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SierraSoft Geomatics Suite 2009 CAD User guide

Copyright 1992-2010 SierraSoft All rights reserved

Sierra Informatica S.r.l. Via Roveredo 1/a 33170 PORDENONE PN ITALY

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+39 0434.25.49.06 +39 0434.25.49.07

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WARNING
Using computer procedures involves knowing the operative system. The Geomatics products were created for Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista operative systems. The operative system is loaded on turning on the computer and works as interface between the program and the computer. The operative system is not provided together with Geomatics Suite, so it must be already present in the computer. Knowing the operative system base principles is necessary for a full comprehension of this guide and for a correct use of the program. This is not a guide to operative systems, for which you should refer to Windows 2000/XP/Vista guides or to the numerous publications on the matter. This guide does not intend to give instructions concerning the use of topographic instruments and of computer peripherals. This guide is by no means a course of topography. The documentation included in this guide has been collected and verified with maximum care. Anyway, SierraSoft cannot be held responsible for its use. This is true also for any person or society involved in the creation, production and distribution of this guide. This guide is protected by copyright. Reproduction of this guide, or part of it, is possible only on written authorization by SierraSoft. The use of SierraSoft programs is subjected to the limits set by international legislation on intellectual property. Copy of the product original disks is forbidden, except for backup copies made by the license subscriber and only for safety reasons. Above mentioned warnings are considered accepted on purchasing Topko, ProSt, Rasta and Sitio program.

Windows is a registered trademark, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Microsoft Office are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of AutoDesk. Inc. Other brands and product names cited in this guide are considered trademarks by their respective owners. The information here included is subject to change without any communication from SierraSoft.

Table of Contents
Project organization .................................................................................................................. 11 Project file ............................................................................................................................ 11 Graphic windows ................................................................................................................... 11 How to activate graphic windows ............................................................................................. 11 Additional entities .................................................................................................................. 12 Layer-entities association table ................................................................................................ 14 How to create, open and save a project ....................................................................................... 16 How to create a new project .................................................................................................... 16 How to create a project using a model ...................................................................................... 16 How to create a project with no model ...................................................................................... 17 How to create a customized model ........................................................................................... 18 Opening a project .................................................................................................................. 18 Project saving ....................................................................................................................... 20 eTransmit ............................................................................................................................. 20 General ............................................................................................................................. 21 Files.................................................................................................................................. 22 Document properties .............................................................................................................. 23 General ............................................................................................................................. 23 Summary........................................................................................................................... 24 Notes ................................................................................................................................ 25 Subprojects management ....................................................................................................... 25 Subproject management window ............................................................................................. 26 How to create a subproject................................................................................................... 28 How to have access to the properties of a subproject ............................................................... 30 How to duplicate a subproject ............................................................................................... 33 How to rename a subproject ................................................................................................. 34 How to make a subproject active........................................................................................... 35 How to make a subproject visible/invisible .............................................................................. 38 How to make a subproject blocked/unblocked ......................................................................... 40 Subproject specific colour..................................................................................................... 42 External references ............................................................................................................. 42 Prefix layer ........................................................................................................................ 44 How to delete a subproject ................................................................................................... 45 How to change subprojects list display ................................................................................... 46 How to change subproject display order ................................................................................. 47 Project Manager .................................................................................................................... 49 How to change the mode of subproject list display ................................................................... 50 How to open the Planimetry graphic window ........................................................................... 50 How to open the Profile graphic window of a subproject ............................................................ 50 How to open the Sections graphic window of a subproject ......................................................... 50 iii

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How to open the graphic window of an enclosed drawing .......................................................... 51 How to open the graphic window of a drawing sheet ................................................................ 51 Subproject status bar ............................................................................................................. 52 How to change the subproject a group of objects belongs to ........................................................ 52 Move objects from a subproject to another using subprojects toolbar.......................................... 52 Moving objects from a subproject to another using property window........................................... 52 How to copy or move the objects from a subproject to another .................................................. 53 Internal CAD............................................................................................................................ 54 Using commands ................................................................................................................... 54 Using a pointing device ........................................................................................................ 54 Using the Command Window ................................................................................................ 56 Undo and Redo commands ................................................................................................... 58 Use of dynamic input ........................................................................................................... 58 Quick start............................................................................................................................ 61 Start a command in Quick start bar ....................................................................................... 62 Window display mode .......................................................................................................... 62 Customize Quick start window .............................................................................................. 62 Creating geometric objects...................................................................................................... 66 Creating lines ..................................................................................................................... 66 Creating single-segment lines ............................................................................................... 66 Creating multisegmented lines (Polylines)............................................................................... 66 Creating rectangles ............................................................................................................. 70 Creating arcs...................................................................................................................... 72 Creating circles ................................................................................................................... 73 Creating ellipses ................................................................................................................. 73 Creating points ................................................................................................................... 73 Creating drawing details....................................................................................................... 74 Create table objects ............................................................................................................... 75 Table ................................................................................................................................ 77 Rows................................................................................................................................. 78 Column ............................................................................................................................. 79 Cell ................................................................................................................................... 80 Borders ............................................................................................................................. 81 Texts ................................................................................................................................ 82 Hatching and filling areas ..................................................................................................... 83 How to load hatch patterns................................................................................................... 83 How to hatch selected objects............................................................................................... 83 Creating and modifying text .................................................................................................... 85 Creating text ...................................................................................................................... 85 Creating single-line text ....................................................................................................... 85 Creating multiline text ......................................................................................................... 85 Importing text from external files .......................................................................................... 86 iv

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Modifying text .................................................................................................................... 86 Text styles ......................................................................................................................... 86 Creating sideslopes ............................................................................................................. 88 Sideslopes manual drawing .................................................................................................. 88 Sideslopes drawing from polyline........................................................................................... 89 Sideslopes drawing from two polylines ................................................................................... 89 Sideslope drawing parameters .............................................................................................. 89 Dimensions........................................................................................................................... 91 Inserting dimensions ........................................................................................................... 91 Creating linear dimensions ................................................................................................... 91 Creating radial dimensions ................................................................................................... 92 Inserting angular dimensions ................................................................................................ 93 Creating special dimensions.................................................................................................. 93 Dimension styles................................................................................................................. 95 Drawing with precision ......................................................................................................... 100 Entering 2D coordinates ..................................................................................................... 100 Adjusting snap and grid ..................................................................................................... 103 Using ortho mode ............................................................................................................. 104 Using object snaps ............................................................................................................ 104 Specifying intervals on an object ......................................................................................... 107 Calculating areas .............................................................................................................. 111 Calculating distances ......................................................................................................... 111 Calculating angles ............................................................................................................. 112 Identifying a point............................................................................................................. 112 Selecting objects ................................................................................................................. 113 Selecting objects individually .............................................................................................. 113 Selecting multiple objects................................................................................................... 113 Quick select ..................................................................................................................... 114 Remove objects from selection............................................................................................ 115 Preventing objects from being selected ................................................................................ 116 Modifying objects................................................................................................................. 116 Erasing objects ................................................................................................................. 116 Moving objects ................................................................................................................. 116 Rotating objects................................................................................................................ 117 Copying objects ................................................................................................................ 118 Mirroring objects............................................................................................................... 118 Offsetting objects.............................................................................................................. 118 Trimming and extending objects ......................................................................................... 119 Editing polylines................................................................................................................ 120 Scaling objects ................................................................................................................. 121 Stretch Objects................................................................................................................. 121 Align objects .................................................................................................................... 122 v

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Creating fillets .................................................................................................................. 122 Creating chamfers in objects............................................................................................... 123 Creating breaks in objects .................................................................................................. 124 Exploding objects.............................................................................................................. 124 Using grips to edit objects .................................................................................................. 124 Controlling color, linetype, and other properties ....................................................................... 128 Working with layers........................................................................................................... 128 Working with colors ........................................................................................................... 134 Working with linetypes....................................................................................................... 136 Managing line thickness ..................................................................................................... 139 IntelliList ......................................................................................................................... 141 Displaying the properties of objects ..................................................................................... 141 Copying the properties of an object on other objects .............................................................. 142 Drawing styles .................................................................................................................... 142 Drawing style codes .......................................................................................................... 143 Set drawing style .............................................................................................................. 146 Modify objects from drawing style ....................................................................................... 146 Drawing styles bar ............................................................................................................ 147 Controlling the drawing display .............................................................................................. 148 Magnifying a view (Zooming) .............................................................................................. 148 Panning a view ................................................................................................................. 149 Displaying the previous view............................................................................................... 149 Regenerating a view .......................................................................................................... 149 Redrawing a view.............................................................................................................. 150 Shading........................................................................................................................... 150 Magnifier window .............................................................................................................. 150 3D Visualization ................................................................................................................ 151 Orbit - 3D Display ............................................................................................................ 153 Using blocks ....................................................................................................................... 155 Creating blocks................................................................................................................. 155 Inserting blocks ................................................................................................................ 155 Exporting blocks ............................................................................................................... 156 Removing block definitions ................................................................................................. 156 Enclosed drawings ............................................................................................................... 156 How to create enclosed drawings......................................................................................... 157 How to create a squaring ................................................................................................... 159 Managing marks ............................................................................................................... 159 How to change the properties of an enclosed drawing............................................................. 161 Opening an enclosed drawing ............................................................................................. 163 How to delete enclosed drawings......................................................................................... 163 Drawing sheets ................................................................................................................... 164 Creating a drawing sheet ................................................................................................... 164 vi

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Inserting a drawing in a drawing sheet................................................................................. 169 Updating the content of a drawing sheet .............................................................................. 178 Inserting a squaring in a drawing sheet ................................................................................ 179 Generating a drawing sheet from a drawing preview .............................................................. 180 Modifying drawing sheet properties...................................................................................... 180 Deleting a drawing sheet.................................................................................................... 183 Managing marks ............................................................................................................... 183 Printing on plotter and on printer ........................................................................................... 186 Plotting or plot preview from Planimetry module .................................................................... 186 Plotting or plot preview from Profile module .......................................................................... 191 Plotting or plot preview from Sections module ....................................................................... 195 Printing from plot preview .................................................................................................. 198 Plot from drawing sheet ..................................................................................................... 199 Setting plot boxes ............................................................................................................. 200 Pen configuration .............................................................................................................. 202 Drawing resources ............................................................................................................... 203 How to create and edit customized symbols .......................................................................... 204 How to create and edit customized linetypes ......................................................................... 207 How to create and edit customized hatch patterns ................................................................. 208 Customizing commands ........................................................................................................ 210 User interface................................................................................................................... 212 Preferences - Cursor.......................................................................................................... 214 Preferences - Colors .......................................................................................................... 215 Preferences - Raster .......................................................................................................... 216 Preferences - Folders ......................................................................................................... 217 Preferences - Alias ............................................................................................................ 217 TANGO Commands............................................................................................................ 218 Setting up a digitizing tablet.................................................................................................. 219 How to calibrate a tablet for tracing ..................................................................................... 219 Turning Tablet mode on or off............................................................................................. 220 Using grids ............................................................................................................................ 221 How to move inside the grids ................................................................................................ 221 How to insert a row in a grid ................................................................................................. 222 How to erase a row in a grid.................................................................................................. 222 How to modify data in a grid ................................................................................................. 222 How to select rows in a grid .................................................................................................. 223 How to use copy and paste in grids ........................................................................................ 223 How to activate local menu in a grid ....................................................................................... 223 How to use Drag & Drop in grids ............................................................................................ 223 How to carry out a research in a grid ...................................................................................... 224 How to perform a find and replace in a table............................................................................ 224 How to modify a group of cells in a grid .................................................................................. 225 vii

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How to apply a filter on columns ............................................................................................ 227 Sorting by columns .............................................................................................................. 228 How to modify column width ................................................................................................. 228 How to modify column position .............................................................................................. 228 How to obtain a report.......................................................................................................... 228 How to zoom on tables ......................................................................................................... 229 Print reports .......................................................................................................................... 230 Customize layout ............................................................................................................. 231 Modify a layout ................................................................................................................. 231 Rename layout ................................................................................................................. 231 Delete layout.................................................................................................................... 231 Report preview .................................................................................................................... 232 Set margins and other parameters ......................................................................................... 233 How to set the printer .......................................................................................................... 234 SierraSoft Report Designer.................................................................................................... 234 Work environment ............................................................................................................ 234 Objects............................................................................................................................ 236 Insert and modify lines ...................................................................................................... 237 Insert and modify marks (texts).......................................................................................... 237 Insert and modify images................................................................................................... 240 Insert and modify bands .................................................................................................... 241 Modify objects by Object Inspector ...................................................................................... 242 Display column limits......................................................................................................... 242 Import and export .................................................................................................................. 243 Entity Transformation........................................................................................................... 243 How to import data from a project or a subproject to another .................................................... 244 Subprojects importation from a project to another (Not available for Topko Express) .................. 246 Importation of entities from a subproject to another .............................................................. 250 How to change the subproject a group of objects belongs to ...................................................... 253 Move objects from a subproject to another using subprojects toolbar........................................ 253 Moving objects from a subproject to another using property window......................................... 254 How to copy or move the objects from a subproject to another ................................................ 254 DWG/DXF ........................................................................................................................... 255 Dynamic connection to AutoCAD ......................................................................................... 255 How to import DWG/DXF files ............................................................................................. 258 How to export DWG/DXF files ............................................................................................. 259 ASCII................................................................................................................................. 262 How to import ASCII files ................................................................................................... 262 How to export ASCII files ................................................................................................... 264 Raster ................................................................................................................................ 267 How to import raster images............................................................................................... 267 How to export raster images............................................................................................... 274 viii

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How to import from ESRI SHP files ......................................................................................... 275 How to import NTF files ........................................................................................................ 276 How to import CXF files ........................................................................................................ 278 Import from other formats .................................................................................................... 279 How to import DOS files ....................................................................................................... 279 Export ESRI SHP files ........................................................................................................... 279 Export to other formats ........................................................................................................ 280

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Project organization
Every project realized with SierraSoft Geomatics Suite has some essential features that deserve a further explanation before one starts to work on the tool. Learning these features will enable the users to structure the project data according to their needs.

Project file
Each time you create a new project with Topko, ProSt and Rasta, in the folder chosen for saving, a file is created with the name given to the project and PST as extension. Inside this file you will find all the data that can be found inside the project. In order to copy a project it is necessary to copy the file having the name of the project and PST as extension. The only data not inserted inside PST file are raster images since they are memorized as reference and not copied inside the project file. It is therefore necessary not to erase the files of the raster images used in the tool projects. If a project containing references to some raster images should be copied, it would be necessary to copy all the images connected to it.

Graphic windows
Inside the work environment five different graphic environments are available: Planimetry, Profile, Sections, Plot boxes and Enclosed drawings. Inside each environment the project data are visualized according to a different mode. For example, when a road design has to be performed, once the road axis has been defined, it is necessary to position the sections along the axis; the sections determine a profile that is represented by the graphic window having the same name; besides, each section possesses its own transversal view with some specific elements, that differ according to the section: the graphic window of the sections allows to obtain the third type of representation.

Planimetry: available for Topko, ProSt and Rasta, it allows the horizontal planimetric management of data referred to survey and road design. Profile: available for ProSt, it allows to manage the longitudinal profile of a road alignment. Sections: available for Topko and ProSt, it allows the cross management of road and topographic sections. Enclosed drawings: graphic environment for saving generic drawings and squaring models Drawing sheets: graphic environment for managing drawing sheets

The first three graphic environments are integrated, so any change made in one of them influence the other two.

How to activate graphic windows


Inside the work environment three different graphic windows are available: Planimetry, Profile and Sections. Inside each window the project data are visualized according to a different mode. To move from a graphic window to another use one of the following methods: 1. from File menu select the item Open module. From the appearing dialog box select the graphic window desired. button. By clicking the centre of the button a dialog box on Standard Toolbar press appears allowing to select the graphic window desired; by clicking the arrow a local menu appears from which it is possible to choose the graphic window directly.

2.

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Additional entities
Each work environment introduces also typical entities regarding the environment itself, in addition to such normal drawing entities as lines, arcs, circles, polylines, blocks, etc.These entities allow to extend CAD functionality in order to obtain not only a simple drawing program but also a tool for topography, road design, GIS and raster management. All the entities introduced by each environment are listed below; the module in which they are present is also indicated:

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Planimetry:

Entity Tachymetric measures Chain and offset measures Differential levelings measures Topographic points Datum points Geodetic coordinates Traverse stations Cadastral parcels Survey polylines Measures for network adjustment Constraints Triangles Contour lines Topographic cross-sections Cut and fill lines Areas Topographic profiles Horizontal straights Horizontal curves Clothoids Parabolas Cross-sections on axis Planimetry polylines GIS Points (symbols) Polylines Polygons

Module Topko T, Topko Express Topko T, Topko Express Topko T Topko T and/or Topko M, Topko Express Topko T and/or Topko M, Topko Express Topko T Topko T, Topko Express Topko T, Topko Express Topko T Topko N Topko M, Topko Express Topko M, Topko Express Topko M, Topko Express Topko M, Topko Express Topko M, Topko Express Topko M Topko L ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt Sitio Sitio Sitio

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Longitudinal Profile:
Entity Grade lines Vertical curves Vertical parabolas Cross-sections on axis Additional profiles Profile polylines Module ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt ProSt

Cross-sections:
Entity Transversal elements Module Topko M and/or ProSt S, Topko Express

When you draw an additional entity the current layer is not used as for drawing entities but the entity is assigned to a particular layer according to what specified in a particular layer-entities association table: Layer-entities association table.

Layer-entities association table


When you draw an additional entity the current layer is not used as for drawing entities but the entity is assigned to a particular layer according to what specified in a particular layer-entities association table. How to open the layer-entity table : Menu Format > Layer entities Command line: DDLENT

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The following dialog box appears :

This table is divided into tabs containing different kinds of entities; each entity is assigned to a particular layer. Thus the entity assumes all the intrinsic properties of the layer such as colour, line type, visibility, etc. From the cell, press ....button to select the layer; from the appearing dialog box it is possible to select the layer desired.

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How to create, open and save a project


How to create a new project
You can create a new project according to the following methods: 1. 2. Using a model With no model

Using a model, all settings of the model will be included in the project created. It is possible to use models provided with the program or to create customized models. When a new project on an existing model is created, all changes on the project will not influence the model. Inexperienced users should create new projects with the model called Model.Pst. This model is supplied with the program and can be found in the main folder of the program. If you use the option No Model, you create a new project completely empty and with no predefined settings.

How to create a project using a model


The command can be activated through the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > New Command line: NEW

The following dialog box appears:

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The tool prompts for the compilation of the following fields: Project name: enter the name of the project to be created; Project folder: indicate the folder in which to save the project to be created; Browse: select the saving path; Model to use: it is necessary to indicate the name of the model to use to start the new project. Creating a work by using a model means to find inside the work the same situation found in the model used. Inexperienced users are recommended to use the model called Model.Pst. supplied by SierraSoft and available in the model folder. Information: in this box it is possible to indicate the name of the technician and possible comments about the new project. Such information will be displayed each time the project is opened, on the right side of Open Project window, as in the following example:

Such data can be modified at any moment by document Properties.

How to create a project with no model


The command can be activated through the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > New Command line: NEW

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The following dialog box appears:

Set None as Model to use. Press OK. On the first backup performed the tool will ask to indicate the name to save the project with.

How to create a customized model


1. 2. 3. 4. Open an existing project or model. According to the default values of the model change the project settings. From File menu, choose Save As or on command line digit SAVEAS. In File name edit box, digit the name you want to assign to the model. Press OK.

Opening a project
You open projects to work on them just as you do with other Windows applications. To open a project, select its name from one of the lists. Inside the program it is possible to open more than a project at a time each one visualized inside its own graphic window. How to open a project: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Open Command line: OPEN

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In Name file area, click twice on the name of the file to be opened in the corresponding list box; otherwise, digit the name of the project to be opened and choose OK. The left side of the window displays the work preview, which corresponds to the image of the planimetry caught automatically during the last saving. Also the whole information is summarized, concerning the authors name and possible notes added to the document properties or on creating the project. (see Document properties and Create project by model)

The window appears automatically also when the program is activated, with the same features.

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Project saving
Project files are memorized to be used afterwards as it happens in other Windows applications. The tool also provides automatic saving functions, files backup and other memorization options. When you work on a project, it is better to save it frequently. The saving in fact avoids loosing the work already done in case of voltage drop or other unexpected events. To create the new version of a project without changing the original, save it with another name. All project data are saved in a single file having the name of the project itself and PST extension. The command can be activated following one of the modes listed below: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Save Command line: SAVE If the drawing has already been saved and it has been given a name, the program will save all the following changes and will display command line again. If, on the contrary, the drawing has never been saved, "Save as" dialog box will be displayed. In Save as dialog box, under File name, enter the new drawing name (it is not necessary to specify the extension). Then choose OK.

eTransmit
eTransmit command allows to prepare automatically a transmittal set including project file and other linked files (e.g. raster images). The transmittal can then be automatically attached to an e-mail message. It is also possible to specify a protection by password for the transmittal. It is possible to specify a folder where to save transmittal files, or create a self-extracting executable file or a zip file containing all the files. The command can be activated as follows: Menu File > eTransmit Command line: ETRANSMIT Before going on with the execution of the command, the project file is saved; then, the following window will appear:

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General
Notes: Space to insert some descriptive notes about transmittal. These notes will not be part of the email text. Type: type of transmittal to create:

Files not compressed: creates a transmittal of not compressed files in a new or existing folder. Self extracting file (*.exe): creates a transmittal of files in the form of a compressed selfextracting executable file. By a double click on the resulting EXE file, the transmittal is decompressed and the files are restored. Zip compressed file (*.zip): creates a transmittal of files in the form of compressed zip files. To restore the files it is necessary to possess a decompression utility, such as shareware application PKZIP or WinZip.

Password: Opens Set password dialog box, where it is possible to specify a password for transmittal set.

Path: Specifies the position or the name of the file where the transmittal is created.

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Preserve directory structure: keeps the structure of the directory of all the files in the transmittal, simplifying its installation into another system. If this option is not selected all the files are installed on destination directory on installing the transmittal. Send e-mail with transmittal: When the transmittal is created, it activates default e-mail application, so as it is possible to send to other users the transmittal files.

Files

This table lists the files to insert in the transmittal. As default, all the files linked to the current drawing (raster images, etc...) are listed. It is possible to add more files to the transmittal or remove the existing ones. Add: Opens a standard dialog box for file selection, where it is possible to select another file to include in the transmittal. Press OK to start the creating the transmittal.

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Document properties
This window contains the information concerning the work file and its history. It is possible to display data related to the technician who created the file and insert some descriptive notes. Such information will be made available when the file is opened.

The command can be activated as follows: Menu File > Document properties Riga di comando: PRJPROP The following window will appear, subdivided into: General, Summary and Note.

General

The following data are available in this window: File name Type Size Location: path where the file was saved. Creation date 23

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Last modify date Last access date Total ending time: time interval needed for modifications. Attributes: Read-only, Hidden, Archives, System.

Summary

Initial data concerning the author of the file introduced on creating the work can be displayed and modified in this window. Moreover, it is possible to insert some extensive notes about the work. Such data will be displayed in a box when the file is opened. (see: Open existing project)

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Notes

It is possible to add comments, which will report automatically the date and time of their insertion. By choosing the option Add automatically notes, when the work is opened, closed or saved the tool adds a line reporting the same information.

Subprojects management
Topko, ProSt and Rasta offer a sophisticated data management. Inside each project it is possible to manage some subprojects; a subproject is an entity that can memorize its own information apart from the other subprojects. In a topographic survey, for example, it is possible to memorize inside a single project different subprojects, each one having its own handbook of measures, its own set of points, its own mathematical model, etc. The main achievement of this multiple memorization is that it is possible to visualize graphically more subprojects inside the same graphic window. There can be four kinds of subprojects :

Survey: subprojects referred to Topko; allowing to memorize surveys and mathematical models; they can be used to manage the different phases of a survey, as well as to monitor pits and dumps, since more surveys can be performed on the same site in different moments. Axis: subprojects referred to ProSt; each subproject represents a road axis, different from the others. To be used for planning road intersections. Drawing: subproject for the memorization of different drawings that can be visualized together. Raster: each raster image loaded can be managed as a subproject and then made visible or invisible. 25

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All the subprojects have layers, fonts, linetypes and hatchings in common. When a project is created, a subproject of survey, one of axis and one of drawing are automatically inserted. A single subproject per typology can be active, while for all the others it is possible to define the attribute of visibility or invisibility. Subprojects can be managed by different parts of the tool: By subproject manager window By Project Manager By subprojects status bar

Subproject management window


Project Manager dialog box allows the complete management of all subprojects present in the project. From this window it is possible to:

create a subproject; duplicate a subproject; delete a subproject; rename a subproject; set the active subproject; set the visible/invisible status; set the locked/unlocked status; set a single display colour to all the entities belonging to a subproject, with the possibility to activate or deactivate the use of such colour; associate a prefix which will be added to the layer name when it is exported to Autocad, to distinguish layers in case of identical entities belonging to different subprojects; an icon allows to recognize the any subproject type it is possible to see the list of subprojects according to printing order or typology. it is possible to have access to the properties of any single subproject. Emphasize current subproject.

The window can be activated by the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects Command line: SUBPRJ

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The central window shows all present subprojects, according to what selected in View menu. For each subproject visibility is indicated, as well as its name and whether it is active or not. The list can be displayed by the following modes: subprojects by order: subprojects are listed according to the order in which they are displayed and printed; the last subproject in the list will be printed first, while the first subproject in the list will be the last to be printed. subprojects by type: subprojects are grouped according to their type; therefore, there are main nodes inside which all the subprojects of the same kind are listed. In the window toolbar the following commands are available: New subproject: allows to create a new survey, axis or drawing subproject; New external reference: allows to import survey and drawing subprojects from other projects as external references; Copy subproject: creates a copy of the subproject selected; Delete subproject: deletes a subproject; it is not possible to delete an active subproject. Unlink: Unlinks the path the external file is referred to; Link: allows to indicate the path the external file is referred to; Subproject property: for survey and axis subprojects activates the property window of the subproject selected; and Move subproject: to change subprojects display order.

If in V column of a subproject a symbol with a light switched on is shown then the subproject is visible, vice versa the symbol with a light switched off means that the subproject is not visible. L column indicates the locked/unlocked status of a subproject: If you set a subproject as locked then it will be no more possible to select entities belonging to that subproject. If in L column an open padlock appears it means that the subproject is unlocked; on the contrary, if the padlock appearing is closed it means that the subproject is locked. 27

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If in A column the symbol of a brush is shown it means that, that subproject is the only one active among all the subprojects of the same typology. The concept of an active subproject is very important because all the input functions save all data in the present active subproject; this is the reason why there is only one active subproject per typology. By Use option it is possible to activate or deactivate the use of colour specified in Col column; in this way, all the entities belonging to a subproject will be displayed in a single colour. If in Prefix layer column a prefix has been specified, this will be added to the name of the layer to be used for the exportation to Autocad; identical entities belonging to different subprojects can therefore belong to different layers in Autocad. By choosing the option Emphasize current subproject, or button on command bar, the current subproject will be displayed more clearly than the other subprojects. All the non active subprojects are displayed with darker colours in case the CAD has a black background, with lighter colours in case the background is white. In this way, all the entities belonging to the current subproject will stand out much more clearly.

How to create a subproject


To create a new subproject it is necessary to open Subproject management window. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Gsubproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

1. 2.

Press New

button and select from the menu now appearing the kind of subproject to create.

A new element is added to the list of subprojects; assign a name to the new subproject created.

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For axis and survey subprojects it is possible to indicate a reference subproject from which to choose to inherit the following properties: Data, Drawing filters, Settings, Titles. The entities copied depend on the typology of the subproject created and are specified below:

Survey subprojects
Data. All the data belonging to the reference survey subproject are inherited, for example: measures, GPS points, baselines, coordinates, traverse stations, datum points, chains and offsets, triangles, contour lines, volumes, etc Settings. The reference subproject settings concerning the following window are inherited: Survey>Survey properties>Properties Drawing filters. Adopts the same drawing filters active for reference subproject; the filters copied are those referred to the following window: Survey>Survey properties>Drawing filters Titles. The reference subproject titles set in the following window are copied: Survey>Survey properties>Titles

Axis subprojects
Data. All the data belonging to the reference axis subproject are inherited, for example: planimetric elements, altimetric elements, sections, typical sections, volumes, planimetry and profile polylines, axis variables, etc. Settings. The reference subproject settings concerning the following window are inherited: Axis>Planimetry properties>Properties Profile>Profile properties and parameters>Properties Sections>Sections properties and parameters>Properties Drawing filters. Adopts the same drawing filters active for reference subproject; the filters copied are those referred to the following window: Axis>Planimetry properties>Drawing filters Profile>Profile properties and parameters>Drawing filters Sections>Section properties and parameters >drawing filters Titles. The reference subproject titles set in the following window are copied: 29

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Axis>Planimetry properties>Titles Profile>Profile properties and parameters>titles Sections>Section properties and parameters > titles

3. 4.

The subproject created becomes automatically a visible subproject and the active subproject among all the subprojects of the same kind. Press OK to confirm the changes made.

