t h e n a t u r a l frequency of t h e p a r t b e i n g t e s t e d and t h e corresponding adjustment o f t h e frequency o f t h e e x c i t e r u n i t has been developed. This system allows t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p a l parameters t o b e recorded d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g process: a) Recording o f changes i n amplitude and frequency on s t r i p c h a r t ;
b) Recording o f number of o s c i l l a t i n g c y c l e s of p a r t b e i n g t e s t e d .

/z

The e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t o f t h e d e v i c e d i f f e r s i n p r i n c i p l e from e x i s t i n g

similar d e v i c e s .
m e ch a n i cal

The system u s e s e l e c t r o n i c r e g u l a t i o n i n p l a c e of e l e c t r o -

The system h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
1. M a t e r i a l of p a r t s tested--nonmagnetic. 2 . Operating frequency range--55-3000 Hz.
3. Absolute mechanical stresses correspond t o o u t p u t v o l t a g e o f 0.15-150 mv.

4 . During t h e t e s t s , d e v i a t i o n s from a f i x e d amplitude l e v e l a r e recorded by

a s t r i p c h a r t recorded with a r e a d i n g accuracy o f a t l e a s t 20.5% o f t h e s t a b i l i z e d level.


5. The accuracy of maintenance of t h e f i x e d v o l t a g e l e v e l i s a t l e a s t 22%.

The time r e q u i r e d t o reach t h e t e s t load i s n o t over 2 s e c . 6. The t y p e o f s e n s o r used i s a wire s e n s o r [ s t r a i n - g a g e sensor} with a res i s t a n c e o f 1000 ohms and an i n d u c t i o n s e n s o r . I n case of a f a i l u r e o f a s t r a i n - g a g e s e n s o r , t h e system a u t o m a t i c a l l y goes over t o o p e r a t i o n by i n d u c t i o n without s t o p p i n g .

7. The p e r m i s s i b l e imbalance o f phases o f o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e r e s o n a t i n g


p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r t and v i b r a t o r t a b l e during o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n i s n o t o v e r 23%. The e r r o r i n r e c o r d i n g a d e v i a t i o n i n frequency i s n o t over kO.5

times t h e n a t u r a l i n i t i a l frequency o f t h e p a r t .
70

8. 9.

The c a p a c i t y of t h e c y c l e counter i s e i g h t d i g i t s with v i s u a l readout o f The system d i s c o n n e c t s t h e v i b r a t i n g s t a n d a m p l i f i e r when an output power

the last five digits. o f 0 . 9 Pmax i s reached, and a l s o i n c a s e o f a change i n e x c i t e r frequency of any specimen of 5-20% of t h e i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h e d frequency.

71

ANALYSIS OF MECFJANICAL SYSTEM WITH M ._ A T . C . H E D VIBRATOR . . . .N . A. Karpov and V. N . Lobanov (Moscow)

Four p l a n s f o r v i b r a t i o n - i m p a c t systems with two masses w i t h one o r two

/E

e l a s t i c f o r c e s are s t u d i e d w i t h matched s e l f - s y n c h r o n i z i n g imbalance v i b r a t o r ,


which can b e p l a c e d on t h e upper o r lower mass. c h r o n i z a t i o n mode i s p o s s i b l e . With o p p o s i t e l y d i r e c t e d r o t a t i o n o f t h e imbalanced s t a t o r and r o t o r of t h e v i b r a t o r , a co-phased s p The s t a b i l i t y of t h e s t e a d y s t a t e i s s t u d i e d , assuming f o r t h e a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e s r$l = slowly changing f u n c t i o n s o f time.

are 1,2 Four systems are compared as t o degree o f


T +
T

$,,r$-,

q 2 , where $

s t a b i l i t y o f t h e co-phased s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n mode (with d e c r e a s i n g modulus of r o o t s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e q u a t i o n , t h e degree of s t a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s ) . case i s analyzed when t h e matched v i b r a t o r i s i s o l a t e d from impacts. The

72

MULTICHANNEL APPARATUS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF VIBRATING MODE OF MAIN SHIP ENGINES

N , Prokhorov (Taganrog)

For p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i n g mode, an engine o p e r a t o r must proc e s s a l a r g e volume of i n f o r m a t i o n . However, even an experienced o p e r a t o r , i n I n b o t h c a s e s , t h i s can e v a l u a t i n g t h e l e v e l and n a t u r e o f v i b r a t i o n s o f engine p a r t s , may n o t succeed i n making t h e p r o p e r d i a g n o s i s o r may make an e r r o r . l e a d t o an emergency, i n j u r y , e t c . o p e r a t i o n of an engine. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o

i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of conclusions concerning t h e v i b r a t i n g mode of T h i s i s b e i n g done by t r a n s m i t t i n g an e v e r g r e a t e r s h a r e o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n s of t h e o p e r a t o r t o i n s t r u m e n t s , This r e p o r t p r e s e n t s t h e p r i n c i p l e s , c i r c u i t s and t e c h n i c a l d a t a used i n t e s t i n g and s i g n a l i n g apparatus deveioped a t t h e "Vibropribor" S p e c i a l Des gn Bureau. This apparatus allows: a) I n d i c a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t value of v i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n ; b) Light s i g n a l i n g when a f i x e d l e v e l of v i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n i s reached a t any one o f 24 p o i n t s ; c) Output of a s i g n a l t o an e x t e r n a l s i g n a l i n g device i n d i c a t i n g which of t h e 24 p o i n t s has seen a change i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l . Information on v i b r a t i o n o f engine p a r t s produced from t h e a p p a r a t u s allows t h e o p e r a t o r t o e v a l u a t e t h e o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e engine and make a proper d e c i s i o n . I n t h e new apparatus suggested, t h e information produced i s converted t o a form convenient f o r p r o c e s s i n g by v a r i o u s recording and analyzing i n s t r u m e n t s , and a l s o f o r p r o c e s s i n g by computer. The apparatus developed, t o g e t h e r with t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , informing t h e o p e r a t o r concerning o t h e r engine o p e r a t i n g parameters f o r c o n t r o l l i n g any o t h e r machine.

/E

can be i n c l u d e d i n any

combination of automatic o r semiautomatic engine c o n t r o l devices o r d e v i c e s

73

PROBLEMS OF THE DYNAMICS AND STABILITY OF A . CYLINDRICAL SOLID ON A N AEROSTATIC .. SUPPORT


L . A. Bushma (Kaunas)

The suspension o f a c y l i n d r i c a l body on an a e r o s t a t i c s u p p o r t i s analyzed. For t h i s purpose, a diagram o f a power s u p p l y i s developed, and t h r e e t e s t s t a n d s are c o n s t r u c t e d and e v a l u a t e d . The f i r s t s t a n d h a s t h e h i g h e s t f r e quency o f free v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s (over 10 Hz), t h e second h a s a lower frequency o f v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s , and t h e t h i r d has a v a r i a b l e r e s o n a t o r t o s u p p r e s s weak s e l f - o s c i l l a t i o n s as t h e y a r i s e . The work c o n t a i n s t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y of t h e dependence o f t h e h e i g h t o f f l o a t i n g on load a t v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s , determines t h e r i g i d i t y o f an a e r o s t a t i c s u p p o r t , i t s dependence on load and p r e s s u r e . has a r i g i d r e s t o r a t i v e force.
I t i s a l s o determined

t h a t a e r o s t a t i c e l a s t i c couplings a r e n o n l i n e a r i n n a t u r e and t h e i r e l a s t i c i t y Free and f o r c e d o s c i l l a t i o n s and t h e i n f l u e n c e The The t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e beof i n d i v i d u a l parameters on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system are determined. system i s s t u d i e d w i t h asymmetrical l o a d .

h a v i o r o f t h i s system i s performed u s i n g c l o s e d and open a e r o s t a t i c s u p p o r t . The d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s o f motion are composed, and a n a l y t i c dependence i s p r e s e n t e d between p r e s s u r e and t h e volume of t h e l u b r i c a t i n g l a y e r . grams o f t h e v a r i o u s motions o f t h e system a r e p r e s e n t e d . u s i n g analog computers were performed. Oscillo-

/?

Investigations

REFERENCES
1.

2.

Grissom, I . S . and J . U . Powell, P o d s h i p n i k i s Gazovoy Smazkoy [GasLubricated B e a r i n g s ] , Moscow, M i r Press, 1966. Konstantinnesku, V . N . , Gazovaya Smazka [Gas L u b r i c a t i o n ] , Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye P r e s s , 1968.

74

STUDY OF VIBRATIONS OF A MAGNETIC DRUM WITH PNEUMATIC DRIVE AND PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION
~~

Yu. Yu. Getsevichyus, K . M. Ragulskis and B . -Yu. B. Yanchyukas (Kaunas)


A model of a magnetic drum having high v i b r a t i o n resistance and compact-

ness as well as very low l e v e l of o s c i l l a t i o n s i s s t u d i e d .

The drum i t s e l f

c o n s i s t s of a t h i n r i n g mounted on a nonmoving p i n with a c l e a r a n c e of a few t e n t h s of a micron, r o t a t i n g on r a d i a l a i r and j o u r n a l b e a r i n g s with e x t e r n a l f o r c e d a i r and s u c c e s s i v e f e e d . The a i r streams o f t h e b e a r i n g i t s e l f are used as t h e d r i v e t o apply t o r q u e t o t h e drum. There has been developed a method f o r t h e p r e c i s e measurement of o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e magnetic drum by c o n t a c t l e s s s e n s o r s , as well as a method f o r measurement of t h e s t a t i c r i g i d i t y , p u l s a t i o n s of a i r i n t h e hollow p i n , t o r q u e a c t i n g on t h e magnetic drum and a n g u l a r o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e drum. The experimental d a t a a r e processed by mathematical s t a t i s t i c s u s i n g d i g i t a l computers. The s p e c t r a l d e n s i t i e s and c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s of drum The o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e produced as a f u n c t i o n of e x t e r n a l blowing p r e s s u r e , mass and diameter, l o c a t i o n and a n g l e of i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e a i r supply a p e r t u r e s . a l s o of t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e s of t h e drum i t s e l f and i t s o s c i l l a t i o n s , i s determined. O s c i l l a t i o n s of a magnetic drum w i t h pneumatic d r i v e and pneumatic suspension and o s c i l l a t i o n o f magnetic drums of s i m i l a r s i z e b u t r o t a t i n g on p r e c i s i o n b a l l b e a r i n g s by an e l e c t r i c motor a r e comparatively analyzed. i n f l u e n c e o f t h e macro c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e of t h e p i n , and

75

VIBRATION DAMPING OF BEARING UNITS


A . F. Koz'yakov and Y e . Y a . Yudin (Moscow)

I n o r d e r t o reduce t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t bushings be i n s t a l l e d between t h e body o f a woodworking l a t h e and t h e e x t e r n a l r i n g o f t h e bearings o f t h e c u t t i n g t o o l ( i n p a r t i c u l a r a c u t t i n g s h a f t ) . I n o r d e r t o determine t h e optimal form and material o f t h e bushings, a number o f s p e c i a l experiments were performed. t h e bushings.

/=

F i r s t o f a l l , t h e t a s k was s e t

of determining t h e mechanism o f a t t e n u a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s d u r i n g placement o f Bushings 10 mm t h i c k were t e s t e d , made o f bronze, aluminum, The f i r s t two m a t e r i a l s have h i g h v a l u e s o f t h e r e a c t i v e Capron and t e x t o The experiments t e x t o l i t e and capron.

p o r t i o n of t h e impedance, i . e . , a c t l i k e o r d i n a r y i n s e r t s . impedances, s o t h a t t h e y absorb o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t e n s i v e l y .

l i t e have high i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n f a c t o r s and consequently s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c t i v e

performed showed t h a t t h e u s e o f bronze i n aluminum bushings does n o t r e s u l t i n any r e d u c t i o n i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l and r e l a t e d n o i s e o f s p i n d l e u n i t s of woodworking machines. However, t e x t o l i t e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y capron bushings res u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n v i b r a t i o n l e v e l o f t h e system made up o f t h e t o o l and workpiece, which i s g r e a t l y important i f w e r e c a l l t h a t most woodworki n g machines are hand fed. Measurements were performed u s i n g a rough p l a n e r t y p e SF4-4 o p e r a t i n g a t n = 3000 rpm b o t h i n o p e r a t i o n and when i d l i n g .

e
4

Figure 1 shows t h e n o i s e s p e c t r a

a)
3

a ,
7

>

o f i d l i n g o f t h e SF4-4 machine when


capron and t e x t o l i t e bushings a r e used. The g r e a t e s t r e d u c t i o n i n n o i s e l e v e l
ency

a , s+
v)

2 a
-0

i s observed a t f r e q u e n c i e s which a r e
m u l t i p l e s o f t h e primary r o t a t i n g f r e quency o f t h e c u t t i n g s h a f t . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e experiments t h a t t h e r e d u c t i o n i n n o i s e l e v e l depends on t h e t y p e of bushing seating. Thus, when a h o t o r p r e s s

( I )

Figure 1. Noise S p e c t r a o f S p i n d l e Units With V i b r a t i o n Damping Bushings. 1, No bushing; 2 , T e x t o l i t e bushing; 1 3 , Capron bushing.

,4 Russian t e x t does n o t i n d i c a t e
t h e number o f t h e l i n e s .

76

f i t of t h e bushing on t h e o u t e r b e a r i n g r i n g was used, t h e n o i s e r e d u c t i o n

decreases s h a r p l y .

A similar phenomenon was observed w i t h a t r a n s i t i o n f i t

and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a c l e a r a n c e f i t .
100
, I

a l
al

The r e s u l t s produced can b e exp l a i n e d e a s i l y i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e


attenuation of o s c i l l a t i o n s i n bearing u n i t s with v i b r a t i o n dampers occurs due t o deformation o f t h e bushing m a t e r i a l i n thickness.
mm

>
4

a Figure 2 . Noise Level of SF4-4 Machine a s a Function o f Vibrat i o n Damping Bushing Thickness.

When f i t s are used with

c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r f e r e n c e , t h e capab i l i t y of capron f o r t h i s type o f deformation drops s h a r p l y . For t h i s reaWith f i t s c l o s e r t o c l e a r a n c e f i t s , The p r e s e n c e o f t h e c l e a r i n g

son, n o i s e r e d u c t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y zero.

t h e c o n t a c t between t h e o u t e r r i n g of t h e b e a r i n g and t h e bushing i s decreased, while with c l e a r a n c e f i t s it becomes minimal. causes i n t e n s i v e mechanical n o i s e . t h e bushing (capron) i s changed. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s e a t i n g of t h e Analysis of t h e graph i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e op-

bushing as t o i t s e x t e r n a l diameter i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e t h i c k n e s s of t i m a l bushing t h i c k n e s s i s 10-15 mm. Thus, with p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , geometry and t y p e of f i t of t h e bushing around t h e o u t e r b e a r i n g r i n g , vibration-damping bushings can provide a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n noise l e v e l .
I t must be noted h e r e t h a t t h i s can be done u s i n g p r a c t i c a l l y any wood-

working o r metalworking t o o l .

77

VIBRATIONS WITH RANDOM AMPLITUDES AND FREQUENCIES . . INVESTIGATION OF . .~


= ~ .

G . I . Anikeyev (Moscow)
An a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d o f t h e parameters o f a random p r o c e s s a t t h e

o u t p u t o f t h e system c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s frequency response as f u n c t i o n of t h e parameters of t h e i n p u t p r o c e s s and t h e frequency response of t h e system. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e random process a t t h e o u t p u t of t h e measuring system are used t o determine t h e parameters of t h e p r o c e s s a t i t s i n p u t . of t h e amplitude and phase o f t h e p r o c e s s a t t h e i n p u t a r e determined. i n t h e flow-through p o r t i o n of a powerful h y d r a u l i c t u r b i n e . Four
As an

e q u a t i o n s are produced, from which t h e mathematical e x p e c t a t i o n and v a r i a n c e example, r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d from t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p u l s a t i o n s of p r e s s u r e

78

SOME SPECIFICS OF THE -INTERACTION OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTED AND LUMPED

PARAMETERS

L. V. Goykhman and V . S . Naumenko (Moscow)

The i n t e r a c t i o n of a system w i t h lumped parameters ( r a i l r o a d t r a i n ) and a system with randomly d i s t r i b u t e d parameters ( r a i l r o a d t r a c k ) i s s t u d i e d .


I t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e system with randomly d i s t r i b u t e d parameters,

as a r e s u l t of n o n l i n e a r i t y of e l a s t i c and damping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i s a s e t o f o s c i l l a t o r s with u n s t a b l e f r e q u e n c i e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y of formation o f t r a v e l i n g waves i n a d i s c r e t e l y a n i s o t r o p i c medium i s s t u d i e d .

.
The r a i l s and t i e s

The presence of wave p r o c e s s e s i n t h e t r a c k i s d e t e c t e d and a model of formation of t r a v e l i n g and s t a n d i n g waves i s suggested. must be looked upon i n t h i s case a s a b a s i c wave guide. The p o s s i b i l i t y i s s t u d i e d o f c o n v e r t i n g t h e system with d i s t r i b u t e d parameters t o a system o f lumped parameters. t i o n law). Then, a s i n g l e t r a c k - t r a i n system i s s t u d i e d . The n a t u r a l coupled f r e The lumped parameters s e l e c t e d a r e t h e mean o r maximum parameters of t h e t r a c k (depending on t h e d i s t r i b u -

quencies of t h i s system w i l l b e random.


A method i s suggested allowing t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s v a l u e s of parameters i n

/E

t h e system without o s c i l l a t i o n t o be determined. t h e number of degrees o f freedom.

The number of independent

parameters determined i n each of t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n s of t h e t r a c k i s equal t o The essence o f t h e method c o n s i s t s i n feeding a p e r t u r b a t i o n o f t h e "white noise" type t o one o f t h e elements of t h e system i n a predetermined frequency band, with a simultaneous F o u r i e r t r a n s form of t h e s i g n a l a t t h e o u t p u t of any element. The spectrum produced i s Expanding t h e frequency deThe number o f c r o s s a s i g n a l of t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e system and consequently w i l l have maxima a t t h e n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s . terminant o f t h e system, w e produce n a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s o f o r d e r 2n f o r t h e frequency w i t h n unknown parameters i n each c r o s s s e c t i o n . s e c t i o n s i s determined c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e a s t o s c i l l a t i n g frequency of t h e p a r a -

79

m e t e r s , while t h e d i s t a n c e between c r o s s s e c t i o n s i s determined u s i n g t h e Nyquist method. For t h e masses, n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i n g frequency and r i g i d i t y parameters determined, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r numerical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e determined, and c o r r e l a t i o n and s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s a r e performed. Using t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion of t h e system and t h e e x p r e s s i o n s f o r unknown parameters produced, i t i s easy t o go over t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l y averaged a t t e n u a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e system.

80

A SET OF APPARATUS FOR MEASUREMENT OF OSCILLATIONS OF A MOVING TAPE A. A, Alekna, P . A . Varanauskas, Z . F. Dontsu, V. T. Kolishchuk, K . M. Ragulls k i s , M. P . Sukharev, Y e . N . Travnikov, A. V . Chepulkauskas (Kaunas)

This work p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l foundation , p l u s p l a n n i n g and experimental d a t a f o r a s e t o f a p p a r a t u s f o r measurement o f t h e t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f a moving magnetic t a p e w i t h uneven edges. The complex o f equipment was developed a t t h e l a b o r a t o r y o f v i b r a t i o n s t u d i e s o f Kaunas P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e .
A number o f works have been p u b l i s h e d i n t h e domestic and f o r e i g n t e c h -

n i c a l and p a t e n t l i t e r a t u r e on t h e measurement o f t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f a moving magnetic t a p e i n a t a p e d r i v e mechanism. Some works claim complete e l i m i n a t i o n o f e r r o r r e s u l t i n g from uneven edges o f an unevenly moving t a p e d u r i n g measurement of t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s by a c o n t a c t l e s s method u s i n g s e n s i n g elements and an o p t i c a l - m e c h a n i c a l system.
I t h a s been proved a t t h e

v i b r a t i o n s t u d i e s l a b o r a t o r y r e c e n t l y t h a t t h e s e e r r o r s cannot b e comp l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number of s t a t i o n a r y s e n s o r s u s e d . edges on t a p e movement measurement. i n the set of apparatus. Inc r e a s i n g t h e number of s e n s o r s d e c r e a s e s t h e i n f l u e n c e of unevenness o f t a p e Other methods have been sought , reducing t h e e r r o r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f compactness of i n d i v i d u a l devices Unevennesses w i t h long r e p e t i t i o n p e r i o d , r e s u l t i n g Two Sensors can be used, p l a c e d a t a During motion , from t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e t a p e d u r i n g c u t t i n g , a r e random i n n a t u r e , although t h e y a r e n e a r s i n u s o i d a l . s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e o f one f o u r t h t h e measured wave l e n g t h .

one s e n s o r i s uncovered, w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s covered and t h e sum o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n s produced w i l l b e l e s s t h a n t h e d i s t o r t i o n s from a s i n g l e s e n s o r .


I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i f t h e wave l e n g t h h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v i a t i o n from t h e

nominal (about 25%), t h e i n a c c u r a c i e s i n measurement r e s u l t i n g from unevenness of t a p e edge w i l l be o v e r 30%. A s i m i l a r phenomenon i s produced from a lack o f correspondence between t h e d i s t a n c e between s e n s o r s and wave l e n g t h . With complete correspondence o f t h e s e q u a n t i t i e s ,e r r o r s s t i l l r e s u l t , s i n c e one s e n s o r i s uncovered w i t h a d e l a y o f a q u a r t e r p e r i o d of t h e wave b e i n g s t u d i e d . T h i s i s e l i m i n a t e d as t h e d i s t a n c e between s e n s o r s i s e q u a l t o one h a l f wave length.
A s a r e s u l t , p r e c i s e s e l e c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e u s i n g t h i s method of

measurement d e c r e a s e s t h e e r r o r s .

