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Hegel Glossary

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Hegel Glossary ** The Absolute (a.k.a. "God") "The Absolute is Mind (Spirit) - this is the supreme definition of the Absolute." Philosophy of Mind 384. "The truth is the hole. The hole! ho e"er! is merel# the essential nature rea$hin% its $ompleteness throu%h the pro$ess of its o n de"elopment. &f the Absolute it must be said that it is essentiall# a result! that onl# at the end is it hat it is in "er# truth' and (ust in that $onsists its nature! hi$h is to be a$tual! sub(e$t! or self-be$omin%! self-de"elopment." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 8*-8+. ,t is the totalit# hi$h rea$hes its truth - the potential be$omes a$tuali-ed - onl# at the end of the pro$ess of its o n teleolo%i$al self-be$omin%. ,t is a result of its o n de"elopment in hi$h it %i"es itself its o n $ontent - .ature (the presupposition of human $ons$iousness) and returns from the otherness of this $ontent throu%h human $ons$iousness. ,n other ords! it be$omes ob(e$t to itself and $omes to kno itself to be this ob(e$t. ,t be$omes self-$ons$iousl#! self-thinkin% thou%ht. /Compare Aristotle0s Metaphysics *12+b*34 "Thou%ht thinks itself as ob(e$t in "irtue of its parti$ipation in hat is thou%ht." 5e%el0s self-thinkin% thou%ht! ho e"er! is not independent of the uni"erse but is the uni"erse0s o n de"eloped self-$ons$iousness.6 The de"elopment of the Absolute - hi$h is the ob(e$t of philosoph# - thus has three main phases4 The Absolute in itself - the sub(e$t matter of 7o%i$ The Absolute for itself - the philosoph# of .ature The Absolute in and for itself - the philosoph# of Spirit The Absolute obtains its self-reali-ation - Absolute 8no led%e - in 5e%el0s philosoph#. Absolute Knowledge " . . . the reali-ation that all forms of ob(e$ti"it# are identi$al to those essential to the thinkin% sub(e$t! so that in $onstruin% the orld $on$eptuall# it is seein% e"er#thin% in the form of self! the self bein% simpl# the e"er-a$ti"e prin$iple of $on$eptual uni"ersalit#! of $ate%ori$al s#nthesis. ,n its $on$eptual %rasp of ob(e$ts it ne$essaril# %rasps hat it itself is! and in %raspin% itself it ne$essaril# %rasps e"er# phase of ob(e$ti"it#." 9... :indla#! :or ard Phenomenology of Spirit ;;"iii. "This last shape of Spirit - the Spirit hi$h at the same time %i"es its $omplete and true $ontent in the form of the Self and thereb# reali-es its .otion as remainin% in its .otion in this reali-ation - this is absolute kno in%' it is Spirit that kno s itself in the shape of Spirit! or a comprehensive knowing." Phenomenology of Spirit 238. Absolute Idea "The absolute ,dea has turned out to be the identit# of the theoreti$al and the pra$ti$al ,dea. <a$h of these b# itself is still one-sided! possessin% the ,dea onl# as a sou%ht for be#ond and an unattained %oal' ea$h! therefore! is a synthesis of endeavour! and has! but e=uall# has not! the ,dea in it' ea$h passes from one thou%ht to the other ithout brin%in% the t o to%ether! and so remains fi;ed in their $ontradi$tion. The absolute ,dea! as the rational .otion that in its realit# meets onl# ith itself! is b# "irtue of this immedia$# of its ob(e$ti"e identit#! on the one hand the return to life' but it has no less sublated this form of its immedia$#! and $ontains ithin itself the hi%hest de%ree of opposition. The .otion is not merel# soul but free sub(e$ti"e .otion that is for itself and therefore possesses personality - the pra$ti$al! ob(e$ti"e .otion determined in and for itself hi$h! as person! is impenetrable atomi$ indi"idualit#! but e;pli$itl# universality and cognition! and in its other has its own ob(e$ti"it# for its ob(e$t. All else is error! $onfusion! opinion! endea"our! $apri$e and transitoriness' the absolute ,dea alone is being! imperishable life! self knowing truth! and is all truth. ,t is the sole sub(e$t matter and $ontent of )hilosoph#." Science of !ogic 8+4.