Create project from Project Manager


It is possible to create a new subproject also from Project Manager local menu, which can be activated by clicking on the mouse right button in Project Manager window; the following selection box will appear:

Create subproject from menu


It is possible to create a new subproject by activating the command directly from the corresponding menu. The command can be started in one of the following modes, according to the kind of subproject to be created: Menu Survey > New survey subproject Menu Axis > New axis subproject Menu Draw > New drawing subproject

How to have access to the properties of a subproject


It is possible to have access to the property window of any subproject in different ways: from Subproject management window from subproject toolbar from subproject status bar from Project Manager

Note. It is possible to display property window only for Survey, Axis and GIS theme subprojects.

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How to have access to the properties of a subproject from subproject management window
From Subproject management window it is possible to have access to the properties of a subproject without having to make it active first. The command can be activated in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

1. 2.

Select from the list the subproject whose properties are going to be visualised. Press Property button selected. . A dialog box will appear according to the kind of subproject

Subproject title can be copied from the title of a different subproject:

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How to have access to the properties of a subproject from Subproject toolbar


Subproject toolbar allows to work on the characteristics of the subprojects (active, visible) more quickly than through Subproject management window. Subproject window is the following:

Each button of the toolbar represents the kind of subproject: Survey, Axis, Drawing and Raster. By clicking on the button a list appears, of all the subprojects of that kind available in the project; for each subproject the icon referred to visibility (o) is reported, as well as the one referred to blocked / unblocked state (o) and the one referred to activation state.

1. 2.

In the list of subprojects now appearing click twice on subproject name. The corresponding property window will appear. Press closure button to close subproject list.

How to have access to the properties of a subproject from subproject status bar
The Subproject status bar is displayed at the bottom of planimetry graphic window and reports four check lists, one for each kind of subproject: survey, axis, drawing and raster.

The Subproject Status bar is like the following:

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1.

Press the button on the left of any check list to have access to the properties of the current subproject.

Note. to make subproject status bar visible select the item Subproject status bar from View menu.

How to have access to the properties of a subproject from Project Manager


Project Manager is a further tool that allows to work with subprojects in a more and more comfortable and fast way. Project manager is displayed on the left side of the tool window and it is like the following image:

1. 2.

To display the properties of a subproject press the right button of the mouse near subproject name. On the menu now appearing select the item Properties.

Note. to make Project Manager visible select the item Project Manager from View menu.

How to duplicate a subproject


To perform the copy of an existing subproject it is necessary to open Subproject management window. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Select a subproject to copy and press Copy

button.

A new element is added to the list of subprojects; assign a name to the new subproject created. The subproject created becomes automatically a visible subproject and the active subproject among all the subprojects of the same kind. Press OK to confirm the changes made.

How to rename a subproject


When a subproject is created, the tool prompts you for assigning it a name. During the work you might need to change the name of subprojects, possibly because the purpose has changed, for which they had been created. It is possible to change the name of subprojects from Subproject Management window.

The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

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1. 2. 3.

Select the subproject to be renamed Click once on the name of the subproject. The name of the subproject becomes modifiable; assign a new name. Press OK to confirm the changes made.

How to make a subproject active


Among all the subprojects of the same kind that can be found inside a project, only one of them is the active subproject. The active subproject is the one the new data are added to and it is the subproject many tool commands are referred to. Note. It is possible to know what is the current active subproject by reading the heading of the graphic windows; besides the name of the window and of the work, also the name of the active subproject is displayed as well A subproject can be activated in different ways: by Subproject management by subproject toolbar by subproject status bar by Project Manager by Activate subproject command

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How to make a subproject active from Subproject management


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

1.

1. Click on A column on the subproject to be activated. The brush shifts from the previous active subproject to the other. Remember that only one subproject per typology can be active, so there will be one active subproject among survey subprojects, one among axis subprojects and one among drawing subprojects. Press OK to confirm the changes.

2.

Note. to make a subproject active it is possible to click twice on its name.

How to make a subproject active from subproject toolbar


Subprojects toolbar allows to work on the characteristics of a subproject (active, visible), in a faster way than by Subproject managing window.

Subprojects toolbar is the following:

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Each button of the toolbar represents the kind of subproject: Survey, Axis, Drawing and Raster. By clicking on the button a list appears, of all the subprojects of that kind available in the project; for each subproject the icon referred to visibility ( o ),is reported, as well as the one referred to blocked / unblocked ( o )state and the one referred to activation state . 1. 2. 3. Press the toolbar button referred to the kind of subproject to be activated. In the list of subprojects now appearing click on the space reserved to activation state near the subproject to be activated.The brush shifts from the previous active subproject to the other. Press closing button to close subproject list.

How to make a subproject active from subproject status bar


Subproject status bar is visualised at the bottom of planimetry graphic window and reports four check lists, one for each type of subproject: survey, axis, drawing and raster. Subproject status bar is like the following:

1.

Select, from each list the subproject to make active.

Note. To make subproject status bar visible select the item Subproject status bar from View menu..

How to make a subproject active from Project Manager (not available for Topko Express)
Project Manager is a further tool that allows to work with subprojects in a more and more comfortable and fast way. Project Manager is visualised on the left side of the tool window and it is like the following image:

1.

To make a subproject active click twice on the name of the subproject to activate.

Nota. To make Project Manager visible select the item Project Manager from View menu.

How to make a subproject active from Activate subproject command


By this command it is possible to make a subproject active by selecting a graphic entity belonging to the subproject to be activated. 37

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The command can be started as follows: Toolbar Subprojects Command line: SETSUBPRJ

1.

Select the object whose subproject will become the current one. Select one of the graphic entities on screen. The subproject this entity belongs to will become the active subproject.

How to make a subproject visible/invisible


Subdividing project data into subprojects is very useful also because it offers the opportunity to decide whether to visualise or not any kind of data referred to a project. A subproject can be made visible / invisible in different ways: by Subproject management by subproject toolbar by subproject status bar by Project Manager (not available for Topko Express)

How to make a subproject visible / invisible from Subproject management


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

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1. 2.

Any project can be made either visible or invisible . To modify the state of visibility of a subproject it is sufficient to click on the icon of the lamp to turn it on if it is off and vice versa. Press OK to confirm the changes made.

Note. It is possible to select more subprojects at the same time by keeping CTRL button pressed. Therefore, if you change the status of visibility of one of the subprojects selected, the same value is automatically assigned to all the subprojects selected.

How to make a subproject visible/invisible from subprojects toolbar


Subprojects toolbar allows to work on the characteristics of a subproject (active, visible), in a faster way than by Subproject management window. Subprojects toolbar is the following:

Each button of the toolbar represents the kind of subproject: Survey, Axis, Drawing and Raster. By clicking on the button a list appears, of all the subprojects of that kind available in the project; for each subproject the icon referred to visibility ( o ) is reported, as well as the one referred to blocked / unblocked state( o ) and the one referred to activation state .

1. 2. 3.

Press the toolbar button referred to the kind of subproject to be made visible / invisible. In the list of subprojects now appearing click on the icon of the lamp to turn it on if it is off and vice versa. Press closure button to close subproject list.

How to make a subproject visible/invisible from subprojects status bar


Subproject status bar is visualised at the bottom of planimetry graphic window and reports four check lists, one for each type of subproject: survey, axis, drawing and raster. Subproject status bar is like the following:

1.

Open check list and click on the icon of the lamp to turn it on if it is off and vice versa.

Note. To make subproject status bar visible select the item Subproject status bar from View menu..

How to make a project visible/invisible from Project Manager (non disponibile con Topko Express)
Project Manager is a further tool that allows to work with subprojects in a more and more comfortable and fast way. Project Manager is visualised on the left side of the tool window and it is like the following image:

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1.

To make a subproject visible / invisible it is necessary to activate / deactivate the check box on the right of each subproject.

Note. If the Project Manager view mode has been set according to subproject type instead of subproject order, then the subprojects will be grouped together into main nodes representing the typology; so there will be for example a Survey node, containing survey subprojects, an Axis node, containing axis subprojects and so on. If the check box referred to these nodes has been activated /deactivated, the tool will automatically assign the same status to all the subprojects of that kind.

Note. To make Project Manager visible select the item Project Manager from View menu.

How to make a subproject blocked/unblocked


Subdividing project data into subprojects is very useful also because it offers the opportunity to decide whether to visualise or not any kind of data referred to a project. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to make subproject data visible without modifying the subproject. By activating a blocked state it is possible to avoid the entities being selected and then modified. A subproject can be blocked / unblocked in different ways: by Subproject management by Subproject toolbar by subproject status bar

How to make a subproject blocked / unblocked from Subproject management


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

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1. 2.

Any project can be either blocked or unblocked . In order to modify the state of a subproject it is sufficient to click on the icon of the lock to open it if it is closed and vice versa. Press OK to confirm the changes.

Note. It is possible to select more subprojects at the same time by keeping CTRL button pressed. Therefore, if you change blocked/unblocked status to one of the subprojects selected, the same value is automatically assigned to all the subprojects selected.

How to make a subproject blocked / unblocked from Subproject toolbar


Subprojects toolbar allows to work on the characteristics of a subproject (active, visible), in a faster way than by Subproject management window. Subprojects toolbar is the following:

Each button of the toolbar represents the kind of subproject: Survey, Axis, Drawing and Raster. By clicking on the button a list appears, of all the subprojects of that kind available in the project; for each subproject the icon referred to visibility( o ) is reported, as well as the one referred to blocked / unblocked state ( o )and the one referred to activation state . 1. Press the toolbar button referred to the kind of subproject to be blocked / unblocked. 2. In the list of subprojects now appearing click on the icon of the lock to open it if it is closed and vice versa. 3. Press closing button to close subproject list.

How to make a subproject blocked / unblocked from subproject status bar


Subproject status bar is visualised at the bottom of planimetry graphic window and reports four check lists, one for each type of subproject: survey, axis, drawing and raster. Subproject status bar is like the following:

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1.

open check list and click on the icon of the lock to open it if it is closed and vice versa.

Note. To make subproject status bar visible select the item Subproject status bar from View menu.

Subproject specific colour


Subdividing project data into subprojects is extremely useful also because the user can decide whether to distinguish the display of a subproject data instead of another or not. Sometimes it can be useful to distinguish the subprojects also graphically, by a quick command, by setting a specific colour for each one of them. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

1. 2. 3.

Each subproject can be associated to a colour in Col column; to modify the colour used it is sufficient to click on the colour icon to have access to the colour palette. It is possible to decide at any moment whether to use the subproject specific colour or the classical display by property; this choice is performed by the option Use. Press OK to confirm the modifications.

External references
CAD system allows to import from other projects survey and drawing subprojects as external references. The project file does not save external reference data, since it saves only the information referred to the subproject to load as external reference. 42

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External references are loaded, displayed and managed as normal subprojects. They cannot be modified but it is possible to use them in every calculation and drawing process; it is possible to share general maps and digital models between different project files and use them for any need, as if they were data actually contained in the project.

Therefore, the advantages of external reference are many: - it is possible to share common data among different files; it is not necessary to load data into every project; - if shared data are updated all the files referred to them will automatically have the data updated. - the project is lighter and does not demand long waiting times to save the work, both automatic and not; Enter Subprojects management, and the following window will appear:

Add external reference


Press button New external reference to add an external reference; a window will appear, allowing to select the file to be linked, and then a window reporting the list of subprojects, only the survey and drawing ones, available in the file selected.

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Select the subprojects to import as external reference and press OK. The subprojects with external reference can be recognized in the subprojects list by the presence of the chain ( , ) in the icon. External references possess the same properties as the other subprojects, even if they cannot be made active subprojects and are always blocked.

Unlink external reference


To unlink temporarily an external reference it is possible to press the button Unlink. In this way, external reference data will not be loaded and displayed until the link is restored. An unlinked external reference can be recognized since its name is displayed in grey instead of black.

Link an external reference


By button it is possible to restore the link with an external reference. If the path file and the reference subproject are still available, data will be loaded and displayed, otherwise it will be necessary to indicate again the file and the reference subproject.

Delete external reference


To remove an external reference it is possible to use button.

Prefix layer
When a project is exported into Autocad, a distinction is made among the layers according to entities. Therefore, entities of the same kind, also belonging to different subprojects, are contained in the same destination layer. To introduce a distinction which takes into account that similar entities belong to different subprojects, it is possible to add a prefix to associate to the subproject. In this way, when a project is exported into Autocad, the layers keep a distinction that reminds the original project. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Standard 44

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Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

1. 2. 3. 4.

A prefix can be added to any subproject in the column Prefix layer by typing in the chosen name. At any time it is possible to have access to the cell and modify the name. Press OK to confirm the changes. Exporting into Autocad, the prefix resulting from the subprojects will be added to the name of the entity layer.

How to delete a subproject


Deleting a subproject means to delete also all the data it contains, with no possibility to annul the operation. Therefore, it is necessary to be sure that the data to be deleted are no longer necessary. The deletion of a subproject is performed in Subproject management window. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

The following dialog box will appear:

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1. 2.

Select the subproject to be deleted. Press Delete button and confirm the following prompt.

Note. The subproject to be deleted must not be active. Make another subproject active and then carry out the deletion.

How to change subprojects list display


Inside Subproject Management window, subprojects can be listed in two ways: According to display order: subprojects are listed according to the order they are displayed and reported with; the last subproject in the list is the one that will be printed first, while the first subproject in the list will be the last to be printed. According to subproject typology: subprojects are grouped together according to their typology; so there are some main nodes inside which all the subprojects of the same kind are listed.

The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

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The following dialog box will appear:

1.

To go from one display mode to the other it is sufficient to press the two buttons:

How to change subproject display order


When a certain number of subprojects have been created inside a project, there can be the need to change their display order. In fact, when a subproject is created, it is lined up after the others, so its data will be the last ones to be visualised in screen regeneration and drawing reports. It is possible to change display order from Subproject management window. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

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The following dialog box will appear:

The list of subprojects now appearing reflects display order, so the last subproject in the list is the one that will be printed first, while the first subproject in the list will be the last to be printed. It is possible to work in two ways to perform a change in the order:

Drag & Drop


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select the subproject to be moved; Keeping the mouse left button pressed drag the subproject towards its new position in the list; Release mouse button; The subproject is no longer in the original position, but in the new one and when regeneration and reports will be carried out it will be visualised according to the new order. Press OK to confirm the changes.

Keys
1. 2. Select the subproject to be moved; Use the two keys to move the subproject to the correct position.

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Project Manager
Project Manager is a further tool to use to work with subprojects in a more and more comfortable and fast way; it is made up of a dimensionable bar that is positioned on the left side of the tool main window. Project Manager contains the list of all the subprojects available in the current project; subprojects can be visualised according to view and report order or they can be grouped together according to their typology. From Project Manager not only it is possible to make a subproject active or make it visible / invisible but it is also possible to navigate among the data available in the subprojects; for Axis type subprojects, in fact, it is possible to open directly the planimetry or profile window or the window of every single section available in the subproject. Again for Axis subprojects the list of all the sections available is reported, each with its name and progressive; moreover, a small icon allows to distinguish sections in cut from sections in fill. In Project Manager the enclosed drawings and the drawing sheets available in the project are listed; also for these elements it is possible to open the corresponding graphic window directly from the Project Manager.

Project Manager can be made visible or invisible according to the needs. The command can be started in one of the following ways:

Menu View: Project Manager Command line: SETTOC

1.

If status bar was not visible now it is made visible, while, if it was visible now it is removed from the window.

Project Manager allows to perform fast operations on subprojects such as making a subproject active or changing its state of visibility. From local menu it is also possible to create new subprojects.

Create subproject from Project Manager


It is possible to create a new subproject also from the Project Manager local menu, by clicking on the mouse right button in the Project Manager window; the following selection menu will appear:

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How to change the mode of subproject list display


Inside Subproject Management window, subprojects can be listed in two ways: According to display order: subprojects are listed according to the order they are displayed and reported with; the last subproject in the list is the one that will be printed first, while the first subproject in the list will be the last to be printed. According to subproject typology: subprojects are grouped together according to their typology; so there are some main nodes inside which all the subprojects of the same kind are listed. 1. To go from one display mode to the other, click on the heading of subproject list.

Note. It is possible to change the mode only when the current graphic window is the planimetry graphic window. Note. to make Project Manager visible select the item Project Manager from View menu.

How to open the Planimetry graphic window


From Project Manager it is possible to open directly the planimetry graphic window simply by a double click. The process is the following: 1. 2. Select an axis subproject from the list of subprojects available in Project manager. Open the node corresponding to the subproject and click twice on Planimetry planimetry graphic window will be immediately made visible and active. item. The

How to open the Profile graphic window of a subproject


From Project Manager it is possible to open directly the profile graphic window of an Axis subproject simply by a double click, without having to carry out a longer process that required to make the subproject active and then use the command Open module. The process is the following: 1. 2. Select an axis subproject from the list of subprojects available in Project manager. Open the node corresponding to the subproject and click twice on Profile . item. The profile graphic window, of the subproject selected, will be immediately made visible and active.

How to open the Sections graphic window of a subproject


From Project Manager it is possible to open directly any section graphic window of an Axis subproject simply by a double click, without having to carry out a longer process that required to make the subproject active. Use the command Open module and then move to the section desired. 50

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The process is the following: 1. 2. 3. Select an axis subproject from the list of subprojects available in Project manager. Open the node corresponding to the subproject and click twice on Sections item .

A list of all the sections available in the subproject is now added to Sections node; for each section the name and the station is reported; a small icon indicates sections in cut and sections in fill . Click twice on the section desired. The graphic window containing the section required will be immediately made visible and active.

4.

How to open the graphic window of an enclosed drawing


From Project Manager it is possible to open directly the graphic window of any enclosed drawing available in the project simply by a double click, without having to carry out a longer process that required to use the command Open module and then move to the drawing desired. The process is the following: 1. 2. Select the main node reporting the list of the enclosed drawings .

Open the node and click twice on the enclosed drawing to be displayed. The graphic window of enclosed drawings, containing the drawing required, will be made immediately visible and active.

How to open the graphic window of a drawing sheet


From Project Manager it is possible to open directly the graphic window of any drawing sheet available in the project simply by a double click, without having to carry out a longer process that required to use the command Open module and then move to the drawing sheet desired. The process is the following: 1. 2. Select the main node reporting the list of the drawing sheets .

Open the node and click twice on the drawing sheet to be displayed. The graphic window of drawing sheets, containing the sheet required, will be made immediately visible and active.

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Subproject status bar


The subproject status bar is visualised in the lower section of the planimetry graphic window and reports four check lists, one for each type of subproject: survey, axis, drawing and raster; any list contains the list of the subprojects of the same kind. A subproject status bar can be made visible or invisible according to the needs. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Menu View > Subprojects status bar Command line: SETSUBPRJSB

1.

If the status bar was not visible now it is made visible, while, if it was visible now it is removed from the window.

The status bar allows to make fast operations on subprojects, such as making a subproject active or changing its state of visibility.

How to change the subproject a group of objects belongs to


Any graphic object belongs to a subproject; it is possible to copy and/or move the objects from a subproject to another only if the two subprojects (origin and destination) are of the same kind; it is not possible, for example, to move topographic points from a survey subproject to a drawing subproject.

Move objects from a subproject to another using subprojects toolbar


To move quickly the objects from a subproject to another it is sufficient to select them and then set the destination subproject from subprojects toolbar:

To perform the command in a correct way it is necessary to select entities belonging to the same subproject typology; it is not possible to perform the command by selecting at the same time drawing entities and topographic entities. On status bar the item is immediately activated, which refers to the kind of subproject the objects selected belong to, and it is therefore possible to set the new subproject the entities selected will have to belong to.

Moving objects from a subproject to another using property window


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Object Menu Edit > Modify object Command line: DDMODIFY

Select objects: select objects to move to another subproject. Warning. Select only objects that belong to subprojects that can be different but must be subprojects of the same kind. 52

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A window like the following will appear:

From Subproject check list, select the subproject to assign the entities selected to. Press OK to confirm the changes.

How to copy or move the objects from a subproject to another


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Edit > Move/Copy on subproject Command line: CHGSUBPRJ

Select objects: select the objects to move or to copy on a different subproject. Warning. Select only objects that belong to subprojects that can be different but must be subprojects of the same kind. A window like the following will appear:

From Destination subproject check list, select the project to assign to the entities selected. Specify whether the objects must be moved or it is necessary to make a copy. Press OK to confirm the changes..

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Internal CAD
Using commands
Using a pointing device
You can control the tool with a pointing device such as a mouse, digitizing puck, or stylus. A pointing device may have a number of buttons.

Using buttons on a pointing device


On a two-button mouse, the left button is the pick button, used to:

Specify locations Select objects for editing Choose menu options and dialog box buttons and fields

The operation of the right button depends on context and can be used to:

End a command in progress Repeat the last command entered.

Use of pointing device scroll wheel


The mouse scroll wheel is used to perform a zoom which changes the scale factor; by keeping it pressed it is possible to perform a dynamic pan. The use of the mouse scroll wheel has been extended to the cases in which it is used along with some special keys: <mouse scroll wheel> + [SHIFT] performs a dynamic zoom in and out with a higher scale factor, allowing faster zooms in and out. <mouse scroll bar> + [CTRL] performs a view shift to the right and to the left; <mouse scroll bar> + [ALT] performs a view shift upwards and downwards.

To practice using several features of the mouse


1. Move your mouse and notice that the pointer on the screen changes from crosshairs while the pointer is in the drawing area to an arrow when it's not over the drawing area and to an I-beam when it's in the text window. As you continue to move the mouse, notice how the numbers in the coordinate display on the status bar change. These numbers indicate the exact location, or coordinate, of the crosshairs on the screen. Find the Snap button on the status bar and double-click it with the pick button on your mouse (usually the left button). Notice that the button remains pressed to indicate that Snap mode has been turned on. Move the pointer around the screen and observe that it seems to adhere, or "snap," to points at predetermined and equivalent intervals on the screen. You can change the measurement of these intervals. Double-click the Snap button again to turn Snap mode off. Move the pointer over the Standard toolbar at the top of the drawing area. As you leave the cursor over a tool icon for a few moments, notice a pop-up label, called a tooltip, that identifies the tool.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

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7. 8.

Move the pointer over a blank area on any toolbar. Then, as you hold down the pick button, drag the toolbar around the screen to reposition it. Dock the toolbar by dragging it to a docking location at the top, bottom, or either side of the drawing area. When the outline of the toolbar appears in the docking area, release the pick button.

Using Toolbars
Toolbars contain tools that start commands. When you move the pointing device over a tool, the tooltips balloon displays the name of the tool. The Standard toolbar at the top of the drawing area is visible by default. This toolbar is similar to those found in Microsoft Office programs. It contains the project management (standard) tools such as New, Open, Save and Print. The tool initially displays a certain number of toolbars: You can display or hide these toolbars, addition toolbars or create your own toolbar. A toolbar can be floating or docked. A floating toolbar is located anywhere in the drawing area of the tool window, and you can drag it to a new location, resize it, or dock it. A docked toolbar is fixed to any edge of the drawing area. A docked toolbar cannot be resized. You can move a docked toolbar by undocking it and dragging it to a new docking location. It is possible to customize or create toolbars by adding, rearranging or removing buttons. it is also possible to visualise, move and hide toolbars. It is also possible to choose Toolbars command from Display menu and make most of the changes to toolbars in the dialog box that will be displayed. Sometimes it will be necessary to operate directly on toolbars, leaving Customize dialog box open. If the dialog box overlaps the element to be modified, it will be possible to move it. It is possible to reset toolbars at any time, according to the original settings used on startup.

Displaying or hiding a toolbar



Click on toolbar by the mouse right button, then choose from fast choice menu the toolbar to display or hide. If the toolbar desired is not displayed, choose Customize, click on Toolbar page, then select the check box corresponding to the toolbar desired in Toolbars list. Advice. In order to hide a floating toolbar, click on the bar Close button.

Creating a customized toolbar


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Toolbars page. Clic on New. In Name box digit the name desired. Leave Customize dialog box open (it could be necessary to move it). In order to add a button to the toolbar, click on Commands page. In Categories box select command category, then drag the command desired from Commands box to toolbar. Once all the buttons desired have been added, click on Close.

Modifying the name of a customized toolbar


1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Toolbars page. In Toolbars box click on the name of the customized toolbar to be renamed. Click on Rename. Digit the new name in Name box, then press ENTER. Note. It is not possible to rename an integrated toolbar.

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Deleting a customized toolbar


1. 2. 3. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Toolbars page. In Toolbars box click on the name of the customized toolbar to be deleted. Click on Delete. Note. It is not possible to delete an integrated toolbar.

Adding a button to a toolbar


1. 2. 3. 4. Display the toolbar to add a button to. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Commands page. In Categories page click on the category referred to the command to be associated to the button. Drag the command from Commands box to the displayed toolbar. Advice. In order to add quickly a standard button to an integrated toolbar, click on the arrow on the upper left corner of a floating toolbar, then choose Add or remove buttons and in the end select the check box next to the button to be added.

Deleting a button from a toolbar


1. 2. 3. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Commands page. In Toolbars box click on the name of the customized toolbar to be deleted. Click on Delete. Note. It is not possible to delete an integrated toolbar when an integrated toolbar is selected.

Modifying toolbar buttons size


1. 2. Choose Toolbars from Display menu, then click on Options page. Select or remove selection from Big icons check box.

Using Pull-Down Menus


The pull-down menus are available from the menu bar at the top of the tool drawing area. You can choose menu options in the following ways:

Click the menu name to display a list of options. Click the option to choose it, or use the DOWN ARROW to move down the list and then press ENTER. Press ALT and then enter the underlined letter in the menu name. For example, to open a new drawing, hold down ALT and press F (ALT+F) to open the File menu. Then press ENTER to choose the highlighted option New.

Using the Command Window


The commands, options, messages, and prompts of the tool are displayed in a resizable window called the command window. The bottom line of the command window is called the command line. The command line displays the current operation in progress and provides an inside view of exactly what the program is doing.

Entering commands on the Command Line


To enter a command by using the keyboard, type its full name at the command line and press ENTER, SPACEBAR, or the enter button on your pointing device. Some commands also have abbreviated names. For example, instead of entering circle to start the CIRCLE command, you can enter c. Abbreviated command names are called command aliases and are defined in the ProSt.pgp file. To customize your own command aliases, see Customizing command aliases.

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Specifying command options


When you enter commands on the command line, the tool displays either a set of options or a dialog box. For example, when you enter circle at the Command prompt, the following prompt is displayed: 3P/TTR/Center point/<C>: The brackets around C indicate that Center point it is the current option. You can choose the Center Point option either by entering an X,Y coordinate or by using the pointing device to select (click) a point on the screen. To choose a different option, enter the capitalized letters in the option name. You can enter uppercase or lowercase letters. For example, to choose the three-point option (3P), enter 3p. In Preferences (File menu > Preferences) dialog box it is possible to set the option Options on command line as buttons. With this setting the options of a command are displayed as buttons to press to choose the corresponding option.

Executing Commands
To execute commands, press SPACEBAR, ENTER, or the enter button on your pointing device after entering command names or responses to prompts. The instructions in online Help assume this step and do not specifically instruct you to press ENTER after each entry.

Repeating and Canceling Commands


If you want to repeat a command that you have just used, press ENTER, SPACEBAR, or the enter button on your pointing device at the Command prompt. To cancel a command in progress, press ESC.

Interrupting a command with another command


Many commands can be used transparently: that is, they can be entered on the command line while you are using another command. Transparent commands frequently are commands that change drawing settings or that display commands such as SNAP, GRID, or ZOOM. To determine whether a command can be used transparently, refer to its entry in Commands. To use a command transparently, choose its tool or enter an apostrophe (') before entering the command at any prompt. After you complete the transparent command, the original command resumes. In the following example, you turn on the grid and set it to one-unit intervals while you are drawing a line. At the second From Point prompt, you continue drawing the line. Command: line From point: 'grid Grid ON/OFF/Spacing/<OFF>: ON Spacing X <0,000>: 1 Spacing Y <0,000>: 1 Resuming LINE command From point: Commands that do not select objects, create new objects, or end the drawing session usually can be used transparently. Changes made in dialog boxes that you have opened transparently cannot take effect until the interrupted command has been executed.

Resizing the Command Window


By default, the Command Window position is fixed. The fixed Command Window width is equal to that of the tool window. In order to resize the command window vertically move the cursor on its top part until the shape changes into a vertical double arrow; by keeping the left button of the mouse pressed, change the height of the window to the size wanted.

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Undo and Redo commands


It is possible to cancel the changes made by the last command used through one of the following modes: Toolbar Standard Menu Edit > Undo Command line: UNDO

The situation preceeding the last command performed is resumed. You can reverse the effect of a single UNDO command through one of the following ways:

Toolbar Standard Menu Edit > Redo Command line: REDO

Use of dynamic input


Dynamic input displays all the command prompts according to the position of the cursor in the graphic window; In this way, the user's attention will be kept on the drawing area, instead of being shifted to the command row, so data input will become faster and easier.

Dynamic input is an alternative to the classical methods of data insertion and the user can choose the insertion mode at any time. In fact, the tool commands, options, messages and prompts are displayed at the same time both in the Dynamic input and in the Command window. The possibility to choose the dynamic input is provided for in File>Preferences>User Interface, or, in the status bar by activating button.