81

STUDY OF VIBRATION OF ROTATING DISKS WITH MAGNETIC COATINGS .~ ~. . . . . _ _ _ _ .


_ _ _ _ . _ . . . . j . _ _ i . . . _ . _

Yu. Yu. Getsevichyus, I . - M .

P . P a k a u s h i t e , K . M. R a g u l ' s k i s (Kaunas)

Magnetic d i s k s are used i n d i s k memory d e v i c e s (DMD).

DMD have h i g h
These

c a p a c i t y , approaching t h a t o f magnetic t a p e s t o r a g e u n i t s , and r a p i d s e l e c t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d , comparable with t h a t o f drum memory u n i t s . a p p l i c a t i o n i n modern computers and f o r a number o f s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s . I n magnetic s t o r a g e , one of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n determining i t s q u a l i t y i s t h e problem o f p r o v i d i n g a c o n s t a n t o p e r a t i n g c l e a r a n c e between t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e r and t h e magnetic head i n c a s e o f c o n t a c t l e s s r e c o r d i n g and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f good q u a l i t y c o n t a c t between t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e r and head i n c a s e o f c o n t a c t magnetic r e c o r d i n g .
A c o n s t a n t working c l e a r a n c e o r good

s i g n i f i c a n t advantages o f DMD have r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r wide and e v e r i n c r e a s i n g

q u a l i t y c o n t a c t between c a r r i e r and head can be p r o v i d e d by c o n t r o l l i n g t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e r o t a t i n g d i s k and t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e head suspension system. Methods o f s t a t i s t i c a l dynamics, p a r t i c u l a r l y c o r r e l a t i o n methods based on t h e s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n p u t and o u t p u t p r o c e s s e s a r e used t o s t u d y t h e t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s of a t h i n r o t a t i n g d i s k o f c o n s t a n t t h i c k n e s s , s i n c e t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e d i s k depends on a number o f random f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e t h e geometric and p h y s i c a l parameters o f t h e d i s k i t s e l f : random d e v i a t i o n s from i d e a l geometric form, v a r i a t i o n i n boundary c o n d i t i o n s , f l u c t u a t i o n s i n e l a s t i c and s t r e n g t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e material, etc. The t r a n s v e r s e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f a t h i n r o t a t i n g d i s k were looked upon as The r e a l i z a t i o n s a random s t a b l e p r o c e s s , s a t i s f y i n g t h e e r g o d i c h y p o t h e s i s . w i t h t h e corresponding amplifying a p p a r a t u s . plans.

/=

o f t h e p r o c e s s were produced e x p e r i m e n t a l l y u s i n g c o n t a c t less c a p a c i t i v e s e n s o r s I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t r a n s v e r s e os c i l l a t i o n s o f a r o t a t i n g d i s k w i t h magnetic c o a t i n g were performed u s i n g two According t o t h e first p l a n , t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e d i s k were r e The recorded osI t was found t h a t

ceived by c o n t a c t l e s s s e n s o r s , t h e s i g n a l s from which e n t e r e d t h e amplifying a p p a r a t u s and were f u r t h e r f e d t o t h e r e c o r d i n g a p p a r a t u s . and t r a n s m i t t e d t o a computer f o r s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s i n g . c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e d i s k s , i n t h e form o f c u r v e s , were converted t o d i s c r e t e form

82

t h i s plan of investigation of o s c i l l a t i o n s i s q u i t e ineffective.

I t is cum-

bersome and i n a c c u r a t e , s i n c e t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of such a p r e c i s i o n device as a DMD are recorded by an i n a c c u r a t e method, which i s t r u e of o s c i l l o g r a p h s used f o r t h e r e c o r d i n g o f dynamic p r o c e s s e s . In these oscillographs, t h e drive Significant

o f t h e t a p e on which t h e p r o c e s s i s recorded i s n o t h i g h l y even.


os c i 11a t i o n s t o d i s c r e t e form.

e r r o r s a r e a l s o introduced d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f conversion of t h e curves of

I t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more e f f e c t i v e t o u t i l i z e a n o t h e r method of i n v e s t i g a -

t i o n o f d i s k o s c i l l a t i o n s , as we have.

The analog s i g n a l from t h e a m p l i f i e r

apparatus i s s e n t t o a s p e c i a l c o n v e r t e r used with t h e Minsk-22 computer. The e i g h t channel c o n v e r t e r , t h e speed o f one channel o f which s l i g h t l y exceeds t h e speed of t h e main memory of t h e computer, r e c o r d s t h e i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e s e n s o r s a t evenly spaced t i m e i n t e r v a l s and t r a n s m i t s them t o t h e computer memory i n t h e form o f d i s c r e t e p u l s e s . This p l a n was used t o c a l c u l a t e est i m a t e s of p r o b a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s , s p e c t r a l dens i t i e s , histograms of amplitudes of t r a n s v e r s e osci.1lation.s) o f t h e disk-hubclamp system and d i s k - c o n t a c t head r e t a i n e r system, as w e l l as t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e form o f e s t i m a t e s of t h e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s and f r e quency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i s k o s c i l l a t i o n s t o i t s macro c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u r f a c e i s a l s o determined, t h e propagation o f t h e l e v e l of o s c i l l a t i o n s along t h e r a d i u s o f t h e d i s k i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s causing d i s k o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e determined. One s a t i s f a c t o r y method i s t h e method o f r e c o r d i n g o s c i l l a t i o n s on magn e t i c t a p e u s i n g h i g h - p r e c i s i o n t a p e d r i v e mechanisms , followed by conversion and i n p u t of d a t a on t h e p r o c e s s t o computer memory. This method of i n p u t of experimental d a t a t o computer memory allows e l i m i n a t i n g a number o f mechanical l i n k s , t h e unevenness and d e l a y i n motion of which i n t r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r s .

/%

83

SOME PROBLEMS OF PRACTICAL ANALYSIS . . OF . VIBRATION-ACOUSTICAL . . . . . . .. . .. . .-. PROPERTIES . . . . . OF. . CEN. . TRIFUGAL PUMPS
~~

D. V. Grokhovskiy and V. M. Rogachev (Leningrad)

The d i f f i c u l t y of t h e problem of determining t h e causes of i n c r e a s e d s t r u c t u r a l n o i s e l e v e l i n pumps i n v a r i o u s frequency ranges r e s u l t s from t h e c o n t i n u i t y of t h e frequency spectrum of v i b r a t i o n s and t h e d u a l n a t u r e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e spectrograms. The v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e pump and t h e absence o r i n many cases t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between parameters o f t h e o s c i l l a t i n g p r o c e s s and t h e d e s i g n of t h e machine do n o t allow a t h e o r y o f v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l d i a g n o s i s of pumps t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d a t the present t i m e . Works a r e d e s c r i b e d , performed during v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l d i a g n o s i s o f one pump, and c a l c u l a t i o n and experimental r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d , i n which t h e p h y s i c a l n a t u r e of t h e p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e s i n v a r i o u s p o r t i o n s of t h e frequency range a r e s t u d i e d , t h e s p e c i f i c s of t h e design and i t s dynamic modeling i n t h e s e frequency subranges a r e p r e s e n t e d , and t h e s t a t e m e n t of expedient experiments i s analyzed.

84

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY SOURCES OF NOISE I N MACHINES BY CORRELATION M E T H O D S

G. A. Leont'yev and P. M. S h u l ' g a (Volgograd)


A c o r r e l a t i o n method i s used t o determine t h e n o i s i e s t machine i n one shop

of an oxygen p l a n t and r e v e a l t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f n o i s e s c r e a t e d by t h e machine and v i b r a t i o n s of i t s i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and p a r t s . A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n and The a u t o c o r r e mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v i b r a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and t h e n o i s e of a s i l k s p i n n i n g machine were produced e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . g e a r body were used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t i e s . machine t o b e i n d i c a t e d . The a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n and mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s were produced u s i n g l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v i b r a t i o n s of t h e s p i n d l e , guide r o l l e r and reducing Analysis of mutual c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s of v i b r a t i o n and n o i s e allowed t h e n o i s i e s t u n i t of t h e

a common a p p a r a t u s : a n o i s e meter, v i b r a t i o n measuring i n s t a l l a t i o n and d u a l beam e l e c t r o n i c o s c i l l o s c o p e with a photographic attachment. computer f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The o s c i l l o g r a m s

o f t h e p r o c e s s e s being s t u d i e d were t a b u l a t e d and fed i n t o t h e N a i r i d i g i t a l

85

STUDY OF OPTICAL DYNAMIC MODELS OF FLEXIBLE - . . . .. ROTOR . -~ .. SYSTEMS . . . -. . ... BY. . THE .. . . LP-SEARCH . - . . . .- . .~ . . . - . . ME THOD S
M. F . Zeytman and R. B . S t a t n i k o v (Moscow)

Cybernetic d i a g n o s i s o f dynamic models o f r o t o r s i s based on t h e new LPs e a r c h method, which determines optimal v e r s i o n s o f models i n t h e space of v a r i a b l e parameters. I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m u l t i v a r i a t e dependences i s based on t h e u s e o f t h e Haar f u n c t i o n . I t i s suggested t h a t p o i n t s Q1, b a s i s of t h e guiding p o i n t s n-dimensional cube. The P
' I

...,% o f an LP T -sequence, c a l c u l a t e d on V . .V .. . b e used as pseudorandom p o i n t s i n an 1' s

the

networks guarantee optimal o r d e r of convergence i n C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e s e p o i n t s i s based

t h e space o f parameters o f t h e f u n c t i o n s .

only on l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , and t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n by computer i s q u i t e simple. I n t h i s work, LP-search was used t o s t u d y f l e x u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of a f l e x i b l e v e r t i c a l rotor, o s c i l l a t i n g i n the f i e l d of the force of gravity. s a t i s f y i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a a r e sought. Free and f o r c e d o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e r o t o r a r e s t u d i e d and optimal v a l u e s o f parameters

86

STUDY OF METHODS OF .T SEPARATING USEFUL SIGNALSX.Ec.o&GIN.I.T FROM GENERAL OFo fic.H-IN=E-s .IN. zo.LtiI.N-G. .H.E. .P.Ro.B=L.EM AiiToEiA;T.I.c. .op'NOISE .o.R~I.G.~-N-FDUPLICATING NO I ES IN .TAL .c.o.~~p.u;r'E .R~s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . - - M.E.c.H p;N .. .~ .s.Ms N.G. .D.I co~N-c ~ . ... . . . . .. ._ . .. . . . . . . .. i
~ ~~

0. K . Postnikov (Moscow)

The complexity o f t h e kinematics of d u p l i c a t i n g machines makes s e p a r a t i o n of n o i s e sources d i f f i c u l t . This problem can be s o l v e d d u r i n g d u p l i c a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n by non-separated s e a r c h and determination o f s o u r c e s .
A method i s suggested f o r machine i n v e s t i g a t i o n of d u p l i c a t i n g machines

f o r n o i s e with automatic r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i g n a l s produced.

In creating the

method, t h e s p e c i f i c s of d u p l i c a t i n g machines, i n c l u d i n g t h e i r h i g h kinematic complexity and r i g i d l y programmed o p e r a t i n g c y c l e , were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a tion. Methods developed allow information t o b e e x t r a c t e d from a r e a l i z a t i o n X(t) n o t only concerning t h e n o i s e l e v e l o f any given mechanism, b u t a l s o allowing e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y of manufacture and i n s t a l l a t i o n of i n d i v i dual p a r t s and u n i t s of t h e machine. use i n d i a g n o s i s a s w e l l . During p r e p a r a t i o n o f a problem f o r computer s o l u t i o n , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l X(t) must be performed i n advance with p r e c i s e determination o f t h e r o t a t i n g speed o f t h e main s h a f t . The use of p o s i t i o n o r angle markers of t h e P r e p a r a t i o n of t h e problem a l s o i n mechanisms being s t u d i e d i s o b l i g a t o r y . When t h e proper s t a t i s t i c s are s e l e c t e d and p a r t i c u l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e performed, t h i s method can b e promising f o r

cludes composition of a d a t a block of kinematic dependences of a l l mechanisms of t h e machine, and where p u l s e n o i s e s a r e p r e s e n t , g e n e r a l i z e d dynamic calculations as well. of t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n ) . The d u r a t i o n o f r e c o r d i n g o f r e a l i z a t i o n X(t) and t h e frequency o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l are determined by t h e r e s e a r c h e r on t h e b a s i s of r u l e s which a r e developed. (The a l g o r i t h m f o r composition of t h e d a t a block and c a l c u l a t i o n of dynamic parameters r e q u i r e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n allows automation

87

An analog t o d i g i t a l c o n v e r t e r i s used t o t r a n s m i t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a d i g i t a l computer. The o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e c o n v e r t e r i s normalized by t h e recommendations used f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Using an algorithm which i s developed, a f t e r t h e n e c e s s a r y information has been f e d i n t o t h e computer, t h e experimental d a t a a r e processed i n t h e machine. If t h e mechanisms o f t h e machine b e i n g s t u d i e d have f r e q u e n c i e s which are i d e n t i c a l o r m u l t i p l e s of each o t h e r , s e v e r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s e n s o r s must b e used. A f t e r t h e "useful" p e r i o d i c s i g n a l s and p u l s e components have been s e p a r a t e d , t h e "random" p e r i o d i c components are analyzed f o r purposes of r e c o g n i t i o n . A n experimental check o f t h e method performed u s i n g t h e POL-6 two-color o f f s e t machine , gave p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s .

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88

STATISTICAL STUDIES OF RANDOM VIBRATIONS OF A RAILROAD CAR BODY


G . M. Frolov (Moscow)
1.

I n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e t h e dynamic q u a l i t i e s of moving elements, t h e o s The v i b r a t i o n s o f a c a r body c o n s i s t o f a

c i l l a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s elements and s t r u c t u r e s o f cars o p e r a t i n g under i n t e n s i v e v i b r a t i o n conditions a r e s t u d i e d . and f r e q u e n c i e s . vibrations.


2.

s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f a l a r g e number of harmonic o s c i l l a t i o n s with random amplitudes Generally t h e y can b e p l a c e d i n t h e c l a s s o f complex random

A combination o f e l e c t r o n i c equipment has been developed f o r automatic

c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b i v a r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t i e s of t h e maxima and d u r a t i o n s of complex o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s b e i n g s t u d i e d . t h e zero l e v e l by t h e s i g n a l . S p e r l i n g method.


3.

The

measurements are performed i n t h e t i m e between two neighboring i n t e r s e c t i o n s of This method of a n a l y s i s of o s c i l l a t i o n s i s used, f o r example, i n determining t h e smoothness i n d i c a t o r s of t h e c a r s u s i n g t h e

The s e t of a p p a r a t u s c o n s i s t s o f s p e c i a l l y developed and s t a n d a r d e l e c The measured parameters o f o s c i l l a t i o n s - I n correspondence with t h e The r e -

t r o n i c d e v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g a magnetic r e c o r d e r f o r t h e v i b r a t i o n s being s t u d i e d and a s p e c i a l d i g i t a l p u l s e a n a l y z e r . maxima and d u r a t i o n - - a r e converted t o p u l s e t r a i n s .

number o f p u l s e s i n t h e t r a i n s , t h e p u l s e a n a l y z e r s o r t s o s c i l l a t i o n s as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r parameters and r e c o r d s t h i s information i n memory. s u l t s of p r o c e s s i n g o f long r e a l i z a t i o n s of t h e process a r e o u t p u t as c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e s , f u l l y d e f i n i n g t h e one-dimensional d i s t r i b u t i o n s of each o f t h e parameters s t u d i e d and allowing t h e s t o c h a s t i c dependences between them t o be studied. These c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e s a r e i n p u t t o a u n i v e r s a l d i g i t a l computer f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e smoothness i n d i c a t o r s (by p r o c e s s i n g of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l a c c e l e r a t i o n s of t h e c a r body) t h e process parameters s t u d i e d .
4.

/E

statistical characteristics of the

one-dimensional p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n f a c t o r s of

I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e v i b r a t i o n s o f I n t h i s case,

any two s t r u c t u r a l elements, f o r example between t h e v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e body and t r u c k s of a r a i l r o a d c a r , i s t h e most d i f f i c u l t form o f a n a l y s i s . when t h e mutual c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s v a l u e s of t h e two 89

p r o c e s s e s i s s t u d i e d , t h e s i g n a l s must be q u a n t i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o time and t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s v a l u e s of s i g n a l s converted t o p u l s e t r a i n s as d e s c r i b e d above. C o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e s of two p r o c e s s e s can b e used n o t only t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , b u t a l s o t o determine v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e r a t i o s of t h e two random v i b r a t i o n s . studied. These c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e t h e t a n g e n t s of t h e i n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s of t h e p r o c e s s e s b e i n g

5.

A l l c a l c u l a t i o n s i n p r o c e s s i n g of t h e v i b r a t i o n d a t a a r e performed by

e l e c t r o n i c d i g i t a l computer, allowing t h e p r o c e s s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v i b r a t i o n s

t o b e automated.

90

M E T H O D OF MEASUREMENTS DURING INVESTIGATION OF MOTORCYCLE NOISE Yu. V. Skoryukin, A . A Yudin (Moscow) S t r o k i n , A. S . Terekhin, V . V . Tupov and Ye. Y a .

A t t h e p r e s e n t time, t h e r e i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of

t h e n o i s e o f a motorcycle and i t s m u f f l e r system. t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t work.

T h e r e f o r e , v a r i o u s methods One such method i s

o f experimental s t u d y a r e of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e .

A s w e know, t h e p r i n c i p a l components i n t h e n o i s e o f a motorcycle a r e t h e

exhaust n o i s e , i n t a k e n o i s e and n o i s e o f t h e engine i t s e l f . and economy f i g u r e s of t h e engine. stands.

Therefore, tuning

/E

of t h e i n t a k e and exhaust m u f f l e r system h a s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e power Under p l a n t c o n d i t i o n s , measurement o f t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s g e n e r a l l y i s performed on s t a b l e , s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t e s t Therefore, t h e n e c e s s i t y f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e s of u s i n g t h e s e s t a n d s a l s o f o r measurement of t h e n o i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e n g i n e s . closely t o natural conditions. I n o r d e r t o confirm t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of t h i s method, w e s t u d i e d t h e a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t e s t s t a n d s a t t h e V . A. Degtyarev P l a n t .
F o r t h i s same purpose, w e performed comparative measurements o f t h e sound

W e suggest t h a t t h e

r e f l e c t e d f i e l d method be used f o r t h i s purpose, s i n c e i t corresponds most

power o f a motorcycle engine i n a f r e e sound f i e l d by t h e r e f l e c t e d sound f i e l d method, showing good convergence o f t h e two methods. t e s t s of motorcycles. Furthermore, t h e r e s u l t s o f measurements under t e s t s t a n d c o n d i t i o n s were t e s t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y by road To do t h i s , t h e t e s t s t a n d measurement d a t a were used t o The road c a l c u l a t e t h e expected sound p r e s s u r e spectrum under road c o n d i t i o n s . mental d a t a . Based on t h e s t u d i e s performed, we can c o n s i d e r t e s t s t a n d a c o u s t i c a l measurements r e l i a b l e . This allows us t o expand s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e experimental c a p a b i l i t i e s of t e s t s t a n d s of t h i s t y p e , a v a i l a b l e i n v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f i t t i n g them siniultaneously f o r measurement n o t o n l y o f power b u t of a c o u s t i c a l i n d i c e s of engines.

t e s t measurements showed s a t i s f a c t o r y correspondence o f c a l c u l a t e d and e x p e r i -

91

DETERMINATION AND CALCULATION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS - - .. .NOISE -C.. REATED - . .. BY TURBO-. OF . PROP PASSENGER AIRCRAFT INTHE- A a A OF- AIRPORTS
V. S. Okorokov (Moscow) A method i s suggested f o r determining t h e maximum n o i s e l e v e l o f a i r c r a f t ,

b o t h when parked and when i n f l i g h t . The i n i t i a l parameters used a r e t h e power a p p l i e d t o t h e p r o p e l l e r , r a t e of p r o p e l l e r r o t a t i o n , diameter and t h e number o f b l a d e s , f l i g h t a l t i t u d e and speed and t h e arrangement of t h e power p l a n t . The formulas and nomograms suggested allow t h e n o i s e o f a i r c r a f t i n o p e r a t i o n and newly designed a i r c r a f t with turboprop engines t o b e c a l c u l a t e d with accuracy s u f f i c i e n t f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes. Estimation o f n o i s e i s performed i n e f f e c t i v e p e r c e i v e d n o i s e l e v e l s i n correspondence with t h e recommendations of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standards Organization and t h e p l a n f o r t h e corresponding domestic All-Union S t a t e Standard

/z

The r e s u l t s o f experimental s t u d i e s of n o i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of domestic a i r c r a f t t e s t e d parked under v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a g r e e w e l l with t h e calculated values.

92

STUDY OF A I R NOISE OF PNEUMATIC LOOM BY.-STATISTICAL METHODS . . . . . - . .