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Hegel Glossary

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Actual/Actuality ""hat is rational is actual and what is actual is rational . . . . /.6othin% is a$tual e;$ept the ,dea." )refa$e! Philosophy of #ight *1. "A$tualit# is al a#s the unit# of uni"ersal and parti$ular! the uni"ersal dismembered in the parti$ulars hi$h seem to be self-subsistent! althou%h the# reall# are upheld and $ontained in the hole. >here this unit# is not present! a thin% is not a$tual e"en thou%h it ma# ha"e a$=uired e;isten$e. . . . Genuine a$tualit# is ne$essit#' hat is a$tual is inherentl# ne$essar#." Philosophy of #ight +21 Addition. Alienation/Estrangement ($ntfremdung%$nt&usserung) The $ondition in hi$h there is a $ontradi$tion bet een the ,dea0s?Spirit0s (i.e.! the histori$al sub(e$t0s) e;isten$e and essen$e - the essen$e of Spirit bein% freedom. The hole pro%ress of the Phenomenology and the purpose of histor# is the resolution of this $ontradi$tion. The resolution is a$hie"ed throu%h Absolute 8no led%e hi$h results in "the $ons$iousness of freedom." >ith this $ons$iousness! the phenomenal e;isten$e and the %i"en essen$e of Spirit $oin$ide. The Philosophy of 'istory *2 ff. The $ons$iousness of freedom is itself onl# possible on the %rounds of o"er$omin%! in Absolute 8no led%e! the false dualit# of sub(e$t and ob(e$t. ",n this kno in%! then! Spirit has $on$luded the mo"ement in hi$h it has shaped itself! in so far as this shapin% as burdened ith the differen$e of $ons$iousness /i.e.! of the latter from its ob(e$t6! a differen$e no o"er$ome." Phenomenology of Spirit 81@. Being-for-another ". . . Aein%-for-another! i.e. . . . per$eptibilit# . . . ." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,,,! 323. Being-for-itself (f(r sich) ". . . bein%-for-itself! a$tualit# (actus)." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,! +*. "The term . . . is meant to su%%est indi"idualit# or! more spe$ifi$all#! both separate bein% and self-$ons$ious bein%." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel)Te*ts and Commentary 3*. As somethin% appears to itself. <;pli$itl#. Being-in-itself (an sich) ",n order to $omprehend hat de"elopment is! - hat ma# be $alled t o different states must be distin%uished. The first is hat is kno n as $apa$it#! po er! hat , $all bein%in-itself (potentia)' the se$ond prin$iple is that of bein%-for-itself! a$tualit# (actus). ,f e sa#! for e;ample! that man is b# nature rational! e ould mean that he has reason onl# inherentl# or in embr#o4 in this sense! reason! understandin%! ima%ination! ill! are possessed from birth or e"en from the mother0s omb. Aut hile the $hild onl# has $apa$ities or the a$tual possibilit# of reason! it is (ust the same as if he had no reason' reason does not #et e;ist in him sin$e he $annot #et do an#thin% rational! and has no rational $ons$iousness. Thus hat man is at first impli$itl# be$omes e;pli$it . . . ." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy +1-+*. "/T6hin%s as the# are in truth or realit# . . . ." Ale;andre 8o(B"e! +ntroduction to the #eading of 'egel +C+. "&ften . . . hat is meant is impli$itl# or potentiall# . . . . /,t also6 often means4 taken b# itself! apart from its relations to other matters! or! in effe$t! $onsidered superfi$iall#. 5e%el0s usa%e of this ke# term of his philosoph# is thus not $onsistent." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 3*. ":or 5e%el the terms 0in itself0 and 0for us0 are b# no means opposites' in fa$t the# are necessary correlatives. That somethin% e;ists merel# 0in itself0 means for 5e%el that it merel# e;ists 0for us0. The antithesis of 0for us or in itself0 is rather 0for itself0! namel# that mode of bein% posited here the fa$t that an ob(e$t is thou%ht of implies at the same time that the ob(e$t is $ons$ious of itself." Geor% 7ukD$s! 'istory and Class Consciousness

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Hegel Glossary

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*3+. Being-in-and-for-itself (an und f(r sich) ". . . as it is both in essence and in actuality! or in and for itself." Phenomenology of Spirit 234. "5e%el emplo#s this phrase as a te$hni$al term and defines it . . . . 0:or us or in itself04 the embr#o is human onl# in itself and for us! not #et for itself. The infant is 0for itself onl# for us.0" >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 33. Somethin% appears to itself as it in fa$t is. once!t - see ".otion" ontingent "The $ontin%ent! rou%hl# speakin%! is hat has the %round of its bein% not in itself but in some hat else. Su$h is the aspe$t under hi$h a$tualit# first $omes before $ons$iousness . . . Aut the $ontin%ent is onl# one side of the a$tual . . . . ,t is the a$tual! in the si%nifi$ation of somethin% merel# possible. A$$ordin%l# e $onsider the $ontin%ent to be hat ma# or ma# not be! hat ma# be in one a# or another! hose bein% or not-bein%! and hose bein% on this ise or other ise! depends not upon itself but on somethin% else. To o"er$ome this $ontin%en$# is . . .the problem of s$ien$e . . . ." !ogic! *4@ .ote. ontradiction ". . . the diale$ti$ asserts that! hen A is an# $ate%or#! e;$ept the Absolute ,dea! hate"er is A ma# be! and indeed must be! not-A also. . . . The diale$ti$ does not re(e$t /the6 la /of $ontradi$tion6. An unresol"ed $ontradi$tion is! for 5e%el as for e"er# one else! a si%n of error. The relation of thesis and antithesis deri"es its hole meanin% from the s#nthesis! hi$h follo s them . . . . ,n fa$t! so far is the diale$ti$ from den#in% the la of $ontradi$tion! that it is espe$iall# based on it. The $ontradi$tions are the $ause of the diale$ti$ pro$ess. Aut the# $an onl# be this if the# are re$ei"ed as marks of error. . . . Truth $onsists! not of $ontradi$tions! but of moments hi$h! if separated! ould be $ontradi$tions! but hi$h in their s#nthesis are re$on$iled and $onsistent." 9.E.<. E$Ta%%art! Studies in the 'egelian ,ialectic 8. "ialectic "/T6he $on$ept0s mo"in% prin$iple! hi$h alike en%enders and dissol"es the parti$ulari-ations of the uni"ersal . . . ." Philosophy of #ight 3* Femark. See the remainder of this remark for further e;pli$ation. ,n its most abstra$t formulation! diale$ti$ is the mo"ement of Feason (,dea) to ards Truth (Absolute 8no led%e). This is the teleolo%i$al self-mo"ement of Feason in hi$h that hi$h is posited (thesis) en%enders its ne$essar# limitation and ne%ation (antithesis) hi$h is o"er$ome throu%h the de"elopment of a ne thesis (s#nthesis) hi$h sublates (o"er$omes hile preser"in%) the prior moments. This pro$ess is e"ident in 5e%el0s omnipresent triadi$ stru$tures. :or 5e%el! thou%h! this is no mere formalism! i.e.! the e;ternal imposition of stru$ture! rather it is the refle$tion of the internal and ne$essar# stru$ture of Feason itself (and sin$e it is solel# Feason hi$h is a$tual! 5e%el0s !ogic - herein the $on$rete stru$ture of reason is re"ealed - is metaph#si$s). This pro$ess is dri"en b# the ne%ati"e - the ne%ati"e is allo s pro%ressi"e de"elopment. ,n this re%ard! 5e%el as mu$h positi"e." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic @4. %enuine diale$ti$al element." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of the ellsprin% of the a$ti"it# hi$h $omments that "the ne%ati"e is (ust The ne%ati"e "$onstitutes the !ogic @@.