Input command from dynamic input


The operation in process is displayed in the window of dynamic input and it is possible to check how the tool works by following the prompts in the fields displayed near the cursor. The input prompts will differ according to the kind of data.

Input coordinates
When a command is used, that requires to specify a point, it is possible to determine the position of such point in different ways. It is possible to insert absolute coordinates or, if there is a reference to another object, define the coordinates as relative or polar to that reference. Finally, if the point is already in the graphic, it is possible to enter its name.

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Absolute coordinates

When it is asked to specify a default point, the dynamic input displays the pointing device absolute coordinates. Proceed as follows:

Right arrow or TAB to activate X coordinate cell and input the value; TAB to activate Y coordinate cell and input the value; TAB to activate Z coordinate cell and input the value; Press ENTER to confirm the data inserted or cancel them by ESC.

Relative coordinates
If the command refers to an object already inserted, it is possible to choose the kind of coordinates to use (default dynamic input: absolute coordinates). Proceed as follows:

Right arrow or TAB to activate X coordinate cell; PAGE-UP or PAGE-DOWN to change the kind of coordinates to input; choose relative coordinates marked by the symbol @; Insert X coordinate value of reference point; TAB to activate Y coordinate cell and input the value; TAB to activate Z coordinate cell and input the value; Press ENTER to confirm the data inserted or cancel them by ESC.

Polar coordinates
If the command refers to an object already inserted, it is possible to choose the kind of coordinates to use (default dynamic input: absolute coordinates). Proceed as follows:

Right arrow or TAB to activate X coordinate cell; PAGE-UP or PAGE-DOWN to change the kind of coordinates to input; choose polar coordinates marked by the symbol <; the tool displays the polar coordinates referred to the position of the pointing device; confirm them by ENTER or insert the value of reference point distance; TAB to activate horizontal angle cell and input the value; TAB to activate zenithal angle cell and input the value; Press ENTER to confirm the data inserted or cancel them by ESC.

Point name
To display the coordinates of a topographic point already contained in the work proceed as follows (default dynamic input: absolute coordinates):

Right arrow or TAB to activate X coordinate cell; PAGE-UP or PAGE-DOWN to change the kind of coordinates to input; choose topographic point; An empty cell is displayed; insert topographic point name; 59

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Choose ENTER to confirm the datum inserted, or cancel it by ESC;

Insert options
Commands with multiple options are marked by the icon pull down menu listing the different options: , indicating the possibility to gain access to a

Proceed as follows:

Default option is activated; to choose a different option you can:

Choose

button;

Type in ARROW DOWN on keyboard; TAB followed by ARROW DOWN;

In this way, all the options contained in the active command are displayed:

Choose the option by mouse pointing device or, on keyboard, by using the arrows or by typing in the corresponding capital letter, and choose ENTER. Specify the request and choose ENTER on keyboard to complete the command, or cancel it by ESC.

Insert values
When the command prompt consists in the introduction of a generic value, such as a text, it is possible to introduce the datum in the cell and confirm it by ENTER on keyboard, or cancel it by ESC.

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Quick start
In carrying out a project it can be useful to consult a window reporting the commands used more frequently, so as to type them in easily and quickly, without having to find them in their respective menus. Moreover, very often the sequence of operations to carry out in the different phases of a project follows a fixed procedure and the commands used follow one another according to a precise list. In order to meet these needs, a Quick start bar has been introduced, i.e. a window allowing to display these lists of operations to carry out to solve specific problems or to manage specific procedures. In the execution of the work it is possible to select the commands by the mouse, in the Quick start window. This utility is very useful to customize the procedures to use in the different phases of a project and to obtain a summary page in which to define the execution sequence of the different operations. Therefore, selecting the proper commands becomes easy if the customized procedure is followed. Moreover, it is possible to customize the description of the commands, so as to have a simple tool that allows to adapt the program interface to the user needs. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar View Menu View > Quick start...

The following window will appear:

In the upper part of the window it is possible to select the topic to be displayed and in the middle of the window the commands contained in it will appear. 61

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Start a command in Quick start bar


The commands listed in Quick start bar can be executed simply by clicking on them.

Window display mode


The window has two display modes:

A fixed one in which the window is displayed in full; Another one, reduced by command bar side: button, which positions automatically the following icon at the

Positioning the mouse on the writing Quick start will activate the full view of the window; on the contrary, moving the mouse out of the window will bring you back to the icon. To restore the fixed view of the window choose button.

Customize Quick start window


It is possible to customize the Quick start by the command You will then gain access to the following window: .

The window is subdivided into three boxes: Topics, Commands, Properties.

Customize Topics
Topics include a set of commands belonging to the same typology; by choosing the topic, all the commands referred to it will be displayed. In the pull down menu select the topic from a list or, by command, create a new one. In the second case the following window will appear:

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It is possible to customize the name of the topic, which will then be made available in the list of topics. Default topics, varying according to the program configuration, are the following: TP-T Data acquisition TP-T Create points and measures TP-T Survey calculation TP-T - Cadastre: Updating proposal TP-T - Cadastre: Link with Pregeo TP-M Create 3D model PS-S - Planimetry PS-S Longitudinal Profile PS-S Cross Sections

TP= Topko PS= Prost T, M, S= Program Modules

To delete or rename a topic, also among the default ones, use after selecting it from the list.

and

commands

Customize commands
By selecting the topic from pull down menu, the Commands box will display the commands belonging to the chosen topic. It is possible to add new commands by selecting the icon will gain access to the following command selection window: . In this case you

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The table left side lists the program menus and, by selecting an item from the list, the commands will appear on the right. Choose a command and press Select to add it to the list; at the end, choose Close to complete the insertion.

The command is added to the list of commands of the Quick start window and by and it is possible to modify the display mode. .

To remove a command from the list use

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Customize command properties


By selecting a command that belongs to a topic, its properties will be displayed on the right side of the window. It is possible to introduce in this box a description, either a concise or an extended one, of every command selected. With the command icon, also the description specified in Property box will be displayed. The program interface will therefore be completely customized according to the user needs.

Command: command line; Command description: command name, customizable by the user; Extended description: extended description of the command functions, customizable by the user. To replace the command selected with another one choose Browse. In this way, command Selection window will appear.

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Creating geometric objects


Creating lines
You can create two types of lines: single-segment lines and multisegmented lines (polylines). Singlesegment lines are the simplest type of line in the tool and consist of a succession of line segments, with each line segment behaving as a separate object. Multisegmented lines, or polylines, can form and be edited as a single object. You can edit the curvature of polylines.

Creating single-segment lines


Although you can create a series of contiguous line segments, each line segment behaves as a separate object. There is an advantage in the creation of contiguous line segments rather than a single polyline: a single line segment can be edited separately from the other line segments in a series.

To draw lines
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Draw menu, choose Line . Specify the start point. You can use the pointing device or specify a coordinate on the command line. Complete the first line segment by specifying the endpoint. Specify the endpoints of any additional line segments. To complete the line, press ENTER.

Creating multisegmented lines (Polylines)


A polyline is a connected sequence of line segments or of arcs created as a single object. You can create straight line segments, arc segments, or a combination of the two. Some multisegmented lines provide editing capabilities unavailable for single lines. After you've created a polyline, you can edit it with PEDIT or use EXPLODE to convert it to individual line and arc segments, or you can convert a polyline into a true spline. You can use closed polylines to create a polygon and create a polyline.

Creating arc polylines


You can also draw arc segments in a polyline. The first point of the arc is the endpoint of the previous segment. You can specify the angle, center point, direction, or radius of the arc. You can also complete the arc by specifying a second point and an endpoint.

Creating closed polylines


You can draw a closed polyline to create a polygon. To close a polyline, specify the starting point of the last side of the object, enter C (Close), and press ENTER.

To draw a line and arc combination polyline


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 66 From the Draw menu, choose Polyline . Specify the start point of the polyline segment. Specify also the endpoint of the polyline segment by switching to Arc mode by entering A (Arc) on the command line. Return to Line mode by entering L (Line). Specify additional polyline segments as needed. Press ENTER to end the polyline.

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Automatic creation of closed polylines


Boundary command allows to create a polyline starting from an area created by objects forming closed sequences. Sequences can be combinations of lines, polylines, circles and arcs. 1. 2. From Drawing menu choose Boundary. On command line the following windows will appear: Boundary calculation|Use current view's objects/Select objects/ <U>: by answering U the tool will use all the objects visible in the graphic window to determine the boundary; vice versa, by pressing S the tool will allow to select the objects to use to determine the boundary. In case <S>, Select objects, option is chosen, it will be asked to select objects: Select objects: 3. Indicate internal point: indicate the point inside the boundary that has to be determined.

Note. Command execution speed is proportional to the amount of objects selected, or displayed; therefore, it is better to select or leave visible only the objects necessary to the correct execution of the command.

Automatic display of symbols along polylines


This function allows to display, for each polyline, the following information:

vertexes segments direction segments slope Relative max/min points vertexes

Modify existing polyline


To modify an existing polyline it is possible to activate Modify property command and select the polyline, or gain access to Modify window by a double click on the polyline. The window is subdivided into three pages: Vertexes, Polyline and Property.

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Vertexes Page
Vertexes page summarizes the coordinates of the polyline vertexes, allowing to make changes in a fast way. The following window will appear:

The table contains the following items:

E. vertex East coordinate; N. vertex North coordinate; Z. vertex elevation; Radius. In case of arc polylines, this column reports the radius; By button it is possible to assign the coordinate by selecting its position in the graphic;

Closed Polyline. If the polyline is closed, select this option. It is possible to edit the table by using the command bar commands, and the working mode is similar to that of the other tables available in the tool. (see Use of Tables)

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Polyline Window
This page sets the polyline display modes:

The tool prompts the following options: Polyline vertexes: a circle is drawn on polyline vertexes; Direction: any segment of the polyline reports an arrow indicating the segment direction. Segment slope: any polyline 3D segment displays an arrow reporting the slope direction. Maximum Minimum points: a symbol is drawn on the vertex of a maximum or minimum point.

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Property window
In Property Window the user operates on the polyline graphic properties. The dialog box is similar to the following:

The properties available in the window are listed below: Subproject: choose the drawing subproject the polyline is destined to; Colour: set polyline colour; Layer: set layer polyline; Linetype: define the kind of line to use; Linetype scale: set linetype scale; Lineweight: set linetype weight. Note. The size of the symbols reported on the polyline is defined in Project properties window, Miscellaneous page, item Polyline symbols.

Creating rectangles
By RECTANG command it is possible to create also rotated rectangles; they can be created according to two opposed vertexes as well as starting from a vertex and specifying the rectangle dimensions or its area. The command can be activated as follows: From Draw menu Choose: Rectangle Command line: RECTANG

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Insert triangles by 2 vertexes


The following prompts will appear on command line: Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertexes Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<O>: V Opposite corner: Indicate the rectangle opposite corner Insertion point/Rotation/Exit: once the rectangle has been defined it is possible to change insertion point, direction angle or stop the command.

Insert rectangles by width and height


Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertex Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<O>: D Width: rectangle width Height: rectangle height Insertion point/Rotation/Exit: once the rectangle has been defined it is possible to change insertion point, direction angle or stop the command

Insert rectangles by area and width


Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertex Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<O>: L Area: rectangle area Width: rectangle width Insertion point/Rotation/Exit: once the rectangle has been defined it is possible to change insertion point, direction angle or stop the command.

Insert rectangles by area and height


Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertex Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<0>: A Area: rectangle area Height: rectangle height Insertion point/Rotation/Exit: once the rectangle has been defined it is possible to change insertion point, direction angle or stop the command.

Insert triangles by 3 points


Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertex Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<0>: 3P Rectangle base second vertex: basis end point Opposite corner: third point for triangle definition.

Change rectangle angle


Insertion point: Indicate the rectangle starting vertex Rectangle Size/area and Width/area and Height/3Points/Angle/Opposite corner/<0>: N Rectangle base angle: specify the angle the rectangle base must have. The rectangle can then be built with the options proposed.

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Creating arcs
You can create arcs in several ways. With the exception of the first method, arcs are drawn counterclockwise from the start point to the endpoint. You can create arcs through one of the following ways:

Drawing arcs by specifying three points


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Arc Specify the start point. Specify a point on the arc. Specify the endpoint. . Then choose 3 Points.

Drawing arcs using start point, center point and endpoint


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Arc Specify a start point. Specify the center point. Specify the endpoint. . Then choose Start, Center, End.

Drawing arcs by specifying Start, Center, Angle


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Arc Specify a start point. Specify the center point. Enter the value of the angle at the center of the arc to be created. . Then choose Start, Center, Angle.

Drawing arcs by specifying Start, End, Angle


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Arc Specify a start point. Specify the end point. Enter the value of the angle at the center of the arc to be created. . Then choose Start, End, Angle.

Drawing arcs by specifying Start, Length, Angle


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the Draw menu, choose Arc Specify a start point. Enter the length of the arc to be created. Indicate the direction of the tangent from the first point of the arc to be created. Enter the value of the angle at the center of the arc to be created. The tool now draws the tangent from the start point. Specify with the mouse if the direction of the arc is on the left or on the right side of the tangent. . Then choose Start, Length, Angle.

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Creating circles
You can create circles in several ways. The default method is to specify the centre and the radius; the second method is to create a circle tangent at three points, and finally, it is possible to draw a circle tangent to three objects.

To draw a circle by specifying a center point and a radius


1. 2. 3. From the Draw menu, choose Circle Specify the center point. Specify the radius. . Then choose Center, Radius.

To draw a circle by specifying three points


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Circle Specify the first point. Specify the second point. Specify the third point. . Then choose 3 Points.

How to draw a circle tangent at two objects by specifying its radius


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Circle . Then choose Tangent-Tangent-Radius. Select the first object the circle must be tangent at. Select the second object the circle must be tangent at. Specify circle radius.

How to draw a circle tangent to three objects


1. 2. 3. 4. From Drawing menu, choose Circle. Then choose Tangent-Tangent-Tangent. Specify the first object the circle must be tangent to. Specify the second object the circle must be tangent to. Specify the third object the circle must be tangent to.

Creating ellipses
The shape of an ellipse is determined by two axes that define its length and width. The longer axis is called the major axis, and the shorter one is the minor axis.

To draw an ellipse using endpoints and distance


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Ellipse Specify the first endpoint of the first axis. Specify the second endpoint of the first axis. Drag the pointing device away from the midpoint, and click to specify a distance for half the length of the second axis. .

Creating points
Point objects are useful as nodes or reference points that you can snap to and offset objects from. You can set the style of the points and their size in absolute units.

To create a point object


1. 2. From the Draw menu, choose Point Specify the point location. 73 .

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You can snap to a point using the Node object snap.

To set point style and size


1. 2. From the Format menu, choose Point style. In the Point Style dialog box, select a point style. Points can be symbols or blocks:

3.

Select Symbol 1 icon to display the list of the symbols available; select Blocks to display the list of blocks present in the drawing. Select from the list the element needed. Symbols can be customized by the Drawing resource manager. In Size edit box, specify the symbol/block size in absolute units. Choose OK.

4. 5.

Creating drawing details


The tool provides a command allowing to create quickly different scale details in any part of the drawing by simply defining a circle or a box. A detail drawing can be inserted in the current drawing or a specific Enclosed drawing can be created.

Creating drawing details on the current drawing


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Draw > Detail, On current drawing Command line: DETAIL C The following prompts appear: 1. Detail description: The tool requires a description which will be reported both in the part where to create the detail and in the part representing the detail enlarged. 2. Bounds of detail Box/Circle/<B>: The bounds of the detail to be obtained can be represented by a circle, previously inserted, or by a box. If you choose circle, you will have to indicate the circle; if you choose box, you will have to indicate the two corners of a box. 74

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3. Detail position: Indicate by the mouse where the detail has to be located. 4. Scale factor: Set the scale factor according to which the elements available in the detail are enlarged.

Creating drawing details on an Enclosed drawing


The command can be started through one of the following ways: Menu Drawing > Detail on enclosed drawing Command line: DETAIL A

1. 2.

Name to assign to the new enclosed drawing: specify the name to assign to the enclosed drawing to create. Bounds of Circle / Box detail: The bounds of the detail to be obtained can be represented either by a circle, previously inserted, or by a box that can be selected. lf you choose circle, you will have to indicate the circle, if you choose box you will have to indicate the two corners of a box. Select open module command to open the graphic window of the enclosed drawing just created: Toolbar Standard , Enclosed drawings

3.

Menu File: Open module, enclosed drawings

5.

A graphic window will appear, containing the first of the enclosed drawings that can be found in the work. If the first enclosed drawing is displayed in another window, then the second enclosed drawing will be displayed; generally, the first free enclosed drawing is displayed, that is the one that has not been displayed in any window yet. To display the other enclosed drawings and get to the one desired, use the navigation bar in the lower part of the new graphic window.

6.

Create table objects


By this command it is possible to create Table objects fully customizable by the user both in content and display mode. Therefore, analytic data are properly represented in the drawing sheets and it is always possible to change their form and content. In fact, by a specific window, the user can edit a table by modifying the items of the single cells and such properties as position, layer, text styles, borders, etc. The command can be activated as follows:
Toolbar Draw Menu Draw >Table... Command line: TABLE

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On command line the following prompt will appear: Enter table insertion point: Indicate table insertion point, by specifying its coordinates or positioning the mouse. The following window will appear:

The first prompt concerns the table header: Table header: Enter the table header which will appear in the first line of the table. On the left side of the window it is necessary to specify the table content, while on the right there are some pages for data management. The following base commands for table editing and management are available in the table toolbar (see Use of Tables): Cut one or more rows: select the rows to cut and choose button Cut row; Copy one or more rows: select the rows to copy and choose the button Copy row; Paste one or more rows: after cutting or copying the lines, select destination rows and choose the button Paste row; Search and replace: search the column in which to carry out the search, if you dont want to carry out the search in all the columns, then choose Search and replace button; Modify one or more rows: to modify automatically a group of cells belonging to a table column choose the button Change rows; Insert a row among the already existing rows: move the active cell to the row following the one to be inserted, then select the button Enter row on navigation bar; 76

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Delete a row: take the active cell to the row to delete and select the button Delete row;

Insert a row at the bottom of the table: take the active cell to the bottom of the table; a symbol will appear in the last row and it will be now possible to insert the data in the cells of the last row.;

Moreover, the following commands are available: Insert column on the left: inserts a column on the left of the one in which the cursor is positioned; Insert column on the right: inserts a column on the right of the one in which the cursor is positioned; Delete column: deletes a column: to select a column press the mouse left button in the column first cell and choose CTRL on keyboard; On the right side of the window it is possible to change the features of the table by using the following pages.

Table
In Table it is necessary to specify the main features of the table structure. The window is the following:

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The tool prompts to enter the following information:

Table State: indicates the number of rows and columns that form a table; Table Position: enters X, Y, Z coordinates of table insertion point; Scale: specifies the scale factor that will be used when the table is inserted; it represents the ratio between the table real measures and the work scale factor.

Rows
By selecting one or more rows it is possible to gain access to Rows, which allows to modify cell size, character and properties of the selected text. The window is the following:

The tool prompts to enter the following information:

Selected rows: n indicates the number of rows selected in the table, to which the following parameters must be applied: Cells Height (mm): specify cells height; Cells width (mm): specify cells width; Text height (mm): specify text height; Text width (mm): specify text width; Text alignment: choose text alignment from pull down menu; 78

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Text Style: choose text style from pull down menu

Column
By this window it is possible to modify the cells size, the text and the text properties of the columns selected. It is possible to gain access to the window by selecting one or more table columns. Use the mouse left button and CTRL on keyboard to select the columns. The following window will appear:

The tool prompts to enter the following information: Selected Columns: m indicates the number of columns selected in the table, to which the following parameters must be applied: Cells height (mm): specify cells height; Cells width (mm): specify cells width; Text height (mm): specify text height; Text width (mm): specify text width; Text alignment: choose text alignment from pull down menu; Style: choose text style from pull down menu.

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Cell
By selecting a cell it is possible to gain access to the Cell window and modify the current cell size, text and text properties. The following window will appear:

The tool prompts to enter the following information:

Cell [n, m]: indicates the number of rows and columns that define the cell selected in the table in which to apply the following parameters: Cell height (mm): specify cells height; Cell width (mm): specify cell width; Text height (mm): specify text height; Text width (mm): specify text width; Text Alignment: choose text alignment from pull down menu; Style: choose text style from pull down menu.

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Borders
In Borders it is possible to specify the drawing subproject in which the table will be saved and choose the properties.

The tool prompts to enter the following information:

Subproject: choose from pull down menu the table destination drawing subproject; Colour: choose the colour to set to the borders; Layer: choose the layer to set to the borders; Linetype: set the linetype to use; Linetype scale: set the scale of the line to use; Lineweight: define the line weight.

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Texts
This window specifies the drawing subproject in which the table texts will be saved. It also defines the attributes of layer, line type, text scale and width. The following window will appear:

The tool prompts to enter the following information:

Subproject: choose from pull down menu the table destination drawing subproject; Colour: choose the colour to set to the text; Layer: choose the layer to set to the text; Linetype: set the linetype to use; Linetype scale: set the scale of the line to be used; Lineweight: define the line weight.

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Hatching and filling areas


The tool provides a procedure called Hatching to fill an area with a pattern. The hatching procedure is used to help differentiate between components of a project, by highlighting them, or to signify the material composing an object. You can use:

Already defined hatch patterns or solid-filled areas provided by the tool Hatch pattern defined by the user; it is possible to set the line type, the spacing, the angle and also the symbol/block to be inserted inside the hatching Customized hatch patterns created by the user.

How to load hatch patterns


1. From the Format menu, select the item Hatches. The following dialog box will appear:

2.

Press button Load... and specify the file, with PAT extension, containing the hatch patterns to be loaded. The tool already provides three files containing several hatch patterns. You can find these files in Support folder: 1. 2. 3. ProSt.PAT: standard hatch patterns; ProStExt.PAT: particular hatch patterns; Cartography.PAT: cartographic use hatch patterns;

3.

Press button Close to close the dialog box.

With button Export a file is created, with PAT extension, containing the hatch patterns defined in the current project; in this way you can export a project hatch patterns on other projects. By button Remove it is possible to erase the hatch patterns selected from the list.

How to hatch selected objects


From Drawing menu choose Hatch. The following dialog box will appear:

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Hatch: Select the model to be used. To load other hatch models press Definition button. If a solid filling is required, choose the option Solid color. Property: Set the layer on which to load hatch, scale factor and angle to assign to the hatch. Press button to define the angle inside the graphic window. The angle can be applied along the longest side of the hatching boundary by activating the option By longer side. Boundary: select the mode by which to define boundary hatching.

Internal point: indicate a point inside the area to hatch and the tool will determine the boundary automatically, according to the surrounding elements. Boundaries can be determined by using the objects represented on the current window, or by selecting them. Select objects: hatching is applied to the objects selected. Select boundary points: boundary points are specified manually.

Explode after insertion: by activating this option, hatching is exploded after insertion.

To apply the hatching choose Apply.

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Creating and modifying text


Creating text
The text you add to your drawings conveys a variety of information. It may be a complex specification, title block information, a label, or even part of the drawing. For short entries that do not require multiple fonts or lines, create single-line text. Single-line text is most convenient for labels. For long, complex entries, create multiline, or paragraph text. Multiline text consists of any number of text lines or paragraphs that fit within a width you specify; it can extend vertically to an indefinite length. Regardless of the number of lines, each set of paragraphs created in a single editing session forms a single object, which you can move, rotate, erase, copy, mirror, stretch, or scale. In a drawing a text is always associated to a style. When a new text is input, the tool uses the current text style, which sets the font, the size the angle, the orientation and other features of the text. If you want to create some text using a different style, it is possible to indicate another style as the current one. Every text style allows to set the following properties:

Font to be used Font style (only for True-Type-Font) Height and width of character Text inclination Opaque: the opaque text can cover all the drawing elements under it leaving the text clean, without any elements that might make it difficult to read. Border: the text is displayed with a frame containing it.

Creating single-line text


1. 2. 3. From the Draw menu, choose Text and then the item Single line text Specify the insertion point for the first character. Specify the height of the text. A "rubber band" is attached from the text insertion point to the cursor. Click to set the height of the text to the distance specified by the length of the rubber band. Specify a text rotation angle. You can specify the rotation angle on the command line or by moving your pointing device. Enter the text. At the end of each line, press ENTER. Enter more text as needed. .

4. 5.

Creating multiline text


1. 2. 3. From the Draw menu, choose Multiline text. Specify the corners of the text boundary. In the Text editor dialog box, enter the text. The text is inserted in the drawing with the same format as that in the dialog box. It is possible to decide where the text has to be positioned: on the left or on the right side of the text boundary, at the top or at the bottom, vertically centered or horizontally centered. You can use the standard Windows control keys to enter text.


4.

CTRL+C copies selected text to the Clipboard CTRL+V pastes Clipboard contents over selected text CTRL+X cuts selected text to the Clipboard ENTER ends the current paragraph and starts a new line

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Importing text from external files


You can insert ASCII text files created in other word processors into your tool drawing. Importing TXT files from other sources can save you time. For example, you can create a text file of standard notes that you include in drawings. Instead of entering this information each time you use it, you can import the text.

How to import text files


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Draw menu, choose Multiline text. Specify the text boundary location and other properties as needed. In the Text Editor dialog box, choose Import Text. In the Select file to load dialog box, double-click the file you want to import, or select the file and choose Open. The tool will insert the text connected to the cursor inside the Text editor dialog box. Change the text as needed. Then choose OK.

5.

Modifying text
1. 2. 3. From the Modify menu, choose Objects. Then choose Text. Select the single-line text or the multiline text object you want to edit. In the Edit Text dialog box, enter the new text. Then choose OK.

Text styles
How to create a text style
The command can be started in one of the following ways: Menu Format > Text style Command line: STYLE 1. In Text style dialog box, choose New.

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3. 4. 5. 6.

In New text style dialog box digitize the name of the new text style. Choose OK. It is now possible to modify all the features of the style, for example its font, or perform the operation later. If any changes have been made to style features, save them with Apply. After making and saving all the modifications to text style, choose Close to close the dialog box.

Modifying a text style


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Text Stile Command line: STYLE

1.

In Text Style dialog box, select the name of a text style to indicate it as the current one.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Make the changes desired. The example text in Preview area is updated with the changes made to the style. In order to update the text of the drawing that uses the current style, choose Apply. Select another text style to be modified or choose Close. After choosing Close, the changes made to text styles are applied to the existing text.

Making a text style current


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Text style Command line: STYLE

1.

In Text style dialog box select a style from the list Style name.

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2.

Choose Close.

Removing unused text styles


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Purge Command line: PURGE T

How to remove unused text styles


1. 2. 3. From Format menu, choose Purge and then Text styles. You are asked to confirm the erasing of each element from the list. If you do not want to confirm each erasing answer N (No), otherwise answer Y (Yes). To confirm the erasing of each style choose Yes or No.

Creating sideslopes
It is possible to obtain automatically the drawing of a sideslope by selecting a polyline on which to create sideslope hatches. You can obtain the sideslope drawing by the following modes:

manual: by selecting the top and the bottom points of a sideslope from polyline: it creates a constant widening sideslope starting from a polyline from two polylines: it creates a sideslope between two polylines

It is possible to set different parameters as far as the sideslope drawing: from the layer, to the length, the type, etc.

Sideslopes manual drawing


Sideslopes manual drawing requires to indicate consecutively the top point and the bottom point of the sideslope. The command can be activated through one of the following methods:

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Menu Draw > Sideslopes > Drawing Command line: SLOPE On command line, the following questions appear: Sideslope top point: Sideslope bottom point: To end the operation mouse-click on right button or press ENTER.

Sideslopes drawing from polyline


Sideslope drawing from polyline requires to indicate the polyline from which to start sideslopes and sideslope hatches length. The command can be activated by one of the modes below: Menu Draw > Sideslopes > From polyline Command line: SLOPEPLINE

On command line, the following questions appear: Sideslope hatch by Distance/Point/Setting: It is possible to decide sideslope hatches length by indicating the distance or the point from where they pass. The option Setting allows to open a window for Sideslope drawing parameters setting. Select polyline: Indicate the polyline from which to start the sideslope. Side to offset: Indicate the position of the sideslope hatches from the polyline.

Sideslopes drawing from two polylines


Sideslopes drawing from two polylines requires to indicate the two polylines (one representing the top and one the bottom of the sideslope) from which to start sideslopes. The command is activated by one of the methods below: Menu Draw > Sideslopes > From two polylines Command line: SLOPE2PLINE

On command line, the following questions appear: Select polyline: Indicate the first polyline (top) from which to start the sideslope. Select second polyline: Indicate the second polyline (bottom) from which to start the sideslope.