L . P. Bastite, A. Yu. Klyuchininkas, V. K. Naynis, K . M. Ragul'skis

(Kaunas)

A comparison o f spectrograms measured d u r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a s h u t t l e loom

of any t y p e and a pneumatic loom shows t h a t t h e n o i s e c r e a t e d by pneumatic looms c o n s i s t s of h i g h frequency aerodynamic and t u r b u l e n c e n o i s e . respectively. The p r i n c i p a l sources o f h i g h frequency n o i s e i n a pneumatic loom are t h e u n i t s supplying compressed a i r and drawing away t h e w e f t . shows an o s c i l l o g r a m of t h e n o i s e of t h e a i r supply u n i t . Figure l a and b The d u r a t i o n o f an

In t h e octave

1, 2, 4 and 8 KHz bands, t h e n o i s e l e v e l exceeds t h e norms by 2, 2, 4 and 14 db

/E

a i r b l a s t i s 96 a n g u l a r degrees o f r o t a t i o n of t h e main s h a f t of t h e machine.

. -

210b-

180"
b

360"

Figure 1. Oscillogram o f Noise of A i r Feed Unit: a , 180" r o t a t i o n o f main s h a f t ; b , 180-360" r o t a t i o n of main s h a f t ; time mark r e p r e s e n t s 500 H z . P u l s a t i o n s i n a i r p r e s s u r e f a r from t h e zone of t h e a i r stream anL i n i t are studied. S i n c e t h e a i r f l o w f i e l d i n t h e stream i s random, a s t a t i s t i c a l The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s s u r e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phenomena i s p r e s e n t e d .

p u l s a t i o n s i n t h e a i r s t r e a m and t h e narrow band n o i s e s p e c t r a i s determined. An experimental s t u d y of t h e p u l s a t i o n s of a i r p r e s s u r e i n t h e stream was performed u s i n g a multichannel r e c o r d i n g a p p a r a t u s . methods on a d i g i t a l computer. The d a t a o f experimental s t u d i e s , produced i n t h e form o f o s c i l l o g r a m s , a r e processed by s t a t i s t i c a l

93

A WATER SPRAY A S. A SOURCE OF RANDOM FORCE FOR ACOUSTICAL. MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . - . . - . . . . . .. . . . . . .

T. F. Demidenko, N . V. Stepanova, V . I . Shmal'gauzen (Moscow)

I n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n i n s u l a t i o n o f v a r i o u s d e v i c e s , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o have a p o i n t s o u r c e o f n o i s e a c t i o n , w i t h a broad spectrum, s t a b l e and e a s i l y r e p r o d u c i b l e e f f e c t . D . G . Tonkonogov This r e p o r t h a s suggested t h a t a stream o f l i q u i d b e used f o r t h i s purpose, s p r a y i n g a t

2-4 a t m p r e s s u r e from a small a p e r t u r e (0.3-0.6 mm i n d i a m e t e r ) .


by a broken stream o f l i q u i d .

p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s of t h e s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e n o i s e e x c i t e d

W e know t h a t a s t r e a m o f w a t e r i s u n s t a b l e i n a i r and a t some d i s t a n c e from t h e nozzle i s broken i n t o i n d i v i d u a l d r o p s , t h e mean r a d i u s of which i s approximately equal t o t h e diameter of t h e a p e r t u r e : R " d (see [1,2]). The The mean formation o f drops i s a random p r o c e s s and t h e r e f o r e when t h e broken s t r e a m s t r i k e s a s o l i d s u r f a c e , a random sequence o f p u l s e s o f f o r c e a r i s e s . mass. then p u l s e r e p e t i t i o n frequency v can b e determined from t h e law of conservation of

I f M i s t h e flow r a t e of water p e r u n i t t i m e , v i s t h e s t r e a m v e l o c i t y ,

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y of t h e random f o r c e , i t i s necessary t o know t h e p u l s e form. S i n c e i t has been noted t h a t t h e p u l s e has a s t e e p l e a d i n g edge and a more g r a d u a l t r a i l i n g edge, t h e f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l formula can b e used t o approximate t h e p u l s e form:
F ( t )= c (v, R )

/%

r2-6 (;!-I
c1

Here T = K/v i s t h e e f f e c t i v e p u l s e l e n g t h ,
change when

and B a r e parameters which do n o t

E or

v change, amplitude C(v,E)


--

i s determined from t h e law of con-

s e r v a t i o n o f momentum:
4ZR' pv c = __ __

3PTr (4

The spectrum of an i n d i v i d u a l p u l s e o f f i x e d form w i l l be


m

~ ( w ) =

~ ( i n ')~ f t i r = 4 x ~ 3 p -~i ( wl p ~ ) - a .

0
94

For a random sequence o f such p u l s e s , following a t mean frequency v, t h e spect r a l d e n s i t y i s determined by t h e e x p r e s s i o n


(4)

s(a)=~[Q(a) Q * ( o ) ] =x' , R5v3p'[1 + ( o @ T ) ~ ] - ~

Figure 1 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f an experimental d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s p e c t r a l dens i t y of t h e n o i s e of t h e stream. Measurements were performed u s i n g a piezoThe p o i n t s r e l a t i n g t o v a r i o u s e l e c t r i c r e c e i v e r , t h e s e n s i t i v i t y of which i n t h e frequency a r e a s t u d i e d (10-100 KHz) can b e considered c o n s t a n t . a p e r t u r e diameters and v a r i o u s stream v e l o c i t i e s f a l l n e a r t h e curve c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g formula ( 4 ) with t h e v a l u e s of t h e parameters a = 1 , 2 ; B = 1. where w S V/fi, Thus, -3.4 t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y drops o f f a s frequency i n c r e a s e s as w

iY
I

-a

-2c

.1
Figure 1.

to

_I
$0

Thus, a broken s t r e a m of l i q u i d , flowing from a small a p e r t u r e , i s a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t s o u r c e o f random f o r c e with known p r o p e r t i e s . REFERENCES


1. 2.

Rayleigh, Z'eoriya Zvuka [The Theory o f Sound], Vol. 2 , Moscow, 1955. Panasenkov, N . S . , ZhTF, Vol. 2 1 , No. 2 , pp. 160-166, 1951.

95

NOISE AT ACOUSTICAL RECEIVER RESULTING FROM SPATIALLY . NONCORRELATED SOURCES . DISTRIBUTED O V E R A SURFACE

V. B. Kobel'kov and D. G . Tonkonogov (Moscow)


I t i s suggested t h a t t h e a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a d e v i c e and r e c e i v e r b e

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e response f u n c t i o n H(M,f), equal t o t h e v o l t a g e a t t h e o u t p u t of t h e r e c e i v e r upon e x c i t a t i o n o f p o i n t M o f t h e s u r f a c e a t frequency f by a v a r i a b l e f o r c e w i t h u n i t amplitude. measured. This f u n c t i o n can b e experimentally The n a t u r e of t h e s o u r c e s can b e d e s c r i b e d by a f u n c t i o n o f t h e Assuming t h e

s u r f a c e d e n s i t y o f e x c i t i n g f o r c e s o(M,f), equal t o t h e mean amplitude o f t h e f o r c e a t frequency f p e r u n i t s u r f a c e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g p o i n t M . frequency f as: sources on s u r f a c e S t o be n o n c o r r e l a t e d , we c a l c u l a t e t h e r e s u l t i n g n o i s e a t

A s an example, l e t us analyze a d i s k with r e c e i v e r s s e t i n t h e c e n t e r , f o r which f u n c t i o n s H and u have t h e form shown on Figure 1. Figure 2.
Hhl
Ho

The r e s u l t s of c a l -

c u l a t i o n s of t h e n o i s e l e v e l f o r t h i s case u s i n g formula (1) a r e p r e s e n t e d on

n:O

a
- _. .
P

Figure 1. Form o f Functions: a , Response; b , E x c i t a t i o n d e n s i t y f o r c i r c u l a r model of r a d i u s R w i t h r e c e i v e r o f radius v set i n center. 0


96

where r

= 0 ( r e c e i v e r s e t i n wall of d e v i c e , s u r f a c e of which i s e x c i t e d 1 evenly) f o r n > 2 , t h e n o i s e l e v e l remains p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged, which can

be looked upon as a c r i t e r i o n of c o r r e c t n e s s f o r measurements of f u n c t i o n u ,

o r as t h e corresponding l i m i t i n a t t e m p t s t o decrease t h e n o i s e on t h e r e c e i v e r , r e s u l t i n g from t h e s u r f a c e a r e a s surrounding t h e r e c e i v e r . If t h e a r e a o f e x c i t a t i o n i s remote from t h e r e c e i v e r ( r l > r o ) , t h e n o i s e l e v e l depends s t r o n g l y on t h e v a l u e o f n, t h i s dependence being s t e e p e r , t h e g r e a t e r which can b e used t o determine means of p r o t e c t i o n from n o i s e o r f o r a e 1 t e r m i n a t i o n of r on t h e b a s i s of r e s u l t s of measurement o f n o i s e a t v a r i o u s 1 n . For case of a x i a l symmetry with a c i r c u l a r boundary of e x c i t a t i o n a t d i s t a n c e r along t h e g e n e r a t r i x ( i f , where r > r l , f u n c t i o n u ( r , f ) does not i n c r e a s e t o compensate f o r t h e d e c r e a s e i n f u n c t i o n H ( r , f ) ) f o r v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s H(r,f)

, the

following equality obtains:

In o t h e r words, f o r t h i s c a s e such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as H(0,f) ; n; dimensions and form o f a r e a s of t h e s u r f a c e remote from t h e r e c e i v e r have no s i g n i f i c a n c e . follows from (2) t h a t i f f o r a c e r t a i n device t h e n o i s e U 1( f ) and t h e response f u n c t i o n a r e known with an accuracy equal t o c o e f f i cient
It

/E

fi 1(r1, f )

f o r another device

with t h e same shape and n a t u r e


o f excitation the noise level is

defined a s :
(3)

Figure 2. Noise Level a s a Function o f P o s i t i o n of E x c i t a t i o n Boundary r with Various Exponential Decreases 1 i n Response Function n and Dimensions of D i s k R.

where R ( r , , f )

and fi [r , f ) a r e mea1 1 s u r e d under i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s exciting forces.


97

without a b s o l u t e c a l i b r a t i o n of t h e

STUDY OF THE NOISE .. OF. A PIESEL ON A . TRACTOR . . . . . .___ _ ..- . . .


~~

Yu. Deykus, V. Lukanin, V. Efros (Kaunas) I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t t h e n o i s e i n t h e o p e r a t o r ' s s e a t o f a t r a c t o r i s r a d i a t e d by t h e p a n e l s of t h e cab, e x c i t e d by f o r c e s developed as t h e engine o p e r a t e s , and a l s o as a r e s u l t o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f sound energy through t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e t r a c t o r . S t u d i e s were performed u s i n g t y p e MTZ-50 t r a c t o r s , equipped with water cooled (D-50) and a i r cooled (D-37Ye) e n g i n e s . connection t o t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e t r a c t o r . V i b r a t i o n s can b e decreased by making s t r u c t u r a l changes t o t h e method o f connection of t h e engine t o t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n . Figure 1 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f measurement o f v i b r a t i o n s a t a p o i n t on t h e f l o o r of t h e cab. Spectrum 1 was produced with s t a n d a r d connection o f t h e engine t o t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n , spectrum 2--with t h e engine disconnected, spectrum 3--shows v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e engine i t s e l f . The n o i s e i n t h e o p e r a t o r ' s seat was 104 db and 98 db r e s p e c t i v e l y . The engine i n a l l cases operated a t 1800 rpm w i t h o u t load. This f i g u r e shows t h e expediency o f reducing t h e v i b r a t i o n p r o p a g a t i n g from t h e engine t.o t h e cab. The s p e c i f i c s o f arrangement o f t h e engine on t h e t r a c t o r i n c l u d e r i g i d mounting on motor mounts and f l a n g e

Figure 1.
98

Comparison of n o i s e i n t h e cab o f t h e t r a c t o r u s i n g engines with v a r i o u s t y p e s of c o o l i n g shows t h a t t h e a i r - c o o l e d engine causes a n o i s e l e v e l o f 101 db, while t h e water-cooled engine causes a n o i s e l e v e l o f 108 db. was made a t 1750 rpm, without load. The comparison

99

AUTOMATIC METHOD OF STUDYING SOUND INSULATION OF CYLINDRICAL TUBES WITH VARIOUS SOUND RADIATION CONDITIONS
~ ~

D. R. Guzhas (Vil'nyus)
The s t u d y o f t h e sound i n s u l a t i o n (SI) o f c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e s i s becoming

/%

a p r e s s i n g problem i n t h e a r e a of p r o d u c t i o n n o i s e c o n t r o l . arises, reaching 110-120 db o u t s i d e t h e t u b e .

I n gas supply

systems, as s t r o n g l y t u r b u l e n t gas streams flow through t u b e s , i n t e n s i v e n o i s e

The i n s t a l l a t i o n developed allows t h e S I of t u b e s up t o 10 m i n l e n g t h with diameters up t o 1 m t o b e s t u d i e d with sound s o u r c e s both o u t s i d e and i n s i d e t h e t u b e (Figure 1 ) .

LoudspeaKer

generator

, u r e 1. The i n s t a l l a t i o n i n c l u d e s guide tubes i n s t a l l e d o u t s i d e t h e t u b e , on which s p e c i a l r o l l e r c o l l a r s are s e a t e d . The c o l l a r s c a r r y a s u p p o r t i n g r i n g f o r The microphone s i x microphones l o c a t e d a t a n g l e s of 60" around t h e t u b e . s p e c i a l d r i v e system.

/76

r i n g i s moved a u t o m a t i c a l l y along t h e t u b e with a s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r and a The microphone w i t h i n t h e t u b e can b e moved u s i n g a The unevenness of t h e sound f i e l d through l i n e along t h e a x i s of t h e t u b e .

t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e t u b e i s determined by movement o f t h e microphone over t h e r a d i u s o f t h e tube u s i n g a f l e x i b l e connector mounted t o t h e microphone 100

support t r u c k .

This t r u c k i s moved a u t o m a t i c a l l y by t h e r e c o r d e r .

A measuring

/E

rod determines t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e microphones i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e t u b e .

The e l e c t r o acous t i cal portion of the installation


i n c l u d e s master and measuringr e c o r d i n g channels (Figure 1 ) .
A t y p e 50 GRD-8 horn loud-

speaker i s used t o supply t h e sound p r e s s u r e . The master channel allows sound s o u r c e s t o b e e x c i t e d with s i n e wave
r .

Freq. 1,aoo H z l ',;]Freq. 850 Hz e-530-1.000 Hz band 800-1.250 Hz band'.l,OOO-l. 600 Hz band

t o n e s or o n e - t h i r d octave bands of white n o i s e .


A t y p e N-110 s t r i p c h a r t

r e c o r d e r i s used t o r e c o r d t h e l e v e l o f sound p r e s s u r e along


and 2,500-4,000 Hz bands

t h e t u b e a t t h e frequency measured. The measuring microphones o u t s i d e a r e p l a c e d r i g h t a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e


bands t u b e ( d i s t a n c e 0.5-1.0

cm) and

a t a d i s t a n c e of 50 c m from t h e tube w a l l . Figure 2 . wall t h i c k n e s s e s : b The a u t h o r s s t u d i e d t h e

S I of two c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e s 6 m i n l e n g t h and 219 mm i n diameter with v a r i o u s


= 8 mm and b = 2 mm u s i n g t h i s d e v i c e . With t h e sound 1 2 source i n s i d e t h e t u b e , t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l sound f i e l d s were measured.

The measured l e v e l of sound p r e s s u r e along t h e t u b e with bl = 8 mm when e x c i t e d by bands o f white n o i s e and s i n e wave t o n e s i s shown on Figure 2 . The s o l i d curves show t h e r e s u l t s from t h e s i n e wave t o n e s , t h e d o t t e d curves show t h e r e s u l t s from t h e white n o i s e bands, t h e heavy curves were measured a t 0 . 5 m , t h e f i n e curves--at 5-10 mm; curves c show r e s u l t s o f measurements o u t s i d e , curves b show r e s u l t s of measurements i n s i d e . 101

The sound i n s u l a t i o n o f c y l i n d r i c a l t u b e s d e c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g frequency by an average o f 5-6 db p e r o c t a v e , i . e . , of p l a t e s . t h e frequency tendency of t h e sound i n s u l a t i o n o f s h e l l s i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e tendency of t h e sound i n s u l a t i o n

102

SIGNIFICANCE OF INFORMATION ON CERTAINTY OF UNSTABLE NOISE I N THE PROCESS OF ITS ACTION ON THE HUMAN ORGANISM
G . A . Suvorov and A. M . L i k h n i t s k i y (Leningrad) I t i s suggested t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n o f u n s t a b l e n o i s e be

added t o t h e power e v a l u a t i o n (mean power) and s p e c t r a l e v a l u a t i o n (timeaveraged spectrum), u s i n g f o r t h i s purpose t h e s t a t i s t i c a l envelope o f t h e process :

where Pm s ( t ) i s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l envelope o f t h e p r o c e s s , P ( t ) i s t h e i n s t a n taneous sound p r e s s u r e , h ( t ) i s a weight f u n c t i o n . Function h ( t ) d e s c r i b e s t h e t i m e window w i t h i n which t h e human e a r i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e phase s t r u c ture of a signal. b e A t o = 10 msec. The e f f e c t o f n o i s e with a complex envelope i s analyzed as t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e organism with a s t i m u l u s which changes w i t h time; as t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e organism develops a s t r a t e g y t o minimize t h e b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f t h e n o i s e ( s o - c a l l e d dynamic a d a p t a t i o n ) , t h e l e a s t i n f l u e n c e o f an u n s t a b l e s t i m u l u s b e i n g n o t e d when i t s parameters are known i n advance.
I t i s assumed t h a t t h e human organism p a r t i a l l y s o l v e s t h e d i f f i -

/=

The e f f e c t i v e width o f t h e smoothing i n t e r v a l i s assumed t o

c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from a d e l a y i n i t s p r o t e c t i v e r e a c t i o n t o sudden effects by e x t r a p o l a t i n g f u t u r e moments o f appearance o f a s t i m u l u s on t h e b a s i s o f i n formation concerning t h e envelope o f t h e n o i s e p r o c e s s i n the, p a s t . The minim u m a t t a i n a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y can be c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e n o i s e envelope. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e e n t r o p y i s used

as t h e measure o f u n c e r t a i n t y .
I n o r d e r t o determine t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of dynamic adapt a t i o n , w e s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s o f u n s t a b l e n o i s e , an a p e r i o d i c sequence o f short rectangular white noise pulses t t h i s sequence f o l l o w s P o i s s o n s r u l e .
U

i n length.

I n t h e f i r s t approximation,

The u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e moments o f

appearance o f t h e p u l s e s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e t e s t s u b j e c t s perform p r o b a b i l i t y e x t r a p o l a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e preceding i n t e r v a l s between t h e i n i t i a l moments of p u l s e s ( w a i t i n g i n t e r v a l s T ( i ) ]

Since t h e i n t e r v a l s 103

T(i) are s t a t i s . t i c a l l y independent and a r e t h e only s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t i m u l u s i n t h e " f u t u r e , " t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i s determined by t h e p r o b a b i l i t y d e n s i t y of t h e .Poiss.on p r o c e s s :


740

w (P ) =

- T(i)

(T(') 2 0)

T'(i) i s t h e mean e x p e c t a t i o n i n t e r v a l , then t h e e n t r o p y i s expressed as

Dimensionality I / A t

r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r m i s s i b l e u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e expec-

t a t i o n i n t e r v a l f o r t h e e a r , r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n t e g r a l p r o p e r t i e s of t h e e a r . A f t e r i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n s f o r p u l s e o v e r l a p , t h e ent r o p y i s expressed by

/E

The s t u d y of t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f n o i s e a s a f u n c t i o n of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of sequences o f p u l s e s of equal mean power i n time showed t h a t t h e most s h a r p l y expressed b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t i s t h a t o f a p e r i o d i c n o i s e , charact e r i z e d by t h e maximum u n c e r t a i n t y o f e x p e c t a t i o n i n t e r v a l s between p u l s e s , t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e n o i s e i n c r e a s i n g with i n c r e a s i n g e n t r o p y .

104

THE PROBLEM OF THE STATIC CALCULATION OF VIBRATION INSULATION SYSTEMS WITH SIX AND TWELVE DEGREES OF FREEDOM

Yu. P . Busarov (Vladimir) Various systems o f e q u a t i o n s a r e concluded f o r s t a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e v i b r a t i o n i n s u l a t i o n systems with s i x and twelve degrees of freedom. following g o a l s can b e achieved by s o l v i n g t h e s e e q u a t i o n s :
1. C a l c u l a t i o n o f l i n e a r displacements and angles o f r o t a t i o n of v i b r a t i o n -

The

insulated object.
2 . C a l c u l a t i o n o f deformations and r e a c t i o n s o f shock a b s o r b e r s .
3 . C a l c u l a t i o n o f i n s e r t s and r e c e s s e s beneath shock absorbers used f o r

e l i m i n a t i o n o f skew o f v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t e d o b j e c t . These c a l c u l a t i o n s can b e performed f o r shock a b s o r b e r s w i t h l i n e a r and nonlinear s t a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In t h e l a t t e r case, t h e s t a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c


i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a sum of a l i n e a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and a n o n l i n e a r remainder.

S o l u t i o n of t h e equations involved i n n o n l i n e a r s t a t i c design o f v i b r a t i o n i n s u l a t i o n systems i s performed u s i n g t h e method of s u c c e s s i v e approximations. The n o n l i n e a r remainders a r e discarded i n c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e f i r s t approximat ion.

The work i n v o l v e s t h e apparatus of m a t r i x c a l c u l u s and n-dimensional vect o r s , which i s convenient for s t a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n s by d i g i t a l computer.