>ith respe$t to 7o%i$4 "5e%el0s primar# ob(e$t in his diale$ti$ is to establish the e;isten$e of a lo%i$al $onne$tion bet een the "arious $ate%ories hi$h are in"ol"ed in the $onstitution of e;perien$e. . . . /A6n# $ate%or#! if s$rutunised ith suffi$ient $are and attention! is found to lead to another! and to in"ol"e it! in su$h a manner that an attempt

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Hegel Glossary

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to use the first of an# sub(e$t hile e refuse to use the se$ond of the same sub(e$t results in a $ontradi$tion. The $ate%or# thus rea$hed leads on in a similar a# to a third! and the pro$ess $ontinues until at last e rea$h the %oal of the diale$ti$ in a $ate%or# hi$h betra#s no instabilit# /"i-.! the Absolute ,dea6. ..... The diale$ti$ pro$ess . . . obe#s a definite la . The reason of this is at an# point the finite $ate%or# e;pli$itl# before us stands in a definite relationship to the $omplete and absolute idea hi$h is impli$it in our $ons$iousness. . . . Thus the first and deepest $ause of the diale$ti$ mo"ement is the instabilit# of all finite $ate%ories! due to their imperfe$t /i.e.! limited6 nature. The immediate result of this instabilit# is the produ$tion of $ontradi$tions /and6 . . . to the e;isten$e of the $ontradi$tion e o e the ad"an$e of the diale$ti$. ..... /5o e"er!6 the method! b# hi$h 5e%el pro$eeds from on $ate%or# to another in his 7o%i$! is not the same throu%hout! but $han%es materiall# as the pro$ess ad"an$es." 9.E.<. E$Ta%%art! Studies in the 'egelian ,ialectic *! 4! *1C. "The abstra$t form of the ad"an$e is! in Aein%! an other and transition into an other' in <ssen$e sho in% or refle$tion in the opposite' in .otion! the distin$tion of the indi"idual from uni"ersalit#! hi$h $ontinues itself as su$h into! and is an identit# ith! hat is distin%uished from it." !ogic +41. #reedom ". . . that hi$h has its $entre in itself . . . . e;ists in and with itself . . . . self contained e*istence . . . . , am free . . . hen m# e;isten$e depends upon m#self." The Philosophy of 'istory *2. ". . . that is free hi$h is not $onne$ted 'istory of Philosophy- ,! +3. ith or dependent on another." !ectures on the

":reedom is (ust thou%ht itself' he ho $asts thou%ht aside and speaks of freedom kno s not hat he is talkin% of. The unit# of thou%ht ith itself is freedom! the free ill. Thou%ht! as "olition merel#! is the impulse to abro%ate one0s sub(e$ti"it#! the relation to present e;isten$e! the reali-in% of oneself! sin$e in that , am endea"ourin% to pla$e m#self as e;istent on an e=ualit# ith m#self as thinkin%. ,t is onl# as ha"in% the po er of thinkin% that the ill is free." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,,,! 41+. ". . . thou%ht hi$h is free starts out from itself and thereupon $laims to kno united in its innermost bein% ith the truth." )refa$e! Philosophy of #ight 3. Aein% one0s o n %round. History "The 5istor# of the orld is none other than the pro%ress of the $ons$iousness of :reedom" and it is Spirit0s $ons$iousness of its o n freedom hi$h is "the final cause of the "orld at large . . . ." The Philosophy of 'istory *3. Idea (+dee) (to be distin%uished from "idea" - .orstellung) "The ,dea is truth in itself and for itself G the absolute unit# of the notion and ob(e$ti"it#. ,ts 0ideal0 $ontent is nothin% but the notion in its detailed terms4 its 0real0 $ontent is onl# the e;hibition hi$h the notion %i"es itself in the form of e;ternal e;isten$e! hile #et! b# en$losin% this shape in its idealit#! it keeps it in its po er! and so keeps itself in it." !ogic +*3. "The produ$t of thinkin% is the thou%ht' thou%ht is! ho e"er! still formal' some hat more defined it be$omes .otion! and finall# ,dea is Thou%ht in its totalit#! impli$itl# and e;pli$itl# determined. Thus the ,dea! and it alone is Truth. .o it is essentiall# in the nature of the ,dea to de"elop! and onl# throu%h de"elopment to arri"e at $omprehension of itself! or to be$ome hat it is. That the ,dea should ha"e to make itself hat it is! seems like a $ontradi$tion' it ma# be said that it is hat it is." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,! +1. itself as