Sideslope drawing parameters


It is possible to personalize the drawing of sideslopes according to different methods: from layer, to the sideslope hatches length, to the type, etc. The command can be activated by one of the following modes: Menu Draw > Sideslopes > Sideslope properties Command line: DDSLOPEPROP

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The following dialog box appears:

Properties
Type of sideslope hatch: it is possible to choose among three different types of hatches drawing. Sideslope hatch size: It is possible to decide whether the hatch has a fixed length or the length depends on the second polyline (see sideslope drawing from two polylines); it is possible that the sideslope hatches are drawn up to a certain distance from the second polyline. Other: Distance between sideslope hatches: Distance from a sideslope hatch drawing and the next. Sideslope hatch proportion %: length percentage of the little sideslope hatch on the big sideslope hatch. Round corners: it is possible to obtain rounding of the external corners. Draw top line: if active a top polyline is drawn. Draw bottom line: if active a bottom polyline is drawn.

Line properties
In this group of checks it is possible to choose the layer the sideslope will belong to, as well as the colour and the line type it must be drawn with.

Slope hatches properties


In this group of checks it is possible to choose the layer the sideslope hatches will belong to, as well as the colour and the line type they must be drawn with.

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Dimensions
Dimensions show the size of the objects, the distances or the angles between the objects or the distance of a characteristic from a specified origin. Dimension styles: Dimension styles are groups with the name of dimension settings that check the aspect of the dimension. In fact, using dimension styles you can set and apply drawing standards and modify dimension formats. Inserting dimensions: Four main types of dimensioning are available in the tool: linear, radial, angular and special. You can dimension such objects as lines, arcs, circles and polyline segments or draw elevations between points.

Inserting dimensions
Four main types of dimensioning are available in the tool: linear, radial, angular and special. You can dimension such objects as lines, arcs, circles and polyline segments or draw elevations between points.

Creating linear dimensions


Linear dimensions can be horizontal, vertical or aligned. With aligned dimensions, the dimension line is parallel to the imaginary or real line drawn between the origins of the extension lines.

How to create an aligned linear dimension


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Aligned Command line: DIM A

1. 2. 3.

Press ENTER to select the object to dimension or specify the origin of the first and the second extension line. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed Specify the position of the dimension line.

How to create a horizontal linear dimension.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Horizontal Command line: DIM H

1. Press ENTER to select the object to dimension or specify the origin of the first and the second extension line. 2. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed 3. Specify the position of the dimension line.

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How to create a vertical linear dimension.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Vertical Command line: DIM V

1. 2. 3.

Press ENTER to select the object to dimension or specify the origin of the first and the second extension line. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed Specify the position of the dimension line.

Creating radial dimensions


Radial dimensions measure radiuses and diameters of arcs and circles and can add center marks.

How to create diameter dimensions


The command can be started through one of the following commands: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Diameter Command line: DIM D

1. 2. 3.

Select the arc or the circle to dimension. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed Specify the position of the leader line.

How to create a radius dimension


The command can be started through one of the following commands: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Radius Command line: DIM R

1. 2. 3.

Select the arc or the circle to dimension. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed Specify the position of the leader line.

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How to create circle and arc marks


Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Center mark Command line: DIMCENTER

1.

Select an arc or a circle: use a method for selecting objects

Inserting angular dimensions


Angular dimensions measure the angle between two lines or three points. You can also dimension an angle by specifying its vertex and endpoints.

Line dimensioning

If, to specify an angle, you use two straight non parallel lines, the dimension line arc contains the angle between the two lines. If the dimension line arc does not intersect one or both the lines to dimension, the tool draws one or two expansion lines to intersect the dimension line arc. The arc is always less than 180.

Circle and arc dimensioning


If, to specify, you select three points, the tool draws the dimension line arc between the extension lines. Extension lines are drawn from the angle endpoints to the intersection of the dimension line arc.

How to create an angular dimension


Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Angular Command line: DIM G

The command can be activated through one of the following methods:

1. 2. 3. 4.

To dimension an angle between three points, indicate the vertex of the two points that make up the angle. To dimension an object, select the first line, then the second. Before specifying the position of the dimension line, it is possible to modify the text by digitizing option T. The dimensioning text that can be modified will be displayed. Specify the position of the arc of dimension line.

Creating special dimensions


Special dimensions are particular kinds of dimensions, very common in topography and road planning:

Station: this dimension reports on the vertexes side the progressive length of segments. Polyline elevation: this dimension reports the elevation of the vertexes of the polyline indicated. Transversal slope: this dimension reports the transversal slope between two points indicated. Leader: this dimension connects, through some lines and a camber, an annotation to a point. Point: this dimension reports the coordinates of a point. Area: this dimension reports the value of the area of a polyline or of a closed object. 93

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Creating a station dimension


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Station Command line: DIM S

1. 2.

Specify start station Indicate one by one the points to dimension. On the right of the points indicated the station will be inserted.

Creating a vertexes elevation dimension.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > vertexes elevation dimension Command line: DIM O

1.

Select the polyline where to report vertexes elevation.

Creating a transversal slope dimension.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Transversal slope Command line: DIM T

1.

Indicate the two points between which to insert the dimensioning

Creating a leader
The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning: Leader Command line: DIM L

1. 2.

Indicate up to six points that make up the leader lines. Insert up to three annotation lines which will be reported near the last point indicated.

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Creating a point dimension


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Quotature Menu Quotatura > Punto Command line: DIM P

1.

Specify the format to use for point dimension: X: X coordinate. Y: Y coordinate. Z: Z coordinate. XY: X and Y coordinate. XYZ: X,Y and Z coordinate.

2.

Select the point to dimension and the points that make up the leader line.

Creating an Area dimension


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Quotature Menu Quotatura > Area Command line: DIM E

1. 2.

Select a polyline, a closed object or a hatch. Confirm the text that will be inserted.

Dimension styles
Dimension styles are groups with the name of dimension settings that check the aspect of the dimension. In fact, using dimension styles you can set and apply drawing standards and modify dimension formats. A dimension style defines:

The format and the position of dimension lines, extension lines, arrow points The aspect, the position and the working of a dimension text. The rules of text and dimension line positioning. The format and the accuracy of the value to dimension.

The tool locates the dimensions on the current layer and assumes the current dimension style.

Style data are arranged into the two pages Lines and arrows and Text:

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Lines and Arrows

Dimension lines: A dimension line displays the direction and the extension of a dimension. For angular dimensioning, the dimension line is an arc. You can check the display of a dimension line. First: You can make the first dimension line of a dimensioning visible / invisible. Second: You can make the second dimension line of a dimensioning visible / invisible

Extension lines: Extension lines, also called projection lines or guide lines, extend from the characteristic to measure to the dimension line. You can check different aspects of the extension lines. If the extension lines are not necessary or there is not enough room, you can cancel one or both. Besides, you can specify how much the extension line will exceed the dimension line, check the distance between the origin and the beginning of the extension line. This distance is called offset of extension line origin. Extension: distance from dimension line beyond which to stretch the extension line. Origin: distance between the characteristic to be measured and the beginning of the extension line. First: it is possible to make the first extension line visible / invisible. Second: It is possible to make the second extension line visible / invisible. Arrow points: For end symbols different drawing standards are available. The tool offers seven kinds of standard arrow points. It is possible to apply a different kind of point to each end of the dimension line. The order of the arrow points depends on the order of the extension lines. The first extension line is situated in the point where the origin of the first extension line was specified on generating the dimension. In angular dimensions, the second dimension line is anti- clockwise if compared to the first. The leader lines use only the first point of the arrow.

First: type of the first arrow Second: type of the second arrow Sizes: Arrow size

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Text

Text: The aspect of a dimension text is determined by the text style selected in Text page of Management of elevation styles box. When a dimension style is created it is possible to choose a text style and specify a height apart from the current style height set. It is also possible to specify the spacing between the text of base dimension and the box surrounding it. The text styles used for the dimensions are the same as those used for all the texts created in the drawing.

Text style: name of the text style to be used to print the dimension text Height: height of dimension text Width: width of dimension text Spacing: distance between text and dimension lines Round off: rounding to be applied to the values measured Vertical position: the position of the text compared to the dimension line is called "positioning of vertical text". The text can be positioned above, below or centred inside dimension line. Horizontal position: the position of the text along the dimension line according to extension lines is called text positioning. Use text positioning options to position automatically the text in the middle of the dimension line on the same level of, or above, one of the two extension lines. Vertical position settings determine the position of text display according to the dimension line. When the text is on the same level of one of the two extension lines it can be either vertical or horizontal. When it is above an extension line, it is always aligned with it.

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Creating a dimension style


A dimension style marked by a name is a group of settings that determine the aspect of the dimension. Using dimension styles with a name sets and applies a precise drawing standard. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Style Command line: DDIM

1.

In Dimension style window, choose New.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the dialog box now appearing, digitize the name of the new style and press OK. Select the style created and press Modify button. In Modify dimension style dialog box set the characteristics desired for the dimension style. Choose OK to close Modify dimension style dialog box. Choose Apply to exit Management of dimension styles window.

Modifying a dimension style


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Style Command line: DDIM

1.

In Dimension style window, select the style to modify and press Modify button.

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2. 3. 4.

In Modify dimension style window, set the features desired for dimension style. Choose OK to close Modify dimension style dialog box. Choose Apply to exit Management of dimension styles window.

Making a dimension style current


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Style Command line: DDIM

1.

From Dimensioning menu, choose Style.

2.

In Dimension styles window, select the style to make current and press Current button. Advice. You can set the current dimension style also from Dimensioning toolbar: from the checklist reporting all the work styles select the style to make current.

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Applying the current dimension style to existing dimensions


When a dimension is created, the current dimension style is associated to it. The dimension keeps this style unless a new one is applied or local style changes are set. By selecting a dimension, it is always possible to restore the existing dimension style or apply the current style, included the local modifications of dimension style. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Dimensioning Menu Dimensioning > Dimension update Command line: DIMUPD

1. 2.

Select the dimensions to update in relation to the current dimension style. Press ENTER.

Removing unused dimension styles


It is possible to cancel from the drawing the unused dimension styles through PURGE command. possibile eliminare dal disegno gli stili di quota non utilizzati attraverso il comando ELIMINA.

The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Purge Command line: PURGE D

1. 2. 3.

From Format menu, choose Purge and then Dimension styles. At the command prompt for erasing any item from the list, if you do not want to confirm the erasing choose N (No), otherwise choose Y (Yes). Choose Yes to confirm the erasing of any style, otherwise choose No.

Drawing with precision


A variety of precision tools are available to help you produce quick, accurate drawings without performing tedious calculations. Although all your work is based on a coordinate system, you can establish settings that cause you to snap to points on the screen, to specified locations on objects, or to points relative to other locations or objects. You can also display information about existing objects.

Entering 2D coordinates
When a command prompts you for a point, you can use the pointing device to specify a point or you can enter a coordinate value on the command line. You can enter two-dimensional coordinates as either Cartesian (X,Y) or polar coordinates.

Cartesian and polar coordinates


A Cartesian coordinate system has three axes, X, Y, and Z. When you enter coordinate values, you indicate a point distance (in units) and its direction (+ or -) along the X, Y, and Z axes relative to the coordinate system origin (0,0,0). In 2D, you specify points on the XY plane, also called the construction plane. The construction plane is similar to a flat sheet of grid paper. The X value of a Cartesian coordinate specifies horizontal distance, and the Y value specifies vertical distance. The origin point (0,0) indicates where the two axes intersect.

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Polar coordinates use a distance and an angle to locate a point. With both Cartesian and polar coordinates, you can enter absolute coordinates based on the origin (0,0), or relative coordinates based on the last point specified.

Enter coordinates with constrained directions


When a drawing object is being created, it is possible to choose, by different methods, the cursor direction and create orthogonal or parallel elements to the chosen direction. Some buttons are available in the toolbar, which can be used during the drawing process to check the cursor working.

Free the cursor from a defined direction


Toolbar: Osnap Command line: 'ANGCADD C

This option releases the cursor from any predefined direction. The cursor motion becomes free.

Constrain the cursor to the direction defined by the last two points
Toolbar: Osnap Command line: 'ANGCADD D

This option forces the cursor to work along the direction defined by the last two points indicated.

Constrain the cursor to the direction defined by two points to be indicated


Toolbar: Osnap Command line: 'ANGCADD 2P

This option forces the cursor to work along the direction defined by two points to be indicated; once the option has been activated it is necessary to specify the two points that define the direction to be set.

Constrain the cursor to the direction of an object


Toolbar: Osnap Command line: 'ANGCADD O

This option forces the cursor to work along the direction defined by an object; once the option has been activated, it will be necessary to indicate a line or polyline from which to calculate the direction.

Constrain the cursor to the previous direction


Toolbar: Osnap Command line: 'ANGCADD P

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This option forces the cursor to work along the last direction defined.

Displaying coordinates on the status bar


The tool displays the current cursor location as a coordinate on the status bar at the bottom of the screen.

On the left part, dynamic display updates the X,Y,Z coordinate location as you move the cursor and on the right distance and angle are displayed. This option is available only when you draw lines or other objects that prompt for more than one point.

Entering absolute and relative coordinates


To use coordinates to specify a point, enter an X value and a Y value separated by a comma (X,Y). The X value is the positive or negative distance, in units, along the horizontal axis. The Y value is the positive or negative distance, in units, along the vertical axis. Absolute coordinate values are based on the origin (0,0), where the X and Y axes intersect. Use an absolute coordinate when you know the precise X and Y values of the point coordinate. For example, the coordinate 3,4 specifies a point 3 units along the X axis and 4 units along the Y axis from the origin. Relative coordinate values are based on the last point entered. Use a relative coordinate when you know the position of a point in relation to the previous point. To specify a relative coordinate, precede the coordinate with an @ symbol. For example, the coordinate @3,4 specifies a point 3 units along the X axis and 4 units along the Y axis from the last point specified. The following example draws a line beginning at a point with an X value of -2, a Y value of 1, and an endpoint at 3,4. Pressing ENTER at the To Point prompt ends the command. Command: Enter line From point: Enter 2,1 To point: Enter 3,4 The following example draws a line whose endpoint is 5 units in the X direction and 0 units in the Y direction from the start point at the absolute coordinate -2,1. Pressing ENTER at the next To Point prompt ends the command. Command: Enter line From point: Enter -2,1 To point: Enter @5,0

Entering polar coordinates


To enter a polar coordinate, enter a distance and an angle, separated by an angle bracket (<). For example, to specify a point that is at a distance of 1 unit from the previous point and at an angle of 45 degrees, enter @1<-45. By default, angles increase in the counterclockwise and decrease in the clockwise direction. To move clockwise, enter a negative value for the angle. For example, entering 1<-315 is the same as entering 1<45. Polar coordinates are either absolute (measured from origin) or relative to the previous point. To specify a relative coordinate, precede the coordinate with an @ symbol. The following example shows a line drawn with polar coordinates using the default angle direction setting. Command: Enter line From point: Enter 0,0 To point: Enter 4<120 To point: Enter 5<30 The following example shows a line drawn with relative polar coordinates. To point: Enter @3<45 To point: Enter @5<285 To point: Press ENTER

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Entering coordinates by distance


It is possible to specify quickly a point in relation to the last point inserted by the direct entering of the distance. When the tool prompts you for the position of a point, first of all it is necessary to locate the cursor to specify the position in relation to the previous point and then digitize a numeric distance preceded by >symbol. By digitizing, for example, >10 the tool will create a point with a 10 units distance from the previous point and along the direction point- previous- cursor position.

Adjusting snap and grid


As you work, you can turn the grid and Snap mode on and off, and you can change the grid and snap spacing. The grid is a pattern of dots that extends over the area you specify as the drawing limits. Using the grid is similar to placing a sheet of grid paper under a drawing. The grid helps you align objects and visualize the distances between them. The grid is not plotted. If you zoom in or out of your drawing, you may need to adjust grid spacing to be more appropriate for the new magnification. Snap mode restricts the movement of the crosshairs to intervals that you define. When Snap mode is on, the cursor seems to adhere, or "snap," to an invisible grid. Snap is useful for specifying precise points with the arrow keys or the pointing device. You control snap precision by setting the X and Y spacing. Snap spacing does not have to match grid spacing. For example, you might set a wide grid spacing to be used as a reference but maintain a closer snap spacing for accuracy in specifying points.

Changing the snap angle and base point


If you need to draw along a specific alignment or angle, you can change the snap angle. This rotation realigns the crosshairs on the screen to match the new angle. When you set the snap angle, the grid rotation also changes. The snap base point is the offset from a specified X,Y value from which snap points are measured. The default snap base point is 0,0, but it can be changed to any X,Y coordinate value to adjust snap points. For example, if X and Y spacing are set to 0.5, and X and Y base points are set to 0,0, the snap points along the X and Y axes are 0, 0.50, 1.0, and so on. Changing the X snap base point to 0.1 and the Y snap base point to 0.2 causes the snap points along the X axis to shift to 0.1, 0.60, 1.1, and so on, and the snap points along the Y axis to shift to 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, and so on. Shifting the snap base point may be necessary to align a hatch pattern.

How to display a grid and set grid spacing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Tools menu, choose Drawing Aids. In the Drawing Aids dialog box under Grid, select Grid to display the grid. For X Spacing, enter the horizontal grid spacing in drawing units. For Y Spacing enter the vertical grid spacing in drawing units. Choose OK.

Although the grid dots do not necessarily correspond to the current snap interval, they do reflect the current snap angle value.

How to turn on snap mode and set snap spacing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Tools menu, choose Drawing Aids. In the Drawing Aids dialog box under Snap, select Snap. Under X Spacing, enter the horizontal snap spacing in units. Under Y Spacing, enter the vertical snap spacing in units. Choose OK.

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How to rotate the snap angle and change its base point
1. 2. 3. 4. From the Tools menu, choose Drawing Aids. In the Drawing Aids dialog box under Snap, enter a rotation angle in the Snap angle box. If you want to set the base point in order to align snap locations, enter the X and Y coordinate values in the X Base point and Y Base point boxes. Choose OK.

Using ortho mode


As you create or move objects, you can use Ortho mode to restrict the cursor to the horizontal or vertical axis. The orthogonal alignment depends on the current snap angle. Ortho works with commands that require you to specify a second point. You can turn Ortho on and off at any time during drawing and editing. You can use Ortho not only to establish vertical or horizontal alignments but also to enforce parallelism or to create regular offsets from existing objects. By imposing orthogonal constraints, you can draw more quickly. For example, you can create a series of perpendicular lines by turning on Ortho mode before you start. Because the lines are constrained to be parallel to the horizontal and vertical axes, you know that the lines are perpendicular. As you move the cursor, a rubber-band line that defines the displacement follows the horizontal or vertical axis, depending on which axis is nearest to the cursor.

How to turn on or turn off Ortho mode


You can turn on or turn off Ortho mode through one of the following ways: 1. 2. 3. 4. On the status bar, press Ortho. On command line enter: ORTHO. On command line enter: DDRMODES. From the Tools menu, select the item Drawing Aids.

Using object snaps


Snapping to geometric points on objects
Object snaps constrain point specification to exact locations, such as a midpoint or an intersection, on existing objects. Using object snaps is a quick way to locate an exact position on an object without having to know the coordinate or draw construction lines. For example, you can use an object snap to draw a line to the center of a circle or to the midpoint of a polyline segment. You can specify an object snap whenever the tool prompts for a point. If IntelliSnap mode has been activated, the tool will display a mark in any snap point the pick box is positioned. This is then a visual help indicating which are the active object snaps.

Using object snaps


Most of the object snaps that are described here affect only objects visible on the screen, including objects on locked layers and polyline segments. You cannot snap to objects that are not visible, such as objects not displayed, objects on turned-off or frozen layers, or the blank portions of dashed lines. The tool supports the following object snaps: Endpoint Endpoint snaps to the closest endpoint of objects such as lines or arcs. Intersection Intersection snaps to the intersection of objects such as lines, circles, arcs, and splines. Midpoint Midpoint snaps to the midpoint of objects such as lines or arcs. Perpendicular Perpendicular snaps to the point on an object that forms a normal, or perpendicular alignment, with another object or with an imaginary extension of that object. You can use the Perpendicular object snap with arcs, circles, ellipses, lines, polylines, or splines. 104

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Center Center snaps to the center of an arc, circle, or ellipse. When you snap to the center, select a visible part of the arc, circle, or ellipse. Tangent Tangent snaps to the point on an arc, circle then forming a tangent to another object. Insert Insert snaps to the insertion point of a block or a text. Node Node snaps to a point object drawn with the POINT command. Nearest Nearest snaps to a point object or snaps to the location on another type of object that is closest to the point specified. None Turns off Object Snap mode.

Object snaps working mode


The tool provides for two different working modes for object snaps: a standard one and another one, similar to that found in Autocad. It is possible to choose the kind of object snap to activate either by the settings specified in File>Preferences> User Interface menu, or by F3 button.

Standard Mode
The choice of a snap performed by the object snap standard working mode is valid for all the following requests for points, until the snap is deactivated.

AutoCAD Mode
In AutoCAD, when a snap is activated inside a command, this is valid only for the following request for point and not for further requests.

Activating object snaps from the dialog box


1. From the Tools menu, choose Object Snap Settings. The following dialog box will appear:

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2. In the Execute Osnap tab, select the object snaps you want to use. 3. To change the size of the target box, drag the slider bar under Aperture Size. 4. Choose OK.

Activating object snaps from toolbar


In order to quick turn the object snap on, it is possible to use the Osnap toolbar where each button identifies an object snap type. To activate the object snap click on the corresponding button, which will stay "pressed". The "pressed" state of a button means that the corresponding snap is active. In order to turn an object snap off, click on the button "pressed" so that it will become "normal" again.

IntelliSnap
Every time you use object snap settings, when the cursor is on a snap point Intellisnap displays a symbol. Intellisnap is automatically activated when you activate object snaps from Object snap settings dialog box or from Osnap toolbar. After a drawing command has been set, by moving the cursor on the object, Intellisnap indicates the snap points. IntelliSnap is made of the following tools: Symbol: it shows the position of the object snap when the cursor is positioned on an object or in its neighbourhood. The symbol shape depends on the snap indicated. Magnet: attracts and locks the cursor on the nearest located snap points. It is then a visual guide, similar to the execution of the snap on grid.

How to change IntelliSnap settings


1. From Tools menu, choose Object snap settings. From the appearing dialog box select IntelliSnap tab:

2.

You can change settings according to your needs:

o o o o
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Active IntelliSnap: turns IntelliSnap mode on or off. Symbol: turns the snap symbol display on or off. Magnet: turns magnet mode on or off. Activate every: you can set how much time has to pass before the symbol appears on the object snap again.

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o
3.

Size: adjusts the size of the symbol.

o Color: changes the color of the symbol. Choose OK.

Snap to topographic points Snap to single topographic point


Any command asking to indicate a point on graphic window can be answered by entering the name of the topographic point to use. The point indicated will be searched for in the file and, if it is found, the tool will use its coordinates. In this way, to create, for example, a line between points, it is not necessary to click exactly on points with Snap to node but it is sufficient to answer with the name of the two points.

Multiple Snap to topographic points


By this function, the drawing commands of line, polyline and derived objects (parcels, topographic sections, topographic profiles, planimetry polylines, etc.) can be inserted by specifying the group of points to join. The request for the point can be answered with the first and the last point to join. For example, the request for the first point of a line can be answered with 100*110. In this case the tool will create automatically a line joining points 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109 and 110.

Specifying intervals on an object


Sometimes you need to create points or insert named sets of objects (blocks) at intervals on an object. You can:

Specify the length of the segments (MEASURE) Specify the number of equal segments (DIVIDE)

You can measure or divide lines, arcs, circles, and polylines. With both methods, you can identify the intervals by inserting either a point or a block. By specifying points, you can use the Node object snap to align other objects at intervals on the measured or divided object. By specifying blocks, you can create precise geometric constructions or insert custom symbols. The blocks can rotate at each insertion point.

Specifying measured intervals on an object


To create points or insert groups of objects with name (blocks) on an object at given intervals, it is possible to specify the length of the segment which determines that interval, i.e. the measure of the interval. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar: COGO Menu Drawing > Point > Measure Menu Survey > COGO > Measure Command line: MEASURE

The tool displays the following prompts: Block/ Point or Topographic point/<T>: indicate the kind of object to insert; in case of point or topographic point the prompts are the following:

Segment length: enter interval length; Select object 107

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Window /poiNT/Previous/All/Fence/Remove/Point Code/Quick selection/Cancel/<N>: Select the objects on which to insert the point or the topographic point (lines, arcs, circles, polylines); The tool locates the points on the objects at specified intervals.

In case of blocks the following window will appear:

The following requests must be set in the window: Insertion settings. Insertion step: define the distance between blocks; Layer: choose the blocks destination layer; Subproject: indicate the drawing subproject where to insert the blocks; Elevation settings. Elevation by object. The block elevation is assumed as equal to that of the object selected; Elevation fixed. The elevation is set at a fixed value; Elevation by 3D model. The elevation is calculated as equal to that of a reference digital model; Block settings. Block: specify the block to be introduced by choosing it from the list; Scale: define the object scale factor; Rotation: set the rotation angle by which the block will be introduced.

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By activating the option Block direction by object it is possible to make the block rotation vary according to the object position.

Dividing an object into equal segments


To create points or insert groups of objects with name (blocks) on an object at fixed intervals it is possible to specify the number of the interval subdivisions. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar: COGO Menu Drawing > Point > Divide Menu Survey > COGO > Divide Command line: DIVIDE

The tool displays the following requests: Block/ Point or Topographic point/<T>: indicate the kind of object to insert; in case of point or topographic point the tool further requests are:

Number of segments: specify the number of segments that subdivide the interval; Select object Window /poiNT/Previous/All/Fence/Remove/Point Code/Quick selection/Cancel/<N>: Select the objects on which to insert the point or the topographic point (lines, arcs, circles, polylines);

The tool locates the points on the objects at specified intervals.

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In case of blocks the following window will appear:

In the window it is necessary to set the following requests: Insertion settings Number of segments: specify the number of segments that subdivide the interval; Layer: choose the block destination layer Subproject: indicate the drawing subproject where to insert the blocks;

Elevation settings. Elevation by object. The block elevation is assumed as equal to that of the object selected; Elevation fixed. The elevation is set at a fixed value; Elevation by 3D model. The elevation is calculated as equal to that of a reference digital model; Block settings Block: specify the block to introduce by choosing it from the list; Scale: define the object scale factor; Rotation: set the rotation angle by which the block will be introduced.

By activating the option Block direction by object it is possible to make the block rotation vary according to the object position.

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Calculating areas
You can calculate and display the area and perimeter of a sequence of points or of any of several types of objects. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar: Info Menu Dimension > Area Command line: AREA

The tool displays the following prompts: Object Area/Internal point/First point/<P>: define the mode to use to specify the area to calculate.

How to calculate the area of an object


1. 2. 3. From the Tools menu, choose Area. On the command line, enter o (Object). Select an object.

The tool displays the area and perimeter of the selected object. By this command it is possible to obtain the area also of Hatch type objects.

How to calculate a defined area

If an area has already been defined in the graphic, by Internal point it is possible to calculate a closed area simply by indicating a point inside it. The tool will calculate automatically the limits of the calculation and return the corresponding area. The area calculated will then be highlighted by a transparent hatch. It is possible to indicate an area by specifying the points according to a sequence that defines the perimeter of the area to measure by choosing First point. Then press ENTER. The tool links the first and the last point to form a closed area and displays the measure of the perimeter and area calculated.

Calculating distances
The tool allows to calculate different types of distances:

Distance between two points; Multiple distance on more points; Point-straight line distance;

Distance between two points


1. 2. From the Tools menu, choose Distance . Specify the first and the second point of the distance to be calculated. The following information is displayed:

o o

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Multiple distance on more points


1. 2. From the Tools menu, choose Distance Specify a sequence of points. Besides this information, the tool also returns the multiple length of the segments linked to the specified points. .

Point-straight line distance


1. 2. 3. From the Tools menu, choose Point-Straight line distance. Indicate the first and the second point of the straight-line. Indicate the point whose distance from the straight-line has to be calculated. The tool displays the distance between the point indicated and the straight line.

3D distance between two polylines


By this command it is possible to determine the elevation difference between two 3D polylines on their intersection point. This command is very important in testing for example the free heights to observe in subways; in fact, it is possible to check the elevation difference between the edges of the two roads. 1. 2. 3. From Tools menu choose Intersection 3D distance. Indicate the first polyline. Indicate the second polyline. The command line displays intersection point coordinates, elevation difference between the two polylines and their elevation on the intersection.

Calculating angles
You can calculate the angle between the two points by selecting them and the center of the angle.

Calculating angles
1. 2. 3. From the Tools menu, choose Angle. Specify the center of the angle. Specify the two points forming the angle.

The calculated angle is displayed.

Identifying a point
In order to know exactly the coordinates of a point, you can use the command ID.

How to identify a point


1. 2. From Tools menu, choose ID . Specify the point you want to know the coordinates.

The tool displays the X, Y and Z coordinates of the point indicated.

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Selecting objects
To work with existing objects, you need to select them. With the tool, you can enter a command and then select the objects. The most common selection options are covered in the following sections.

Selecting objects individually


In response to the Select Objects prompt, you can select one or more objects individually. The objects you select will be highlighted.

To select a single object


1. 2. 3. At the Select Objects prompt of any command, move the rectangular pickbox cursor so that it touches the object that you want to select. Click the object. The object you selected is highlighted. Press ENTER to end object selection.