105

REDUCTION OF NOISE AND VIBRATION OF- PNEUMATIC LOOM USING VIBRATION-INSULATING ..._... . SUPPORTS
~

L . P . Bastite, P . I . I l g a k o i s , A . YU Klyuchininkas (Kaunas)

One means of d e c r e a s i n g dynamic loads on t h e b a s e and reducing t h e n o i s e of looms i s t h e use o f v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s . s u p p o r t s a r e suggested. During a q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s , t h e dynamic loads on t h e b a s e and v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e f l o o r were measured d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n of a pneumatic loom i n s t a l l e d on t h e second f l o o r of a b u i l d i n g . V i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s are designed f o r t h e P-125 pneumatic loom. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s of t h e new design i n o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t s o f dynamic l o a d s on t h e base and reduce t h e n o i s e o f t h e machine i s demonstrated. R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e r e d u c t i o n o f n o i s e l e v e l of t h e pneumatic loom when i n s t a l l e d on v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s of t h e design suggested. R e s u l t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d from a c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e dec r e a s e i n t o t a l n o i s e power i n a room c o n t a i n i n g 36 t y p e P-125 machines when t h e y are s e t on v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i n g s u p p o r t s o f t h e d e s i g n s suggested. Experimental s t u d y o f t h e dynamic loads on t h e machine and v i b r a t i o n s of t h e b a s e i s performed u s i n g a multichannel r e c o r d i n g a p p a r a t u s with seismic and p i e z o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r s . methods by d i g i t a l computer. The d a t a on v i b r a t i o n s of machine and base a r e produced i n t h e form of o s c i l l o g r a m s and processed by s t a t i s t i c a l dynamics New designs of v i b r a t i o n

/%

106

GENERALIZATION OF THE S. SOROKIN TO INCLUDE NONLINEAR ELASTIC DAM.p.ING~ - . . HYPOTHESIS OF Ye. . _ . _ _ .


. . -.. .

Yu. P. Busarov (Vladimir) The h y p o t h e s i s o f Ye. S. Sorokin i s extended t o e l a s t i c damping elements with n o n l i n e a r e l a s t i c i t y curve. l e n t r i g i d i t y C(A,w) The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s performed by t h e method o f d i r e c t l i n e a r i z a t i o n of t h e e l a s t i c i t y curve, allowing t h e equivao f an e l a s t i c element, g e n e r a l l y depending on amplitude This e q u i v a l e n t r i g i d i t y

A and deformation frequency w, t o b e i n t r o d u c e d .


o f an e l a s t i c element i n i t s c l a s s i c a l form:

/g

i s used i n p l a c e o f t h e c o n s t a n t r i g i d i t y i n r e c o r d i n g t h e a b s o r p t i o n f a c t o r

where S i s t h e a r e a of t h e h y s t e r e s i s loop. I n correspondence with t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of t h e a b s o r p t i o n f a c t o r , t h e g e n e r a l i z e d h y p o t h e s i s o f Y e . S . Sorokin i s w r i t t e n i n t h e form


N = - C ( A , w)[l + & ( A , w)]:x.

where N i s t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e e l a s t i c element;

i s t h e deformation of t h e e l a s t i c element.

Based on t h e g e n e r a l i z e d h y p o t h e s i s , t h e amplitude-frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e n o n l i n e a r o s c i l l a t i n g system w i t h mass m and one degree of freedom, p e r t u r b e d by a harmonic f o r c e with amplitude F form
0'

i s w r i t t e n i n t h e convenient

known f o r t h e c a s e of l i n e a r o s c i l l a t i o n s .
I t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e n o n l i n e a r e q u a t i o n of an os-

c i l l a t i n g system
mx + N (x) = Fo sin ut,
(4)

where N(x) i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e e l a s t i c damping element i n t h e form of an experimental h y s t e r e s i s loop, by t h e v a r i o u s approximate methods of 107

Galerkin-Ritz, t h e small parameter method, t h e harmonic b a l a n c e method, t h e averaging method and o t h e r s a l s o l e a d s i n t h e f i r s t approximation t o e x p r e s s i o n
( 3 ) , although by a more complex means.

A t t h e same t i m e , i n o r d e r t o perform c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g formula (3) i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o know o n l y t h e dependence o f r i g i d i t y S and a b s o r p t i o n f a c t o r y on t h e amplitude and frequency o f deformation, which can b e e a s i l y produced by p r o c e s s i n g o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l y produced h y s t e r e s i s loops.

108

OSCILLATIONS OF ELASTICALLY SUSPENDED BODY WITH CENTER OF GRAVITY MISMATCHED TO CENTER OF ELASTICITY OF SUPPORT
A. P . Zhurevskaya (Moscow)

The c a s e o f e l a s t i c placement o f t h e body o f an e l e c t r o n i c a p p a r a t u s on a p l a t f o r m which performs v e r t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s according t o a harmonic r u l e i s studied. I t i s assumed t h a t t h e c e n t e r of g r a v i t y o f t h e body n o t o n l y does The n o t correspond t o t h e c e n t e r o f e l a s t i c i t y of t h e s u p p o r t , b u t i s n o t l o c a t e d above it--which i s r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e s . s o l u t i o n of t h e problem i s performed i n t h e primary c o o r d i n a t e s , which a r e t h e angles of r o t a t i o n o f t h e body r e l a t i v e t o t h e c e n t e r s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l osc i l l a t i o n s l o c a t e d with t h e s t a t i c placement o f t h e body i n t h e same p l a n e as t h e c e n t e r of e l a s t i c i t y of t h e support. of t h e support of t h e body a r e determined. "breakdown" of t h e suspension i s p o s s i b l e . The deformations o f e l a s t i c elements Conditions a r e s t u d i e d under which

/E

109

. A. DAMPING ONE METHOD OF DAMPING . . PARAMETRIC OSCILLATIONS ..O . F A ROD CONSIDERING ... . . SUSPENSION-

D. Kh. T s v e n i a s h v i l i (Moscow) Problems o f t h e dynamic s t a b i l i t y o f a rod s u b j e c t t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l o n g i t u d i n a l p u l s a t i n g t r a c k i n g load are s t u d i e d when a supplementary mass (damper) i s a t t a c h e d t o i t through an e l a s t i c element. works of Ya. G . Panovko, e t a l ) . The r o d i s r e p r e s e n t e d

as an e l a s t i c , massless element with a c o n c e n t r a t e d mass a t i t s t i p (as i n t h e


The v e r t i c a l displacements of t h e mass of Thus, we produce t h e damper and t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d mass o f t h e rod a r e ignored. and t h e t i p mass o f t h e r o d ) .

a system with two degrees o f freedom ( h o r i z o n t a l displacements o f t h e damper


An e x p r e s s i o n i s composed f o r t h i s two-mass system f o r t h e bending moment i n an i n s t a n t a n e o u s c r o s s s e c t i o n , a f t e r which, by u s i n g t h e P r i n c i p l e o f d'Alembert, t h e following system of d i f f e r e n t i a l equations o f motion i s produced

where

m i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d mass o f t h e rod, m
r i g i d i t y of t h e s p r i n g , f , ( t )

i s t h e mass o f t h e damper, C i s t h e 1 i s t h e bending o f t h e upper end o f t h e rod, f , ( t )

i s t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e mass from t h e p o s i t i o n of s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m , K i s
is the partial natural 1 frequency o f t h e damper, q i s t h e damping f a c t o r , P and P are c o n s t a n t s , 0 t E 1 i s t h e r i g i d i t y of t h e rod. System (1) i s non-Hamiltonian. t h e n a t u r a l frequency of t h e rod without t h e damper, R

2 2 . C o e f f i c i e n t R 2 ( t ) = i~ ( t ) = w ( - t ) , i . e . ,

an even f u n c t i o n , while a l l remaining c o e f f i c i e n t s are c o n s t a n t q u a n t i t i e s


' e assume t h a t relative t o t i m e t. W
parameter. load.
=

p /p

This corresponds p h y s i c a l l y t o t h e case o f s l i g h t modulation of t h e 2 2 Expanding w (p 0 .P*,E) (p, = 20.19 E I / Z ) i n a s e r i e s i n power o f E ,

t o

~ 1 , i . e . , we c o n s i d e r

a small

w e have
110

Assuming T = @ t / 2 , A = 2/@, system (1) can b e r e p l a c e d by t h e following, e q u i v a l e n t system of first o r d e r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s :

A=?&,

i2=Af4.

j 3= - A (IF + pa:) fl+ ApQ: f2- hphlf3 + A& f4 - d K a f4 = A W f i - A Q ? h + W f3 - Ah1.A


I

&a

COS

2 4 + ...,

( c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e damping f a c t o r i s a small q u a n t i t y ) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e a s of i n s t a b i l i t y i s performed u s i n g t h e method o f


I . G. Malkin, which i s based on d i r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f charac-

t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t o r s n e a r t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e s of parameter A .

Analysis i s

performed for t h e f i r s t a r e a s o f i n s t a b i l i t y of simple and combination p a r a -

metric resonances.

I t i s demonstrated t h a t by a t t a c h i n g a dynamic damper t o

t h e r o d , w e produce, i n p l a c e o f a s i n g l e a r e a o f simple p a r a m e t r i c resonance f o r t h e case o f a system without a damper, two a r e a s of simple p a r a m e t r i c resonance and one a r e a of summary combination resonance. o f adjustment o f t h e damper K / Q
1

By proper s e l e c t i o n

w e can achieve a placement of a r e a s of simple

/E

and combination p a r a m e t r i c resonances such t h a t a t what were t h e c r i t i c a l f r e quencies o f t h e system without t h e damper, i n s t a b i l i t y occurs only when a c e r t a i n load l e v e l i s achieved. Consideration of damping l e a d s t o r i s i n g of t h e a r e a s of i n s t a b i l i t y above t h e a b s c i s s a .

111

STUDY OF NOISE AND VIBRATION UPON IMPACT - -~ .. . . . -....


~

Yu. D. Valanchauskas (Kaunas)


Pulse-type loads occur i n t h e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f many modern machines and mechanisms. This r e p o r t analyzes a method f o r s t u d y i n g t h e f r e e impact o s c i l l a t i o n s and n o i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a rod device.
A s p e c i a l s t a n d was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r performance o f t h e experiments.

During t h e experimental s t u d i e s , t h e f o r c e o f impact, motion o f c o l l i d i n g

masses and n o i s e were measured.


The d a t a were recorded m a g n e t i c a l l y . Subsequent p r o c e s s i n g of r e s u l t s was The t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n found

performed u s i n g e l e c t r o n i c computer equipment. mechanisms.

between v i b r a t i o n and n o i s e can be used i n t h e d i a g n o s i s of machines and

112

I N STRUCTURE (FIELD) THEORY OF MULTICHANNEL COMPENSATION. SYSTEM FOR OSCILLATIONS - OF ARBITRARY FORM

B , D. T a r t akovskiy (Moscow) The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of u s i n g r a d i a t i n g systems f o r compensation of o s c i l l a t i o n s a t any number o f p o i n t s i n a s t r u c t u r e ( f i e l d ) of a r b i t r a r y form a r e s t u d i e d . The compensating o s c i l l a t i o n s ( f i e l d ) are considered known, a s s i g n e d from witho u t o r developing w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f l i n e a r i t y a r e p l a c e d on t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s through t h e s t r u c t u r e (on t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f

waves i n t h e medium) and on t h e conversion o f s i g n a l s i n electromechanical


channels and a m p l i f i e r s . Forward and r e v e r s e design o f t h e electromechanical I n o r d e r t o provide t h e r e q u i r e d compensacompensation system a r e performed.

t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e s t r u c t u r e (sound f i e l d ) a t a c e r t a i n ( a r b i t r a r y ) number o f p o i n t s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e (sound f i e l d ) a t one o r more f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e n e c e s s a r y parameters o f t h e electromechanical multichannel feedback system are studied. The d a t a produced a r e used f o r determination of o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e s t r u c t u r e (sound f i e l d ) o u t s i d e t h e t e s t e d p o i n t s i n t h e mechanical system, providing f o r a fi x e d a t t e n u a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s a t t h e s el ect ed t e s t p o i n t s , located a t the l i m i t o r outside t h e s t r u c t u r e .
A f t e r c a l c u l a t i o n o f parameters

/E

of t h e multichannel feedback system, t h e a r e a s of compensation of o s c i l l a t i o n and zoaes o f t h e i r a m p l i f i c a t i o n a r e determined, a s w e l l a s c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t i n g a u t o e x c i t a t i o n o f t h e multichannel feedback system. t o a b r o a d e r c l a s s of f u n c t i o n s . The p r i n c i p a l equations o f t h e theory developed a r e : a t t e s t p o i n t s Z and o s c i l l a t i o n s r r V . a t p o i n t s of a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f o r c e by s e n s o r s i n system Y
1. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between o s c i l l a t i o n s U
1

The t h e o r y developed i s

formally l i m i t e d t o t h e a r e a o f l i n e a r t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n s , b u t can b e extended

vixi,=
i= I

- ( 1 -a,)u,

(where

xir
a

i s t h e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n of t h e s t r u c t u r e ,

i s t h e r e q u i r e d degree o f a t t e n u a t i o n ) ,

allowing us t o determine

113

P l a c i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s on t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e l e c t r o mechanical channels o f t h e system, w e can determine t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f s e l f e x c i t a t i o n o f t h e multichannel feedback system and t h u s l i m i t t h e maximum v a l u e s o f compensation o f o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a t t h e t e s t p o i n t s , which may n o t correspond with t h e f i x e d p o i n t s . t i o n s Kij; The primary q u a n t i t i e s charact e r i z i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e ( f i e l d ) i n t h e t h e o r y developed are t h e t r a n s f e r func-

xir,

r e l a t i n g t h e v a l u e s of o s c i l l a t i n g parameters a t p o i n t s o f
1

e x c i t a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s Y . by t h e r a d i a t o r s o f t h e feedback system w i t h t h e o s c i l l a t i n g parameters Vi,


Vr a t p o i n t s o f placement of r e c e i v e r s x

respondingly a t t h e t e s t p o i n t s Z

and cor-

r'

By r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o s c i l l a t i n g parameter o f t h e primary f i e l d through U and Ur, t h e r e q u i r e d degree of a t t e n u a t i o n by


c1
n

r'

we produce t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p

C
i= 1

vixir= -(I

-a,) wr,

a l l o w i n g us t o determine t h e n e c e s s a r y parameter of compensation o s c i l l a t i o n s

/E

Since
n n

t h e n from t h e e q u a t i o n

j=l

c r e a t e d by t h e electromechanical feedi' back channels, t o t h e summary o s c i l l a t i o n s a t p o i n t s o f r e c e p t i o n U + U j j through t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f conversion o f t h e e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l feedback and f u r t h e r o f t h e f i e l d ij c r e a t e d by t h e system o u t s i d e t h e t e s t p o i n t s (V ) , e x p r e s s i n g i t through t h e P values at t h e fi x e d t e s t p o i n t s
I channels " i j , we can determine t h e values of $

r e l a t i n g t h e o s c i l l a t i n g parameters V

The c o n d i t i o n s o f s e l f - e x c i r a t i o n o f a multichannel system and o t h e r necessary c a l c u l a t i o n parameters a r e correspondingly determined.

114

CERTAIN .TYPES OF~ MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS FOR COMPENSATION OF. STRUCTURAL OSCILLA. . . . .. . ._ . . . . . TIONS
~~ ~ ~

B. D. Tartakovskiy (Moscow)

The p r o p e r t i e s o f multichannel systems used i n c e r t a i n c a s e s when i t i s exp e d i e n t t o s i m p l i f y a feedback system are s t u d i e d . The compensated o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e (sound f i e l d ) a r e n o t made s p e c i f i c , which allows t h e general i t y of t h e r e s u l t s produced t o b e r e t a i n e d and allows them t o b e used when feedback systems a r e used f o r v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s , s a t i o n systems o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s are s t u d i e d : I . System . . con .s .i .s -t i . n g .o.f. i . d.e n t i. c_ al _ . r . e c. e.i v.e r s .and .. . s e. n.s~ o.r . s , -symmetrically . .~. 10~

Multichannel compen-

/%

c a t e d i n a homogeneous s t r u c t u r e ( f i e l d ) ,

By i n t r o d u c i n g c e r t a i n average p a r a -

meters o f t h e system and s t r u c t u r e ( c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e s e t o f channels o f t h e system), t h e e n t i r e system can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a c e r t a i n e q u i v a l e n t feedback channel.


11. System w i t h s e p a r a t e c o n v e r t e r s .

I n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e , systems c o n s i s t i n g

n independent e l e c t r i c channels o f n r a d i a t o r s and m r e c e i v e r s , connected by m c h a r a c t e r i z e d by conversion f a c t o r s

vij;
t h e number o f c o n v e r t e r s i s mn. a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups:
(J.

i= 1+ri;

j = 1 tin'

ij and (J. w i t h t h e corresponding commutation, each 1 J o f t h e r e c e i v e r s can b e connected w i t h each r a d i a t o r w i t h o u t d e c r e a s i n g t h e

I t i s demonstrated t h a t when c o n v e r t e r s (J

g e n e r a l i t y while reducing t h e number o f c o n v e r t e r s by a f a c t o r of


111.

mxn m + n'

System .. with e l e c t r i c a l l y i n s u l a t e d c h a n n e l s .
(J

By e l i m i n a t i n g e l e c t r i c a l

( t , j - n ) , we produce a i j system which c o n s i s t s o f n s i n g l e - c h a n n e l subsystems ( i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by o s c r o s s connection ( i # j ) i n a system of g e n e r a l form c i l l a t i o n s of the s t r u c t u r e ( f i e l d ) ) . The formulas f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of t h i s system a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i m p l i f i e d s i n c e i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r compensation o f o s c i l l a t i o n s are comparatively l i t t l e l i m i t e d i n comparison t o a g e n e r a l system.
I f system I11 c o n s i s t s o f i d e n t i c a l l i n k s (system IV), t h e r e s u l t s of

c a l c u l a t i o n become even more a c c e s s i b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . Multichannel systems w i t h a s i n g l e r e c e i v e r and many r a d i a t o r s

, with

many

r e c e i v e r s and one r a d i a t o r , as well as systems i n which r a d i a t o r s and receivers

115

a r e combined, systems of s e n s o r s and c o n t r o l p o i n t s , r e c e i v e r s and c o n t r o l p o i n t s , as w e l l a s s e n s o r s , r e c e i v e r s and c o n t r o l p o i n t s a r e a l s o analyzed. The o s c i l l a t i o n e q u a t i o n s produced f o r t h e s e systems f o r t h e combination of s t r u c t u r e p l u s feedback system a r e analyzed t o determine t h e r e q u i r e d p a r a meters of t h e system t o p r o v i d e f i x e d compensation a t t e s t p o i n t s and condit i o n s f o r p r e v e n t i n g s e l f - e x c i t a t i o n o f t h e system. These.problems a r e i l l u s The r e s u l t s produced t r a t e d by c a l c u l a t i o n e x p r e s s i o n s f o r a two channel system ( r e g a r d l e s s of t h e t y p e of o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e [ f i e l d ] ) . a d i g i t a l computer. can be used f o r composition of an algorithm f o r c o n t r o l o f a feedback system i n

116

MEASUREMENT OF THE ATTENUATION FACTOR I N OSCILLATING SYSTEMS


A. I . Vyalyshev and B. D. Tartakovskiy (Moscow)

The method suggested allows t h e a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r o f systems w i t h l a r g e l o s s e s t o b e determined. c i t y and a c c e l e r a t i o n . the attenuation factor. The a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r o f an a c t u a l system may have an a r b i t r a r y frequency dependence, b u t i n d i v i d u a l s e c t o r s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can b e approximated by s t r a i g h t l i n e s , corresponding t o v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l o s s i n t h e system. models o f frequency dependence o f t h e d i s s i p a t i v e f o r c e are used: R R Three
I t i s based on d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s h i f t i n r e s o n a n t

/E

f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e mode o f measurement o f displacement, t h e o s c i l l a t i n g v e l o By u s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r resonant f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e o s c i l l a t i n g system, t h e r e q u i r e d formulas can be produced f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f

- a.

- d; R - v;

Each model corresponds t o i t s own formulas, determining t h e a t t e n u a t i o n


Characteristic of
Losses

factors
R-v
.

R-a
-

..

q =
?=
.

_ _

t-

'1=

..

Using t h e s e formulas, w e can a l s o determine t h e form o f l o s s e s i n t h e system. This method i s convenient f o r measurement o f t h e a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r n o t only f o r c o n c e n t r a t e d b u t a l s o f o r d i s t r i b u t e d systems. In t h e l a t t e r case, t h e problem i s complicated by simultaneous e x c i t a t i o n o f a number o f modes. In connection w i t h t h i s , c o r r e c t i o n s which depend on t h e form a f t h e specimen and type o f o s c i l l a t i o n s e x c i t e d must be c o n s i d e r e d .

117

The l o s s f a c t o r o f a damped rod w i t h f r e e ends was determined, i n which bending o s c i l l a t i o n s were e x c i t e d . The measurements were performed i n t h r e e Using t h e v a l u e s of frequency ranges: 72-76 H z , 126-132 H z and 278-287 H z . culated.

/g

resonant f r e q u e n c i e s produced, t h e corresponding a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r s were c a l For comparison, t h e a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e width o f t h e r e s o n a n t peak

I
I

Resonant a r e a
72-76
-.

'

By w i d t h : By of oeak ! formula
0.19
-.

1
~

I,-

Hz
Hz

125-132

-j
j
I

'
.

0.17 0.2
-

0.22 0.26
- . . .-

__. -.

278-287
. -.