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Hegel Glossary

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"The ,dea is the $on$ept in so far as the $on$ept %i"es realit# and e;isten$e to itself. . . . The ,dea! or reason! or truth! is the $on$ept be$ome $on$rete! the unit# of sub(e$t and ob(e$t! of form and $ontent." T.E. 8no;! Translator0s :ore ord! Philosophy of #ight i;. Sometimes the ,dea is used to refer simpl# to the lo%i$al ,dea or the .otion. $ogic The method of the pro$ess of Spirit0s self-de"elopment "is 7o%i$ itself. :or the method is nothin% else than the stru$ture of the hole in its pure and essential form." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind *1C. ". . . the s$ien$e of lo%i$ . . . $onstitutes metaph#si$s proper or purel# spe$ulati"e philosoph# . . . ." )refa$e to the :irst <dition! Science of !ogic +2. ")hilosophi$al thinkin% in %eneral is still $on$erned ith $on$rete ob(e$ts - God! nature! spirit' but lo%i$ is $on$erned onl# and solel# ith these thou%hts as thoughts! in their $omplete abstra$tion." )refa$e to the Se$ond <dition! Science of !ogic 34. ". . . lo%i$ is to be understood as the s#stem of pure reason! as the realm of pure thou%ht. . . . ,t $an therefore be said that this $ontent is the e;position of God as he is in his eternal essen$e before the $reation of nature and a finite mind." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic @1. ". . . spirit0s $ons$iousness of its o n pure essen$e . . . ." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic @*. The %enealo%# of pure $on$epts - notions. %ature ":rom our point of "ie mind has for its presupposition .ature! of for that reason its absolute prius." Philosophy of Mind! 38*.

hi$h it is the truth! and

%egati&e ". . . reason is ne%ati"e and dialectical! be$ause it resol"es the determinations of the understandin% into nothin% . . . ." )refa$e to the :irst <dition! Science of !ogic +8. See "Hiale$ti$". "All that is ne$essar# to a$hie"e s$ientifi$ pro%ress . . . is the re$o%nition of the lo%i$al prin$iple that the ne%ati"e is (ust as mu$h positi"e! or that hat is self-$ontradi$tor# does not resol"e itself into a nullit#! into abstra$t nothin%ness! but essentiall# onl# into the ne%ation of its particular $ontent . . . . Ae$ause the result! the ne%ation! is a specific ne%ation it has a content." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic @4. "That hi$h enables the .otion to ad"an$e itself is the alread# mentioned negative possesses ithin itself' it is this hi$h $onstitutes the %enuine diale$ti$al moment." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic @@. hi$h it

"Hifferen$e impli$it is essential differen$e! the )ositi"e and the .e%ati"e . . . . That the .e%ati"e in its o n nature is =uite as mu$h )ositi"e (see ne;t )! is implied in sa#in% that hat is opposite to another is its other." !ogic **3. "5e%el repeats o"er and o"er that diale$ti$s has this 0ne%ati"e0 $hara$ter. . . . ,n all these uses 0ne%ati"e0 has a t ofold referen$e4 it indi$ates! first! the ne%ation of the fi;ed and stati$ $ate%ories of $ommon sense and! se$ond! the ne%ati"e and therefore untrue $hara$ter of the orld desi%nated b# these $ate%ories. As e ha"e alread# seen! ne%ati"it# is manifest in the "er# pro$ess of realit#! so that nothin% that e;ists is true in its %i"en form. <"er# sin%le thin% has to e"ol"e ne $onditions and forms if it is to fulfill its potentialities." 5erbert Ear$use! #eason and #evolution *+3. %otion ' once!t( (/egriff) "The ordinar# meanin% of /egriff is definitel# $on$ept. Ae$ause this is one of 5e%el0s most $hara$teristi$ terms! and he asso$iates more than its ordinar# meanin% ith it! some nineteenth-$entur# <n%lish translators felt that a less ordinar# term as $alled for and hit