How to select a topographic point by name


1. When the prompt Select objects of any command appears, answer by entering the name of the topographic point to select.

Selecting multiple objects


In response to the Select Objects prompt, you can select many objects at the same time. For example it is possible to: specify a rectangular area where all the objects are then selected select all the objects visible in the graphic window. specify a selection fence that selects all the objects it intersects select again the objects selected by the previous command

Specifying a rectangular selection area


You can select objects by specifying opposite corners to define a rectangular area. After specifying the first corner point, you can:

Drag your cursor from left to right to create an enclosing window selection. Only objects that the rectangular window entirely encloses are selected. Drag your cursor from right to left to create a crossing selection. Objects that the rectangular window encloses or crosses are selected.

Selecting all the entities visible in the graphic window


1. 2. 3. 4. Activate a command that prompts for the selection of more objects. Select objects Window / poiNt / Previous / All / Fence / Remove / point Code punti / Cancel. Select the option A (All). All the objects visible will be selected. Continue the execution of the command.

Specifying a selection fence


You can select objects in a complex drawing easily by using a selection fence. A selection fence has a similar appearance to a polyline and selects only the objects it passes through; it does not select objects by enclosing them. 113

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1. At the Select Objects prompt, enter f (Fence). 2. Specify points to create a fence that passes through the objects you want to select. 3. Press ENTER to complete the selection.

Selecting a group of topographic points by name


1. 2. Activate a command requesting the selection of more objects. Answer with the name of the first and the last point to select, separating them with a *. The request can be answered, for example, with b: in this way all the points from 100 to 110 will be selected.

Selection by topographic point code


It is possible to select automatically a group of survey points by specifying their code. 1. 2. 3. When the prompt Select objects appears, digit C (Code). On command line specify the code of the points to be selected. Press ENTER to complete selection.

Selection of the entities selected in the previous command.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. Activate a command that prompts for the selection of more objects. Select objects Window / poiNt / Previous / All / Fence / Remove / point Code punti / Cancel. Select the option P (Previous). All the objects selected in the last selection will be automatically selected. Continue the execution of the command.

Quick select
By this command it is possible to select graphic entities according to their basic properties (layer, colour, linetype, block name, code, etc.). By this mode it becomes very easy to select entities with peculiar features; for example, all the entities with a colour not included in a layer as well as all the references to a particular block. The selection is performed by taking into consideration the identity or the diversity of the properties: for example, it is possible to select entities with a colour either equal to or different from. Toolbar Modify Menu Tools > Quick Select Command line: QSELECT

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The filters that can be applied to the selection are the following: Subproject: it is possible to specify whether an entity belongs or does not belong to a subproject. Entity: it is possible to specify the kind of entity to select or not. Layer: it is possible to specify the layer to which the entities to be selected belong or do not belong. Color: it is possible to specify the colour the entity to be selected will/will not have. Linetype: it is possible to specify the linetype the entity to be selected will/will not have. Lineweight: it is possible to specify the lineweight the entity to be selected will/will not have. Code: this filter is available only if the entity to be selected is a Block, Survey sight, Baseline, Survey point, Planimetry polyline entity; it is possible to select only the entities with a specific code. Press OK to start the automatic selection. It is then possible to apply a command to the elements selected. Quick select can be activated from all the commands for the selection of objects; it is sufficient to select the option Quick select from command line.

Remove objects from selection


By Remove option it is possible to remove, from the current selection group, objects selected before. The option is available whenever it is necessary to select some objects from the graphic window. The command can be activated as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enter a command that prompts for the selection of different objects. Select objects by any mode. Select objects Window/poiNt/Previous/All/Fence/Remove/point Code/Quick select/canceL/<N>: Select option R (Remove). Remove objects Window/poiNt/<N>: Select the objects to be removed from selection group. Continue the execution of the command. 115

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Preventing objects from being selected


You can prevent objects on specified layers from being selected and modified by locking those layers. Typically, you lock layers to prevent accidental editing of particular objects. Other operations are still possible when a layer is locked. For example, you can make a locked layer current, and you can add objects to it. You can also use inquiry commands (such as LIST), use object snaps to specify points on objects on locked layers, and change the display order of objects on locked layers.

How to lock or unlock a layer


1. 2. 3. From the Objects toolbar, click the Layer Control . Click the Lock/Unlock icon for the layers that you want to lock. If the padlock is closed, the layer is locked and objects on that layer cannot be selected.

Modifying objects
With the tool, you can easily modify the size, shape, and location of objects. You can either enter a command first and then select the objects to modify or you can use grips and the Objects toolbar for many editing tasks.

Erasing objects
You can remove unwanted objects or copies of objects from your drawing by erasing them, using ERASE command. ERASE works with all the available selection methods. To restore accidentally erased objects, use Undo. To erase objects, you can also use the following commands:

To remove the plus-shaped markers, refresh the screen with REDRAW, instead of using ERASE. To remove objects with name, extra block definitions, layers, linetypes or text styles, use PURGE.

How to erase quickly the objects selected


1. To erase quickly the objects selected, press CANC button on board.

How to erase an object


1. 2. 3. From the Edit menu, choose Erase . At the Select objects prompt, choose one of the methods of selection for the objects to be erased. Press ENTER to complete the command.

Moving objects
You can move objects without changing their orientation or size. By using coordinates and object snaps, you can move objects with precision. The objects you selected are moved to a new location determined by the distance and direction between the first and the second points that you specified. You can also move an object using relative coordinates by entering coordinate values for the first point and pressing ENTER for the second point of displacement. This instructs the tool to use the coordinate values as a relative displacement rather than a base point. The objects you selected are moved to a new location determined by the relative coordinate values you entered.

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To move an object using two points


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Modify menu, choose Move Select the objects to move. Press ENTER. Specify a base point for the move. Specify a second point (the point of displacement). The objects you selected are moved to a new location determined by the distance and direction between the first and the second points that you specified. .

To move an object using a relative displacement


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Modify menu, choose Move Select the object to move. Press ENTER. Specify a base point for the move. At the prompt of second point of displacement, enter the displacement in the form of relative coordinates (by using the @ symbol) Cartesian or polar value. .

Rotating objects
You can rotate objects around a point. To determine the angle of rotation, you enter an angle value or specify base points. You can also rotate objects to align with other objects.

Rotating an object by a specified angle


You can rotate an object around a base point by specifying a relative angle using one of two methods:

Enter a rotation angle value from 0 to 400 degrees. Drag the object around the base point and specify a second point. Turning on Ortho mode or using object snaps for the second point is often useful with this method.

1. From the Modify menu, choose Rotate 2. Select the object to rotate. 3. Specify the base point for the rotation. 4. Do one of the following:

Enter the rotation angle. Drag the object around its base point and specify a point location to which you want to rotate the object.

Rotating an object to an absolute angle


You can rotate an object around a base point specifying a new absolute angle using the Reference option of ROTATE. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Modify menu, choose Rotate Select the object to rotate. Specify the base point for the rotation. Enter r (Reference). Do one of the following: .

Enter an absolute angle for the reference. Specify one point location on the object being rotated for the reference. 117

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6.

Then, do one of the following:

Enter the absolute angle to which you want to rotate the object. Drag the object around its base point and specify a point location to which you want to align the object.

Copying objects
You can create duplicates of objects at a specified distance from the original. You specify the distance and direction by two points, a from point and a to point, called the base point and the second point of displacement, respectively. These points can be located anywhere within the drawing. You can also copy an object or a selection set multiple times without leaving the COPY command.

To copy an object
1. 2. 3. 4. From the Modify menu, choose Copy . Select the objects to copy and press ENTER. Specify the base point. Specify the second point of displacement.

To copy an object multiple times


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the Modify menu, choose Copy . Select the objects to copy and press ENTER. Enter m (Multiple). Specify the base point. Specify the second point of displacement. Specify the next point of displacement. Continue inserting copies, or press ENTER to end the command.

Mirroring objects
Mirroring creates a mirror image of objects. It is useful for creating symmetrical objects because you can quickly draw half the object and then mirror it rather than drawing the entire object. You flip objects about an axis called mirror line to create a mirror image. To specify this temporary mirror line, you enter two points. You can choose whether to delete or retain the original objects.

How to mirror objects


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Modify menu, choose Mirror . Select the objects to mirror and press ENTER. Specify the first point of the mirror line. Specify the second point. Press ENTER to retain the original objects, or enter y to delete them.

Offsetting objects
Offsetting creates a new object whose shape parallels the shape of a selected object. Offsetting a circle or an arc creates a larger or smaller circle or arc, depending on which side you specify for the offset. The command allows to generate a multiple series of objects, and it is also possible to specify an elevation difference to apply to the objects involved in the offset, thus creating 3D offsets.

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You can offset:

Lines Arcs Circles 2D polylines

To offset an object by specifying a distance


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the Modify menu, choose Offset . Enter d to specify the Offset Distance option. Enter a value to specify the offset distance. Alternatively, you can specify two point locations to determine the offset distance. Specify an elevation difference to apply. Indicate how many times the object must be repeated to create a multiple series. Select the object to offset. Specify a point on the side where you want to place the new objects. Select another object to offset, or press ENTER to end the command.

To offset an object through a point



From the Modify menu, choose Offset Enter p to specify the Through point option. Select the object to offset. Specify the through point. Select another object to offset or press ENTER to end the command. .

Trimming and extending objects


You can shorten or lengthen objects to touch the edges, projected edges, or extrapolated edges of other objects. This means you can create an object such as a line first and then later adjust it to fit exactly between other objects. Objects you select as cutting edges or boundary edges are not required to intersect the object being trimmed. You can trim or extend an object to an extrapolated intersection; that is, where the objects would intersect if they were extended.

Trimming
You can trim objects so that they end precisely at boundary edges defined by other objects. Cutting edges can be lines, arcs, circles, polylines and ellipses. 1. 2. 3. From the Modify menu, choose Trim .

Select the objects that will serve as cutting edges and press ENTER. To select all objects in the drawing as potential cutting edges, press ENTER without selecting any objects. Select the objects that you want trimmed and press ENTER.

Extending
Extending operates the same way as trimming. You can extend objects so they end precisely at boundary edges defined by other objects. 119

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1. 2. 3.

From the Modify menu, choose Extend

Select the objects that will serve as boundary edges and press ENTER. To select all objects in the drawing as potential boundary edges, press ENTER without selecting any objects. Select the objects to extend and press ENTER.

Editing polylines
In addition to the general editing operations available for most objects, there are additional options available for editing polylines with PEDIT, PEDIT2. Close. Creates the closing segment of the polyline, connecting the last segment with the first. Open. Cuts the closing segment of the polyline which connects the last vertex with the first. Invert. Inverts the points in the polyline so that the last vertex becomes the first, the one before the last becomes the second, and so on. Insert internally. Inserts a vertex in a polyline segment. Insert on extreme. Inserts a vertex on one of the two extremities of the polyline. Delete vertex. Deletes one vertex of the polyline. Join. Adds lines, arcs, or polylines to the end of an open polyline. For an object to join the polyline, their endpoints must touch. Spline. Uses the vertexes of the selected polyline as the control points, or frame, of a spline-fit polyline. The curve passes through the first and last control points unless the original polyline was closed. Curve. Transforms the polylines selected into polylines made up of a continuous sequence of tangent arcs. Only lines. Transforms the arcs of the polylines selected into segments approximating the arc. The approximation of the segment is set by defining arc-chord distance. Shorter this distance, better will be the approximation of the segments on the curve; moreover, it is possible to set the number or the length of the segments and, if necessary, to insert vertexes on linear segments, breaking the linear segment of the polyline into different parts. Not available for Topko Express. Reduce vertexes: Allows to delete automatically polyline vertexes situated too close to other vertexes or lined up. Not available for Topko Express.

To edit a polyline
1. 2. 3. From the Modify menu, choose Objects and then Polyline Select the polyline to modify. At the Command prompt, edit the polyline by choosing one or more of the following options. .

Enter c (Close) to create a closed polyline. Enter o (Open) to open a closed polyline. Enter v (inVert) to invert the direction of the polyline. Enter i (insert Internally) to insert a new vertex in a polyline segment. Enter e (insert on Extreme) to insert a new vertex out of the polyline. Enter d (Delete vertex) to delete a polyline vertex. Enter j (Join) to add lines, arcs or polylines to the end of an open polyline. Enter s (Spline) to create an approximation of a spline. Digitize cu (CUrve) to transform the polyline into a set of tangent curves. Digitize l (only Lines) to transform the polyline into a set of segments by linearizing the arcs in the polyline and, if necessary, breaking the rectilinear segments into different parts.

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Enter r (Reduce) to reduce the number of vertexes of a polyline..

Scaling objects
With scaling you can make an object larger or smaller, but you cannot alter its proportions. You can scale it by specifying a base point and a length, which is used as a scale factor based on the current drawing units, or by entering a scale factor. You can also specify the current length and a new length for the object. Scaling changes the size of all dimensions of the selected object. A scale factor greater than 1 enlarges the object. A scale factor less than 1 shrinks the object. You can also scale by reference. Scaling by reference uses an existing measurement as a basis for the new size. To scale by reference, specify the current measurement and then the new desired size. For example, if one side of an object is 4.8 units long and you want to expand it to 7.5 units, use 4.8 as the reference length. You can use the Reference option to scale an entire drawing. For example, use this option when the original drawing units need to be changed. Select all objects in the drawing. Then use Reference to select two points and specify the intended distance. All the objects in the drawing are scaled accordingly. You can also specify the reference length by selecting a base point and two reference points and dragging to specify the new scale.

To scale an object by a scale factor


1. 2. 3. 4. From the Modify menu, choose Scale Select the object to scale. Specify the base point. Enter the scale factor. .

To scale an object by reference


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the Modify menu, choose Scale Select the object to scale. Select the base point. Enter r (Reference). Enter the value of the reference length. Enter the value for the new length. .

Stretch Objects
By stretch command it is possible to shift some vertexes of the objects selected to a new position, while keeping unaltered the position of the remaining vertexes. CAD allows to stretch arcs, lines and polylines intersecting a check box; the command moves the vertexes inside the window, while keeping unaltered the ones outside it. Any object situated completely inside the window is moved as with Shift command. The command can be activated as follows: Tollbar Modify Menu Modify > Stretch Command line: STRETCH

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Select objects. Specify first corner: Carry out the selection by moving the mouse from right to left . Base point: Specify shift base point Shift second point: Specify shift point

Align objects
By ALIGN command it is possible to apply a transformation to the graphic elements in the drawing, directly in the CAD window, and interactively; three transformation modes are available: fixed, with scale variation and affine to 6 parameters. The command can be activated as follows: Menu Modify > Align Command line: ALIGN

The process can be carried out by applying three kinds of transformations:

Fixed: Performs a transformation on the points indicated without scale variation. Scale: Performs a transformation on the points indicated with scale variation. Affine: Performs a transformation on the points indicated applying the algorithm affine to 6 parameters (two translations, two rotations, two scale variations).

On the command line the following prompts will appear: Mode Fixed/Scaled/Affine/<S>: choose the kind of transformation to be applied Select objects: Select the entities to be aligned Origin point: Indicate origin point Destination point: Indicate destination point Cancel last point / origin point: it is possible to annul the last point indicated as well as to continue by choosing new reference points.

The last two prompts are repeated for all the control points desired. To interrupt press Enter or the mouse right button.

Creating fillets
Filleting connects two objects with a smoothly fitted arc of a specified radius. Although in traditional paper-based drafting an inside corner is called a fillet and an outside corner is called a round, you can create both using FILLET. Using FILLET is also a convenient method of creating an arc with a specified radius that is tangent to two selected objects. FILLET can be used to round all corners on a polyline using a single command. If both objects being filleted are on the same layer, the fillet line is created on that layer. Otherwise, the fillet line is created on the current layer. The layer affects the fillet color and linetype.

The fillet radius is the radius of the arc that connects filleted objects. Changing the fillet radius affects subsequent fillets. If you set the fillet radius to 0, filleted objects will be trimmed or extended until they meet, but no arc is created.

Setting the fillet radius

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Filleting an entire polyline

You can fillet an entire polyline or remove fillets from an entire polyline. If you set a nonzero fillet radius, the tool inserts fillet arcs at each vertex where two line segments meet and the segments are long enough to accommodate the fillet radius.

How to fillet two line segments


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the Modify menu, choose Fillet Enter r (Radius). Enter a value for the radius. Press ENTER to activate the FILLET command again. Select the first line. Select the second line. .

How to fillet an entire polyline


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the Modify menu, choose Fillet Enter r (Radius). Enter a value for the radius. Press ENTER to activate the FILLET command again. Enter p (Polyline). Select the polyline. .

Creating chamfers in objects


Using CHAMFER is a fast way of creating a line between two nonparallel lines. It is usually used to represent a beveled edge on a corner. CHAMFER can also be used to bevel all corners of a polyline. If both objects being chamfered are on the same layer, the chamfer line is created on that layer. Otherwise, the chamfer line is created on the current layer. The layer affects the chamfer color and linetype.

Chamfering by specifying distances


The chamfer distance is the amount each object is trimmed or extended to meet the chamfer line or to intersect the other. If both chamfer distances are 0, chamfering trims or extends the two objects until they meet but does not create a chamfer line. The default setting for the first distance is the last distance specified. Because symmetrical distances are common, the default setting for the second distance is whatever you chose for the first distance. However, you can reset the chamfer distances. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the Modify menu, choose Chamfer Enter d (Distance). Enter the first chamfer distance. Enter the second chamfer distance. Press ENTER to activate CHAMFER command again. Select the first line. Select the second line. .

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Chamfering an entire polyline


When you chamfer an entire polyline, each intersection is chamfered. For best results, keep the first and second chamfer distances equal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the Modify menu, choose Chamfer Enter d (Distance). Enter the first chamfer distance. Enter the second chamfer distance. Press ENTER to activate the CHAMFER command again. Enter p (Polyline). Select the polyline. .

The polyline is chamfered using the current chamfer method and the default distances.

Creating breaks in objects


Using BREAK is a convenient way of creating a gap in an object, resulting in two objects with a space between them. BREAK is often used to create space for a block insert or text. You can create breaks in:

arcs circles lines polylines

When breaking an object, you can: Select the object at the first break point and then specify a second break point Select the entire object and then specify two break points

How to break an object


1. 2. From the Modify menu, choose Break . Select the object to break. By default, the point at which you select the object will be the first break point. To choose a different pair of break points, enter f (First) and specify the first break point. Specify the second break point.

3.

Exploding objects
You can explode a compound object such as a polyline, hatch, or block reference to convert it into individual elements. For example, exploding a polyline breaks it down to simple lines and arcs.

How to explode an object


1. 2. From the Modify menu, choose Explode Select the objects to be exploded. .

Using grips to edit objects


Grips are small boxes that appear at strategic points on objects selected with a pointing device. You can drag these grips to perform stretch, move, or copy operations. 124

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Using grip modes

Grips are displayed when you select an object with the pointing device. To turn off grips press ESC.

Each time the object varies, different kinds of grips are activated:

lines:

two arrow-shaped extremities that allow to extend the object while keeping the line direction; two squared grips that allow to activate all the possible modifications to the object (default grip mode Stretch) a median grip to move the object.

polyilines:


arcs:

modify the position of the extreme vertex while keeping the position of the last segment constituting the polyline; squared grips on each vertex that allow to activate all the possible modifications to the object (default grip mode Stretch).

two arrow-shaped extremities that allow to modify the position of the extreme vertex while keeping the radius; 125

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blocks:

squared grips on each vertex that allow to activate all the possible modifications to the object (default grip mode Stretch) with reference to the vertex itself. squared grips on each vertex that allow to activate all the possible modifications to the object (default grip mode Stretch) with reference to the vertex itself; an arrow-shaped median grip allowing to modify the radius or create copies of the object while keeping the central angle constant; an intermediate grip that allows to move the object.


texts:

just one grip allows to move or copy the object; it is not possible to operate on the rotation by grips.

a basic grip to activate all the possible modifications to the object (default grip mode Stretch); the second grip allows to rotate the text from the base grip.

The grips located on the text, on block references, on the midpoint of lines, in the centre of a circle and on points do not allow to stretch objects. In this way it becomes easy to move block references and adjust dimensions.

Stretching with grips

You can stretch an object by moving selected grips to new locations. The extremity grips of lines, polylines and arcs indicated by an arrow allow to extend the object while keeping the original direction.

How to stratch an object by grips


1. 2. 3. Select the objects to stretch. Select by mouse an object base or extremity grip. The grip selected is highlighted and default Stretch grip mode is activated. Move the pointing device indicating the new position, or enter a distance or a coordinate value. The object selected will be stretched following the grip motion.

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Moving with grips


You can move objects by the grip select. Selected objects are highlighted and are moved the direction and distance of the next point location you specify.

How to move objects by grips


1. 2. Select the object to move. Select on the object the grip involved in the shift. The grip selected will be highlighted and default Stretch grip mode will be activated.

3. Move the pointing device indicating the new position, or enter a distance or a coordinate value. The objects selected will be stretched following the grip motion.

Offset by grip
It is possible to perform the offset of objects by grip mode.

How to create an offset by any grip mode


1. 2. 3. 4. Select the objects on which to perform the offset. Select by mouse a basic grip on an object. The grip selected will be highlighted and default Stretch grip mode will be activated. Enter o (Offset). Specify the offset by entering distance or point. Deactivate grips by pressing ESC button.

Multiple copies by grips


You can create multiple copies of objects as you modify them with any of the grip modes.

How to create copies by any grip mode


1. 2. 3. 4. Select the objects to copy. Select a base grip on an object by clicking the grip. The selected grip is highlighted, and the default grip mode, Stretch, is active. Enter c (Copy). The tool makes copies until you turn off grips. Turn off grips by pressing ESC.

Rotate texts by grips


It is possible to perform a rapid rotation of the texts by two equivalent modes.

How to rotate texts by grips


1. 2. Select text to be rotated. Two grips are activated:

Selecting the first grip by mouse, default Stretch grip mode is activated; enter r (Rotate); move the pointing device in the graphic as far as the new position. By selecting the second grip it is possible to define the rotation from the basic grip; move the pointing device in the graphic as far as the new position or enter an angular value.

3.

Deactivate grips by pressing ESC button.

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Controlling color, linetype, and other properties


As you create objects, the tool uses default settings for the color, layer, linetype, lineweight and other properties. You can specify these properties before you create a series of objects or change them afterwards. All objects in the CAD are drawn on layers. Objects can be made visible or invisible by turning their layers on and off. You can either associate the color and linetype properties of objects with their layer, or you can set color and linetype explicitly for each object.

Working with layers


Layers are the equivalent of the overlays used in paper-based drafting. They are the primary organizational tool in the CAD, and you use them to group information by function and to enforce linetype, color, and other standards. You can reduce the visual complexity of a drawing and improve display performance by controlling the number of objects that are displayed or concealed. For example, you can use layers to control the visibility of similar objects. Also, you can lock a layer to prevent objects on that layer from being accidentally selected and modified.

Using layers to manage complexity


By creating layers, you can associate similar types of objects by assigning them to the same layer. For example, you can put construction lines, text, and blocks on separate layers. You can then control:

Whether objects on a layer are visible Whether objects are plotted What color is assigned to all objects on a layer What default linetype is assigned to all objects on a layer Whether objects on a layer can be modified

Selecting a layer to draw on


As you draw, the CAD places newly created objects on the current layer. The current layer may be the default layer (0) or a layer you create and name yourself. You switch from one layer to another by making a different layer current, and any subsequent objects you create are associated with the new current layer and use its color and linetype. You cannot make a layer current if it is frozen or if it is an xref-dependent layer.

Controlling the visibility of objects on a layer


You can make drawing layers invisible either by turning them off or by freezing them. Turning off or freezing layers is useful if you need an unobstructed view when working in detail on a particular layer or set of layers or if you don't want to plot details such as reference lines. Whether you choose to freeze layers or turn them off depends on how you work and on the size of your drawing.

Assigning default color and linetypes to a layer


Each layer has an associated color, linetype and lineweight that can be applied to all objects on that layer. If the Color control on the Objects toolbar is set to By Layer, the color of new objects is determined by the color setting for the layer in the Layers dialog box. If you set a specific color in the Color control, that color is used for all new objects, overriding the default color for the current layer. The same is true for linetypes and the Linetype control on the Objects toolbar.

Controlling whether objects on a layer can be modified


When a layer is locked, none of the objects on that layer can be modified until you unlock the layer. Locking layers reduces the possibility of modifying objects accidentally. You can still apply object snaps to objects on a locked layer and perform other operations that do not modify those objects. 128

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Erasing layers

You can erase unused layers from the drawing by using the command PURGE. Layer 0 is the default layer for all the drawing and can never be removed.

Changing layer assignments and layer properties


Because everything in your drawing is associated with a layer, it's likely that in the course of planning and creating a drawing, you'll need to change what you place on a layer or how you view the layers in combination. You can:

Reassign objects on one layer to another Change the name of a layer Change the default color, linetype, or other properties of the layer

Reassigning an object to a different layer is useful if you create an object on the wrong layer or decide to change your layer organization. Unless the color or linetype of the object have been set explicitly, an object that you reassign to a different layer will acquire the color and linetype of that layer.

Layers dialog box


Layers dialog box can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Objects Menu Format > Layer Command line: DDLMODES

The following dialog box will appear:

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In Layers dialog box it is possible to make a specific layer current, to add new layers, to delete layers from the list and to rename an existing layer. It is possible to change color and linetype of several layers. It is possible to turn the layers on and off, to freeze and defreeze and to lock and unlock them. Show: it determines which of the layers will be displayed under Name list. It is possible to filter the layers according to the fact that they contain objects. Show all layers. It show all the layers in the drawing. Show all used layers. All layers used are listed. Show all not used layers. All layers not used are listed. New: Creates a new layer. Choosing New, the name Layer1 will appear in the list and it is possible to modify it immediately. By selecting an already existing layer from the list while you are creating a new layer, this one will inherit all the properties of the layer selected (Color, On/Off status and so on). Before starting the creation of layers by default settings, it is necessary to check that no layer in the list is selected or the layer selected has default settings. Delete: Deletes selected layers from the drawing file definition. It is possible to erase only those layers you will not refer to. Current: Sets the selected layer as current layer. List of layers: Shows the layers and their properties. To modify a property, click on the corresponding icon. In order to select all the layers rapidly, press the right button of the pointing device and use the cursor menu.

On/Off. When the layer is active, it is visible and available to be plotted. When a layer is not active, it is not visible and cannot be plotted. Freeze/Defreeze. A freezed layer is not visible and can't be regenerated and printed. A defreezed layer is visible and available for regeneration and printing. Lock/Unlock. A locked layer can't be modified; an unlocked layer can be modified. Plot. It is possible to specify whether the elements of a layer have to be printed or not. Color. It changes the color assigned to a layer. Select color dialog box will be displayed. Linetype. It changes the linetype assigned to a layer. Linetypes dialog box will be displayed. Line thickness. Thickness to be used for drawing lines

How to sort Layers dialog box lists


Mouse-click on the column heading according to which you want to sort the list. Mouse-click a second time to invert sorting.

How to create a new layer


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On the Objects toolbar, choose Layers In Layer dialog box, press button New. The tool adds automatically a layer name to the list of layers. Write the name you want to assign to the layer by digitizing it on the name highlighted. To change the default color or linetype of the layer, click twice on Color or Linetype and select the color or the linetype you want. .

In many of the tool programs and procedures it is possible to choose the layer to be assigned to the objects to be generated and, in the same window, it is also possible to create new layers. Therefore, it is not necessary to prearrange the layers before choosing them, since the tool allows to create them at the moment of the choice.

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The following window will appear:

By using New button it is possible to create a new layer.

How to remove an unused layer


1. 2. 3. From Objects toolbar, choose Layer . In Layer dialog box select the layer to delete. Press Delete button.

The layer specified is then deleted. The layer, to which objects have been assigned, can be deleted only when those objects are assigned to another layer or deleted. The layer 0 can't be removed.

How to make a selected layer the current layer


You can make a layer current by setting it in Layers dialog box or directly from Objects toolbar.

To make a layer current from the Layers dialog box.


1. 2. 3. From Objects toolbar, choose Layer . In Layer dialog box, select the line of the layer to make current and press button Current. Press OK.

To make a layer current from Objects toolbar.


1. Open the Layer list box and select the name of the layer to make current.

How to make a selected object layer the current layer


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On Objects toolbar, choose line.

Make object's layer current or digit command SETCL on command

Select object whose layer will become current: select an object. The layer of the object selected then becomes the current layer.

How to change the layer of an object Modify layer from toolbar


1. 2. Select the objects of which you wish to change the layer. In Objects toolbar choose the layer to assign to layer summary box.

Modify layer from properties window


1. 2. 3. On Objects toolbar, click on Properties . Select the objects whose layer you want to change. In the appearing dialog box, Properties tab, press button Layer and then choose the layer that you want to assign to the objects.

How to change the color or linetype assigned to a layer


1. 2. 3. From the Object toolbar choose Layers . In Layers dialog box click on the colour, the linetype or the thickness of the layer to be modified. In Select colour, Select linetype or Linetype thickness select a colour, a linetype or a thickness, then choose OK. If the linetype desired is not in the list, choose Load. Select the linetype desired, then press OK, or choose Browse to open other files of linetype definition (LIN). Choose OK again.