Hz
-

0.21
. . . .

A s t h e l o s s e s i n c r e a s e , t h e divergence between t h e s e r e s u l t s i n c r e a s e s as

a r e s u l t o f t h e n o n p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e width of t h e r e s o n a n t peak, as a r e s u l t of which t h e v a l u e o f t h e a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r determined by t h e o r d i n a r y approximate method i s i n c r e a s e d .


REFERENCES ____

1.

Vyalyshev, A. I . and B . D . Tartakovskiy, !'The Problem o f O s c i l l a t i o n s of Systems With Large Losses," Trudy V I Vses. A k u s t . Konf., S e k t s i y a I @ 20 [Transactions o f S i x t h All-Union Acoustical Conference, S e c t i o n MP 10, 1968.

118

STUDY OF DYNAMIC PULSE TYPE LOADS TRANSMITTED TO . FOUNDATION BY NEW TYPES OF .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .- - . . . .. . SHUTTLELESS- LOOMSYa. I . K o r i t y s s k i y and R. I . Suchkova (Moscow) I n connection with t h e reequipping o f t e x t i l e e n t e r p r i s e s with p r o g r e s s i v e equipment, i n p a r t i c u l a r new types o f looms, t h e n e c e s s i t y a r i s e s o f developing methods o f determining t h e peak dynamic loads t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e machines t o t h e foundation. Together w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l methods, an experimental method i s developed, based on d e t e r m i n a t i o n of loads u s i n g f o r c e measuring devices i n t r o d u c e d as s u p p o r t s between t h e foundation and t h e b a s e of t h e machine. I n o r d e r t o r e c o r d l o a d s with minimum dynamic d i s t o r t i o n , t h e machinef o r c e meter system must s a t i s f y t h e requirements p l a c e d on q u a s i - s t a t i c i n s t r u ments. I n r e c o r d i n g t h e l o a d s from s h u t t l e t y p e looms with a f o u r - l i n k d r i v e of t h e s l a y , t h e s e l e c t i o n of f o r c e meter parameters r e p r e s e n t s no d i f f i c u l t i e s , s i n c e t h e r u l e o f change of t h e p e r t u r b i n g f u n c t i o n i s p e r i o d i c and can b e repr e s e n t e d as a sum of s e v e r a l harmonics. This problem i s more d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e when f o r c e meters a r e used f o r new types of machines with cam-driven s l a y , t h e o p e r a t i o n of which e x c i t e s p u l s e type loads. This r e p o r t p r e s e n t s an o p e r a t i o n a l method of e v a l u a t i n g t h e dynamic l o s s e s of i n s t r u m e n t s , i n which due t o incomplete damping t h e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n has significant oscillations.
This method i s p a r t i c u l a r l y convenient f o r c a s e s

/E

when t h e n a t u r e of t h e p e r t u r b i n g f u n c t i o n i s known only approximately i n t h e form o f an approximate graph. t h e meters. Recommendations a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r s e l e c t i o n o f dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e system o f machine f o r c e meters and parameters of

119

DAMPING O F OSCILLATIONS OF RODS BY ELECTROMECHANICAL FEEDBACK


S . S. Korablev and V. I . Shapin (Ivanovo)

R e g u l a r i t i e s are found, e x p l a i n i n g t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f a c o n t r o l l a b l e electromechanic o s c i l l a t i o n damper o p e r a t i n g over a broad frequency range. Figure 1 shows one p o s s i b l e p l a n f o r t h e o s c i l l a t i o n damper f o r a r o d . f i g u r e shows a rod of c o n s t a n t c r o s s s e c t i o n F and l e n g t h The

2.

The f i g u r e shows t h e c o n t r o l c i r c u i t , r e p r e s e n t e d as a combination o f elements L , R , C , an a m p l i f i e r w i t h g a i n f a c t o r S and a c t u a t i n g element AE, cont a i n i n g two electromagnets with a t o t a l c l e a r a n c e o f A . t h e power winding o f t h e AE i s L
I2

(The inductance o f

t h e r e s i s t a n c e i s Ro.)

Figure 1. On t h e assumption t h a t w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s o f t e n s i o n and magnetic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e AE can b e looked upon a s a l i n e a r quadrupole and t h e o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e a m p l i f i e r and t h e AE i s f a r from s a t u r a t i o n , a mathemat i c a l model i s c o n s t r u c t e d :
d Y + 4 Y + u pardz(x,. I ) 4t - = (s- 1 ) L
du dt

dI; + (s- 1) R, y + (s- 1) L dt

= UYS ( x - SI) + P

( t ) 6 (x -.h)

120

Here z ( x , t ) i s a g e n e r a l i z e d c o o r d i n a t e , determining t h e v e r t i c a l displacement

o f t h e rod,

)I

is t h e current i n t h e control c i r c u i t , y is the current i n t h e


Q

anode c i r c u i t , P ( t ) i s t h e harmonic p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e , coupling, 6 (x,)

i s t h e resis-

t a n c e f o r c e t o o s c i l l a t i n g motion, U i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f electromechanical

, 6 (x1)

a r e t h e d e l t a functions.

The v i b r a t i o n - i n s u l a t i o n con-

d i t i o n s o f t h e o b j e c t (rod) a r e produced i n t h e form:

Here t h e s u b s c r i p t j corresponds t o t h e o r d i n a l number o f t h e n a t u r a l form o f

o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e rod; y,$. are t h e complex v a l u e s o f c u r r e n t i n t h e anode I c i r c u i t and t h e p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e , u . ( x ) and u . ( x ) a r e t h e v a l u e s o f t h e beam I 1 I o f u n c t i o n s o f t h e rod a t x = x and x = x are t h e e l e c t r i c a l impe1 0 Zel = Z X dances of t h e AE and c o n t r o l c i r c u i t . Thus, i n o r d e r t o d e c r e a s e v i b r a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c a l impedances o f t h e c o n t r o l c i r c u i t Z converter Z el and b e equal i n magnitude and opposite i n s i n e .

-+

/%

el

The complex e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e amplitude o f displacement of t h e rod i s :

where

i s t h e supplementary damping introduced t o t h e system and determining, SUP b a s i c a l l y , t h e e l e c t r i c a l parameters o f t h e AE on t h e c o n t r o l c i r c u i t , w i s

Here

c1

t h e frequency of n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e r o d , n i s t h e p a r t i a l frequency of the electrical circuit. creases, t h e value o f a


As t h e number of t h e n a t u r a l form of o s c i l l a t i o n s i n -

d e c r e a s e s . consequently, t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of SUP damping o f o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e rod i s a l s o decreased. F i g u r e 2 shows t h e c a l c u l a t e d (continuous) and experimental ( d o t t e d l i n e s ) amplitude-frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e rod and n o t e s t h e decreased l e v e l of vibrations. The frequency of t h e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t was tuned t o t h e f r e quency of t h e p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e , w h i l e t h e AE was p l a c e d i n t h e antinodes of t h e

/%

121

corresponding forms o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e rod.

I j / I

J.5

(I

(#

f.2

Figure 2 .

122

A T INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF THE LITHUANIAN SSR STUDY OF NOISE I N. .VIBRATION . . Yu. D. Valanchyaukas, M. E . Akelis and V . K. Naynis (Kaunas) The study o f p r o d u c t i o n n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n s a t i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s o f t h e Republic h a s shown t h a t i n designing new machines and equipment, i n planning new production b u i l d i n g s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e new methods of cont r o l l i n g n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n are s t i l l n o t b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d .
A t newly c o n s t r u c t e d e n t e r p r i s e s , i n many work a r e a s t h e n o i s e and v i b r a -

t i o n exceed t h e l e v e l p e r m i s s i b l e by t h e s a n i t a r y norms. s i m i l a r i n r e c o n s t r u c t e d e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e Republic.

The s i t u a t i o n i s

I n v e s t i g a t i o n s show t h a t t h e n o i s i e s t e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e Republic a r e t h e t e x t i l e and c o n s t r u c t i o n materials e n t e r p r i s e s , and t h a t f o r g i n g - p r e s s i n g , metal working and s h i p b u i l d i n g shops have high n o i s e l e v e l and high l e v e l s o f vibrations.
A t most e n t e r p r i s e s , compressor devices a r e b u i l t i n t o production rooms,

and i n some cases even i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e rooms. a r e r a r e l y used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a i r d u c t s .

Sound i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l s

The work of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e harmful e f f e c t s o f production n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n a t e n t e r p r i s e s o f t h e Republic should b e performed i n t h e following a r e a s :


F i r s t of a l l , d e c r e a s i n g n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n a t t h e source u s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l ,

design and o p e r a t i o n a l measures; secondly, d e c r e a s i n g t h e i n t e - - . s i t y of n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n by sound and v i b r a t i o n a b s o r b e r s , and t h i r d l y , by u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r workers.

123

DEVELOPMENT O F MULTIFUNCTIONAL VIBRATLON MEASURING INSTRUMENT ~. . . . . . . . -.. -.... . . . . . . . . . -

Sh. M. Chabdarov, Ya. S . U r e t s k i y and V . V. Leont'yev (Kazan')


A m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t h a s been developed and manufactured.

The de-

/E

v i c e a l l o w s a broad class o f o s c i l l a t i o n forms used i n v i b r a t i o n t e s t i n g t o be modeled.

The d e v i c e i n c l u d e s :
--a t u n a b l e harmonic g e n e r a t o r ; --a polyharmonic g e n e r a t o r ; --an o s c i l l a t i n g - f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r w i t h t u n a b l e middle frequency, band o f o s c i l l a t i o n and o s c i l l a t i n g r a t e ; --a w h i t e n o i s e g e n e r a t o r ; --a v i b r a t o r amplitude- frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e q u a l i z e r ; --a wide band random v i b r a t i o n former w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d spectrum. The r e p o r t a n a l y z e s methods o f forming wide band random v i b r a t i o n s with t h e required spectral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
A l i n e a r l o c a l - g l o b a l method o f forming random v i b r a t i o n s with t h e r e q u i r e d

spectrum i s suggested, based on s e p a r a t e formation o f t h e wide band p o r t i o n o f t h e spectrum and narrow band peaks and drops i n t h e spectrum w i t h subsequent a d d i t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l s formed. Formation o f t h e even p o r t i o n o f t h e spectrum i s performed by a wide band a m p l i f i e r w i t h a d j u s t a b l e c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e low and h i g h frequency a r e a s , w h i l e formation o f narrow band peaks and drops i n t h e spectrum i s performed by s e l e c t i v e a m p l i f i e r s , and t h e u s e of cophase-antiphase a d d i t i o n allows t h e number o f s e l e c t i v e a m p l i f i e r s t o b e reduced and formation o f peaks and drops t o b e performed by t h e same f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s .

124

-.-_

......................

- . . . . . . . . ....- ............
I

111 I 1 111

THE PROBLEM OF PERFORMING STUDIES OF __ HARMONIC _ _ ~- LOADS AND L O A D S WHICH ATTENUATE WITH TIME V. V. Karamyshkin (Moscow)

Under a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , an o b j e c t b e i n g t e s t e d i s a c t e d upon by a complex form o f load o r k i n e m a t i c e x c i t a t i o n , and i t would be i d e a l t o reproduce t h e s e e x c i t a t i o n s i n experiments i n o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e t e s t o b j e c t under c o n d i t i o n s

/%

as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o a c t u a l o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .

Due t o t e c h n i c a l d i f f i -

c u l t i e s , t e s t s a r e g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o simple forms o f dynamic loading-harmonic o s c i l l a t i o n s , f r e e a t t e n u a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r from an impact).


I t i s assumed t h a t a system b e i n g s t u d i e d can b e r e p r e s e n t e d as a c e r t a i n

number o f c o n c e n t r a t e d masses, connected w i t h massless e l a s t i c elements. c i l l a t i o n s a t f i x e d f r e q u e n c i e s a t a number of p o i n t s i n t h e system b e i n g

I t is

f u r t h e r assumed t h a t experimental d a t a are a v a i l a b l e on t h e amplitudes o f o s s t u d i e d and t h a t we must f i n d a t which p o i n t s o f t h e system harmonic e f f e c t s must be a p p l i e d t o i n o r d e r t o reproduce t h e measured amplitudes. must b e s t u d i e d i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o each frequency. d e r i v a t i v e s are w r i t t e n as
n

In t h e case of The d i f f e r e n t i a l

polyharmonic o s c i l l a t i o n s , based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s u p e r p o s i t i o n , t h e motion e q u a t i o n s of motion of t h e system i n t h e form s o l v e d r e l a t i v e t o high o r d e r

171,

s, +
k-l

(bskik + cskse)= Q, sin (of 9,) (s = 1 , 2,

...,

11).

(1)

where w i s t h e o s c i l l a t i n g frequency, Q

i s t h e amplitude o f t h e summary a c t i o n

i s t h e phase s h i f t o f t h e summary a c t i o n . on t h e s - t h mass o f t h e system, c $ ~

Replacing t h e r i g h t p o r t i o n o f (1) w i t h Q ei(wt


S

and s e e k i n g t h e s o l u t i o n

i n t h e form
X , = .Us cia'

(2)

we come t o a system o f a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e complex o s c i l l a t i n g amplitudes

125

where w e r e p r e s e n t p

= w b + c k = 1, 2 n , P = Q eiS. sk i sk sk S S s i r e d s o l u t i o n w i l l b e t h e imaginary p o r t i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n ( 2 ) .

,...,

The de-

A b s t r a c t i n g t h i s , we can look upon system ( 3 ) as a c e r t a i n l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m o f v a r i a b l e s Ps t o v a r i a b l e s X


S

Solving t h e system (3) (which corresponds t o

an i n v e r s e t r a n s f o r m ) , w e produce t h e e x p r e s s i o n
n

According t o t h e t h e o r y of l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m s , t h e v a l u e s o f X unambiguously only i f t h e number o f e x t e r n a l a c t i o n s P of p o i n t s a t which t h e d e s i r e d amplitudes a r e e x c i t e d . place of the quantities X r - t h masses r e s p e c t i v e l y .
k

a r e determined

i s e q u a l t o t h e number
Analyzing ( 3 ) , w e can In
2

produce c o n d i t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e minimum number o f e x c i t e r s .

/E

X r , f o r example, w e can analyze wX w X corresj j r ponding t o reproduction of t h e d e s i r e d v e l o c i t y i n a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e j - t h and


The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e q u a t i o n s i s n o t changed.

S i m i l a r d i s c u s s i o n s a r e performed f o r beams with c o n c e n t r a t e d l o a d s . Free o s c i l l a t i o n s of a system with one degree o f freedom a r e d e s c r i b e d by t h e expression
x = e-rr ( A sin wt +Bcos at).

(5)

The independent parameters h e r e a r e n , A and B .

Suppose t h e q u a n t i t y w i s Then

s e l e c t e d approximately as concerns t h e n a t u r e o f t h e curve reproduced. only a t t h r e e s e l e c t e d moments i n time. added t o t h e free a t t e n u a t i o n .

due t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f n, A and B , we can produce t h e d e s i r a b l e displacement The motion caused by t h e p u l s e s i s

Each i n t e r m e d i a t e i n s t a n t a n e o u s p u l s e adds two independent parameters--the i n t e n s i t y and a p p l i c a t i o n time o f t h e pulse--and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y appears o f a s s u r i n g t h e d e s i r e d displacement a t two more moments i n time.

126

NEW DEVELOPMENTS OF VIBRATION-MEASURING ~ . _ DEVICES _ WITH EXPANDED FREQUENCY RANGE

V. I . P e t r o v i c h (Moscow)

The frequency range of vibration-measuring apparatus w i t h i n e r t i a l v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s i s determined by t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e i s m i c system of t h e v i b r a t i o n sensor. The dynamic range of such v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s , t h e s e i s m i c system of which o p e r a t e s i n t h e vibrometer mode, d e f i n e d a s t h e r a t i o of t h e frequency o f h i g h e s t resonances t o n a t u r a l frequency, does n o t exceed 20.
W e can expand t h e dynamic range u s i n g p o s i t i v e feedback with r e s p e c t t o

displacement (+OCC).
w i l l be:

The n a t u r a l frequency of a v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r with +OCC


fi

l/fSt,

where f
f

i s t h e n a t u r a l frequency o f t h e s e i s m i c system without +QCC

i s t h e n a t u r a l frequency o f t h e s e i s m i c system w i t h +OCC

a i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of depth of t h e +OCC,

then t h e dynamic range of t h e v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r with +OCC i s d e f i n e d by t h e exp r e s s ion

/E

from which w e see t h a t with i n c r e a s i n g depth a, t h e dynamic range o f t h e v i b r a t i o n sensor increases.


K = spring n = damper m = o s c i l l a t i n g mass k = working c o i l P k = feedback c o i l 06

divider

Figure 1. Diagram o f V i b r a t i o n Sensor with +OCC.


A schematic diagram o f a v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r with +OCC i s shown on Figure 1,

t h e frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r w i t h +OCC and without +OCC a r e shown on Figure 2 .

127

F i g u r e 2. Amplitude-Frequency C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f VD-6 V i b r a t i o n Sensor. 1, With +OCC; 2 , Without

+occ.

Using +OCC, t h e frequency range can be expanded by approximately f i v e times. F u r t h e r expansion o f t h e frequency range i s l i m i t e d by c o n d i t i o n s o f stability

.
/E

The new BIP-6 v i b r a t i o n - m e a s u r i n g apparatus h a s been developed, u s i n g v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s with +OCC, o p e r a t i n g i n t h e 6-350 HZ frequency range i n the 1-2000
p amplitude r a n g e .

I t should be n o t e d t h a t expansion of t h e frequency range u s i n g +OCC i s not accompanied by a change i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e s e n s o r .

128

STUDY AND ELIMINATION OF INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS I N PIPE.SYSTEMS ON OPERATING. .PROCESS ~. AND VIBRATION . . .OF. . ELE-MENTS. . .. . OF- PISTON . COMPRESSOR STATION
V. A. Malyshev, B. M. P i s a r e v s k i y and V. M . P i s a r e v s k i y (MOSCOW)

1.

In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e harmful i n f l u e n c e o f p u l s a t i n g g a s flow,

s p e c i a l p r e s s u r e p u l s a t i o n damping a p p a r a t u s i s i n c l u d e d i n p i p e l i n e s . However, i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s q u i t e low, s i n c e t h e damping i n s t a l l a t i o n s do n o t i n c l u d e d e v i c e s f o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f changes i n t h e charact e r i s t i c s o f t h e p u l s a t i n g gas flow on t h e o p e r a t i n g p r o c e s s and o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p i s t o n compressor s t a t i o n .
A method i s s u g g e s t e d a l l o w i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p u l s a t i n g gas flow on t h e

o p e r a t i n g p r o c e s s t o b e e l i m i n a t e d , c o n s i s t i n g i n matching t h e i n i t i a l s e c t o r o f t h e p i p e l i n e system, i . e . , c r e a t i n g a load a t t h e end o f t h e i n i t i a l s e c t o r

s o t h a t only t r a v e l i n g waves can propagate i n i t .


The matching can be performed e i t h e r by s e l e c t i n g t h e h y d r a u l i c r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e h e a t exchanger o r o i l and w a t e r s e p a r a t o r elements o f t h e f i r s t technol o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s s o t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c ( r e l a t e d t o t h e a r e a of t h e p i p e ) hyd r a u l i c r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e e n t i r e a p p a r a t u s i s equal t o t h e wave impedance o f t h e p i p e , o r by i n s t a l l i n g an a d d i t i o n a l element b e f o r e t h e a p p a r a t u s , t h e h y d r a u l i c r e s i s t a n c e o f which, when added t o t h e h y d r a u l i c resistance o f t h e a p p a r a t u s , i s equal t o t h e wave impedance o f t h e p i p e . apparatus. Experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l o s s e s o f power t o o v e r coming t'he a d d i t i o n a l h y d r a u l i c r e s i s t a n c e p r o v i d i n g f o r matching o f t h e s e c t o r a r e much l e s s t h a n t h e power consumed f o r compressing t h e gas when i n t e n s i v e o s c i l l a t i o n s of p r e s s u r e occur i n t h e p i p e . When t h e i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i s matched, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s o f p r e s s u r e i n p i p e l i n e systems on t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n i s a l s o e l i m i n a t e d , v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e p i p e systems are s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced, l o a d s on p a r t s of compresser c y l i n d e r s a r e d e c r e a s e d , i . e . , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e compressor a p p a r a t u s i s i n c r e a s e d . One n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n
f o r p o s s i b i l i t y o f matching i s a predetermined volume o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l

/E

129

ANALYSIS OF HYDRODYNAMIC O- I . S-E. A R I. SIN G A S. ... L I Q-U. ID FLOWS OVER. . ROUGH SURFACES _ ~ _ - . . .- N . . . . . . -. .. . . .. . .. ... . . . .... . .

L . A. S u l ' b i (Tartu)
A s a l i q u i d flows o v e r a rough s u r f a c e (course f i n i s h i n g , e r o s i o n , s t e p s ,

e t c . ) , t u r b u l e n c e and c a v i t a t i o n arise, which a r e f r e q u e n t l y s o u r c e s o f i n t e n s i v e n o i s e and v i b r a t i o n .


A c a v i t a t i o n g e n e r a t o r (USSR P a t e n t No. 2378217) was used t o s t u d y

h y d r a u l i c n o i s e under v a r i o u s flow c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s produced i n t h e s t u d y o f h y d r a u l i c n o i s e a t flows o f up t o


50 m/sec o v e r unevennesses o f v a r i o u s shapes and s i z e s can b e used as a b a s i s

f o r a n a l y s i s of t h e o p e r a t i o n o f h y d r a u l i c s t r u c t u r e s .