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Hegel Glossary

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on 0notion.0 This ord is utterl# misleadin% as it su%%ests "a%ueness and $apri$e . . . . 5e upholds ri%orous and hi%hl# dis$iplined $on$eptual anal#sis. /egriff is $losel# related to begreifen (to $omprehend) - an affinit# that unfortunatel# $annot be re$aptured in <n%lish - and 5e%el $onsiders it the task of philosoph# to $omprehend and not merel# to feel and rhapsodi-e." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 2! 3. ". . . that hi$h is %enuinel# permanent and substantial in the $omple;it# and $ontin%en$# of appearan$e and fleetin% manifestation! is the notion of the thin%! the immanent universal . . . the uni"ersal hi$h is the thou%ht itself . . . ." )refa$e to the Se$ond <dition! Science of !ogic 3C-2. " . . . /5e%el0s6 $on$ern is al a#s ith the /egriffe or uni"ersal notional shapes that are e"in$ed in fa$t and histor#! and ith the a#s in hi$h these ali%n themsel"es and lead on to one another! and $an in fa$t ultimatel# be re%arded as distin%uishable fa$ets of a sin%le all-in$lusi"e uni"ersal or $on$ept. (See! for e;ample! Phenomenology C! *+' $ncyclopaedia *C3-4.)" 9... :indla#! :or ard Phenomenology of Spirit "ii. "The notion has a dual purpose. ,t $omprehends the nature or essen$e of a sub(e$t-matter! and thus represents the true thou%ht of it. At the same time! it refers to the a$tual reali-ation of that nature or essen$e! its $on$rete e;isten$e. All fundamental $on$epts of the 5e%elian s#stem are $hara$teri-ed b# the same ambi%uit#. The# ne"er denote mere $on$epts (as in formal lo%i$)! but forms or modes of bein% $omprehended b# thou%ht." 5erbert Ear$use! #eason and #evolution +@. "The true uni"ersal! namel#! or as 5e%el $alls it! the Ae%riff! hose hi%hest e;pression is to be the absolute ,dee! is the or%ani$ union of the uni"ersal truth and the indi"idual fa$ts! an union determined b# the prin$iple that e"er# truth is a truth $onstru$ted b# the thou%ht of the orld-self! and that as su$h it ill e;emplif# (ust that multipli$it# of indi"idual fa$ts in the all-embra$in% and so uni"ersal unit# of self-$ons$iousness . . . ." 9osiah Fo#$e! The Spirit of Modern Philosophy ++4. "The position taken up b# the notion is that of absolute idealism. )hilosoph# is a kno led%e throu%h notions be$ause it sees that hat on other %rades of $ons$iousness is taken to ha"e Aein%! and to be naturall# or immediatel# independent! is but a $onstituent sta%e in the ,dea. . . . /T6he notion is a true $on$rete' for the reason that it in"ol"es Aein% and <ssen$e! and the total ealth of these t o spheres ith them! mer%ed in the unit# of thou%ht." !ogic *C1 .ote. " . . . 5e%el asso$iates the Ion$ept not merel# ith parti$ular $on$epts! thou%h he does that! too! but also ith a mode of thinkin%. ,n his usa%e the Ion$ept stands for s$ientifi$ philosoph# . . . ." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 83. "The defe$t of the Jnderstandin% is that hile it $orre$tl# distin%uishes bet een form and $ontent! essential and unessential! uni"ersal and parti$ular! it fails to s#nthesis these opposites. 5eld apart from one another! ho e"er! ea$h of these opposites be$omes an abstra$tion! and the li"in% hole of realit# has not been e;plained but e;plained a a# and killed b# bein% so anal#sed into its $onstituents. >hat the Jnderstandin% fails to re$o%ni-e is that 0thou%ht0 is not somethin% empt# or abstra$t' it is a determinant! a determinant of itself. The essen$e of thou%ht is its $on$reteness! and the $on$rete thou%ht is hat 5e%el $alls the concept. . . . The $on$ept is the thou%ht in so far as it determines itself and %i"es itself a $ontent' it is the thou%ht in its "i"a$it# and a$ti"it#. A%ain! the $on$ept is the uni"ersal hi$h parti$ulari-es itself! the thou%ht hi$h a$ti"el# $reates and en%enders itself. . . . The $on$ept is thus the in ard li"in% prin$iple of all realit#. . . ." T.E. 8no;! Translator0s :ore ord! Philosophy of #ight "iii. ". . . the ne$essar# unit# of determinations hi$h belon% to a hole. . . . 5e%el0s 0/egriff0 is an or%ani$ unit# of Jni"ersalit#! )arti$ularl#! and ,ndi"idualit#." >m. T. 5arris! Translator0s notes! 0utlines of 'egel1s !ogic. Phenomenology of Spirit - see "Spirit"

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Hegel Glossary

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The hole of the Phenomenology re$ei"es an abbre"iated treatment in the Philosophy of Mind 4*3-33. :or an e"en more abbre"iated treatment! see 0utlines of 'egel1s Phenomenology. ",t is this pro$ess b# hi$h s$ien$e in %eneral $omes about! this %radual de"elopment of kno in%! that is set forth here in the Phenomenology of Mind." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 88. ",n the Phenomenology of Spirit , ha"e e;hibited $ons$iousness in its mo"ement on ards from the first immediate opposition of itself and the ob(e$t to absolute kno in%. The path of this mo"ement %oes throu%h e"er# form of the relation of consciousness to the ob2ect and has the .otion of s$ien$e for its result." ,ntrodu$tion! Science of !ogic 48. "The 0)henomenolo%#0 is thus a sort of freel# told philosoph# of histor#. ,t be%ins ith the Spirit on a $rude and sensual sta%e' it follo s his parado;es! his so$ial enlar%ement! his perple;ities! his rebellions! his skepti$ism! all his anderin%s! until he learns! throu%h toils and an%uish and $oura%e! su$h as represent the hole tra"ail of humanit#! that he is! after all! in his "er# essen$e the absolute and di"ine spirit himself! ho is present alread# on the sa"a%e sta%e in the "er# brutalities of master and sla"e' ho $omes to a hi%her life in the famil#' ho seeks freedom a%ain and a%ain in romanti$ sentimentalit# or in stoi$al independen$e! ho learns! ho e"er! al a#s afresh that in su$h freedom there is no truth' ho returns! therefore! illin%l# to the bonda%e of %ood $iti-enship and of so$ial moralit#' and ho! finall#! in the reli%ious $ons$iousness! $omes to an appre$iation of the lesson that he has learned throu%h this hole self-enlar%in% pro$ess of $i"ili-ation! - the lesson! namel#! that all $ons$iousness is a manifestation of the one la of spiritual life! and so! finall#! of the one <ternal Spirit." 9osiah Fo#$e! The Spirit of Modern Philosophy +*@-*C. )hiloso!hy "The ob(e$ts of philosoph# . . . are upon the hole the same as those of reli%ion. ,n both the ob(e$t is Truth! in that supreme sense in hi$h God and God onl# is Truth." !ogic *. The "proper sub(e$t-matter" of philosoph# is "the a$tual $o%nition of Phenomenology of Spirit 23. hat trul# is . . . ."