4.

In case you want to change the colour, the linetype or the thickness of a group of layers, it is sufficient to select them and click on Colour, Linetype or Thickness. The colour, linetype or thickness chosen will be assigned to all the layers selected.

How to rename a layer


1. 2. 3. On the Objects toolbar, choose Layer . In Layers dialog box under Name, select a layer to rename and enter the new name. Choose OK.

How to turn a layer on and off


1. 2. 3. On Objects toolbar, click on the Layer properties list box. Click on the On/Off icon of the layer name you want to turn on or turn off. If the light is on it means that the layer is active.

Alternative procedure
1. 2. 3. On the Objects toolbar, choose . In Layer dialog box, click on the On/Off icon of the layer you want to turn on or off. Choose OK.

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How to turn off a layer by selecting objects (not available for Topko Express)
By this command it is possible to turn off the layers of the objects selected. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format > Layers Utility > Layer off Command line: LAYOFF On command line the following prompt will appear: Select objects on the layer to be turned off:

Advanced commands for layer management


The following commands are available for layer management:

command to shift selected objects onto current layer command to isolate the layers of the objects selected command to turn off the layers of the objects selected command to turn on all layers command to lock the layers of the objects selected command to unlock the layers of the objects selected

Shift selected objects onto current layer


By this command it is possible to shift all the objects selected onto the current layer. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format: Layers utility > Set current layer Command line: LAYCL On command line the following prompt will appear: Select objects to assign to current layer:

Isolate the layers of the objects selected


By this command it is possible to isolate the layers of the objects selected by turning off all the other layers. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format: Layers utility > Layer isolate Command line: LAYISO On command line the following prompt will appear: Select the objects on the layers to isolate:

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Turn off the layers of the objects selected


By this command it is possible to turn off the layers of the objects selected. The command can be activated in one of the following ways: Toolbar Layers Menu Format: Layers utility > Layer off Command line: LAYOFF On command line the following prompt will appear: Select the objects on the layers to turn off:

Turn all layers on


By this command it is possible to turn on all the layers available in a work. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format: Layers utility > Turn all layers on Command line: LAYON

Lock layers of selected objects


By this command it is possible to lock the layers of the objects selected. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format: Layers utility > Layer lock Command line: LAYLCK On command line the following prompt will appear: Select the objects on the layer to be locked:

Unlock the layers of the objects selected


By this command it is possible to unlock the layers of the objects selected. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar Layers Menu Format > Layers utility > Layer unlock Command line: LAYULK On command line the following prompt will appear: Select the objects on the layer to be unlocked:

Working with colors


You can use color to help you group objects visually. You can assign the color of an object either by layer or by specifying its color explicitly, independent of layer. Assigning colors by layer makes it easy to identify each layer within your drawing. Assigning colors explicitly provides additional distinctions between objects on the same layer. 134

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Setting the current color


All objects are created using the current color, which is displayed in the Color control list box on the Objects toolbar. You can also set the current color with the Color control. If the current color is set to ByLayer, objects are created with the color assigned to the current layer. If you do not want the current color to be the color assigned to the current layer, you can specify a different color explicitly. Each color is identified by a CAD Color Index number, an integer from 0 through 255. Standard color names are available only for colors 0 to 6. The colors are assigned as follows:

(0) Red (1) Yellow (2) Green (3) Cyan (4) Blue (5) Magenta (6) White/Black

Changing the color of an object


You have three choices for changing the color of an object. You can:

Reassign the object to another layer with a different color. If an object's color is set to BYLAYER and you reassign the object to a different layer, it will acquire its color from the new layer. Change the color assigned to the layer that the object is on. If an object's color is set to BYLAYER, it will acquire the color of its layer. When you change the color assigned to a layer, all objects on that layer with a BYLAYER color will be updated automatically. Specify a color for an object to override the layer's color. You can specify the color of each object explicitly. If you want to override the layer-determined color of an object with a different one, change an existing object's color from BYLAYER to a specific color such as Red.

If you want to set a specific color for all subsequently created objects, change the current color setting on the Objects toolbar from BYLAYER to a specific color.

Setting the current color


1. 2. On the Objects toolbar, click the Color Control list box. Set the current color by using one of the following modes:

Choose a color to be assigned to all new objects. Click Other to display the Select Color dialog box. In the Select Color dialog box, choose a color or enter the color name or number in the Color box. Then choose OK. If you choose BYLAYER, new objects acquire the color assigned to the current layer.

The Color Control displays the current color.

Changing the color of an object Modify toolbar colour


1. 2. Select the objects of which to change the colour. In Objects toolbar choose the colour to set from colour summary table.

Modify colour from property window


1. On the Objects toolbar, choose Properties . 135

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2. 3.

Select the objects whose color you want to change. In Properties tab press button Color and choose the color you want to assign to objects.

Modify colour according to layer


This utility command allows to assign to the objects selected the colour propertyBy layer. In this way, the object colour will be controlled by the layer.

1. 2.

In Modify toolbar, click on Object color by layer color. Select the objects whose colour has to be changed.

Working with linetypes


A linetype is a repeating pattern of dashes, dots, and blank spaces displayed in a line or a curve. You assign linetypes to objects either by layer or by specifying the linetype explicitly, independent of layers. In addition to choosing a linetype, you can set its scale to control the size of the dashes and spaces, and you can create your own custom linetypes. You can use PURGE command to remove the linetypes which are not used by the drawing.

Linetypes dialog box


Linetypes dialog box can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Objects > Linetypes, Other Menu Format > Linetype Command line: DDLTYPE The following dialog box will appear:

In Linetypes dialog box a list of available linetypes is displayed and it is possible to make a specified linetype current, load new linetypes and modify the global scale factor. Global scale factor: displays the global scale factor of all linetypes. Current scale factor: displays the current object scale factor.

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Current: Sets as current linetype the selected linetype or displays BYLAYER. By setting the linetype with the option BYLAYER the object will assume the linetype assigned to a particular layer. Load: displays Load linetypes dialog box:

Select one or more linetypes and choose OK. If the linetype needed is not listed, then choose Browse. In Select linetype file dialog box, select the LIN file of which you want to list the linetypes. Choose Open. In the dialog box all the linetypes definitions saved in the LIN file selected, are listed. Select a linetype, then choose OK. To select more linetypes, select with the mouse the table rows. Export: this command allows to export the linetypes, defined inside the project, on a file with LIN extension that can be loaded inside other projects.

Loading linetypes
When you start a project, we suggest you to load the linetypes that are required for the project so that they are available when you need them. If you want to know which linetypes are already available, you can display a list of linetypes that are loaded in the drawing or stored in an LIN (linetype definition) file. The tool is also provided with the following linetype definition files. You can find these files in Support folder: ProSt.LIN: generic linetypes. Cartography.LIN: linetypes used for the cartographic drawing.

How to load a linetype


1. 2. 3. From Format menu select the item Linetype, or from the linetypes list box select Other. In Linetypes dialog box, choose Load. In the appearing dialog box, select a linetype and choose OK. If the linetype you need is not listed, choose Browse. In the Select Linetype File dialog box, select an LIN file whose linetypes you want to list. Then choose Open. The dialog box displays the linetype definitions stored in the selected LIN file. Select a lineype and then choose OK. Use the mouse to select several linetypes.

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4.

Choose OK.

Setting the current linetype


All objects are created using the current linetype, which is displayed in the Linetype control on the Objects toolbar. If the current linetype is set to BYLAYER, objects are created with the linetype assigned to the current layer. If you do not want the current linetype to be the linetype assigned to the current layer, you can specify a different linetype explicitly.

How to make a linetype current from the Linetype dialog box


1. 2. 3. From Format menu select the item Linetype , or from Linetype list box select Other. From Linetypes dialog box, select the linetype to make current. Press OK.

How to make a linetype current from Objects toolbar


1. Open linetype list box and select the name of the linetype to make current.

Changing the linetype of an object


You have three choices for changing the linetype of an object. You can:

Reassign the object to another layer with a different linetype. If an object's linetype is set to BYLAYER and you reassign the object to a different layer, it will acquire its linetype from the new layer. Change the linetype assigned to the layer that the object is on. If an object's linetype is set to BYLAYER, it will acquire the linetype of its layer. When you change the linetype assigned to a layer, all objects on that layer with a BYLAYER linetype will be updated automatically. Specify a linetype for an object to override the layer's linetype. You can specify the linetype of each object explicitly. If you want to override the layer-determined linetype of an object with a different one, change an existing object's linetype from BYLAYER to a specific linetype such as DASHED.

If you want to set a specific linetype for all subsequently created objects, change the current linetype setting on the Objects toolbar from BYLAYER to a specific linetype.

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Modify line type from toolbar


1. 2. Select the objects of which to change the line type. In Objects toolbar choose the colour to set from line type summary table.

How to change the linetype of an object, overriding the layer's linetype


1. 2. 3. On the Objects toolbar, click on Properties . Select the objects whose linetype you want to change. In Properties tab press button Linetype and choose the type of line you want to assign to objects.

Controlling linetype scale


You can use the same linetype at different scales by changing the linetype scale factor either globally or individually for each object. By default, the tool uses both global and individual linetype scales of 1.0. The smaller the scale, the more repetitions of the pattern are generated per drawing unit. For example, with a setting of 0.5, two repetitions of the pattern in the linetype definition are displayed for each 1 drawing unit. Short line segments that cannot display one full linetype pattern are displayed as continuous. You can use a smaller linetype scale for lines that are too short to display even one dash sequence.

To change linetype scale globally


1. 2. From Format menu select the item Linetype, or from linetype list box select Other. Digit the new global scale factor value in Global scale factor edit box and press OK.

How to set linetype scale for new objects


1. 2. From Format menu select the item Linetypes, or from linetype list box select Other. Digitize in Current object scale edit box the scale factor to use for the new objects and press OK.

How to modify the linetype scale of the objects selected.


1. 2. 3. In Object toolbar, click on Check object properties Select the objects whose colour has to be changed. In Properties page set the scale factor for the linetypes to be assigned to the objects. .

Managing line thickness


The use of line thickness allows to define the thickness of the objects in a drawing both on screen and on paper. All the objects can be displayed with line thickness, except for True Type Fonts, raster images, points and solid backfillings (or 2D solids). All the objects are created with the current line thickness, indicated in line thickness check in Object properties toolbar. In line thickness check it is also possible to set the current line thickness. If the current line thickness is set on BYLAYER, the objects are created with the line thickness assigned to the current layer. If you want the current line thickness to be different from the one assigned to the current layer, it is possible to specify a different line thickness. Line thickness is not displayed unless LWT button is selected on status bar.

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How to assign a line thickness to a layer


The command can be activated through one of the different methods: Toolbar Objects Menu Format > Layer Command line: DDLMODES

1. 2. 3.

In Layers dialog box , select a layer and click on the line thickness associated to that layer. In Line thickness dialog box, select a line thickness from the list. Choose OK to close all dialog boxes.

How to modify the line type thickness of the objects selected


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Objects Menu Modify > Modify object Command line: DDMODIFY

1.

Select one or more objects.

2.

In Properties window select Line thickness box and digitize the new value.

How to make a line thickness current for creating objects


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Line thickness Command line: DDLWEIGHT

1. 140

In Line thickness settings, choose a line thickness.

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2.

Choose OK.

How to activate or deactivate line thickness in Model page


Use one of the following methods: 1. 2. Select or deselect LWT on status bar. Select or deselect Display line thickness in Line thickness settings.

IntelliList
IntelliList is a tool extremely useful for displaying object properties quickly and without selecting them. It is sufficient to position the cursor on the object and its main properties are displayed immediately.

IntelliList settings
1. From Tools menu, choose Object snap settings. From the appearing dialog box select IntelliList:

2.

Change settings according to your needs:

o o
3.

Active IntelliList: turns IntelliList mode on or off. Activate every: you can set how much time has to pass before the properties window appears again.

Choose OK.

Displaying the properties of objects


The tool database stores information about the contents of your drawing. You can display the current properties and defining data for any object in your drawing. There are three ways to view this information: 1. 2. 3. Use IntelliList. Use LIST to view information in the text window. Choose Properties on the Objects toolbar. 141

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Use IntelliList to display information about objects


1. 2.

Locate the cursor on the object whose information you want to display; a window containing information about the object, will appear. Move the cursor to close the window. See IntelliList settings.

To list database information for several objects


1. 2. 3. From the Tools menu, choose List . Select one or more objects for which you are seeking information and press ENTER. The text window displays a report.

How to display quickly the properties of a single object


1. Perform a double click on the object whose properties have to be displayed.

To display the properties of a single object


1. 2. 3. On the Object toolbar, choose Properties . Select the object for which you are seeking information and press ENTER. The Modify dialog box displays the properties of the selected object.

Copying the properties of an object on other objects


It is possible to copy some or all the properties of an object through Match properties. Color, layer and linetype are examples of properties that can be copied. From Standard toolbar, choose Match properties or digit MATCHPROP on command line.

Select source object: select the object whose properties you want to copy. Select destination objects: select the objects that have to assume the source object properties.

Drawing styles
Drawing styles are a tool in the hands of the user, by which it is possible to save time in the graphic management of a project. By a single operation it is possible to activate different graphic settings called Drawing Styles and apply them to the current drawing, in a fast and easy way. The style is associated to one or more basic properties of the CAD system, such as layer,colour, linetype, lineweight, text style and annotation style. In this way, it is no longer necessary to set every single drawing property and it is sufficient to activate the style desired, making current all the settings referred to it.

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The CAD system basic properties that can be associated to a drawing style are the following:

layer; colour; linetype; lineweight; text style; annotation style.

Drawing styles can be defined for the different kinds of graphic elements, and any style can be associated to the drawing properties the corresponding elements will have. By activating a style, the CAD system will set as current the corresponding properties, allowing to execute the drawing. The settings concerning the style can involve both the elements to be created and the already existing ones.

Drawing style codes


It is possible to associate a code to a drawing style. In this way, it is sufficient to enter a code to make current, and apply, all the settings concerning the style related to that code. The command can be activated as follows:

Toolbar Modify Menu Modify > Drawing styles > Drawing styles codes...

Command line: DRWSTYLES

Description tab
In the table it is possible to customize the code to be used, and any code can be associated to its extended description.

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The table contains the following items: Code. assign a name to the drawing code; Description. assign a description to the corresponding drawing code.

General
By this tab it is possible to assign every code the graphic properties concerning layer, colour, linetype and lineweight.

The table contains the following items: Code. sets a name to the drawing code; Layer. Sets destination layer; Color. defines the color associated to the drawing code; Linetype. defines the kind of line associated to the drawing code; Lineweight. defines the lineweight associated to the drawing code.

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Texts
By Texts it is possible to define for each code the text style to be adopted and the geometric features concerning the text height, width, rotation. The text style can be selected from the list of the styles already introduced in the work (see text styles).

The table contains the following items: Code. set a name to the drawing code; Text style. Set the text style by selecting it from the pull down menu displaying the list of the styles introduced in the project; Character height . define the character height of the text associated to the drawing code; Character width. define the character width of the text associated to the drawing code; Angle. Specify the angle of horizontal axis of the text associated to the corresponding code.

Dimensions
In this tab it is possible to set a dimension style to the code, choosing from the pull down menu one of the dimension styles already set (see Dimensions).

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Code. set a name to the drawing code; Dimension style. Set the dimension style by selecting it from the pull down menu displaying the list of the styles introduced in the project;

Set drawing style


By entering the code of the drawing style, the CAD system will set as current the corresponding properties, making it possible to pass directly to the execution of the drawing. All the graphic entities introduced after the current style has been set will assume the features associated to that style. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar: Modify Menu Modify > Drawing styles > Set drawing style Command line: SETSTYLE

The tool asks to choose the code associated to the style: Drawing style code (Enter to view table): Enter the code name defining the drawing style to be made current or, by typing in Enter, make the choice directly from the table of drawing style codes:

Modify objects from drawing style


To modify the drawing style properties of objects already inserted it is possible to use a command that can be activated as follows: Toolbar Modify Menu Modify > Drawing style > Modify objects by styles... Command line: STYLE2OBJ

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The tool asks to: Select destination objects. Select the objects whose drawing style has to be modified and press Enter. Drawing style code (Enter to view table): Enter the code to be activated; by pressing Enter it is possible to gain access to the list of the styles available for selection. This request is carried out only if the command has been activated by CAD window; if the command is activated by styles bar, the objects selected will assume the properties of the style selected in the bar.

Drawing styles bar


The management of drawing styles can be activated quickly, by displaying the drawing styles bar, which is a summarizing window that can be displayed next to the working window. The command can be activated as follows: Menu Modify > Drawing style > Drawing styles bar... Menu View > Drawing styles bar...

The following control panel will appear, reporting the list of the Drawing Styles set; moreover, for any drawing style code the properties selected are reported briefly.

Set a drawing style


In this window it is possible to make a style the current one by using Apply double click of the mouse. button, or by a

To set the style selected to objects contained in the graphic, use Apply to objects button. If the command is activated by Drawing styles bar, the properties of the style selected in the list will be made the current ones. If the command is activated by CAD window, the following prompt will appear: Drawing styles code: Enter code to be activated; by pressing Enter it is possible to gain access to the list of styles from which the selection can be carried out. Then, by using the button Drawing Styles Codes it is possible to activate the table of drawing codes. (see Drawing styles codes),

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Window display modes


The window has two different display modes:

a fixed one in which the window is displayed in full; another one, reduced by command bar: button, which locates automatically the following icon next to the

Passing the mouse over the writing Drawing styles will activate the full display of the window, while shifting the mouse away from the window will restore the icon. To reactivate the fixed display of the window choose button.

Controlling the drawing display


Magnifying a view (Zooming)
You can change the magnification of your view by using ZOOM. Like zooming in and out with a camera, ZOOM does not change the absolute size of objects in the drawing. It changes only the magnification of the view.

Zooming to magnify a specified rectangular area


You can quickly zoom into a rectangular area of your drawing by specifying two diagonal corners of the area you are interested in. The lower-left corner of the area you specify becomes the lower-left corner of the new display. The shape of the zoom area you specify does not necessarily correspond to the new view, which must fit the shape of the viewport. 1. From the Zoom toolbar, choose the 2. Specify the corner of the area you want to display. 3. Specify the opposite corner. If you specify a point immediately after having performed command ZOOM, the option Window will be automatically selected.

Performing a zoom by using Intellimouse


Intellimouse is a two-button mouse with a small roller between the buttons; the right button and the left button work as in a normal mouse. it is possible to rotate the roller and perform some zooms on the drawing without using any other CAD command.

A specific command allows to modify the zoom factor that corresponds to the smallest rotation of the roller. Enter ZOOMFACTOR on command line: On the command line the following prompt will appear: Zoom factor (1..100): specify zoom factor; the bigger the value indicated, the smaller the number of rotations the roller will perform to get near the objects or to go away from them.

The scroll wheel can be used while pressing some control buttons to obtain working modes which differ from the usual one: <wheel> + <SHIFT>: zoom in/out with scale factor 10 times higher; in this way it is possible to pass quickly from a global vision to a detailed vision and vice versa. <wheel> + <CTRL>: shift only to the right or to the left 148

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<wheel> + <ALT>: shift only upward or downward In the sections graphic window the use of the wheel together with <CTRL> button is like pressing the buttons that allow to pass to the previous or next section; this option therefore makes navigation through sections much faster.

Zooming to view all objects in the drawing


ZOOM All displays a view with the largest possible magnification that includes all of the objects in the drawing. 1. From the Zoom toolbar, choose

Panning a view
You can shift the location of your view by using PAN command. Like panning with a camera, PAN does not change the location or size of objects on your drawing; it changes only the view.

To pan by specifying points


1. 2. 3. From the View menu, choose Pan . Specify a base point. This is the point you want to change. Specify a second point. This is the new location for the point you selected first.

To pan by dragging
1. 2. 3. From View menu, choose Dynamic pan . When the hand cursor appears, drag the view by holding down the pick button on the pointing device. Press ENTER, ESC, or right-click to exit.

Panning with middle button


If you use a three-button mouse or an Intellimouse, it is possible to use the button in the middle, or the roller, to perform a pan without having to use a CAD command.

Displaying the previous view


You can restore the last displayed view. In fact, it is often easier to restore one of the previous views instead of adjusting the current one. The tool can restore maximum 10 previous views in sequence. When you leave the drawing session the previous views are not stored.

Displaying the previous view


1. On the Zoom toolbar, choose

Regenerating a view
In some circumstances, the tool regenerates the drawing display automatically, and in other circumstances you use REGEN manually.

To regenerate a view
1. From the View menu, choose Regen .

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Redrawing a view
Redrawing a view with REDRAW removes plus-shaped editing marks called blips. When Blip mode is turned on, blips appear in the drawing area when you select objects or specify locations. You can also turn off blips when they are not needed.

To redraw a view
1. From the View menu, choose Redraw .

Shading
With the SHADE command you can create a shaded image of the drawing in the current window. On systems that display fewer than 256 colors, SHADE produces an image that removes hidden lines and displays the faces in their original color with no lighting effect. Activate the command SHADE from View menu or digit it at the command prompt. Shading On/oFf Turns On/Off shading. Activating the shading option the tool will prompt the following: Shading Without edge/with Edge Displays the edges of the shaded faces.

Magnifier window
Magnifier window is a window which stays always close-up, displaying a magnification of what is situated near the cursor. This new function is fundamental, for example, on digitizing raster images, since it avoids continuous in-out zooms, looking for points to digitize. The window not only displays a magnification but it also allows to choose the point to digitize with extreme precision, allowing a shifting of the mouse not referred to the main graphic window but to magnifier window; such option can be activated by keeping SHIFT button pressed on board. The command can be activated as follows: Toolbar View Menu View > Magnifier Command line: MAGNIFIER

A window resembling the following will appear:

Inside the window the drawing under the cursor is always displayed. Magnification factor can be modified by using the two buttons situated in the upper side of the window. The cursor movement is normally referred to the graphic CAD main window; by keeping SHIFT button pressed, it is possible to move the cursor, using the best resolution offered by Magnifier window. 150

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In this way it is possible, for example, to digitize a map with extreme precision without having to move the view or perform in-out zooms.

3D Visualization
Activation of 3D display
In planimetry graphic window the tool works with a plane display; it is however possible to pass to a 3D display where, however, not all the commands are working. We suggest, therefore, to use 3D view, mostly for display than for inserting or modifying data.

Activation of 3D display
The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar 3D views Menu Display > 3D view point Command line: 3D VIEW I

1. Select from View check list one of the predefined views, or set the two angles which set the view to be used; Angle on X axis allows to set the view planimetric position, while Angle on plane indicates the altimetric position of the point of view. 2. Press OK to confirm the settings.

How to restore standard display mode


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar 3D Views Menu Display > 3D view point, Plan view Command line: 3D VIEW P

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Selecting 3D view type


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar3D views Menu Display > 3D Viewpoint Command line: 3D VIEW I

1.

Select from View check list one of the predefined views, or set the two angles which set the view to be used; Angle on X axis allows to set the view planimetric position, while Angle on plan indicates the altimetric position of the viewpoint. Press OK to confirm the settings.

2.

Standard 3D views
Some predefined 3D views have been arranged, that can be used directly.

View from above View from below View from the left View from the right Front view Backward view Axonometric South-West view Axonometric South-East view Axonometric North-West view 152

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Axonometric North-East view

The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar 3D Views Menu Display > 3D viewpoints Command line: 3D VIEW

1.

Choose the kind of view desired

Orbit - 3D Display
Orbit is a module of SierraSoft Geomatics Suite which activates an interactive 3D display in a new graphic window. Inside an Orbit window the mouse is used to work with data display; it is possible to display the model from different points of view around it. With Orbit the point situated in the intersection of the axes is fixed, while the observation point moves around it. Orbit window can stay open with the planimetry graphic window; the content of the Orbit window is regenerated each time the planimetry graphic window is regenerated, so it is always possible to see the updated model; so it is very useful to design while keeping Orbit window open, because you can verify the results of the commands performed.

The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Display Menu Display > Vista Preview Command line: VISTAVIEW

A graphic window resembling the following will appear, containing the data available in the planimetry graphic window:

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The viewpoint can be modified simply by moving the mouse while keeping the left button pressed; it is possible to perform zooms by moving the mouse middle roller; it is also possible to move the pan by moving the mouse while keeping the mouse right button pressed. At the bottom of the window there are some buttons, whose function is the following: Activates surface display with shading Activates display of lines that make up the surfaces (wireframe) Enables the display of the points that form the surfaces. View from above. View from below. View from the left. View from the right. Frontal view. Backward view. Axonometric South-West view Axonometric South-East view Axonometric North-West view Axonometric North-East view

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Using blocks
Symbols that you use repeatedly can be defined as blocks (groupings of objects) and saved and inserted as often as needed. Blocks are easier to work with than separate objects because you do not have to select each object included in the block for moving, copying, rotating, and erasing. Blocks also provide an efficient way to reduce the size of drawing files because a single block definition can be used in a drawing multiple times without increasing the size of the drawing significantly.

Creating blocks
A block can be composed of objects drawn on several layers with various colors and linetypes. Although a block is always inserted on the current layer, the block reference preserves information about the original layer, color, and linetype properties of the objects that are contained in the block. You can use the command PURGE to remove the block definitions which are not used by the drawing.

To define a block for the current drawing


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create the objects that will be used in the block definition. From the Draw menu, choose Blocks. In the command line, enter the name of the block to be created. In the graphic window, specify the block insertion point. Select the objects forming the block. The tool asks you whether to delete the original objects or not.

The block is defined in the current drawing and can be inserted at any time.

Inserting blocks
When you insert a block, you determine its location, scale factor, and rotation angle. Inserting a block creates an object called a block reference because it references a block definition stored in your current drawing.

To insert a block defined in the current drawing


1. From the Draw menu, choose Blocks and then Insert Block appear : . The following window will

2.

Select the block to be inserted from the list or press Browse button to load an external block; external blocks must be on DXF format. 155

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3.

If you want to use the pointing device to specify the insertion point, scale and rotation, select Specify on screen. Otherwise, you can directly insert the values in Insertion point or Scale and rotation squares. If you want the objects in the block to be inserted as individual objects instead of as a single block, select Explode. Choose OK. Choose OK.

4. 5.

Inserting blocks at intervals (not available in Topko Express)


You can insert blocks at intervals along a selected geometric object.

Use MEASURE to insert a block at measured intervals. Use DIVIDE to insert a block at proportional (evenly spaced) intervals.

Exporting blocks
In order to use blocks already defined in a drawing inside other drawings, it is necessary to export them in files that will be loaded on other drawings. 1. The command can be activated through one of the following modes: Menu Draw > Blocks > Export block Command line: WBLOCK

2. 3.

From the appearing dialog box select the block to be exported and then press OK. The tool will ask you the name of the DXF file that will contain the block.

Removing block definitions


To reduce the size of a drawing, you can remove unused block definitions. You can remove a block reference from your drawing by erasing it; however, the block definition remains in the database. To remove unused block definitions and decrease the drawing size, use PURGE at any time in your drawing session. All references to a block must be erased before you can purge the block definition.

To remove a block definition


1. 2. 3. From the Format menu, choose Purge and then Blocks. On the command line you are asked to confirm the removal of each element of the list. If you don't want to confirm the removal of each element, enter n (No). One by one, the tool lists the unused blocks asking you to confirm the removal of each.

Enclosed drawings
Besides planimetry, profile and sections graphic window, a supplementary graphic area is available, inside which generic drawings of any kind can be inserted. In this way, the planimetry graphic window is reserved exclusively to the planimetric drawing, and it is not weighted by drawings that do not have much to do with planimetry; for example, enclosed drawings can contain such details of typical elements as walls or gutters or they can contain squaring models for generating drawing sheets. It is possible to create as many enclosed drawings as one desires and give each one of them a name; navigation from one enclosed drawing to the other is made easier by a bar situated in the lower part of the graphic window. Enclosed drawings are memorized completely in the work file.

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There can be two kinds of enclosed drawing: 1. Sheet squaring: this kind of enclosed drawing must contain the drawing of a squaring to be used in drawing sheets. When a drawing sheet is being created or modified, the tool will list every squaring available, creating a list of enclosed drawings whose type is Sheet squaring. Generic enclosed drawing: enclosed drawing containing whatever drawing.

2.

How to create enclosed drawings


It is possible to create enclosed drawings in two ways: 1. 2. from subprojects window from the graphic window of another enclosed drawing

Creation from subprojects window


In subprojects window all the enclosed drawings available are listed; in this window it is also possible to rename and delete the enclosed drawings available in the work.

The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

1.

Select the page Enclosed drawings and press

button, New drawing.

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2.

Specify the name and the kind of enclosed drawing to create. The enclosed drawing can be of two kinds: 1. Sheet squaring: this kind of enclosed drawing must contain the drawing of a squaring to be used in drawing sheets. When a drawing sheet is being created or modified, the tool will list every squaring available, creating a list of enclosed drawings whose type is Sheet squaring. Generic enclosed drawing: enclosed drawing containing whatever drawing.

2. 3. 4.