Comparison of t h e com-

p o s i t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e n o i s e spectrum allows us t o make judgments conc e r n i n g t h e flow modes and c o n d i t i o n o f working s u r f a c e s i n i n s t a l l a t i o n s being t e s t e d .

130

METHOD AND INSTALLATION FOR STUDY PROCESSES OF VIBRATION M O V E M E N T S OF PARTS . . OF -. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..


AN.D. .A.c.c.oM.~~!.y . . . ING P.~~E.~b-~.NA ;
~ ~

V. A. Povidaylo and R . I . S i l i n (L'vov)

I n o r d e r t o r e v e a l t h e primary f a c t o r s which have s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r o c e s s o f v i b r a t i o n movement o f a p a r t , a method was developed f o r experimental s t u d i e s , allowing t h e wave p i c t u r e o f motion o f a p a r t i n each c y c l e t o b e determined, allowing t h e parameters o f motion o f t h e p a r t , i n c l u d i n g phase angles o f s e p a r a t i o n and encounter, t h e maximum s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t from t h e b a s e and i t s phase a n g l e , t h e presence and i n f l u e n c e o f attachment phenomena, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e l a s t i c impact on t h e n a t u r e and p i c t u r e o f motion o f t h e p a r t , t o b e determined. The t o t a l p i c t u r e o f motion o f a p a r t was produced by r e c o r d i n g oscillograms o f t h e v e r t i c a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l displacements o f t h e p a r t r e l a t i v e t o t h e b a s e on t h e t a p e o f a m a g n e t o e l e c t r i c o s c i l l o g r a p h , which r e q u i r e d t h e development of a s p e c i a l i n s t a l l a t i o n and v i b r a t i o n measuring a p p a r a t u s . The experimental i n s t a l l a t i o n allowed simultaneous recording o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e b a s e , l o n g i t u d i n a l displacement and motion i n t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n of t h e p a r t r e l a t i v e t o t h e base f o r several cycles. The i n s t a l l a t i o n i s equipped with an automatic c o n t r o l system, allowing r e c o r d i n g s t o be performed during s t a b l e motion o f t h e p a r t , and c o n t a i n s a combination o f h i g h frequency i n d u c t i v e , i n d u c t i o n and p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r s . /l o0 -

131

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF CHANGES OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH. . . SPEED ROTORS OPERATING .. . . . K ~ .Z L L. -. ~.B .E .A R .I . N MoUNTS--WITHG- . . ~ ... PASSAGE . . . O.F. ,TI&.. .
~

V. I . Zdanavichyus and R . Yu. Vansevichyus (Kaunas)

The d e v i c e and method developed allow t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a


b e a r i n g on o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e r o t o r i n t h e r a d i a l and axi.al d i r e c t i o n s t o b e determined, t h e damping p r o p e r t i e s of a hydrodynamic o i l f i l m t o b e s t u d i e d and phenomena o f s l i p p i n g of b e a r i n g s i n l i g h t l y loaded r a d i a l - t h r u s t b a l l b e a r i n g s t o be s t u d i e d a t h i g h s h a f t r o t a t i o n r a t e s . In order t o study t h e motion o f t h e r o t o r i n b a l l b e a r i n g s , c o n d i t i o n s are c r e a t e d i n t h e t e s t s t a n d n e a r t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s - - a vacuum medium and h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e . I n o r d e r t o measure v i b r a t i o n s and displacements o f t h e r o t o r , c o n t a c t l e s s c a p a c i t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l motion s e n s o r s are used. Methods have been developed f o r c o n t a c t l e s s measurement o f t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f a hydrodynamic a i l f i l m i n high-speed b a l l b e a r i n g s u s i n g c i r c u l a r c a p a c i t i v e c u r r e n t t a p s and t r a n s mission o f c u r r e n t from t h e r o t a t i n g s h a f t o f t h e r o t o r t o t h e b e a r i n g being t e s t e d u s i n g a s p e c i a l photoelement. The method developed allows changes i n dynamic p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e b a l l b e a r i n g as a r e s u l t o f weakening o f t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e b e a r i n g r i n g s , l a c k o f lubrication, etc.
/lo1
I _

a r i s i n g d u r i n g r o t a t i o n o f t h e r o t o r , t o b e determine.:. REFERENCES

1.
2.

3.

M a u r i e l l o , A . and V. Poplawski , "Skidding i n L i g h t l y Loaded High-speed Ball Thrust Bearings," Paper Amer. SOC. Mech. Eng., Nr. Lubs-20, 1969. Atsyukovskiy, V. A . , Yemkostnyye D i f f e r e n t s i a Z 'nyye Datehiki Peremesheheniya [ C a p a c i t i v e D i f f e r e n t i a l Motion S e n s o r s ] , Gosenergozidat P r e s s , MoscowLeningrad, 1960. Foreyt , I . , Yemkostnyye Datehiki Nee Zektrieheskikh VeZiehin [ C a p a c i t i v e Sensors f o r Non-Electric Q u a n t i t y ] , Energiya P r e s s , Moscow-Leningrady 1966.

132

CALCULATION OF VIBRATIONS OF DISTRIBUTED ELASTIC SYSTEMS BY FINITE ELEMENTS METHOD


~~

V. P . Kandidov and L. P . K i m (Moscow) 1.

I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e method of f i n i t e elements h a s been developed f o r In t h i s

a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i b r a t i o n s of d i s t r i b u t e d systems and s t r u c t u r e s . p l a c e d by a c e r t a i n model, c a l l e d a f i n i t e element (FE).

method, t h e system i s d i v i d e d i n t o a s e t of i t s p a r t s , each o f which i s reIn contrast t o the The defors e c t o r r e p l a c e d , t h e FE h a s a f i n i t e number o f degrees o f freedom.

mation and p o s i t i o n of t h e FE i n space are determined by t h e v e c t o r of g e n e r a l i z e d c o o r d i n a t e s s e t ) , t h e components of which a r e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e nodal p o i n t s , which a r e common f o r neighboring elements. attachment a r e formulated a t t h e s e p o i n t s . becomes a d i s c r e t e model of FE.
2.

The c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r

As a r e s u l t , t h e d i s t r i b u t e d system

I n c o n s t r u c t i o n of F E , t h e displacement f u n c t i o n w ( r , t ) o f a s e c t o r of

t h e i n i t i a l system i s l i m i t e d by a c l a s s of c e r t a i n b a s i c f u n c t i o n s

T1(r),

as

i s done i n t h e d i r e c t methods
w(r, t)
=

5'

( r ) II a II q ( t )

Using t h e dynamic p r i n c i p l e of v i r t u a l displacements, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s est a b l i s h e d between c ( t ) and t h e v e c t o r Q ( t ) , t h e components o f which a r e t h e g e n e r a l i z e d f o r c e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e elements. llMllr(t) + IIKllq(t) = q ( t ) + P ( t ) F ( t ) i s t h e v e c t o r of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s , equal t o F ( t ) where f ( r , t ) i s t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e e x t e r n a l load.
IIMII =
=
R

d f ( r , t ) v(r) d r

1
R

IIall

'

( r ) @ ( r ) $ (Hall r) d r 3

i s t h e m a t r i x of i n e r t i a of t h e FE.
I t s form i s determined by t h e c o n c r e t e expres-

IIKII i s t h e r i g i d i t y m a t r i x .

s i o n f o r t h e energy o f e l a s t i c deformation. The s e t of t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , w r i t t e n f o r each element, t o g e t h e r with t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r coupling and boundary c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e t h e dynamics o f t h e model of FE.
3.

A s a p p l i c a b l e t o problems of t w i s t i n g , bending and combined t w i s t i n g -

-bending o s c i l l a t i o n s IIMII and IIKII m a t r i c e s a r e produced f o r a number of

133

systems o f b a s i c f u n c t i o n s . dependences.

The change i n e l a s t i c , i n e r t i a l and geometric

parameters along t h e l e n g t h o f t h e element i s approximated by v a r i o u s a n a l y t i c

I n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e v i b r a t i o n s by t h e method o f f i n i t e elements by d i g i t a l computer, an a l g o r i t h m i s composed, allowing m a t r i c e s o f r i g i d i t y and i n e r t i a o f t h e e n t i r e system a s a whole t o b e produced. o f t h e system t o a predetermined a c t i o n f ( r , t ) . 4.
As an example, t h e v i b r a t i o n s o f a c e r t a i n wing o f an a i r c r a f t 8 r e

Then, known programs

a r e used t o f i n d f r e q u e n c i e s and forms o f n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s , o r t h e r e a c t i o n

analyzed.

I t i s demonstrated t h a t by improving t h e approximation of t h e

e l a s t i c and i n e r t i a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a continuous s e c t o r by t h e corresponding element, we can i n c r e a s e t h e accuracy o f c a l c u l a t i o n without i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f degrees of freedom o f t h e model o f FE.

134

.-

._ .. ..

THE PROBLEM OF DECREASING VIBRATIONS OF ELECTRIC MACHINES ~. - . . . . . . . . . ..


~

A. K .

Bakshis, B . I . S h i r v i n s k a s and R . A . Dashevskiy (Kaunas)

Problems o f dynamic b a l a n c i n g o f r o t o r s i n a body i n assembled form i n t h e suspended s t a t e a r e s t u d i e d .


d '

The c o n d i t i o n s o f e q u i l i b r i u m o f an o s c i l l a -

t i n g system ( e l e c t r i c machine) a r e composed:


M

CZ,

C Pi

COS (ut

d ' Y

s+ky =

M i COS (ut+ ai)


/l o3 -

where M i s t h e mass of t h e o s c i l l a t i n g system; I i s t h e moment of i n e r t i a of t h e o s c i l l a t i n g system r e l a t i v e t o t h e a x i s orthogonal t o t h e p l a n e of o s c i l l a t i o n s and p a s s i n g through t h e c e n t e r o f mass ;


Z
0

i s t h e displacement o f t h e c e n t e r o f mass o f t h e system during o s -

c i 11a t i on ;
y i s t h e angle of d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e r o t o r d u r i n g o s c i l l a t i o n ;

c i s t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e support i n forward motion along t h e a x i s , l o c a t e d i n t h e p l a n e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s and p a s s i n g through t h e c e n t e r of mass;


k i s t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e support t o t w i s t i n g about t h e a x i s orthogonal

t o t h e p l a n e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s p a s s i n g through t h e c e n t e r o f mass;
P . i s t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e o f t h e r o t a t i n g mass;
1

M. i s t h e moment of c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e P
1

i'

acting r e l a t i v e t o the center

of mass;
a

i s t h e angle o f i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e unbalanced masses;

w is

t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f t h e rotor;

t is time.
A method i s p r e s e n t e d for performing dynamic b a l a n c i n g of e l e c t r i c a l

machines i n assembled form.

The apparatus used i s d e s c r i b e d and t h e b a s i c

d a t a on t h e BP-1 b a l a n c i n g d e v i c e are p r e s e n t e d .
A block diagram o f t h i s device i s shown on Figure 1.

The s i g n a l from t h e s e n s o r s , p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e imbalance, i s s e n t t o t h e d e c i s i o n d e v i c e , which i s designed t o s e p a r a t e t h e p l a n e s o f c o r r e c t i o n by an e l e c t r i c a l method.

135

Figure 1.

Block Diagram o f BP-1 Balancing Device:

D1,

D2,

V i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s ; RU, Decision d e v i c e ; K , C a l i b r a t o r ; SU, S e l e c t i v e a m p l i f i e r ; D, D e t e c t o r ; I , Arrow i n d i c a t o r ; F , Phase r e v e r s e r ; UO, A m p l i f i e r - l i m i t e r ; FC, S t r o b i n g p u l s e former; S , S t r o b e lamp. The e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l i s a m p l i f i e d by a narrow-band s e l e c t i v e a m p l i f i e r , r e c t i f i e d and s e n t t o t h e n e e d l e i n d i c a t o r . amplitude v a l u e o f t h e imbalance s i g n a l . The c o n t r o l of t h e s t r o b e lamp i s performed by t h e p u l s e s formed from t h e a m p l i f i e d and l i m i t e d v o l t a g e o f t h e imbalance s i g n a l . The phase i n v e r t e r e l i m i n a t e s t h e i n v e r s i o n o f phase i n t r o d u c e d by t h e a m p l i f i e r . C a l i b r a t i o n of t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t i v e a m p l i f i e r i s performed using the voltage of t h e c a l i b r a t o r . Experimental r e s u l t s produced during b a l a n c i n g o f e l e c t r i c a l machines i n assembled form a r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e end o f t h e work. /lo4 The n e e d l e i n d i c a t o r shows t h e

136

OSCILLATIONS. . OF A ROTOR RESULTING FROM. . INACCURACY OF MANUFACTURE OF BALL .. . . . . . . .. ~ _ _ _ _ BEARINGS


A. P. K u l ' v e t s (Kaunas)

I n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e a c t i o n of a b a l l b e a r i n g on o s c i l l a t i o n s o f a r o t o r , a dynamic model i s s t u d i e d , corresponding t o a v e r t i c a l r i g i d r o t o r , r o t a t i n g i n a prestressed r a d i a l - t h r u s t b a l l bearing. The system has t h r e e degrees o f freedom with t h r e e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e c e n t e r of mass of t h e r o t o r x, y , z. The body and s h a f t a r e considered a b s o l u t e l y r i g i d , while t h e c o n t a c t s of t h e r o l l i n g bodies with t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r i n g s of t h e b e a r i n g a r e cons i d e r e d n o n l i n e a r s p r i n g s , t h e b a l l s are considered m a s s l e s s . The o s c i l l a t i o n s The t o t a l of t h e r o t o r a r e e x c i t e d by e r r o r s i n t h e manufacture o f t h e b a l l b e a r i n g . Each of t h e b a l l s i n f l u e n c e s e x c i t a t i o n of o s c i l l a t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y . p l i t u d e s of t h e geometric e r r o r s i n t h e shapes o f each b a l l . i n f l u e n c e can be g r e a t e r o r l e s s due t o t h e random n a t u r e of phases and amTherefore, t h e Differential "average" b a l l i s analyzed, and i t s e f f e c t i s a random f u n c t i o n .

e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e system a r e d e r i v e d by Lagrange's method f o r t h e c a s e when deformation of c o n t a c t s r e s u l t i n g from t h e f o r c e of t h e p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e s t h e a d d i t i o n a l deformation r e s u l t i n g form displacement of t h e r o t o r and e r r o r i n t h e form of r i n g s and b a l l s . t i a l equations f o r t h i s case a r e solved. The l i n e a r i z e d d i f f e r e n The s t u d i e s performed allow us t o

determine t h e expected frequency spectrum o f o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e r o t o r and t h e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of o s c i l l a t i o n e n e r g i e s .

137

TRANSMI STUDY OF ssTHE ION ON~~.v~I~B.~.T.Io~N. INFLUENCE OF RESONANT .N.o'I.sE. TWISTING IN. TH.E. .cL*. OSCILLATIONS B- - . .. - - . . . . .I N. A. . MOTOR . . . . VEHICLE . ... . - ..

.-

..

.- -

..

..

. .

. ..

S . S . Stroyev and V. P. Belyayev (Chelyabinsk)

The i n f l u e n c e o f r e s o n a n t t w i s t i n g o s c i l l a t i o n s on t h e l e v e l o f n o i s e i n a motor v e h i c l e body was s t u d i e d .


T k t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e Moskvich-412 auto-

/lo5

mobile was r e p l a c e d by an e q u i v a l e n t 7-mass dynamic system and t h e Holzer method was used t o determine t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s , which were compared with t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e e x c i t i n g harmonic moments o f v a r i o u s o r d e r s from t h e engine throughout i t s e n t i r e working speed range. T h i s allowed analyt i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o s s i b l e r e s o n a n t o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e motor and c o r r e s -

ponding r e s o n a n t speeds o f t h e Moskvich-412 automobile, which were subsequently used t o analyze t h e experimental d a t a . phase diagrams were s t u d i e d . order oscillations--single, I n o r d e r t o determine t h e zones o f resonance e x c i t e d by even harmonics o f t h e model 412 engine, i t s v e c t o r and The most dangerous f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n a r e low double and t r i p l e - n o d e . The r e s u l t s produced showed

t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t o s c i l l a t i o n o f moment with a single-node form i s observed on t h e c r a n k s h a f t and h a l f a x l e , with t h e double-node formed--on t h e wheel and h a l f a x l e and with t h e t r i p l e - n o d e formed on t h e primary s h a f t of t h e t r a n s mission. Furthermore, c a l c u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t under a c t u a l o p e r a t i n g conThe c a l c u l a t e d The experimend i t i o n s , resonance may develop i n second g e a r a t 36.2 km/hr, 47.9 km/hr and 72.5 km/hr, and i n t h i r d g e a r a t 50;6 km/hr and 67.5 km/hr. v a l u e s o f f r e q u e n c i e s a r e compared with t h e v i b r a t i o n spectrum. loaded r o l l e r s u s i n g s t r a i n - g a g e s . V i b r a t i o n s i n t h e body o f t h e v e h i c l e during t h e experiment were recorded by a s p e c i a l l y designed device allowing t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e body over t h e f r o n t and r e a r wheels t o be measured.

t a l confirmation o f t h e s e r e s u l t s was performed on a t e s t s t a n d w i t h r o t a t i n g

138

APPLICATION OF._ DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS TO STUDY . OF V I B R A T I O N ACTIVITY OF PISTON ENGINES .


V . L . Kalishevskiy and A. M . Opolchentsev (Moscow)

The s t u d y o f v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y o f mechanisms i n a n a l y t i c form i s a complex t a s k and cannot b e performed completely without s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s . I n an experimental s t u d y , t h e p a r t i a l dependences o f i n d i v i d u a l parameters are produced.
I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s of mechanisms o f

/%

various types. Analysis o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f s i m i l a r i t y o f mechanisms as t o v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y allows us t o estimate t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i o u s t e c h n o l o g i c a l , d e s i g n and mode parameters o f t h e machine on i t s v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y , t o determine t h e volume and method o f experimental s t u d y . For a system d e s c r i b e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n
Mq +R q +c q P , sin wt

we can compose t h e following dimensionless numbers:

The c r i t e r i a K t h e system.

and K3 c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e system ( i n e r t i a l , e x p r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e

r i g i d and damping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) and determine t h e s i m i l a r i t y of t h e d a t a o f Complex K


1

and t h e v i b r a t i o n which i t c a u s e s . S i n c e t h e l e v e l o f v i b r a t i o n i s measured r e l a t i v e t o a t h r e s h o l d v i b r a t i o n acceleration q


0

we can w r i t e :
L =f ( q u / q o = ) f ( P a / M q o ;w,/w; C / R w ) .

(3)

Consequently, f o r t h i s system t h e dimensionless number f o r v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s d e f i n e d as


L= idem

where
Pa -M --=idem; i
O D --

= idem;

C = idem. RW

(4)

139

I n t h e g e n e r a l case f o r a complex system

where t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p uk/wI1 c o n s i d e r s wk = v a r and w (')" quency i n t r o d u c e d f o r r e t e n t i o n o f nondimensionality.

IT i s t h e u n i t f r e -

The c o n d i t i o n o f unam-

b i g u i t y must b e f u l f i l l e d , i n c l u d i n g analogy o f t h e d e s i g n s o f t h e mechanisms, technology o f manufacture, t e s t c o n d i t i o n s , o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . /Mq ) , t h i s f u n c t i o n a m 0 e x p r e s s e s t h e e m p i r i c a l dependence o f t h e o v e r a l l l e v e l s o f v i b r a t i o n of pumps For t h e p i s t o n pumps s t u d i e d , c o n s i d e r i n g L = f(P on t h e v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y f a c t o r

/I07

where t h e product o f d e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e P t e r i s t i c of t h e p e r t u r b i n g f o r c e .

times d e l i v e r y Q i s used a s a charac-

Analysis of dependence (5) i s s i m p l i f i e d i f we s t u d y t h e s i m i l a r i t y condit i o n s with r e s p e c t t o i n d i v i d u a l main v i b r a t i o n s o u r c e s . I n t h e g e n e r a l case

For c e r t a i n known s o u r c e s of v i b r a t i o n i n p i s t o n pumps, t h e following dependence can be w r i t t e n :

which i s s i m p l i f i e d f o r t h e pumps being s t u d i e d with f o = c o n s t :

As a r e s u l t o f t e s t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l dependences have been p r o duced: L=66+ 14 Ig Kp,=66+ 14 Ig . P ~PM - GF f: f, , (10)

140

.. .

L 20 Ig 4 . 101*= 20 lg

m vi - lo'* fkER
.

(11)

Analysis of t h e s i m i l a r i t y c o n d i t i o n s o f p i s t o n pumps a s t o v i b r a t i o n act i v i t y and empirical dependences of l e v e l s of v i b r a t i o n on t h e complexes 0

KPs

B' and KkZ were used t o s t u d y meansLof c r e a t i n g low-noise pumps and t o e v a l u a t e

t h e i r v i b r a t i o n a c t i v i t y during t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e .

141

STUDY OF VIBRATIONS I N THE D I R E C T I O N OF INCREASING AND DECREASING TIME


V . L . Ragul'skene (Kaunas)

I n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e behavior of o s c i l l a t i n g systems i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g time, i t i s suggested t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s b e used, allowing a s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n of f r e e o s c i l lations, areas o f capture, areas of existence, etc.
I f t h e motion o f a system i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g t i s d e s c r i b e d by

/lo8

t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l equation (1) t h e n t h e motion i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of d e c r e a s i n g time i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e following equation


dnx dP-1

_- .
dt

(2)

where x i s a g e n e r a l i z e d c o o r d i n a t e , t i s t i m e i n t h e i n c r e a s i n g d i r e c t i o n ,

-+

t = -t i s time i n t h e d e c r e a s i n g d i r e c t i o n .