". . . philosoph# . . . is its o n time apprehended in thou%hts." )refa$e! Philosophy of #ight **. ". . . philosoph# has its bein% essentiall# in the element of that uni"ersalit# the parti$ular ithin it . . . ." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind C2. hi$h en$loses

")hilosoph# . . . does not deal ith a determination that is non-essential! but ith a determination so far as it is an essential fa$tor." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind *1@. ". . . the di"ersit# of philosophi$al s#stems /is6 the pro%ressi"e e"olution of truth . . . ." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind C8. ". . . )hilosoph# is Eind0s thou%ht of itself and therefore its determinate and substantial $ontent. <"er# philosoph# is the philosoph# of its o n da#! a link in the hole $hain of spiritual de"elopment! and thus it $an onl# find satisfa$tion for the interests belon%in% to its o n parti$ular time." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,! 4@. *eason ". . . reason is purposi"e a$ti"it# /vi3.! the a$ti"it# of de"elopin% to ard self-$ons$ious freedom! truth! et$6." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 83. "&n the one hand! Feason is the substance of the Jni"erse' "i-.! that b# hi$h and in hi$h all realit# has its bein% and subsisten$e. &n the other hand! it is the +nfinite $nergy of the uni"erse . . . . ,t is the infinite comple* of things! their entire <ssen$e and Truth." The Philosophy of 'istory 3. ". . . reason is ne%ati"e and dialectical! be$ause it resol"es the determinations of the understandin% into nothin%' it is positi"e be$ause it %enerates the uni"ersal and

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Hegel Glossary

http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/texts/hegel glossary.htm

$omprehends the parti$ular therein. . . . Aut reason in its truth is spirit . . . ." )refa$e to the :irst <dition! Science of !ogic +8. "Feason is the hi%hest union of $ons$iousness and self-$ons$iousness! or of the kno in% of an ob(e$t and of the kno in% of itself. ,t is the $ertitude that its determinations are (ust as mu$h ob(e$ti"e! i.e. determinations of the essen$e of thin%s! as the# are sub(e$ti"e thou%hts. ,t (Feason) is (ust as ell the $ertitude of itself (sub(e$ti"it#) as bein% (or ob(e$ti"it#)! and this! too! in one and the same thinkin% a$ti"it#." 0utlines of 'egel1s Phenomenology 41. +cience The arran%ement of $on$epts in their rational $onne$tion to e;hibit them as an or%ani$! pro%ressi"e hole. See ,ntrodu$tion! !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy 2. ". . . a s#stemati$ and $omprehensi"e anal#sis of $on$epts." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 32. "Eind! hi$h! hen thus de"eloped! kno s itself to be mind! is s$ien$e. S$ien$e is its reali-ation! and the kin%dom it sets up for itself in its o n nati"e element." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 8C. "To kno opposition in unit#! and unit# in opposition - this is absolute kno led%e' and s$ien$e is the kno led%e of this unit# in its hole de"elopment b# means of itself." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,,,! @@*. ,t should be noted that the $ir$ularit# of 5e%el0s s#stem?s$ien$e is! from his perspe$ti"e! no defe$t. &n the $ontrar#! if s$ien$e of the totality is $omprehensi"e! $omplete! it must be self-$ontained! i.e.! $ir$ularit# is ne$essar# and e"iden$es the $ompleteness. Su$h a s$ien$e must also $ontain ithin it and demonstrate its o n (ustifi$ation (ne$essit#). /Compare ith :i$hte4 see :i$hte! !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,,,! 48@.6 +!irit ',ind( (4eist) "The notion of 4eist (Eind or Spirit) . . . is the lineal des$endant of the 8antian Trans$endental Jnit# of Self-$ons$iousness and of the Absolute <%o of :i$hte and S$hellin%. ,t also $laims a $ollateral sour$e in the Aristotelian vo5s hi$h! in kno in% the form of an ob(e$t! thereb# kno s itself! and hi$h! in its hi%hest phases! ma# be des$ribed as a pure thinkin% upon thinkin%." 9... :indla#! :or ard! 5e%el0s Philosophy of Mind "ii-"iii. "Feason is Spirit hen its $ertaint# of bein% all realit# has been raised to truth! and it is $ons$ious of itself as its o n orld! and of the orld as itself. . . . Aut essen$e that is in and for itself! and hi$h at the same time a$tual as $ons$iousness and a are of itself! this is Spirit." Phenomenology of Spirit 438. 5ere 5e%el is des$ribin% Spirit from the standpoint of its reali-ation - absolute kno led%e. <arlier (pre"ious?lo er) forms of $ons$iousness "are abstra$t forms of it. . . . Spirit! then! is $ons$iousness in %eneral . . . is so far as in its self-anal#sis Spirit holds fast to the moment of bein% an ob(e$ti"e e;istent a$tualit# to itself! and i%nores the fa$t that this a$tualit# is its o n bein%-for-self. . . . Aut as immediate $ons$iousness of the bein% that is in and for itself! as unit# of $ons$iousness and self-$ons$iousness! Spirit is $ons$iousness that has #eason' it is $ons$iousness hi$h! as the ord 0has0 indi$ates! has the ob(e$t in a shape hi$h is implicitly determined b# reason or b# the "alue of the $ate%or#! but in su$h a a# that it does not as #et ha"e for $ons$iousness the "alue of the $ate%or#." Phenomenology of Spirit 441. ,n short! Spirit is the self-kno in%! a$tual ,dea - it is "self-$ons$ious Feason." The Philosophy of 'istory *1. ,t is e;istin% (ob(e$ti"e) Feason $ons$ious of itself $ons$iousness hi$h has Feason as its immediate ob(e$t. ,t should be noted that this o$$urs at "arious le"els of (for ant of a better ord) $larit#. Thus! for instan$e! Spirit ma# e;ist in the mode of self-alienation. ,t thus e*ists and is conscious of itself but does not kno that that of hi$h it is $ons$ious is itself. The Phenomenology is the appearan$e of Spirit in human $ons$iousness throu%h its su$$essi"e sta%es of $larit# until it rea$hes the sta%e of Absolute 8no led%e herein it kno s that that of hi$h it is $ons$ious is itself.