Press OK to confirm the data inserted. Press OK again to exit subproject management window. In order to open the graphic window of the enclosed drawing just created, select the command for opening the modules: Toolbar Standard > Enclosed drawings

Menu File > Open module > Enclosed drawings

5.

A graphic window will appear, containing the first of the enclosed drawings available in the work. If the first enclosed drawing is displayed in another window, then the second enclosed drawing will be displayed; normally, the first free enclosed drawing is displayed, that is the one that has not been displayed in any window yet. In order to display the other enclosed drawings and get to the one desired, use the navigation bar in the lower part of the new graphic window

6.

Creation from the graphic window of another enclosed drawing


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Menu Drawings > New drawing Command line: NEWENCDRW

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1.

Specify the name and the kind of enclosed drawing to create. The enclosed drawing can be of two kinds: 1. Sheet squaring: this kind of enclosed drawing must contain the drawing of a squaring to be used in drawing sheets. When a drawing sheet is being created or modified, the tool will list every squaring available, creating a list of enclosed drawings whose type is Sheet squaring. Generic enclosed drawing: enclosed drawing containing whatever drawing.

2. 2.

Press OK to confirm the data inserted. The graphic window will appear, of the enclosed drawing just inserted.

How to create a squaring


A particular kind of enclosed drawing is the one allowing to define a squaring to be used in drawing sheets. A squaring is created by using the same creation process as the one for enclosed drawings. A particular kind of enclosed drawing; of course, as kind of enclosed drawing, it is necessary to set Squaring.

Features of a squaring
Below are reported the features an enclosed drawing must have to be inserted properly as a squaring inside a drawing sheet.

The lower corner on the left of the squaring must be situated on 0,0 coordinate. The size of the squaring must be expressed in millimetres (1 drawing unit = 1 millimetre). The squaring can contain any kind of drawing and text. The squaring can contain texts between square brackets [ ]; these texts are interpreted as marks and their value will be replaced, on inserting the squaring in the sheet, by the corresponding value assigned to the mark.

Managing marks
A mark is simply a text between square brackets, to which a text is associated; the tool can recognize marks inside a squaring and in some reports. The mark recognised will be replaced by the text associated to it. The text will of course keep its characteristics as far as style, sizes, etc. In this way it is also possible to create type squaring or headers, that can be used in different works. The tool will replace the marks found with the value associated to them in any specific work. It is possible, for example, to create a squaring that reports automatically the name of the work file; no matter what work this squaring is used in, it will report the name of the work that generated it. Some marks can be customized by the user while others are predefined by the tool itself and contain all the variables controlled by the tool, such as scale, work name, subproject name, etc. The command can be started through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Marks Command line: MARKS

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The following dialog box will appear:

The window is subdivided into two pages: Project: in this page it is possible to insert all the possible marks to be used in the project; on each line first the mark is specified, then the corresponding text. Fixed: in this page all the marks are reported, that are managed directly by the tool and therefore can be used directly. Fixed marks are the following:

PRJ_NAME PRJ_FULLNAME SCALE TITLE_1 TITLE_2 AUTHOR PRJ_NOTE COORDINATE_SYSTEM TITLE_SUR1 TITOLO_SUR2 NAME_SUR_SUBPRJ MUNICIPALITYCOD MUNICIPALITY SIGLA_PROVINCIALAV PROVINCIALAV SHEET PARCEL 160

Name of project file Name of project file with memorization route Scale of planimetry drawing First line of description of project titles Second line of description of project titles Name of project author Project notes Coordinate system currently used First line of description of survey subproject titles Second line of description of survey subproject titles Name of survey subproject Municipality code set in statistic data Name of municipality set in statistic data Code of work province set in statistic data Work province set in statistic data Number of page set in statistic data Parcel set in statistic data

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ENGINEER ENGINEER_TITLE DATA_LIBRETTO PROTOCOLLO COD_LIBRETTO SIGLA PROVINCIA PROVINCIA NUM_STAZ NUM_ALLIN NUM_PF NUM_PV NUM_PD NUM_PUNTI LISTA_PF LISTA_STAZ EST_MEDIA QT_MEDIA TITLE_AXIS1 TITLE_AXIS2 SUBP_AXIS_NAME SCALE_SEC_DST SCALE_SEC_EL SCALE_BRK_DST SCALE_BRK_EL SCALA_BRK_DST SCALA_BRK_QT TITLE_GIS NAME_GIS_SUBP SHEET_NAME

Engineer name set in statistic data Engineer title set in statistic data Date of Pregeo fieldbook Fieldbook protocol number Code of Pregeo fieldbook Code of province Province Number of stations in the current subproject Number of chains and offsets in current subproject Number of datum points in the current subproject Number of Vertex points in the current subproject Number of Direction points in the current subproject Number of points in the current subproject List of datum points List of stations Average ext Average elevation First line of description of axis subproject titles Second line of description of axis subproject titles Name of axis subproject Scale of distances in sections Scale of elevations in sections Scale of distances of Bruckner diagram Scales elevations in Bruckner diagram Scale of distances in Bruckner diagram Scale of elevations in Bruckner diagram Comment associated to GIS theme Name of GIS theme Name of sheet

Some of these marks use data referred to subprojects. On creating a drawing sheet it is possible to set the subprojects to be used for compiling fixed marks.

How to change the properties of an enclosed drawing


Any enclosed drawing possesses two main properties: name and type. It is possible to modify the properties in two ways: 1. from the window of subprojects 161

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2.

from the graphic window of the enclosed drawing

How to change the properties from the window of subprojects


The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects Management Command line: SUBPRJ

1.

Select Enclosed drawings page. In this page all the enclosed drawings available in the work will be reported. Select the enclosed drawing to be modified and press properties. button, Enclosed drawing

2.

3. 4.

Modify the name and/or the kind of enclosed drawing and press OK. Press OK again to exit subprojects window.

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Changing the properties from the graphic window of the enclosed drawing
The command can be started in one of the following ways: Menu Drawings > Drawing properties Command line: ENCDRWPROP

1.

Modify the name and / or the kind of enclosed drawing and press OK.

Opening an enclosed drawing


In a work there can be different enclosed drawings, not just one. Any enclosed drawing can be displayed in a specific window. It is possible to use a graphic window to display, one by one, all the enclosed drawings in the work.

The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard > Enclosed drawings

Menu File: Open module > Enclosed drawings

1.

A graphic window will appear, containing the first of the enclosed drawings in the work. If the first enclosed drawing is displayed in another window, then the second enclosed drawing will be displayed; normally, the first free enclosed drawing is displayed, that is the one that has not been displayed in any window yet. In order to display the other enclosed drawings and get to the one desired, use the navigation bar in the lower part of the new graphic window.

2.

How to delete enclosed drawings


The erasing of enclosed drawings is performed in subprojects management window. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

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1.

Select Enclosed drawings page. In this page are reported all the enclosed drawings that can be found in the work. Select the enclosed drawing to delete and press button.

2. 3. 4.

When you are asked to confirm the erasing press OK. Press OK again to exit subproject management window.

Drawing sheets
Drawing printing functions have been extended thanks to the introduction of Drawing sheets: drawing sheets are a further graphic area that can contain drawings coming from the other graphic windows: in a single drawing sheet it is therefore possible to insert planimetry, profile, section drawings as well as enclosed drawings. On creating the sheet its size is asked, that is the size of the sheet where it will be printed; it is possible to associate to a sheet also a squaring among those available in the project. The squaring can contain some marks the tool automatically replaces with the corresponding value; in this way it is possible to set a model squaring, valid for all the projects, and the tool will replace automatically the marks with the correct value according to the data set in the work. There is no limit to the number of drawing sheets that can be created; it is possible to assign any sheet a name and navigation from one sheet to the other is made easier by a bar at the bottom of the graphic window. Drawing sheets are memorized completely in the work file and they can be considered as a sort of historical chronicle of the sheets produced for a work; it is then possible to open the same work after some time and be able to reproduce the same drawing sheets generated before.

Creating a drawing sheet


It is possible to create a drawing sheet in two ways: 1. from subproject window 2. from the graphic window of another drawing sheet

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Creation from subprojects window


In subprojects window all the drawing sheets available are listed; from this window it is also possible to rename and delete the sheets available in the work. The command can be started in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

1.

Select Drawing sheets page press

button New drawing sheet

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2.

In this dialog box it is possible to set all the properties of the drawing sheet to be created: Drawing sheet name: name to be assigned to the new drawing sheet; Drawing sheet size: set the size of the drawing sheet to create; it is possible to use a predefined size or set a customized size. Orientation: orientation of the drawing sheet. Sheet squaring: set the enclosed drawing (squaring type) to be used inside the drawing sheet; the sheet squaring selected will be automatically inserted in the sheet on the lower left corner. To use no sheet squaring, of any kind, select None option. Subprojects for header compilation: if the sheet squaring contains predefined marks (fixed) it is necessary to specify the subprojects from which to take the information for compiling the marks. Press OK to confirm the creation of the sheet. If a squaring has been set, and if marks have been found, that need to be replaced, a dialog box will appear to verify the marks found and the value that will be used in the replacement.

3.

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4. 5.

It is possible to modify the value that will replace the marks by modifying the content of Value column cells. In this window all the marks are also listed (texts between square brackets [ ]), found in the sheet squaring. It might happen that in the sheet squaring some marks are found, yet to be defined in the general window of mark definition; in this case, Update marks list button allows to update the main list of the marks with the marks found in the sheet squaring. Press OK to confirm the changes made. To open the graphic window of the drawing sheet just created select open module button: 1. 2. Toolbar Standard > Enclosed drawings

6. 7.

Menu File: Open module > Enclosed drawings

8.

A graphic window will appear containing the first of the drawing sheets available in the work. If the first sheet is displayed in another window, then the second drawing sheet is displayed; in general, the first free drawing sheet is displayed, that is the one that has not been displayed in any window yet. To display the other drawing sheets and get to the one desired, use the navigation bar situated in the lower side of the new graphic window.

9.

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Creation from the graphic window of another drawing sheet


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Drawing sheets > New drawing sheet Command line: NEWPLOTBOX

1.

In this dialog box it is possible to set all the properties of the drawing sheet to be created: Drawing sheet name: name to be assigned to the new drawing sheet; Drawing sheet size: set the size of the drawing sheet to create; it is possible to use a predefined size or set a customized size. Orientation: orientation of the drawing sheet. Sheet squaring: set the enclosed drawing (squaring type) to be used inside the drawing sheet; the sheet squaring selected will be automatically inserted in the sheet on the lower left corner. To use no sheet squaring, of any kind, select None option. Subprojects for header compilation: if the sheet squaring contains predefined marks (fixed) it is necessary to specify the subprojects from which to take the information for compiling the marks. Press OK to confirm the creation of the sheet. If a squaring has been set, and if marks have been found, that need to be replaced, a dialog box will appear to verify the marks found and the value that will be used in the replacement.

2.

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3. 4.

It is possible to modify the value that will replace the marks by modifying the content of Value column cells. In this window all the marks are also listed (texts between square brackets [ ]), found in the sheet squaring. It might happen that in the sheet squaring some marks are found, yet to be defined in the general window of mark definition; in this case, Update marks list button allows to update the main list of the marks with the marks found in the sheet squaring. Press OK to confirm the changes made. A new graphic window will appear, of the drawing sheet just created.

5.

Inserting a drawing in a drawing sheet


The purpose of a drawing sheet is that you can insert in it any kind of drawing generated from the different graphic windows of the tool. In a drawing sheet it is possible to insert the following kinds of drawings:

Planimetries Longitudinal profiles Cross sections Enclosed drawings Speed diagrams Bruckner diagrams

Of course, a drawing sheet is always a CAD window, so, in it all drawing and modification commands are available.

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Inserting a planimetry
After opening the graphic window containing the sheet where to insert the drawing, start the command in one of the following ways: Menu Sheets > Insert drawing > Planimetry Command line: PBINSDRW P

1.

In this dialog box it is possible to set the printable area and the scale of the planimetry drawing to report in the sheet: Current view: the limits of the current view in the planimetry graphic window are used as printable area. Limits: the limits of the planimetry drawing are used as printable area. Window: by Window button it is possible to define manually the printable area. Format: set the number of the format that defines printable area. Plot scale: set the scale by which to represent the drawing of the planimetry in the sheet.

In Sheet squaring page it is possible to specify the block to be used to represent the symbol of the North, the position in the sheet and a scale factor to use. By pressing Browse button it is possible to import a DWG file which will be used as a block for the symbol of the North. 170

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2. 3.

Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the sheet: choose, by cursor, the position where to insert the drawing in the sheet.

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Inserting a longitudinal profile


After opening the graphic window that contains the sheet where to insert the drawing, activate the command through one of the following methods: Menu Sheets > Insert drawing > Longitudinal profile Command line: PBINSDRW R

The tool prompts you for indicating the axis subproject containing the profile to insert in the sheet. Select the axis desired and press OK. A window similar to the following will appear:

1.

Set in this window the main data for generating a profile drawing: From section: specify the first section to draw (from 1 to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section will appear. It is possible to simplify the selection by clicking on button, that allows to choose the section from the complete list. To section: specify the last section to draw (from the first to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section button, that allows to will appear. It is possible to simplify the selection by clicking on choose the section from the complete list. Recalculate datum level: if the option is active the tool tries to draw the profile in the middle of the page, recalculating in this way the datum level; otherwise, the profile is drawn keeping the datum level set. Profile optimization: if the option is active the tool calculates the differences in height, so that the profile can be drawn also in a sheet not long enough to contain the whole drawing. Page height: it is possible to set the height of the drawing sheet Plot scale: It is possible to specify the two scales, distances and heights to be used to obtain the final drawing.

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2. 3.

Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the sheet: choose, by cursor, the position where to insert the drawing in the sheet.

Inserting cross sections


After opening the graphic window containing the sheet where to insert the drawing, activate the command in one of the following ways: Menu Sheets > Insert drawing > Cross sections Command line: PBINSDRW S

The tool prompts you for indicating the axis subproject containing the sections to be inserted in the sheet. Select the axis desired and press OK. A window resembling the following will appear.

1.

Set in this window the main data for generating a profile drawing: From section: the tool prompts you for specifying the first section to draw (from 1 to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section will appear. It is possible to simplify the selection by clicking on button, that allows to choose the section from the complete list. To section: the tool prompts you for specifying the last section to draw (from the first to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section will appear. It is possible to simplify the selection by clicking on button, that allows to choose the section from the complete list. Number of lines: the number of lines is asked, of the sections that a single sheet must contain. Number of sections per sheet: the number is asked, of the sections to be drawn in a single sheet. Dividing this value by the number of lines you will obtain the number of columns per 173

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sheet. For example, to page up the sections in a sheet containing 12 sections, subdivided into 3 lines and 4 columns, it is sufficient to set 3 as Number of lines and 12 as Number of sections per sheet. In Sheet width and Sheet height fields the size in mm is displayed, of the sheet containing the sections according to the values set in advance. The width is calculated multiplying the number of columns by the width of the sheet of the single section; the height of the sheet is calculated multiplying the number of lines by the height of the sheet of the single section. Plotting scale: It is possible to specify the two scales, distances and dimensions to be used to obtain the final drawing. 2. 3. Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the sheet: choose by the cursor the position where to insert the drawing in the drawing sheet.

Inserting an enclosed drawing


After opening the graphic window that contains the sheet where to insert the drawing, activate the command through one of the following methods: Menu Sheets > Insert drawing > Enclosed drawing Command line: PBINSDRW D

The tool prompts you for indicating the enclosed drawing to insert in the sheet. Select the drawing desired and press OK. A window resembling the following will appear:

1.

In this dialog box you can set the printable area and the scale of the enclosed drawing to report on the sheet:

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Current view: the limits of the current view in the graphic window of the enclosed drawing are used as printable area. Limits: the limitsof the enclosed drawing are used as printable area. Plot scale: set the scale to represent the drawing in the sheet with. 2. 3. Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the sheet: choose, by cursor, the position where to insert the drawing in the sheet.

Inserting a Bruckner diagram


After opening the graphic window that contains the sheet where to insert the drawing, activate the command through one of the following methods: Menu Drawing sheets > Insert drawing > Bruckner diagram Command line: PBINSDRW B

The tool prompts you for indicating the axis subproject containing the Bruckner diagram to be inserted in the sheet. To obtain a Bruckner diagram it is necessary to perform volume calculation. Select the axis desired and press OK. A window resembling the following will appear:

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1.

Press Preview. A window resembling the following will appear:

2.

Set in this window the main data for generating the diagram drawing: From section: the tool prompts for the first section to be drawn (from 1 to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section will appear. It is possible to be helped in the selection by clicking on button, which allows to choose the section from the complete list. To section: the tool prompts for the last section to be drawn (from 1 to the maximum number of sections available). Once the number has been inserted in the field on the right the name of the section will appear. It is possible to be helped in the selection by clicking on button, which allows to choose the section from the complete list. Recalculation of reference elevation: if the option is active the tool tries to draw the diagram in the middle of the page recalculating in this way the reference elevation; otherwise, the diagram is drawn keeping the reference elevation already set. Profile optimization: if the option is active the tool calculates the differences in elevation so that the diagram can be drawn also in a page that is too short to contain the whole drawing. Page height: the height of the drawing page can be set. Plot scale:it is possible to specify the two scales, distances and volumes, to use in order to obtain the final drawing.

3. 4.

Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the page: choose by the cursor the position where to insert the drawing in the sheet.

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Inserting a speed diagram


After opening the graphic window that contains the sheet where to insert the drawing, activate the command through one of the following methods: Menu Sheets > Insert drawing > Speed diagram Command line: PBINSDRW E

The tool prompts you for inserting the axis subproject containing the speed diagram to insert in the sheet. To obtain a speed diagram it is necessary to set the road regulations and the kind of road chosen as reference. Select the axis desired and press OK. A window similar to the following will appear:

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1.

From this window select Preview button. A window similar to the following will appear:

Sheet height: you can set the height of the sheet where to draw the diagram. Distance scale: you can set the distance scale for representing the diagram in the sheet.

2. 3.

Press OK to confirm the settings. Position the drawing in the sheet: choose, by cursor, the position where to insert the drawing in the sheet.

Updating the content of a drawing sheet


A drawing sheet can contain different drawings coming from different kinds of graphic windows. The drawings are always subjected to modifications, so there is the problem of updating also the content of the sheets; to solve this problem there is a specific command that updates the content of a drawing in a sheet without having to specify insertion parameters a second time. A drawing is defined inside a sheet by a square delimiting it. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Drawing sheet > Update drawing Command line: PBUPDDRW

1.

Indicate the drawing to be updated: you will be asked to indicate the drawing to be updated; select the square delimiting the drawing to be updated.

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2.

The tool will erase automatically the content of the drawing and will insert the drawing updated by using the same parameters set on inserting the drawing (scale, printing area, etc.).

Inserting a squaring in a drawing sheet


This command allows to obtain the automatic drawing of the grid on the whole sheet. It is possible to choose among different grid models, reference values are also reported on grid borders and this allows to avoid inserting symbols and texts in squaring header area. This command should be used in sheets containing only one planimetry drawing; moreover, it is better to use a squaring, since the tool will position automatically reference values along the squaring borders. Before using the command, set the grid model to be used in Project properties.

Setting a squaring model


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu File > Project properties Command line: DDPAR

1.

Select the page Drawing grid

2. 3.

From Grid check list select the grid model desired. Set other data for drawing the grid. Limits: It is possible to set the limits of the grid to draw either manually or by choosing the option Automatic and let the tool draw the grid using the limits of the drawing. Size: Sets the size of the symbol that represents the grid stitch and the writings associated to it. Step: It is possible to set the step (distance between symbols) on X axis and on Y axis. Moreover, you are asked to specify how far (how many steps) the grid must exceed the edges set. Press OK to confirm the settings.

4.

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Inserting a grid
The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Drawing sheets > Drawing sheet grid Command line: PBGRID

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Indicate planimetry drawing: select the squaring delimiting the planimetry drawing to be used as reference for drawing the grid. Indicate squaring first corner: indicate the corner delimiting the rectangular area where to insert the grid. Indicate squaring second corner: indicate the opposite corner delimiting the rectangular area where to insert the grid. Indicate header first corner: if there is a header and you do not want the grid to be drawn inside it, indicate a corner delimiting the header rectangular area. Indicate header second corner: indicate the opposite corner delimiting the header rectangular area. Squaring border width [ mm.] <5>: indicate squaring border width; this value allows the tool to draw the squaring reference line towards the outer side of the squaring. The grid is then drawn automatically.

Generating a drawing sheet from a drawing preview


Every graphic window, Planimetry, Profile, Sections and Enclosed drawings, generate an on screen preview of the drawings. From these previews it is possible to create automatically a drawing sheet. Speed diagrams and Bruckner diagrams too generate a drawing preview and also from these previews it is possible to obtain drawing sheets. Before using the command it is necessary to generate a drawing preview. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Drawing sheets > Creating new drawing sheet from drawing preview Command line: PREV2PB

1. 2.

Name of the sheet to create: indicate the name the sheet to be generated will assume. The sheet generated will have the same sizes as the drawing preview; if the drawing preview is made up of different pages, a sheet will be created for each page.

Modifying drawing sheet properties


Any sheet is characterised by some properties, such as name, size, squaring etc. It is possible to modify such properties in two ways: 1. From subproject window 2. From the graphic window of the enclosed drawing

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Changing properties from subprject window


The command can be activated in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subproject management Command line: SUBPRJ

1. 2.

Select Sheet page. In this page all the sheets are reported, that can be found in the work. Select the sheet to be modified and press Drawing sheet properties button .

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3. 4.

Modify sheet properties and press OK. Press OK again to exit subproject window.

Changing the properties from the graphic window of the enclosed drawing
The command can be started in one of the following ways: Menu Sheets > sheet properties Command line: PBPROP

1. Modify drawing sheet properties and press OK.

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Deleting a drawing sheet


Drawing sheets are deleted inside subproject window. The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Subprojects management Command line: SUBPRJ

1.

Select Drawing sheets page. In this page all the drawing sheets are reported, that can be found in the work. Select the drawing sheet to be deleted and press At confirm deletion prompt choose OK. Press OK again to exit subproject window. button.

2. 3. 4.

Managing marks
A mark is simply a text between square brackets, to which a text is associated; the tool can recognize marks inside a squaring and in some reports. The mark recognised will be replaced by the text associated to it. The text will of course keep its characteristics as far as style, sizes, etc. In this way it is also possible to create type squaring or headers, that can be used in different works. The tool will replace the marks found with the value associated to them in any specific work. It is possible, for example, to create a squaring that reports automatically the name of the work file; no matter what work this squaring is used in, it will report the name of the work that generated it. Some marks can be customized by the user while others are predefined by the tool itself and contain all the variables controlled by the tool, such as scale, work name, subproject name, etc.

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The command can be started through one of the following methods: Menu Format > Marks Command line: MARKS

The following dialog box will appear:

The window is subdivided into two pages: Project: in this page it is possible to insert all the possible marks to be used in the project; on each line first the mark is specified, then the corresponding text. Fixed: in this page all the marks are reported, that are managed directly by the tool and therefore can be used directly. Fixed marks are the following:

PRJ_NAME PRJ_FULLNAME SCALE TITLE_1 TITLE_2 AUTHOR PRJ_NOTE COORDINATE_SYSTEM TITLE_SUR1 TITOLO_SUR2 NAME_SUR_SUBPRJ MUNICIPALITYCOD 184

Name of project file Name of project file with memorization route Scale of planimetry drawing First line of description of project titles Second line of description of project titles Name of project author Project notes Coordinate system currently used First line of description of survey subproject titles Second line of description of survey subproject titles Name of survey subproject Municipality code set in statistic data

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MUNICIPALITY SIGLA_PROVINCIALAV PROVINCIALAV SHEET PARCEL ENGINEER ENGINEER_TITLE DATA_LIBRETTO PROTOCOLLO COD_LIBRETTO SIGLA PROVINCIA PROVINCIA NUM_STAZ NUM_ALLIN NUM_PF NUM_PV NUM_PD NUM_PUNTI LISTA_PF LISTA_STAZ EST_MEDIA QT_MEDIA TITLE_AXIS1 TITLE_AXIS2 SUBP_AXIS_NAME SCALE_SEC_DST SCALE_SEC_EL SCALE_BRK_DST SCALE_BRK_EL SCALA_BRK_DST SCALA_BRK_QT TITLE_GIS NAME_GIS_SUBP SHEET_NAME

Name of municipality set in statistic data Code of work province set in statistic data Work province set in statistic data Number of page set in statistic data Parcel set in statistic data Engineer name set in statistic data Engineer title set in statistic data Date of Pregeo fieldbook Fieldbook protocol number Code of Pregeo fieldbook Code of province Province Number of stations in the current subproject Number of chains and offsets in current subproject Number of datum points in the current subproject Number of Vertex points in the current subproject Number of Direction points in the current subproject Number of points in the current subproject List of datum points List of stations Average ext Average elevation First line of description of axis subproject titles Second line of description of axis subproject titles Name of axis subproject Scale of distances in sections Scale of elevations in sections Scale of distances of Bruckner diagram Scales elevations in Bruckner diagram Scale of sistance in Bruckner diagram Scale of elevations in Bruckner diagram Comment associated to GIS theme Name of GIS theme Name of sheet

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Some of these marks use data referred to subprojects. On creating a drawing sheet it is possible to set the subprojects to be used for compiling fixed marks.

Printing on plotter and on printer


It is possible to generate drawings on paper by using system printers. The tool is set to print on the system Windows printer specified in Windows Printers folder. The printing parameters set determine the final output. The correct printing of the drawings depends on the correct use of settings concerning pen assignment, plot area, scale, paper size and rotation. Some of these settings are useful in the optimization of the speed and performances during the printing. The printing of drawings can be performed directly on plotter or on printer, or it is possible to display the plot preview; the plot preview displays on screen the drawing positioning inside the sheet selected. The preview is displayed inside a CAD window in which all CAD drawing commands are active; it is then possible to modify the drawing by adding squaring or other objects. Again from the preview window, it is possible to import and export DXF files. The plotting can be then performed directly from the CAD graphic window or directly from the preview graphic window. If the size of the drawing to plot exceeds the size of the sheet set, the tool will divide the drawing by printing it in more than one sheet; then all the sheets can be joined together. It is also possible to set the overlapping margin to be taken into consideration for the different sheets. The plot area can be defined in different ways; besides the classical methods, limits, current view and window, it is possible to use plot boxes. The use of plot boxes allows to define the position of the drawing paper inside the graphic window according to your needs and also with the possibility to define a rotation angle. During the plotting phase and the preview, the tool will print only the part that is inside the plot box inserted. The parameters required by the tool for obtaining the plotting or the preview are different according to the module inside which they are performed: Report or plot preview from Planimetry module Report or plot preview from Profile module (not available for Topko Express) Report or plot preview from Sections module (not available for Topko Express) Print from plot preview Print from drawing sheet (not available for Topko Express) The word print is always used both with reference to a printer and with reference to a plotter.

Plotting or plot preview from Planimetry module


You can plot the drawing from the planimetry graphic window through one of the following methods: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot Command line: PLOT

The plot preview from the planimetry graphic window can be performed through one of the methods below: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot preview Command line: PREVIEW

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It is possible to carry out the plot or display its preview by activating the command, selecting the format and pressing the mouse right button; a local menu will appear, allowing to produce a print or a print preview.

In both the cases the following window will appear:

The Plot dialog box is divided into two tabs. The first tab is for the plotter configuration and the second is for the layout settings.

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Plot device
From Name list box select the plotter you want to use for plotting the drawing. The tool lists all the plotters configured inside the O.S.. Clicking on Properties button another dialog box appears where it is possible to modify the parameters of the plotter selected. To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects in order to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thickness.

Layout

In Layout tab it is possible to set different parameters defining the paper size and orientation, the area of the drawing to plot and its positioning inside the sheet. Paper size Select from Name list box the paper size for the drawing to be plotted. All paper sizes supported by the plotter selected are listed. If you are setting the data for performing the plot preview, then you can select the option Fit papers to drawing extension. With this option active, it is not necessary to select the paper size since the tool calculates automatically the size of the paper necessary for the drawing; in this way, in the plot preview the whole drawing will be displayed in a single sheet. This option is also necessary when you have to export the whole scaled drawing to a DXF file. See How to export to a DXF file. Drawing orientation It is possible to set the orientation of the sheet where the drawing will be plotted. Plot area For each drawing it is possible to specify the part of the drawing to plot by choosing:


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The current view (View) Extension limits of the objects (Limits)

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A rectangular area defined by point specifications (Window); choose Window button and specify the area by selecting a window in the graphic area. Plot box : it is possible to specify the plot boxes to print; if more plot boxes have been specified, a distinct report for each plot box will be generated; in case a plot preview is generated, the tool will create as many preview pages as the number of plot boxes. Each plot box reports the drawing area it contains. If the plot boxes have not been inserted it is possible to carry out the insertion by choosing Plot boxes button. Options button allows to perform further settings.