Thus, t h e motion o f a single-mass v i b r a t i o n impact system i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g time i s d e s c r i b e d by t h e following e q u a t i o n s


IPX 3-t2h

dx

+ ho sign dx + p ps =A sin at,


x >Xv,

and i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d e c r e a s i n g time

-- 2h dx -h,
f l X

sign = + p 2 x = - A sin w t ,
dt

dx

d ?

dt

where t h e

lr+rt

and

"-'1

i n t h e first d e r i v a t i v e s r e p r e s e n t t h e v e l o c i t i e s a t t h e

moment b e f o r e impact and a f t e r impact. The s o l u t i o n o f t h e e q u a t i o n s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f i n c r e a s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g

142

time by computer allows u n i v e r s a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e dynami c s o f a number of v i b r a t i o n impact and n o n l i n e a r systems.

143

CONTACTLESS METHOD OF MEASURING . VELOCITY OF IMPACTING ELEMENTS . . . . . . - . . . . .. . - . . . . . . . . . _ . . .. Yu. M. V a s i l ' y e v , A . V. Mikhailov, Yu. K. Skvortsov, V. A . Smirnov (Moscow) The essence o f t h e method b e i n g s t u d i e d i s t h a t t h e c a v i t y i n a body i n which t h e impacting element moves i s e x c i t e d a t t h e corresponding wave l e n g t h
/l o9 -

x0

as a high-frequency c a v i t y r e s o n a t o r , r e t u n e d p e r i o d i c a l l y as t h e impacting
The resonance occurs f o r

element moves due t o t h e change i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s i z e o f t h e r e s o n a t o r , and t h e frequency o f r e t u n i n g o f t h e r e s o n a t o r i s r e c o r d e d . equal t o a whole number o f h a l f waves X / 2 , where: b

a c y l i n d r i c a l c a v i t y r e s o n a t o r a t moments when t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r e s o n a t o r i s

i s t h e wave guide number o f t h e wave i n t h e c y l i n d e r , which i s analyzed as

a c i r c u l a r wave guide;
i s t h e c r i t i c a l wave l e n g t h f o r t h e t y p e o f wave cr selected. The frequency of r e t u n i n g o f t h e c y l i n d r i c a l c a v i t y r e s o n a t o r F ( l / t i m e between neighboring r e s o n a n t peaks) depends on Xb and t h e r a t e o f motion o f t h e impacting element V:

Recording frequency F a l l o w s u s t o f i n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e l o c i t y on t h e p a t h o f t h e impacting element. Figure 1 shows t h e diagram o f measurement of t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e impacting element i n an a i r hammer. Impacting element 2 moves i n body 1, changing t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c a v i t y r e s o n a t o r 3 , which ' i s e x c i t e d

a t wave l e n g t h Xo = 8 mm as a c y l i n d r i c a l c a v i t y
Figure 1. Block Diagram o f Measuring Installation. 144 r e s o n a t o r by c i r c u l a r wave guide 4 , p a s s i n g through t h e i n s e r t 5 and f e d by g e n e r a t o r 6 through a t t e n u a t o r 7 and guiding t a p 8 . Inset 5 is inserted into

t h e body i n p l a c e o f t h e b l a d e o f t h e a i r hammer. radio-transparent d i e l e c t r i c (e.g., teflon).

In order t o r e t a i n the

o p e r a t i n g mode o f t h e t o o l , , t h e c i r c u l a r wave guide 4 i s f i l l e d with a

I n case o f a complex dependence o f adjustment frequency on speed o f t h e impacting element, s t a t i c c a l i b r a t i o n must be performed, i . e . , t h e dependence o f t h e s i g n a l from t h e d e t e c t o r on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e impactor i n t h e c y l i n d e r

/110 -

i s measured and used i n p r o c e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f measurement.

145

11111 I 11111111 I 1111.11111111111

I1

I I

STUDY OF MECHANICAL . .~. . . OSCILLATING ___ . .. . .. SYSTEMS . . . . . USING-NATURAL . . . . - .. . . VIBRATORS . . . ~

B. T. S h e f t e l and Yu. A . Kamendrovskiy (Saratov)

The o s c i l l a t i n g system o f a b a l l b e a r i n g w i t h a r a d i a l c l e a r a n c e (Figure 1 ) i n which t h e k i n e m a t i c e x c i t i n g f a c t o r c o n s i s t s o f e r r o r s i n t h e form o f t h e r o l l i n g t r a c k s , s o - c a l l e d waviness, was s t u d i e d . t h e waviness was used as a v i b r a t o r . Position of sensor The waviness was expanded
/111 -

by e l e c t r o n i c a p p a r a t u s i n a F o u r i e r s e r i e s , and one o f t h e harmonics o f Due t o compact e l a s t i c i t y between b a l l s and r i n g - s and bending - oscillations of t h e o u t e r r i n g , t h e v i b r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t i o n a t frequency f be
flki~r = B
I

i/-t

ki

will

(f)Hk;r,

i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f dynamism. By changing t h e r o t a t i n g speed o f t h e b e a r i n g , w i t h a high v a l u e of i w e can produce a r a t h e r broad Figure 1.


Wki

range o f change o f v i b r a t i o n frequency. By measuring a c c e l e r a t i o n

of t h e r i n g a t v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s , i t i s e a s y t o c a l c u l a t e t h e v a l u e s o f

t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f dynamism and c o n s t r u c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e v a l u e s t h e amplitude-frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e system. The experiments were performed on a t e s t s t a n d . The i n n e r r i n g o f t h e In o r d e r t o measure

b e a r i n g was s e a t e d on a s p i n d l e , r o t a t e d a t a r e g u l a r speed, w h i l e t h e nonmoving o u t e r r i n g was loaded i n t h e r a d i c a l d i r e c t i o n .

12 t h e v i b r a t i o n s , an i n d u c t i o n v e l o c i m e t e r s e n s o r was used, t h e body o f which was / 1


r i g i d l y f a s t e n e d t o t h e b a s e o f t h e t e s t s t a n d , w h i l e t h e probe r e s t e d on t h e t o p of t h e o u t e r r i n g o f t h e b a l l b e a r i n g ( i n t h e loaded a r e a ) i f t h e f r e quency of f r e e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e system as a r e s u l t of c o n t a c t e l a s t i c i t y o f t h e p a r t was b e i n g determined o r on t h e bottom i f t h e frequency o f f r e e bending o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e e x t e r n a l r i n g was b e i n g determined.

146

Spectographic profile of

The o b j e c t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n were No. 306 b a l l b e a r i n g s . The v i b r a t o r was t h e 120-th harmonic of waviness of t h e

race of t h e i n t e r n a l r i n g No. 33, t h e amplitude of which was 0.05 p (Figure 2 ) . Various b e a r i n g s were assembled w i t h t h i s same i n n e r r i n g and t h e i r amplitude-frequency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were measured by t h e method d e s c r i b e d .

Figure 2 .

147

THE EXCITATION OF PERIODIC _ . AND RANDOMTORSIONAL . . OSCILLATIONS I N ROTATING -SYSTEMS R . Yu. Bansevichyus and K . M. R a g u l ' s k i s (Kaunas) The d e v i c e used f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of l o a d i n g t o r q u e o f any s i g n and form t o

a r o t a t i n g system c o n s i s t s o f a geared r o t o r and s t a t o r w i t h a multiphase


winding, f e d by p u l s e s of predetermined duty f a c t o r by a s p e c i a l commutator c o n t r o l l e d by a p h o t o e l e c t r i c s e n s o r which l o c a t e s t h e a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n o f t h e r o t a t i n g system. e x c i t e d system. The l o a d o f any t y p e i s formed o f s e c t o r s o f t h e s t a t i c This allows t o r s i o n a l o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e r o t a t i n g system t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t a t o r - r o t o r system d u r i n g r o t a t i o n o f t h e r o t o r o f t h e b e e x c i t e d i n a frequency range beginning a t 0 H z , t h e frequency and amplit u d e o f t h e e x c i t i n g o s c i l l a t i o n s b e i n g independent o f t h e a n g u l a r speed o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e e x c i t e d system and c o n t r o l l e d by changing frequency and amp l i t u d e o f t h e supply v o l t a g e a p p l i e d t o t h e commutator. Random o s c i l l a t i o n s w i t h f i x e d s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y are e x c i t e d by attachment of a commutator through t h e a m p l i f i e r t o a random f u n c t i o n g e n e r a t o r . The upper boundary o f t h e frequency range i s determined, depending on t h e s t r u c t u r a l parameters of t h e d e v i c e and t h e a n g u l a r r o t a t i n g speed o f t h e exc i t e d system. The dependence o f t h e maximum v a l u e o f a p p l i e d t o r q u e on t h e The r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i moment o f i n e r t i a o f t h e a t t a c h e d system i s determined. mental s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . /113 -

148

IDENTIFICATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEM OF CYLINDRICAL GRINDER BY- '*BLACK BOX" METHOD DURING GRINDINGS Yu.-V.
P . Astrauskas and R. A. Ionushas (Vil'nus)

The dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e "grinding processt1 and multiple-bushink hydrodynamic f r i c t i o n b e a r i n g of t h e s p i n d l e o f a g r i n d i n g wheel with r e s p e c t t o i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l s a p p l i e d during t h e g r i n d i n g p r o c e s s are s t u d i e d .

I n o r d e r t o determine t h e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n o f t h e "grinding processt1


l i n k as a "black box" t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l s a r e s t u d i e d , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between them i s determined, as w e l l as t h e presence o f feedback and n o i s e and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l s o f t h e l i n k .
A simple e x p r e s s i o n i s produced f o r t h e complex t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n o f t h e

Ifgrinding process1' l i n k as a d i a g n o s t i c o b j e c t , r e l a t i n g t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y of i n p u t and mutual s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y o f i n p u t and output s i g n a l s . I n determining t h e t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n o f t h e hydrodynamic f r i c t i o n b e a r i n g on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l diagram of t h e b e a r i n g , t h e n a t u r e o f couplings between s p i n d l e and g r i n d i n g head was s t u d i e d . on each b e a r i n g bushing were used. E l a s t i c and damping couplings I n o r d e r t o analyze t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s -

t i c s o f t h e f r i c t i o n b e a r i n g , i t was p r e l i m i n a r i l y t r e a t e d as an o s c i l l a t i n g

l i n k with damping, with two i n p u t s and two o u t p u t s . The i n p u t s i g n a l s a r e t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e geometry o f t h e neck o f t h e g r i n d i n u s p i n d l e i n c i r c u l a r c r o s s s e c t i o n and t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e g r i n d i n g f o r c e s , while t h e o u t p u t s i g n a l s a r e t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n o f t h e s p i n d l e i n two p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n s . The f o r c e o s c i l l a t i o n s from t h e e l e c t r i c motor of t h e d r i v e o f t h e g r i n d i n g /114 -wheel are taken as n o i s e a c t i n g on t h e i n p u t o f t h e l i n k , while t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s from t h e F v d r a u l i c s o f t h e machine a r e t a k e n as n o i s e a c t i n g on t h e t r a n s f e r link. The s t a t i s t i c c h a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n p u t and o u t p u t s i g n a l s determined are used t o produce a t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n (dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) o f t h e hydrodynamic f r i c t i o n bearing.

149

SPECTRAL-CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF VIBRATIONS AVIATION ENGINE UNDER TEST . . STAND .. . . . . ... ... _ _ OF ... . . . . ........ . .
CONDITIONS~

S . G . Gershman, N . G . Dubravskiy, V .

I . Povarkov (MOSCOW)

V i b r a t i o n s o f t h e body o f a j e t a i r c r a f t engine t y p e RG-9B were s t u d i e d . The s i g n a l s from f o u r v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s i n s t a l l e d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on t h e body o f t h e engine were a m p l i f i e d by a wide band a m p l i f i e r and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y recorded by a f i v e channel magnetic r e c o r d e r . produced f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s . S p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s was performed by a s p e c t r a l a n a l y z e r w i t h a r e s o l v i n g c a p a c i t y of 6 H z i n t h e 20-20,000 Hz frequency r a n g e . Correlation analysis was performed by an analog c o r r e l a t o r with continuous change o f d e l a y t i m e . Recordings o f v i b r a t i o n of t h e engine i n f o u r s t a t e s were produced and analyzed:
1. F u l l o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; 2 . Damaged--with one t u r b i n e b l a d e c u t o f f a t o n e - t h i r d o f i t s l e n g t h ;
3 . Damaged--with a t u r b i n e b l a d e c u t o f f t o o n e - s i x t h o f i t s l e n g t h ;

These r e c o r d i n g s were t h e n re-

4 . Damaged--with a d e f e c t on t h e r a c e o f t h e middle b e a r i n g .

The power s p e c t r a o f v i b r a t i o n of t h e engine i n p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t s of continuous, smooth, wide band n o i s e with superimposed d i s c r e t e t o n e s , r e l a t e d t o t h e r o t a t i n g frequency o f t h e r o t o r . Some of t h e s e t o n e s r e p r e s e n t Some d i s c r e t e tones a r e t h e n o i s e of r o t a t i o n o f compressor o r t u r b i n e s t a g e s .

combination f r e q u e n c i e s o f n o i s e s o f r o t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t a g e s . The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e dependences of s p e c t r a l v i b r a t i o n d e n s i t i e s f o r s e n s o r s remote from each o t h e r i s l e s s than t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f s p e c t r a from neighboring v i b r a t i o n s e n s o r s . The a n a l y s i s o f v i b r a t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g c y c l e s of t h e engine showed good r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of spectrograms. The d e f e c t s i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n t r o duced t o t h e engine caused c e r t a i n changes i n t h e spectrograms and correlograms. For example, i n t h e experiment when one b l a d e i n t h e second s t a g e o f t h e t u r b i n e was c u t o f f to one t h i r d i t s h e i g h t , a change was noted i n t h e low f r e quency a r e a o f t h e wide band n o i s e , with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e harmonic a t t h e r o t a t i n g frequency o f t h e r o t o r , p l u s t h e appearance o f s i d e bands around thr. n o i s e frequency of r o t a t i o n o f t h e second s t a g e o f t h e t u r b i n e . These changes /115 -

150

a l s o influence t h e autocorrelation analysis. I n t h e experiment with a t u r b i n e b l a d e c u t o f f t o o n e - s i x t h , s i m i l a r changes were observed, b u t expressed more weakly. s i g n a l i n t h e s e l e c t e d frequency band. They can b e s e e n p r e c i s e l y only by c o r r e l a t i o n methods i n combination w i t h p r e l i m i n a r y f i l t e r i n g o f t h e

I n o r d e r t o allow c o r r e l a t i o n e v a l u a -

t i o n o f changes i n t h e parameters o f t h e spectrograms and correlograms, a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e work, a measure o f t h e change which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e degree o f damage. I n t h e experiment w i t h a d e f e c t i v e b e a r i n g , a change was n o t e d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y o f t h e continuous n o i s e which i s obviously a r e s u l t of t h e disassembly of t h e engine which was r e q u i r e d t o i n s t a l l t h e &fect i v e bearing. Various harmonics o f t h e r o t o r r o t a t i o n frequency i n c r e a s e d . I n most c a s e s , Spikes appeared on t h e spectrograms a t f r e q u e n c i e s which were m u l t i p l e s o f t h e c y c l i n g frequency o f b a l l s i n t h e e x t e r n a l b e a r i n g c i r c l e . t h e y were s m a l l i n amplitude and t h e r e f o r e , a c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was performed, demonstrating t h e nonrandom o r i g i n of t h e s e n o i s e b u r s t s . The harmonics o f t h e c y c l i n g frequency o f b a l l s i n t h e e x t e r n a l r i n g o f t h e b e a r i n g were a l s o r e v e a l e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n method. However, t h e u s e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n method was hindered by t h e p r e s e n c e o f s t r o n g e r secondary d i s c r e t e b u r s t s , t h e frequency o f which d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from t h e frequency o f cycling o f t h e b a l l s .

151

REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF NOISE OF AN AIRCRAFT ENGINE


S . G. Gershman, V. D. S v e t , V. I. Povarkov (Moscow)

Experimental r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d from t h e measurement of t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s , c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and mutual c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e v i b r a t i o n n o i s e s of an RD-9B a i r c r a f t engine. Recordings o f v i b r a t i o n s of t h e engine i n two states were analyzed: f u l l y c o r r e c t o p e r a t i n g /116 s t a t e and d e f e c t i v e s t a t e (one t u r b i n e b l a d e c u t o f f t o o n e - t h i r d h e i g h t ) . ' The c o r r e l a t i o n s between d i s c r e t e components, as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s h i p s between envelopes i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f t h e high frequency spectrum were s t u d i e d . The s e l e c t i o n of s p e c t r a l s e c t o r s was performed on t h e b a s i s of spectrograms made e a r l i e r .
1.

As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e measurements, it was e s t a b l i s h e d :

In t h e d e f e c t i v e s t a t e of t h e engine, t h e r e a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y n o n l i n e a r

c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e low frequency components o f t h e spectrum. In t h e normal engine, no n o n l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s were d e t e c t e d .


2.

m e r e a r e a l s o n o n l i n e a r and l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e low f r e -

quency components and t h e envelopes of t h e high frequency a r e a s o f t h e spectrum. In t h e normal engine, no n o n l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s were n o t e d .
3.

Q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and t h e numerical r e s u l t s o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s

of t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s , c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n r a t i o s and mutual c o r r e l a t i o n showed t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s between v a r i o u s components o f t h e n o i s e spectrum of t h e a v i a t i o n engine a r e c l o s e t o f u n c t i o n a l . The s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p appears between t h e main r o t a t i n g frequency of t h e r o t o r and i t s second and t h i r d components (with d e f e c t i v e engine o p e r a t i o n ) , allowing us t o l i m i t ours e l v e s i n a n a l y s i s t o t h e f i r s t f o u r terms of t h e s e r i e s of t h e polynomial regress ion. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n Lines and c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n r a t i o s and mutual c o r r e l a t i o n was performed using methods and a p p a r a t u s analyzed i n [ l ]

.
REFERENCES

1.

Gershman, S . G . , V . P . Prikhodlkol and V . D . S v e t , "Some Problems i n t h e Application of t h e Two-Dimensional P r o b a b i l i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n Function f o r Analysis of A c o u s t i c a l Noise and S i g n a l s " ( s e e t h i s c o l l e c t i o n ) .

152

SOME PROBLEMS I N THE APPLICATION OF THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION- .FUNCTION. . . . . FOR . ANALYSIS. . .. . .. OF. ACO~~STICAL .. - . . . NOISE .. AND--SIGNALS~~~

S. G. Gershman, V. P . Prikhod'kol, V . D . Svet (Moscow)

In many problems o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n a c o u s t i c a l n o i s e , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y
s u f f i c i e n t 20 know t h e two-dimensional d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n being s tu d i e d . reasons. Actual a c o u s t i c a l n o i s e s f r e q u e n t l y do n o t f o l l o w t h e normal d i s t r i b u t i o n , which i n d i c a t e s t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h e i r n o i s e formation, while t h e parameters c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from normal c o n t a i n usef u l information. Another s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e of t h e two-dimensional d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n i s t h a t i t c o n t a i n s a l l n e c e s s a r y parameters f o r e s t i m a t i o n ( i n t h e general case) o f t h e a r b i t r a r y s t o c h a s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between two random processes. I n p a r t i c u l a r , d e t e r m i n a t i o n of W ( x , y , ~ ) allows us t o use methods from t h e general t h e o r y of c o r r e l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g r e g r e s s i o n and d i s p e r s i o n a n a l y s i s . Furthermore, f o r many problems measurement of W ( x , y , ~ ) allows us t o produce a l a r g e number o f s t a t i s t i c a l parameters, n e c e s s a r y f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e phenomena b e i n g s t u d i e d . t i o n W(x,y,.-) T h e r e f o r e , t h e measurement o f t h e j o i n t d i s t r i b u t i o n funci s o f d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n problems i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l

W(x ,y , T ) of

p r o c e s s e s x ( t ) and y ( t ) t o c o n s t r u c t a s t a t i s t i c a l model o f t h e phenomenon The expediency o f determining W ( x , y , ~ ) arises f o r a number o f

/117

n a t u r e and mechanism of n o i s e formation, machine d i a g n o s i s , t h e study of nonlinear objects, etc.


A p r a c t i c a l method o f measuring W(x,y,-r) and i t s parameters i s analyzed;

a f u n c t i o n a l diagram o f a s p e c i a l i z e d device i s p r e s e n t e d .

I n combination with

d i g i t a l computers , t h e device allows t h e following measurement problems t o b e solved: a) p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s being s t u d i e d by accumulation and v i s u a l i z a t i o n of W(x,y,-t) i n r e a l t i m e ; b ) i n p u t of a l a r g e mass o f information t o a d i g i t a l computer; c) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e d p r o c e s s i n g algorithm, thereby e l i m i n a t i n g t h e b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l i c a t i o n o f modern d i g i t a l computers f o r massive s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e s s i n g . Experimental r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r measurement o f t h e two-dimensional

153

d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n and t h e i r parameters f o r v a r i o u s a c o u s t i c a l s i g n a l s . The r e s u l t s produced confirm t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u s i n g W ( x , y , ~ ) i n problems i n v o l v i n g a n a l y s i s o f a c o u s t i c a l n o i s e and s i g n a l s and t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s method of measurement.