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Hegel Glossary

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See )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 8C. "The de"elopment of Eind (Spirit) is in three sta%es4 (*) ,n the form of self-relation4 ithin it it has the ideal totalit# of the ,dea - i.e. it has before it all that its notion $ontains4 its bein% is to be self-$ontained and free. This is Mind Sub2ective. (+) ,n the form of reality4 reali-ed! i.e. in a world produ$ed and to be produ$ed b# it4 in this orld freedom presents itself under the shape of ne$essit#. This is Mind 0b2ective. (3) ,n that unit# of mind as ob(e$ti"it# and of mind as idealit# and $on$ept! hi$h essentiall# and a$tuall# is and for e"er produ$es itself! mind in its absolute truth. This is Mind Absolute." Philosophy of Mind 38@. +ub-ect ">hat 5e%el means b# a sub(e$t is that hi$h makes itself hat it be$omes." >alter 8aufmann! 'egel) Te*ts and Commentary 3*. :or 5e%el! the Absolute is both Substan$e and Sub(e$t. "The substan$e of this orld! of this uni"erse of the self! must be a truth that li"es in the "er# stream and stru%%le of finite and seemin% e;isten$e. The true substan$e of the orld isn0t hidden! but re"ealed b# the passionate $han%e and ebb and flo of the phenomena' for the true substan$e is the self! the sub(e$t' and he preser"es himself b# li"in%! for he is the li"in% God. As su$h! philosoph# has to sho him. Therefore #ou $an0t abstra$tl# define his nature! apart from finite thin%s and relations. Kou must $on$retel# reali-e! e"en in #our notion of substan$e! the or%ani$ unit# in endless differentiation of hi$h his uni"erse is the embodiment." 9osiah Fo#$e! The Spirit of Modern Philosophy +*3. +ubstance ,n %eneral! that hi$h is the underl#in% %round of all phenomenon. :or 5e%el! the Absolute is both Substan$e and Sub(e$t - the "li"in% substan$e." "Substan$e is the un$onditioned! in-and-for-itself- subsistin% <ssen$e in so far as it has immediate <;isten$e." 0utlines of 'egel1s !ogic @C. "Absolute ne$essit# is absolute relation be$ause it is not being as su$h! but being that is because it is! bein% as absolute self-mediation. This bein% is substance' as the final unit# of essen$e and bein% it is the bein% in all bein% . . . ." Science of !ogic @@@. See also !ogic *@*. To us (f(r uns) " . . . 5e%el frames the des$riptions made from the point of "ie of the one ho is bein% des$ribed (f(r es) ith anal#ses ritten from the point of "ie of "absolute kno led%e!" hi$h is the "ie point of 5e%el himself. ,n these remarks that ser"e as frame orks! 5e%el therefore des$ribes the e;istential attitudes su$h as the# "appear" to him! or! as he sa#s4 "to us" (f(r uns)- this " e" bein% 5e%el himself and the reader ho understands him. .o 5e%el sees the thin%s as the# are in truth or in realit#! or as he sa#s4 "in themsel"es" (an sich). Therefore he sa#s indifferentl# "in itself or for us" (an sich oder f(r uns)- or simpl# "in itself" or else "for us!" hen he ants to make $lear that at this parti$ular point he is not %i"in% a phenomenological des$ription but a philosophi$al or scientific anal#sis of the situation. Jnfortunatel#! 5e%el often omits the sa$ramental formula! and the boundaries bet een the des$riptions f(r es and the anal#ses f(r uns are therefore not al a#s eas# to establish. And it be$omes e"en more $ompli$ated! be$ause sometimes! ithout tellin% the reader! he inserts into the des$riptions .otes ritten from the point of "ie of Absolute 8no led%e (f(r uns 6 an sich)." Ale;andre 8o(B"e! +ntroduction to the #eading of 'egel +C+. The )refa$e and ,ntrodu$tion to the Phenomenology are standpoint of Absolute 8no led%e (f(r uns). ritten entirel# from the

Truth/True "Truth in philosoph# means that $on$ept and e;ternal realit# $orrespond." Philosophy of #ight +* Addition.

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http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/texts/hegel glossary.htm

"Truth is not onl# atta$hed to propositions and (ud%ments! it is! in short! not onl# an attribute of thou%ht! but of realit# in pro$ess. Somethin% is true if it is hat it $an be! fulfillin% all its ob(e$ti"e possibilities. ,n 5e%el0s lan%ua%e! it is then identi$al ith its 0notion.0" 5erbert Ear$use! #eason and #evolution +@. "The truth is the hole." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 8*. See "The Absolute".

" . . . the ,dea! and it alone is Truth." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,! +1. "Truth . . . is onl# possible as a uni"erse or totalit# of thou%ht . . . ." !ogic *4. The ,dea or Feason "is the True! the $ternal! the absolutel# powerful essen$e' . . . it re"eals itself in the >orld! and . . . in that >orld nothin% else is re"ealed but this and its honor and %lor# . . . ." The Philosophy of 'istory 3-*1. "The kno in% of Feason is therefore not the mere sub(e$ti"e $ertitude! but also TFJT5! be$ause Truth $onsists in the harmon#! or rather unity! of $ertitude and Aein%! or of $ertitude and ob(e$ti"it#." 0utlines of 'egel1s Phenomenology 4+. .nderstanding "The a$tion of separatin% the elements is the e;er$ise of the for$e of Jnderstandin% . . . ." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind 33. ". . . a s$hemati-in% pro$ess . . . . A table of $ontents is all that understandin% %i"es! the $ontent itself it does not furnish at all." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind **+. "The understandin% determines! and holds the determinations fi;ed . . . ." )refa$e to the :irst <dition! Science of !ogic +8. "Thou%ht! as Jnderstandin%! sti$ks to fi;it# of $hara$ters and their distin$tness from one another4 e"er# su$h limited abstra$t it treats as ha"in% a subsisten$e and bein% of its o n." !ogic! 81. .ni&ersal ".o lan%ua%e is the ork of thou%ht4 and hen$e all that is e;pressed in lan%ua%e must be uni"ersal." !ogic! +1. ". . . the form or $hara$ter pe$uliar to thou%ht! is the J.,L<FSA7! or! in %eneral! the abstra$t. Thou%ht re%arded as an an activity! ma# a$$ordin%l# be des$ribed as the active uni"ersal! and! sin$e the deed! its produ$t! is the uni"ersal on$e more! ma# be $alled a self-a$tuali-in% uni"ersal. Thou%ht $on$ei"ed as a sub2ect (a%ent) is a thinker! and a sub(e$t e;istin% as a thinker is simpl# denoted b# the term 0,0." !ogic! +1. ">e $all uni"ersal kno led%e thou%ht! parti$ular kno led%e e $all sensuous per$eption' and e term the introdu$tion of e;ternal determinations understandin%. The uni"ersal element in man is thou%ht . . . ." !ectures on the 'istory of Philosophy! ,,,! 4+1. "The philosophi$ $on$ept is universal! not merel# %eneral. ,t is not to be $onfounded ith %eneral representations! as for instan$e! 0house!0 0horse!0 0blue!0 hi$h are usuall# termed $on$epts! o in% to a $ustom hi$h 5e%el terms barbari$. This establishes the differen$e bet een philosoph# and the empiri$al or natural s$ien$es! hi$h are satisfied ith t#pes and $lass-$on$eptions." Aenedetto Iro$e! "hat is !iving and "hat is ,ead in the Philosophy of 'egel ,. The %eneral representations referred to are mere determinations of the Jnderstandin%. :rom its standpoint! hi$h holds these distin$tions in ri%id opposition! onl# indi"iduals are real - the uni"ersal! the $lass-$on$eptions! ha"e no e;isten$e. This defe$t of the Jnderstandin% is o"er$ome ith Feason hi$h kno s the prima$# of the uni"ersal! the or%ani$ totalit#. "The position taken up b# the notion is that of absolute idealism." !ogic *C1n. ". . . philosoph# has its bein% essentiall# in the element of that uni"ersalit# hi$h en$loses the parti$ular ithin it . . . ." )refa$e! Phenomenology of Mind C2. The "uni"ersalit#

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Hegel Glossary

http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/texts/hegel glossary.htm

hi$h en$loses the parti$ular ithin it" is the .otion. The %eneral representations of the Jnderstandin% are transformed into .otions " hene"er two related pro$esses ha"e been $arried out4 (*) >hen the formal abstra$tions . . .- hi$h the understandin% separates from one another! and opposes to one another! - su$h abstra$tions as right and left- inner and outer- substance and accident- - ha"e been united on$e more b# or%ani$ ties! and sho n to be interrelated and inseparable' and (+) >hen! b# the same means! the thin%s of the finite orld ha"e been sho n to be members of one or%ani$ total. The intimate relationship of these t o pro$esses for 5e%el is one of the prominent $hara$teristi$s of his hole method. ,as "ahre ist konkret /the true is $on$rete6 means for him e=uall#! 0The truth is an or%ani$ union of interrelated aspe$ts! $hara$ters! =ualities!0 and 0The truth is the Jni"ersal in hi$h the parti$ulars and indi"iduals are or%ani$all# (oined.0" 9osiah Fo#$e! The Spirit of Modern Philosophy @11. The one true uni"ersal! that hi$h en$loses and en$ompasses all else and that of hi$h all parti$ulars are but instantiations! is the Absolute ,dea! the total thou%ht of the orld. :rom this perspe$ti"e! 5e%el0s philosoph# ma# be "ie ed simpl# as the de"elopment of the uni"ersal4 from the abstra$t uni"ersal %i"en b# the Jnderstandin%' to the .otion! herein thinkin% is in$luded as a moment of the uni"ersal (itself a thou%ht determination kno n as su$h) and de"elops its $ontent' finall# to the ,dea! the full# $on$rete uni"ersal! herein the .otion is kno n as an aspe$t of the Absolute - the self-relatin%! self-de"elopin% totalit#.

MM %ote/ :or 5e%el! realit# is a totali-in% $ir$le hi$h presupposes its end as its purpose! and thus has its end for its be%innin%. 5e%el0s lan%ua%e! too! is su$h a $ir$le in that ea$h $on$ept impli$ates the rest and ma# itself be "ie ed from the standpoint of an# of the other $on$epts or the totalit# at "ar#in% sta%es of their respe$ti"e de"elopments. Thus! a sin%le $on$ept ma# en$ompass se"eral meanin%s and a sin%le meanin% ma# be e;pressed b# se"eral $on$epts. Eoreo"er! from a diale$ti$al perspe$ti"e! $on$epts in isolation from the pro$ess of hi$h the# are a part are abstra$tions and are! a$$ordin%l#! inherentl# limited and one-sided! i.e.! false. The "alue and a$$ura$# of the definitions presented! then! are $ir$ums$ribed b# these stru$tural $onsiderations. (:or a parallel dis$ussion ith respe$t to Ear;0s lan%ua%e! see Aertell &llman0s Alienation.) This do$ument as $reated to fa$ilitate m# students0 initial en$ounter ith 5e%el in li%ht of their assi%ned readin%s. ,ts intended s$ope is limited a$$ordin%l#. 5o e"er! it ma# be subse=uentl# supplemented and?or $orre$ted as time! need! and in$lination determine. Iarl Ei$kelsen

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