154

ONE CONTACTLESS M E T H O D OF STUDYING THE NATURAL OSCILLATIONS . .. . . . ... . .. .- - . _ . _ . . . . . . . OF ELASTIC STRUC-

TURES.

B. D. Tartakovskiy, V . P . Shmal'chenko, M . M. E f r u s s i (Moscow)

During d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s and l o s s e s o f e l a s t i c osc i l l a t i o n s o f s o l i d s t r u c t u r e s , e r r o r s a r i s e due t o t h e attachment o f c o n t a c t electromechanical c o n v e r t e r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e s . This d e f e c t is n o t t r u e of t h e method o f e x c i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s o f r e s o n a n t s t r u c t u r e s by a r a d i a t o r l o c a t e d i n t h e surrounding medium, and measurement of t h e frequency charac-

/=

t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e r a t e of a t t e n u a t i o n o f n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s
by a s e n s o r a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h e surrounding medium. Keeping i n mind t h e more f a v o r a b l e r a t i o o f impedancesof e l a s t i c s t r u c -

t u r e s ( p l a t e s , r o d s , envelopes and t h e i r combinatlons) w i t h t h e wave impedance o f f l u i d s i n comparison with g a s e s , we developed a method f o r measurement of e l a s t i c s t r u c t u r e s submerged i n a l i q u i d ( w a t e r ) . t h i n aluminum s p h e r e s and c y l i n d e r s . The specimens s t u d i e d were The sound f i e l d was c r e a t e d by a r a d i a t o r With a continuous change

l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e o f 0 . 5 m from t h e specimen, t h e sound p r e s s u r e r e c e i v e r

was p l a c e d a t a d i s t a n c e o f 1 m from t h e specimen.

i n t h e frequency of e x c i t a t i o n , t h e r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c i e s o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e specimens were determined, t h e n t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e r a d i a t o r were c u t off a t t h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s , t h u s r e c o r d i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t e n u a t i o n a t each of t h e resonant f r e q u e n c i e s u s i n g a s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r . examples o f t h e r e s u l t s produced. On Figure 1 w e show a s e c t o r o f t h e frequency charact e r i s t i c of oscillations of a specimen. Figure 1. Frequency C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f O s c i l l a t i o n s o f a Specimen: 1, Resonances o f specimen. E x c i t a t i o n of t h e a t t e n u a t i n g o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e specimen was performed a t t h e resonant f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e specim.en t h u s determined. The r e c o r d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t e n u a t i o n of n a t u r a l o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e specimen b e i n g s t u d i e d on t h e s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r i s shown on Figure 2 . Obs e r v i n g t h i s p r o c e s s from l e f t t o r i g h t , w e can see a t f i r s t t h e summary sound 155 Figures 1 and 2 show

I
3

156

DESIGN OF VIBRATION-PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS WITH RANDOM VIBRATION ACTION - . __ ~. P . N . I l g a k o i s (Kaunas) I n t h i s work, v i b r a t i o n - p r o t e c t i v e systems are c a l c u l a t e d w i t h random o s c i l l a t i o n s a p p l i e d t o t h e b a s e w i t h one predominant o s c i l l a t i n g frequency. During planning o f v i b r a t i o n - p r o t e c t i v e systems f o r p r e c i s i o n equipment, e l e c t r o n i c a p p a r a t u s , it must b e considered t h a t t h e v i b r a t i o n e f f e c t s are._not always d e t e r m i n i s t i c ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e y cannot b e d e s c r i b e d by d e t e r m i n i s t i c f u n c t i o n s o f time and t h e v i b r a t i o n e f f e c t s must be looked upon a s a random process. The problem o f c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e optimal v a l u e s o f t h e n a t u r a l frequency o f a v i b r a t i o n - i s o l a t e d o b j e c t and t h e amount o f damping when v i b r a t i o n i s o l a t i n g s u p p o r t s with a s p e c i f i c e l a s t i c i t y curve a r e used a r e analyzed with random o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e t y p e mentioned above as t h e e x c i t a t i o n . The method of c a l c u l a t i o n p r e s e n t e d allows t h e expediency and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e u s e o f a v i b r a t i o n - p r o t e c t i v e system t o be e s t i m a t e d .

/%

157

ACOUSTICS . - .. . CERTAIN PROBLEMS . - .... O-F- . MACHINE . . . .

M. D. Genkin and V. I . Sergeyev (Moscow) The b a s i c p o s i t i o n s o f machine a c o u s t i c s , as one new area i n t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f machines, have been p r e s e n t e d i n p r e c e d i n g works.
A t t h e p r e s e n t time, it seems e x p e d i e n t i n t h e s o l u t i o n of a p p l i e d problems

t o perform i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g main a r e a s . F i r s t o f a l l , methods must b e developed t o reduce t h e v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f t h e machines, which must be based on s t u d y o f v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l parameters o f t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o b j e c t s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f machine building, investigation of t h e i r vibration-acoustical f i e l d s, consisting of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d u n i t s f o r e x c i t a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i n g energy and s e c t o r s o f s t r u c t u r e s (bodies, supports, e t c . )

, which,

r e a c t i n g t o t h i s e x c i t a t i o n , are a I t should a l s o be

unique " v i b r a t i o n - a c o u s t i c a l l o a d f o r t h e e x c i t i n g u n i t s . "

k e p t i n mind t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l s e c t o r s a r e i n t u r n secondary s o u r c e s o f e x c i t a t i o n f o r a t t a c h e d p a r t s , t h u s c r e a t i n g a system o f i n t e r c o n n e c t e d v i b r a t i o n guides--channels through which o s c i l l a t i n g energy p r o p a g a t e s , working with external loads. Secondly, t h e methods o f s o l u t i o n o f t h i s range o f problems must be based on s t u d i e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l e x c i t a t i o n i n machines and t h e i r elements; i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s connection o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e random n a t u r e o f l o a d i n g with s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f parameters o f s y s t e m s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e deformation o f l i n k s i n k i n e m a t i c c i r c u i t s , s t u d y o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f complex systems o f mechanisms and s t r u c t u r e s r e s u l t i n g from t h i s e x c i t a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e o s c i l l a t i n g s t a t e s , development o f t h e o r i e s f o r modeling t h e dynamic and a c o u s t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , as well as methods f o r s y n t h e s i s and o p t i m i z a t i o n o f machine s t r u c t u r e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e c r i t e r i o n o f minimum v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l a c t i v i t y , s t u d y o f t h e p r o c e s s e s o f dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n o f mechanisms and s t r u c t u r e s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o p a g a t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n o f wave energy i n d i s c r e t e and continuous heterogeneous s t r u c t u r e s , s t u d y o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n p r o p e r t i e s and problems o f d i f f r a c t i o n i n mechanical s t r u c t u r e s . One e f f e c t i v e means f o r c o n t r o l l i n g v i b r a t i o n s i s a change i n t h e d e s i g n 158
/1 21

I;
o f elements o f machine u n i t s , i n c l u d i n g s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . Another promising method f o r reducing t h e l e v e l o f v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f machine u n i t s as a whole (by s h u t t i n g o f f t h e flow o f o s c i l l a t i n g energy w i t h i n each u n i t ) i s t h e u s e o f a c t i v e a n t i v i b r a t o r s , c r e a t i n g c o u n t e r phase v i b r a t i o n . systems. sions.
As t h e development o f g e n e r a l methods has shown, a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v i b r a -

P a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t e f f e c t s can b e achieved by combining

a c t i v e a n t i v i b r a t o r s w i t h e l a s t i c elements, i .e . , p a s s i v e shock absorbing This p r o v i d e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r a t h e r r i g i d f a s t e n i n g o f mechanisms and a h i g h degree o f v i b r a t i o n i n s u l a t i o n , as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r s o f t suspen-

t i o n a c o u s t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f machine u n i t s should be based on s t u d y of t h e properties of the vibration acoustic f i e l d s of t h e u n i t s . I n t h i s connection, t h e r e i s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e development o f experimental methods and apparatus f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e corresponding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v i b r a tion acoustical f i e l d s . Usually i n complex mechanical systems, t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n elements perform o s c i l l a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s forms and t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e most important problems
i s t h e d i v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l o s c i l l a t i o n s o f r o t a t i n g p a r t s i n t o components.
A no l e s s important t a s k i s t h e measurement o f t h e band parameters of

multi-dimensional o s c i l l a t i n g mechanical systems i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n o f mechanisms and f o u n d a t i o n s , and a l s o t o determine t h e l e v e l s o f o s c i l l a t i n g energy t r a n s m i t t e d by a mechanism t o t h e f o u n d a t i o n , i . e . , determine t h e degree of v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f t h e machines. This problem i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f a combination of methodol o g i c a l problems d i r e c t e d toward c r e a t i o n o f new s p e c i a l measurement a p p a r a t u s and e s t i m a t i o n o f i t s accuracy. The v i b r a t i o n a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of machines a r e a l s o used f o r diagnost i c purposes.
A s we know, an i d e a of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y o f a machine, as

w e l l as a p r e d i c t i o n o f i t s f u t u r e b e h a v i o r can be produced by o b s e r v a t i o n o f
i t s operating condition.

The number o f parameters which determine t h e s t a t e However, we can s e p a r a t e among 159

o f a machine, g e n e r a l l y speaking, i s i n f i n i t e .

t h e s e t h e p r i n c i p a l parameters, which determine t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e working process.

Direct measurement o f t h e s e parameters i s g e n e r a l l y t o o d i f f i c u l t and


T h e r e f o r e , a t t e m p t s a r e made t o

expensive, and sometimes i s simply impossible. measure them i n d i r e c t l y

.
oil /122 -

O f a l l i n d i r e c t i n d i c a t o r s which can b e used t o judge t h e o p e r a t i n g condit i o n o f t h e machine (temperature, v a r i o u s mechanical i n d i c a t o r s , e . g . ,

p r e s s u r e , r a d i a t i o n , sound, e t c . ) t h e most e f f e c t i v e i s t h e sound s i g n a l . There are many systems f o r a c o u s t i c a l d i a n o s i s , adapted f o r v a r i o u s t y p e s of machines. They a l l u s e t h e p h y s i c a l s p e c i f i c s o f a d e f i n i t e t y p e of machine E x t e r n a l l y , a l l t h e s e systems d i f f e r s t r o n g l y But t h e number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used i s l i m i t e d . and a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r o t h e r s . from each o t h e r .

Acoustical d i a g n o s i s i s one o f t h e most important methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f machine a c o u s t i c s . REFERENCES


1.

Artobolevskiy, I . I . , M. D . Genkin, e t a l . , "Acoustical Machine Diagnosis," Vestnik AN SSSR, No. 11, "Nauka" Press, 1968.

160

DETERMINATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MECHANICAL OSCILLATING SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF THE AMPLITUDE-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS AS A MEANS OF VIBRATIONDIAGNOSIS OF MACHINES

M. D. Genkin, A. A. Zhirnov, e t a l . (Moscow)


Gear t r a n s m i s s i o n s a r e widely used i n many branches o f machine b u i l d i n g ,

and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r manufacture and assembly, as a r u l e , determines t h e v i b r a t i o n and n o i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of extremely complex and important u n i t s . The r e s u l t s o f d e t a i l e d t e s t i n g of t h e q u a l i t y of manufacture of i n d i v i d u a l g e a r s or t e s t s t a n d experiments o f i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s a s assembled f r e q u e n t l y do n o t correspond t o t h e i r o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s when t h e y are a c t u a l l y i n u s e .
A method i s suggested f o r determining t h e a c t u a l v a l u e s of e r r o r i n g e a r s

during o p e r a t i o n , allowing e s t i m a t i o n n o t o n l y o f t h e magnitude o f t o o t h and c y c l i c a l e r r o r s , b u t a l s o o f t h e q u a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s such a s , f o r example, dev i a t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f t h e contact spot of a tooth p a i r . The method i s based on comparison o f t h e experimentally produced frequency spectrum with t h e c a l c u l a t e d v i b r a t i o n spectrum o f a dynamic model. The dependence i s t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e components of t h e frequency spectrum and t h e elements of t h e dynamic model r e f l e c t i n g s p e c i f i c p a r t s of t h e s t r u c ture. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e component f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e spectrum determined by r i g i d i t y of each of t h e meshed g e a r s i n t h e u n i t being s t u d i e d can b e d e f i n e d . R e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d from d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e a c t u a l g e a r and c y c l i c a l e r r o r s i n v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g modes of t r a n s m i s s i o n s . /123 -

161

.... .

PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION-OF DYNAMIC BASED ON TAPE DRIVES . . .. . .. . . . . PARAMETERS . . _ . . . . . . OF. . . . . SYSTEMS . .... ... ..
~

A . Navitskas, K . R a g u l ' s k i s , 0. -M.

Skurkayte (Kaunas)

This work p r e s e n t s one method f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e o p t i m a l mechanical and dynamic parameters i n s t u d i e s of complex dynamic systems c o n t a i n i n g both e l e c t r o n i c and mechanical p a r a m e t e r s . Such systems i n c l u d e v a r i o u s types o f magnetic r e c o r d i n g a p p a r a t u s , an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e accuracy o f information t r a n s m i s s i o n ( e l e c t r o n i c p a r a m e t e r s ) of which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e funct i o n o f t h e t a p e d r i v e mechanisms and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t systems (mechanical p a r a meters).
F

The s t a t i s t i c a l and dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e systems s t u d i e d , a f t e r composition and s o l u t i o n o f mathematical models, cannot f u l l y show t h e c o n c r e t e mechanical and dycn

/1 24 -

T,

namic parameters o f g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e v a l u e and n a t u r e of


I I

s t a t i s t i c a l and dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s -

tics.
mn-7

Dynamic models o f systems

-----

s t u d i e d are composed, n o n l i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l equations with s t o c h a s t i c e x c i t a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d , algorithms

Figure 1. Dynamic Model. F , Friction force; P, Perturbing f o r c e ; y , Damping f a c t o r ; C y R i g i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t ; m y Drive mass. magnetic t a p e i s shown on F i g u r e 1.

are composed and programs are w r i t t e n


f o r t h e i r machine s o l u t i o n .

One such dynamic model f o r a t a p e d r i v e mechanism w i t h a c l o s e d loop of The masses o f s e c t o r s o f magnetic t a p e m y i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by e l a s t i c i t y C and damper y , are p e r t u r b e d by t h e t a p e d r i v e u n i t s and o t h e r s o u r c e s of e x c i t a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f f r i c t i o n f o r c e s F and p e r t u r b a t i o n f o r c e s P , which g e n e r a l l y a r e random and u n s t a b l e i n n a t u r e . I n o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y and a p p l y t h e s o l u t i o n s t o e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e ,
i t was assumed t h a t t h e p e r t u r b i n g f a c t o r s a r e random and s t a b l e i n n a t u r e ,

and have e r g o d i c p r o p e r t i e s . These dynamic models were d e s c r i b e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s o f t h e 162

f o l l o w i n g type :
n n

where i = 1 , 2 , . . . , n ,

and n i s t h e number o f degrees o f freedom.

In t h i s e q u a t i o n , t h e n o n l i n e a r e x p r e s s i o n f o r d r i v e f r i c t i o n was appro-2 + Zi yk, a r e p r e s e n t s t h e d r i v e n i k k masses, b are t h e summary c o e f f i c i e n t s o f damping and d r y f r i c t i o n , c ik ik are t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d r y f r i c t i o n , are t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f e l a s t i c i t y , Zi k yi = y . ( t ) are t h e displacements o f t h e d r i v e n masses, P . ( t ) are t h e p e r t u r -

ximated by a p a r a b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n b .

yk

b i n g f o r c e s a p p l i e d t o c e r t a i n o f t h e r o l l e r s o r t h e magnetic t a p e .
1

The

d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n i s s o l v e d f o r two c a s e s : 1) when P . ( t ) i s a d e t e r m i n i s t i c f u n c t i o n , f i x e d by a F o u r i e r s e r i e s ; 2) when P . ( t ) i s a random s t a b l e f u n c t i o n .


1

In the l a t t e r case, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n function of the s t a b l e process P l ( t ) , t h e v a l u e s o f which were f i x e d by a t a b l e , was considered known. The problem was s t a t e d o f determining displacements y i J when P . ( t ) i s a
1

d e t e r m i n i s t i c f u n c t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f y . and t h e dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e mechanical systems when P . ( t ) i s a


1 1

random s t a b l e p r o c e s s .

163

NEW METHODS OF STUDYING THE .DYNAMICS OF IMPACT PROCESSES ~. .-. . . B. V. Rudgal'vis (Kaunas)

This work p r e s e n t s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e dynamics of impact p r o c e s s e s ,

/125

as well as v i b r a t i o n and impact s t a b i l i t y o f p r e c i s i o n electromechanical


systems.

I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t modern impact s t a n d s , i n p l a c e o f a r e c t a n g u l a r
o r s i n u s o i d a l h a l f wave p u l s e as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t u a l l y produce a p u l s e which i s a polyharmonic a t t e n u a t i n g o s c i l l a t i n g pro-

cess with an envelope o f s t r o n g l y d i s t o r t e d form, with a d u r a t i o n o f s e v e r a l


tens of oscillations. S p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s has shown t h a t t h e The dependence o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t energy o f t h e impact i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t components, l y i n g i n a band o f f r e q u e n c i e s up t o s e v e r a l KHz. frequency components on t h e c o n d i t i o n s of r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e impact p r o c e s s e s

i s determined.

I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n a c c e l e r a t i o n upon r e a l i z a -

t i o n o f an impact p r o c e s s causes t h e s i g n i f i c a n t frequency components t o i n c r e a s e i n frequency.


A method i s developed f o r performing s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s , new parameters

a r e suggested f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e impact p r o c e s s , such as t h e s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y , s p e c t r a l energy, e f f e c t i v e d u r a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e s p e c t r a l width, form c o e f f i c i e n t of impact p u l s e , as w e l l as amplitude and frequency o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t components d e f i n e d on t h e curve of t h e spectrum.
A new apparatus i s developed f o r r e c o r d i n g one-time wide band impact p r o -

c e s s e s with a scanning r a t e allowing automatic d i s c r e t i z a t i o n f o r t h e p e r f o r mance o f o p e r a t i v e s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s by computer. The p r i n c i p l e o f e l e c t r o s t a t i c recording i s used i n combination with a drum d r i v e n t y p e r e c o r d i n g device, t h e information c a r r i e r of which i s h e l d i n p o s i t i o n by a p r e s s u r e drop on each s i d e . This d e v i c e allows t h e information c a r r i e r ( e l e c t r o g r a p h i c paper s t r i p ) t o be d r i v e n a t a speed of up t o 100 m/sec and t h e r e c o r d i n g of impact p r o c e s s e s , t h e frequency spectrum of which reaches 50 KHz with a curve r i s e s l o p e o f n o t over 82". The time r e q u i r e d t o develop an image o f t h e p r o c e s s

i s about 1 min.

164

Furthermore, t h e r e a c t i o n s of p r e c i s i o n electromechanical systems t o impact p u l s e s with v a r i o u s s p e c t r a l parameters were measured u s i n g e l e c t r o n i c mathemat i c a l analogs. The zones of t h e i r v i b r a t i o n and impact s t a b i l i t y were d e t e r mined, recommendations were made f o r o p t i m i z a t i o n of systems a s concerns v i b r a ti on impact s t ab i li t y

165

NEW METHODS OF STUDYING AND INCREASING THE. DYNAMIC. . ACCURACY OF PRECISION JIG .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ BORING M A C H R .E . S
~~

K. P . Dzidolikas (Kaunas)

T h i s work a n a l y z e s an o r i g i n a l d e v i c e f o r measurement o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of a s p i n d l e , t h e accuracy o f measurement o f which i s independent o f t h e geo-

metric e r r o r s i n t h e shape o f t h e s u p p o r t .
lates.

I t c o n t a i n s t h e s e n s o r made w i t h

two s e r i e s - c o n n e c t e d c a p a c i t a n c e s , one o f which changes as t h e s p i n d l e o s c i l A n o s c i l l o g r a m r e c o r d s only t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e s p i n d l e which i n f l u e n c e t h e accuracy and q u a l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n d i r e c t l y . Using t h i s d e v i c e , a s t u d y was made o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of a range of s p i n d l e s o f p r e c i s i o n j i g b o r i n g machines w i t h an o p t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e r e a d i n g system. The r e a l i z a t i o n s produced were computer p r o c e s s e d . This work p r e s e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s and s p e c t r a l d e n s i t i e s o f t h e o s c i l l a t i n g p r o c e s s both d u r i n g i d l e and d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n . This allowed t h e predominant s o u r c e s o f o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e s p i n d l e t o b e determined. In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e dynamic model of t h e u n i t s o f t h e t o o l f o r t h e e n t i r e t o o l as a whole, v a r i o u s methods are used t o determine t h e r i g i d i t y charact e r i s t i c o f elements o f t h e t o o l . The work d e s c r i b e s an o r i g i n a l method f o r The determining c i r c u l a r compliance diagrams, a l l o w i n g a continuous curve o f c i r c u l a r r i g i d i t y t o be produced c l e a r l y on t h e s c r e e n of t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e . method i s based on t h e u s e o f c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s as t h e l o a d i n g f o r c e s and t h e r e c o r d i n g o f deformations i n t h e p l a n e u s i n g two c a p a c i t i v e s e n s o r s connected with a c o n v e r t i n g a p p a r a t u s . T h i s method i s used t o s t u d y t h e c o n t a c t and n a t u r a l deformations o f elements of t h e machine and c o n s t r u c t a c i r c u l a r d i a gram o f t h e compliance o f t h e s p i n d l e s o f machines r e l a t i v e t o t h e t a b l e s .

166

F-694 - 23

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