Keep horizontal points symbol: by activating this option the points symbol will not be rotated according to the plot box angle but it will be drawn horizontally as to the sheet. Keep horizontal points texts: by activating this option the points texts will not be rotated according to the plot box angle but they will be drawn horizontally as to the sheet. Plot scale It is possible to set the scale for the drawing plotting by choosing it from a list of scales or by specifying your own scale (custom); if you want the tool to calculate a particular scale so that the drawing fits in a single sheet, you can choose the item Scaled to fit. Offset It is possible to specify a plot area offset from the bottom angle on the left of the sheet. On paper, values are expressed in millimetres. Through the option Center the plot the tool calculates the two offset values that determine the centering of the drawing on the paper. For drawings whose size exceeds the size of the sheet, it is possible to set Overlapping margins to be taken into consideration for the generation of the sheets next to the first; in this way, it will be easier to join together the single sheets. Sheet squaring By activating this option a square is drawn on the margins of the plot area.

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Sheet squaring

In this page you can choose the kind of sheet squaring to use for generating the final drawing. From the check list you can choose a simple squaring model, that is a box; besides, all the squaring-type enclosed drawings are listed. See Enclosed drawings. In generating drawing previews it is possible to choose the block representing the symbol of the North, its size and position in the drawing; the tool will then insert the block in the drawing with the correct direction angle. The tool is supplied with a wide range of ready-to-use blocks. North symbol: select the block to be used to represent the North. By pressing Browse button it is possible to import directly a DWG file which will be used as block for the North symbol. Insertion position: specify the position in the sheet where the block will be inserted. Scale factor: scale factor to be used to display the block. By pressing button OK you go on with the generation of the plotting or of the plot preview; in the second case the tool will open a new graphic window inside which a sheet containing the drawing will be displayed. In the lower side of the preview there is a "Navigator"; this bar shows how many sheets have been generated and allows to display them one by one:

Since the plot preview is a graphic window all the graphic CAD drawing and editing commands are active. It is then possible to edit the drawing and to import and export DXF files. From the preview graphic window it is possible to plot directly.

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Plotting or plot preview from Profile module


From Profile module it is possible to perform first the plot preview and then the plotting on paper; it is not possible to plot on paper directly. The generation of the preview creates a drawing with its dimensioning and headings set in definition of profile dimensioning. It is possible to generate the plot preview through one of the following modes: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot preview Command line: PREVIEW

In all the cases the following dialog box will appear:

This dialog box is divided into three tabs: in the first tab you can set the data of the profile to plot; in the second tab you can select and set the plot device; in the third tab it is possible to set the parameters concerning the position of the drawing in the sheet.

Longitudinal profile
Start and end station: it is possible to define the portion of profile to be printed by setting the group first and last section; From section: the tool asks you to enter the first section to be drawn (from 1 up to the maximum number of sections present). Once you have inserted the number of the section, its name will appear in the field on the right. By clicking on button ... a complete list of sections will appear from which you can choose the section needed.

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To section: the tool asks you to enter the last section to be drawn (from the start section to the maximum number of sections present). Once you have inserted the number of the section its name will appear in the field on the right. By clicking on button ... a complete list of sections will appear from which you can choose the section needed. Start and end station: otherwise it is possible to define the portion of profile to be printed by setting start and end station; Start station: start station of the profile segment to print. End station: end station of the profile section to print. Recalculate datum level: if the option is active the tool generates the profile in the center of the sheet and recalculates the datum level; if the option is not active, the tool generates the profile by keeping the datum level set. The datum level is set in Longitudinal profile properties window. Profile optimization: if the option is active the tool recalculates the datum level so that the profile can be drawn even in a sheet that can't contain it completely. Sheet height: you can set the height of the drawing sheet. Set sheet width: in generating the profile drawing it is possible to set the sheet maximum width; according to this value, the tool subdivides automatically the profile into distinct sheets, repeating on each sheet the profile heading. Profile tables of quite long horizontal alignments can therefore be performed very quickly thanks to this option; it is not necessary to carry out the generation by segments, since it is sufficient to specify the width of the sheet to be used. Sheet width: sheet maximum width.

Plot device

From Name list box select the plot device where you want the drawing to be plotted. The tool will list all the plotters configured inside the O.S.. Clicking on Properties button you will open another dialog box through which it is possible to modify the parameters of the plot device selected.

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To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects in order to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thickness. See Pen configuration.

Layout

In Layout tab it is possible to set different parameters defining the paper size and orientation, the area of the drawing to plot and its positioning inside the sheet. Paper size Select from Name list box the paper size for the drawing to be plotted. All paper sizes supported by the plotter selected are listed. If you are setting the data for performing the plot preview, then you can select the option Fit papers to drawing extension. With this option active, it is not necessary to select the paper size since the tool calculates automatically the size of the paper necessary for the drawing; in this way, in the plot preview the whole drawing will be displayed in a single sheet. This option is also necessary when you have to export the whole scaled drawing to a DXF file. See How to export to a DXF file. Drawing orientation It is possible to set the orientation of the sheet where the drawing will be plotted. Plot scale It is possible to specify the two scales, distances and elevations, to be used to obtain the final drawing. Offset It is possible to specify a plot area offset from the bottom angle on the left of the sheet. On paper, values are expressed in millimetres. Through the option Center the plot the tool calculates the two offset values that determine the centering of the drawing on the paper. For drawings whose size exceeds the size of the sheet, it is possible to set Overlapping margins to be taken into consideration for the generation of the sheets next to the first; in this way, it will be easier to join together the single sheets. 193

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Sheet squaring

In this page you can choose the kind of sheet squaring to use for generating the final drawing. From the check list you can choose a simple squaring model, that is a box; besides, all the squaring-type enclosed drawings are listed. See Enclosed drawings. By pressing button OK you go on with the generation of the plot preview; the tool will open a new graphic window inside which a sheet containing the drawing will be displayed. In the lower side of the preview there is a "Navigator"; this bar shows how many sheets have been generated and allows to display them one by one:

Since the plot preview is a graphic window all the graphic CAD drawing and editing commands are active. It is then possible to edit the drawing and to import and export DXF files. From the preview graphic window it is possible to plot directly. See Printing from plot preview and Generating a drawing sheet from a drawing preview .

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Plotting or plot preview from Sections module


It is possible to plot or to obtain the plot preview of a single section, but it is also possible to put together more sections of the project inside the same sheet. You can plot from the sections graphic window in one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot Command line: PLOT

You can generate the plot preview from the Sections graphic window through one of the following ways: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot preview Command line: PREVIEW

In all the cases the following dialog box will appear:

The above dialog box is divided into three tabs: in the first tab you can select the sections to be printed and set their position; in the second tab you can set the plot device; in the third tab you can set the parameters regarding the drawing positioning on the sheet.

Sections
From section: the tool asks you to enter the first section to be drawn (from 1 to the maximum number of sections present). Once you have inserted the section number, its name will appear in 195

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the field on the right. By clicking on button ... a complete list of sections will appear from which you can choose the section needed. To section: the tool asks you to enter the last section to be drawn (from the start section to the maximum number of sections present). Once you have inserted the number of the section, its name will appear in the field on the right. By clicking on button ... a complete list of sections will appear from which you can choose the section needed. Number of rows: the tool asks you to enter the number to section rows that must be present in a single sheet. Number of sections per drawing: the tool asks to indicate the number of sections to draw in a single sheet. Dividing this value by the Number of rows you will obtain the number of columns per sheet. For example, in a drawing containing twelve sections arranged on 3 rows and 4 columns it is sufficient to set 3 in Number of rows field and 12 in Number of sections per drawing. In Drawing width and Drawing height fields the tool displays the size (in millimetres) of the sheet containing the sections according to the values previously set. The width is calculated by multiplying the number of columns by the width of the sheet of the single section; the drawing height is calculated by multiplying the number of the rows by the height of the sheet of the single section. The single section sheet size can be set in Section dimensioning - Layout tab.

Plot device

From Name list box select the plot device where you want the drawing to be plotted. The tool will list all the plotters configured inside the O.S.. Clicking on Properties button you will open another dialog box through which it is possible to modify the parameters of the plot device selected. To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects in order to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thikness. See Pen configuration.

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Layout

In Layout tab it is possible to set different parameters defining the paper size and orientation, the area of the drawing to plot and its positioning inside the sheet. Paper size Select from Name list box the paper size for the drawing to be plotted. All paper sizes supported by the plotter selected are listed. If you are setting the data for performing the plot preview, then you can select the option Fit papers to drawing extension. With this option active, it is not necessary to select the paper size since the tool calculates automatically the size of the paper necessary for the drawing; in this way, in the plot preview the whole drawing will be displayed in a sigle sheet. This option is also necessary when you have to export the whole scaled drawing to a DXF file. Drawing orientation It is possible to set the orientation of the sheet where the drawing will be plotted. Plot scale It is possible to specify the two scales, distances and elevations, to be used to obtain the final drawing. Offset It is possible to specify a plot area offset from the bottom angle on the left of the sheet. On paper, values are expressed in millimetres. Through the option Center the plot the tool calculates the two offset values that determine the centering of the drawing on the paper. For drawings whose size exceeds the size of the sheet, it is possible to set Overlapping margins to be taken into consideration for the generation of the sheets next to the first; in this way, it will be easier to join together the sigle sheets.

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Sheet squaring

In this page you can choose the kind of sheet squaring to use for generating the final drawing. From the check list you can choose a simple squaring model, that is a box; besides, all the squaring-type enclosed drawings are listed. By pressing button OK you go on with the generation of the plotting or of the plot preview; in the second case, the tool will open a new graphic window inside which a sheet containing the drawing will be displayed. In the lower side of the preview there is a "Navigator"; this bar shows how many sheets have been generated and allows to display them one by one:

Since the plot preview is a graphic window all the graphic CAD drawing and editing commands are active. It is then possible to edit the drawing and to import and export DXF files. From the preview graphic window it is possible to plot directly.

Printing from plot preview


From the plot preview graphic window it is possible to plot on paper what displayed in the plot preview. The command can be activated through one of the following modes: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot Command line: PLOT

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The following dialog box appears:

In this window all data previously set for obtaining the plot preview are reported. They can't be modified since their modification would contradict the result previously obtained. It is possible to set the number of sheets to plot and how many copies of the drawing you want to obtain. To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects in order to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thickness. See Pen configuration.

Plot from drawing sheet


From the graphic window of the drawing sheets it is possible to plot on paper what displayed in the drawing sheet. The command can be activated through one of the following modes: Toolbar Standard Menu File > Plot Command line: PLOT

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The following dialog box will appear:

From this window it is possible to print multiple drawing sheets; in fact, all the project drawing sheets are listed. Select the sheets to be printed. To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thickness.

Setting plot boxes


The use of plot boxes defines the drawing sheet position inside the graphic window with the possibility to define also the sheet angle. During the plotting phase, only the part inside the plot box inserted will be printed. Plot boxes can be positioned automatically along the whole horizontal alignment with the correct rotation angle, so as to cover the whole alignment length. In case of long alignments, this option allows to generate immediately the final drawing sheets, since it avoids the manual location of every single plot box.

How to insert single plot boxes


The command can be activated as follows: Menu File > Plot Boxes > Manual Command line: PLOTBOX The following prompts will appear: Sheet type Free/Ansi/Iso/Din/<F>: Specify the sheet type among those listed; write F to insert a sheet with customized size. According

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to the type of sheet chosen the tool suggests different sizes; for example, Iso plot boxes are the following: Sheet type Iso A0/A1/A2/A3/A4/<A0>: Sheet area Internal/Total/<I>: It is possible to choose among the size of the sheet internal area or sheet total area. Sheet width mm.: Sheet height mm.: The tool suggests the size of the plot box chosen. Insertion point: Indicate the sheet position inside the graphic window; the cursor has assumed the shape of a rectangular object representing the size of the sheet to insert. Position the sheet so that it includes the part of the drawing to be plotted. The plot box is associated to a number that you must specify when you perform the plotting. Sheet angle: It is possible to insert the sheet with a rotation angle. Sheet insertion Insertion point/Rotation/Exit/<E>: E' possibile modificare nuovamente il punto di inserimento o l'angolo di rotazione. It is possible to insert several plot boxes inside the same drawing.

How to insert plot boxes on axis


The command can be activated as follows: Menu File > Plot boxes > Automatic on axis Command line: PLOTBOX

The following prompts will appear: Sheet insertion Manual/Automatic on axis/<M>: A Select the axis where to insert the sheets.: Select an element of the axis on which plot boxes must be inserted. Sheet type Free/Ansi/Iso/Din/<F>: Specify the plot box type among the ones available; enter F to insert a customized-size plot box. According to the kind of plot box selected, different sizes are available; Iso plot boxes, for example, are the following:

Select type Iso A0/A1/A2/A3/A4/<A0>: Sheet area Internal/Total/<I>: It is possible to decide whether the dimensions of the plot box to be inserted will include the squaring or not. Sheet Width: Sheet Height: The dimensions of the plot box selected are displayed. Sheets overlapping: Indicate the size of the overlapping area to be considered in the insertion of two consecutive plot boxes.

The tool will position on the axis plot boxes of the size required, taking into account overlapping margins and alignment direction.

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Direct Plot of formats


It is possible to carry out the plot or display the preview by activating the command, selecting the format and pressing the mouse right button: a local menu will appear, allowing to produce a print or a print preview.

Pen configuration
To all the new objects created a CAD color is assigned that can be associated to a layer or directly to the object. While plotting, it is possible to use the colors of the objects to specify a different plot color and to assign widths or line thickness. The Pen configuration dialog box is the following:

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In this dialog box you will find the 256 colors provided by the tool; for each color it is possible to set the color to associate for plotting and the thickness of the segment (in millimetres). During the plotting phase, the tool will check the color of the object to plot and then it will use, as plot color, the color associated in this table. According to the color of the object, the thickness of the segment to be drawn will be set. It is possible to set the pen assignments (plot color and lineweight) to a selected group of pens.

Drawing resources
With drawing resource manager it is possible to have access to some base elements that can be used to form a complete drawing; in fact it is possible to create and modify customized symbols in order to make them appear as a survey point symbol or appear along a line or inside a hatching. In general, with drawing resource manager it is possible to:

create and edit customized symbols that can be associated to survey points; it is possible to create symbols representing trees, manhole covers, cartographic symbols, etc. create and edit customized linetypes along which symbols and/or blocks can be repeated; for example it is possible to create an "Electric" linetype along which the assigned symbol is repeated. create and edit customized hatch patterns inside which it is possible to insert symbols and/or blocks; it is possible to create, for example, a hatch pattern "Orchard" inside which the symbol representing the fruit-bearing plant is repeated.

Several symbols, linetypes and hatch patterns are provided with the tool; it is helpful to see how they have been built in order to learn creating your own personalizations. Drawing resource manager can be activated through one of the following modes: Menu Format > Drawing resource manager Command line: RESMAN

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The following dialog box will appear:

The above dialog box is divided into three main parts: Resources: the vertical bar on the left of the window allows to have access to the type of resource among those provided: symbols, blocks, linetypes and hatches. List: it is in the central part of the dialog box; it shows the list of resources belonging to the type of resource selected on the left. If you select Symbols the tool will list all symbols available, selecting Linetypes all linetypes available will be listed, and so on. Editing/Drawing: on the right part of the dialog box the tool will display the element selected in the List; in this part it is possible to edit the element.

How to create and edit customized symbols


The tool is equipped with a library of symbols that can be used as survey point symbols, as symbols to be repeated along a linetype or symbols inside a hatch pattern. It is possible to create customized symbols and so extend the starting library. To customize symbols it is necessary to start Drawing resource manager in one of the following ways: Menu Format > Drawing resource manager Command line: RESMAN

The following window will appear:

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In Resources, on the left of the window, select the icon Symbol 1; in the central list the tool will display the all the symbols currently available in the library. If you select a symbol, it will appear both in the preview window under the list and in the graphic CAD on the right of the list. Symbols provided by the tool can't be modified. In order to create a customized symbol, it is necessary to create an empty symbol inside the list and select it: you can draw your own symbol through the graphic CAD on the right of the list by using lines, arcs and circles as base elements.

Use of the CAD


The CAD for symbols personalization offers the following commands: drawing lines: click on the start point of the line and then on the end point of the line. To stop drawing press the right button of the mouse. drawing arcs passing through 3 points: click on the start point of the arc, then click on the crossing point of the arc and finally on the last point of the arc. In order to stop drawing press the right button of the mouse. drawing circles: click on the circle center and then on a crossing point. In order to stop drawing press the right button of the mouse. erasing objects: click on the object to erase (line, arc or circle). dynamic pan: it allows to shift the drawing view in a dynamic way. Keep the left button of the mouse pressed while shifting.

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zoom all: it allows to zoom on the drawing at its maximum extension. zoom in: increases the zoom factor; click on the point the zoom has to be performed on. zoom out: reduces the zoom factor by removing the view; click on the point the zoom has to be performed on. Grid: the grid of reference can be helpful while drawing; to turn on/turn off the grid display it is sufficient to press button Grid. Ortho: ortho mode can be helpful while drawing because it allows to draw only lines that are orthogonal among them; to turn on/turn off Ortho mode it is sufficient to press button Ortho. Axis: the activation of reference axis display can be helpful while drawing; to turn on/turn off the axis display it is sufficient to press button Axis. The insertion point of the symbol is represented by the intersection of the two reference axes. After you have created your own symbol, it is necessary to save the changes made by pressing button Save. It is possible to assign a name to each symbol in order to recognize it easily during the selection: write the name to be assigned to the symbol in Name edit box and then press Save. Note. All symbols are saved inside the ProSt.SMB file in the tool directory. In case you have to install the tool in another computer then it is necessary to transfer your own ProSt.SMB file in order to use your customized symbols even in other computers.

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How to create and edit customized linetypes


The tool is provided with a library of linetypes that can be extended by creating your own linetypes; inside customized linetypes, it is possible insert up to three symbols and/or blocks. It becomes then easier to create linetypes according to your needs: fences, rows, ditches, electric lines, walls, sideslopes, etc.. To customize linetypes it is necessary to start Drawing resource manager in one of the following ways: Menu Format > Drawing resource manager Command line: RESMAN

From the appearing dialog box select Linetypes resource:

In Resources, on the left of the window, select the icon Linetypes; in the central list the tool will display the linetypes currently loaded in the drawing. If you select a linetype, it will appear both in the preview window under the list and in the edit part on the right of the list. You can create your own linetype starting from an already present one: select then the Continuous linetype and press button Duplicate. You can specify your own linetype format by setting a sequence of information in Linetype definition edit box. If, on the contrary, you want to edit an already existing linetype, then it is sufficient to select it from the list and start editing.

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Linetype definition
A linetype is defined by a sequence of values separated by a command whose meaning is the following: Value >0 : drawing a segment with length = Value; Value <0 : blank space with length = Value; Value = 0: drawing a point; [1] : the tool will draw the symbol/block set in Symbol 1 tab; [2] : the tool will draw the symbol/block set in Symbol 2 tab; [3] : the tool will draw the symbol/block set in Symbol 3 tab;

Symbols on linetypes
Besides the normal linetype settings, it is possible to specify up to three symbols/blocks to be repeated along the linetype by setting the parameters in Symbol 1/2/3 tabs.

Symbol only at extremities: turn this option on when you want to obtain the drawing of the symbol only at the extremities of the line and not along it. With this option active it is not possible to draw other symbols along the line Symbol along the line: turn this option on when you want to define a symbol/block to be assigned to a linetype. Press button Browse to select the symbol/block needed. See Select symbols/blocks. Symbol size: size of the symbol/block. Symbol rotated on line: turn this option on when you want the symbol assume, as rotation angle, the angle defined by the line itself; on the contrary the angle would be always zero.

Saving changes
After you have created your own linetype it is possible to save the changes made by pressing button Save. Each linetype is identified by a name, so it is necessary to assign a name to the linetype created and, if necessary, a description that can be used as "preview" in linetype list box.

How to export linetypes


It is possible to export the linetypes present in a project in order to load them in other projects: press button Export and specify the name of the file where linetypes have to be saved. The tool will then create a file with LIN extension, that can be loaded in other projects. See How to load linetypes.

Example 1: Dashed line


In order to create a dashed linetype it is necessary to set the values as follows: 5,-5

Example 2: Dashdot line


In order to create a dashdot linetype it is necessary to set the values as follows: 5,-5,0,-5

Example 3: Dashed line with symbol


To create a dashed linetype with a symbol repeated in it, it is necessary to set the values as follows: 5,-5,[1],-5 The symbol to be repeated must be set in Symbol 1 tab. The tool is provided with a library of linetypes that can be used as base for the definition of customized linetypes.

How to create and edit customized hatch patterns


The tool is provided with a library of hatches that can be extended by creating your own hatch patterns; inside customized hatch patterns, it is possible to repeat a symbol/block. It becomes then easier to create hatch patterns according to your needs: orchards, pine-forest, etc.

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To customize hatch patterns it is necessary to start the Drawing resource manager in one of the following ways: Menu Format > Drawing resource manager Command line: RESMAN

From the appearing dialog box select Hatches resource:

In Resources, on the left of the window, select the icon Hatches; in the central list the tool will display the hatch patterns currently loaded in the drawing. If you select a hatch pattern, it will appear both in the preview window under the list and in the edit part on the right of the list. You can create your own hatch pattern starting from an already present one: select, for example, Ansi 31 Duplicate. If, on the contrary, you want to edit an already existing hatch pattern and press button pattern, then it is sufficient to select it from the list and start editing.

Extended data
Internal symbol: turning on this option you specify that you want to repeat a symbol inside an hatch. Select the symbol/block by pressing Browse button. See Select symbols/blocks. Symbol size: Size of the symbol/block. Symbol angle: Symbol rotation angle. Hatch angle: Rotation angle of the whole hatch. X Distance: Distance from a symbol to the other along the horizontal axis. Y Distance: Distance from a symbol to the other along the vertical axis. 209

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After you have created your own hatch pattern, it is possible to save changes by pressing Save button. Hatches can be distinguished by the name, then it is necessary to assign a name (and if necessary a description) to the hatch pattern created.

How to save changes

Exporting hatch patterns


It is possible to export the hatches present in a project in order to load them in other projects: press Export and specify the name of the file where hatches have to be saved. The tool will then button create a file with PAT extension, that can be loaded in other projects. See How to load hatch patterns.

Customizing commands
Setting the preferences
You can customize some parameters of the program and the graphic CAD such as the colors of the graphic window background, the interval for automatic saving, etc.

How to set preferences


1. 2. 3. 4.

From the File menu, choose Preferences. In Preferences dialog box, choose the tab needed. Set the preferences needed. Choose OK.

The following window appears:

In Preferences dialog box, you can choose options concerning specific operations: System In this page you can set parameters concerning the system you are using such as the interval for automatic saving, units. 210

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User interface In this page some parameters are set, which refer to the way user interface works. CADD Parameters concerning some features of the graphic CAD. Cursor graphic cursor working parameters Colors Colors of the elements selected and of the grips on elements. Raster Parameters concerning the display of raster and the vectorization system control. Folders Settings of the folder where external programs are memorized. Alias List of command aliases and of macros of commands. TANGO commands Settings of commands to be associated to TANGO files and descriptions to create menu items.

Preferences System

In this tab, you can set the following system parameters: Autosave If the Create BAK file check box is active, the tool creates a backup file each time you will save the work. If the Every check box is activated, the tool will perform the saving of the open files according to the interval set by the user. Decimal digits separator: It is possible to set the character to use as separator of decimals: point or comma. In case a point is used, then the comma will be used as separator of coordinates; vice versa, if a comma is used as separator of decimals, then a semicolon will be used as separator of coordinates, Units You can set the type of unit; it is used in cross sections module to display area and volume units.

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User interface
In this page some parameters are set, which refer to the way user interface works. In particular, it is possible to save the layout of the tool window, so that it can be retrieved at any time. The layout includes the position and the status of all the toolbars available. Any user can then create his/her own work layout, save it and retrieve it when working on the tool. Otherwise it is possible to create different layouts for the different work typologies.

The window defines the following requests: Configuration: select the standard configuration or create a new one by following window will appear: button; the

indicate the name of the configuration to be created and press OK. The new configuration will be available from selection list. To delete a configuration select it from the list and press User Interface. Dynamic Input. makes the use of dynamic input active, so as to insert the requests for input near the cursor; .

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Object snap in AutoCAD mode. Activates snaps to object by a mode which is similar to that of AutoCAD: when a snap is activated in a command, this is valid only for the following request for point and not for further requests; on the contrary, if the option is deactivated, the standard mode is kept, which implies that the choice of a snap is valid for all the following requests for points, as long as that snap is active. White background. Applies a white background to the tool CAD; Options on command line as buttons. by activating this option the command bar is displayed as a set of buttons which can be selected by clicking with the mouse. The command bar looks like the following:

Hide obsolete commands. Hides the commands used in the previous versions and now replaced by other utilities.

Preferences CADD

In this page you can set specific graphic CADD parameters in relation to the speed of your computer.

Drawing elements
Number of circle segments sets the number of segments with which to approximate the circle or the arc drawing; higher is the number of segments better will be the approximation with a circle and slower will be the drawing. Number of ellipse segments sets the number of segments with which to approximate the ellipse drawing; higher is the number of segments better will be the approximation with an ellipse and slower will be the drawing. Max. num. of hatches sets the maximum number of base entities per each hatching to be performed. If the number of entities is higher than this value, the hatching is not carried out. Show quick text displays each text and attribute object as a bounding box around the text object. Show quick line displays continuous lines even for different linetypes. 213

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Show quick points when points are represented by blocks, this mode uses standard symbols.

Miscellaneous
Drag mode: object drawing mode during CAD operations. Not active the objects are not displayed as you move them. Active for drawing the objects (ex. arcs, circles, etc.) are displayed as you create them. Active for dragging the objects are displayed as you move them. CANC button to delete elements selected: By this option it is possible to enable/disable CANC button to delete the objects selected. Undo last command effect turns on/off the possibility to cancel the effect of the last command. Use trasparency: activates/deactivates the use of transparencies in some commands of the graphic CAD.

Preferences - Cursor

Cursor
Aperture size sets check box aperture Grip size size of element grips. Object selection limit display of grips if this mode is active, when a point is specified, this will be marked by a dot. Cursor size (1..100) operates on the graphic size of the cursor compared to the width of the window. Update coordinates displays the coordinates on shifting the cursor.

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Cursor linked between planimetry-profile


By this group of options it is possible to regulate the cursor working mode in planimetry and profile graphic windows. Active: activates the cursor on different windows; by moving the cursor in the planimetry, the corresponding position in the profile graphic window will be displayed and vice versa. Section drawing width: cursor drawing width in planimetry graphic window in case the cursor moves inside profile graphic window.

Preferences - Colors

It is possible to set the colour the object grips must have when they are selected.

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Preferences - Raster

In this tab you can set some working parameters used by Rasta module for the management of raster images.

Raster properties
Show quick raster if this option is active, the tool only displays the boundary lines of the present raster images. Drawing raster frame you can set the drawing of the four lines delimiting the raster image. If the option is not active, the images cannot be selected. Undo image activates the undo image option: before the image is modified, the tool makes a copy of it so that you can restore the previous situation. Below, you will find some setting parameters for the raster/vector algorithm.

Raster-Vector
Line maximum width (pixels) identifies the maximum number of pixels with which a line is represented in the raster image to be vectorized. Minimum number of pixels per line identifies the minimum number of consecutive pixels to be considered for creating a line. For example, if the set value is 10 then the tool will not create lines containing less than 10 pixels. Alignment tolerance (pixels) it represents the number of pixels over which a line is broken. As you create lines, the tool looks for the nodes, that are the points where the line changes its direction. For example, if the set value is 3 then the tool checks the distance between a pixel and the segment created up to that pixel: if the distance is higher than 3 then the tool will create a line up to the previous point and then starts creating a new line.

Create
You can set the vectorization system to create lines or polylines.

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Preferences - Folders
In this tab it is possible to set folders containing external programs and that can be used interactively with the tool. AutoCAD: executable file name and folder to be executed in the creation of the DXF file. Exporting DXF files. Vista: this folder contains the SierraSoft program Vista for the 3D visualization, rendering and animation. Matra: this folder contains SierraSoft program Matra for the transformation of coordinates. Opera: this folder contains the SierraSoft program Opera for work accounting. TAF and DIS files: folder where TAF files of datum points and DIS files of measured entities have been saved. Files are used by Cadastral datum and Management of measured entities commands.

Preferences - Alias

In this tab it is possible not only to see and modify the present aliases and macros, but also define and customize them. In the first column of the table the short command or alias is specified, while in the next column the complete command is specified. With Sort button it is possible to sort the aliases according to the alphabetical order. In order to erase aliases it is necessary to select the rows and then press button Delete.

Aliases
To define an alias it is sufficient to choose the alias short name and then set the complete command the alias has to perform. For example, it is possible to choose the letter C as alias which the complete command CIRCLE corresponds to; in this way, writing C on the command line the tool will execute the command CIRCLE.

Macros
A macro represents a group of commands that are automatically executed on the command line in order to quicken particular repetitive operations. Inside the macro you will have to set the command name and 217

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the answers to what the command prompts; it is then necessary to know exactly the prompts performed by each command. As for aliases, in the first column you will set the macro name and in the second column you will write the whole macro. Let's see an example of macro creation: its task is that of drawing a square of 5x5 side by asking the point from which to start the drawing. In a new row of the macro table digit BOX in the first column and the following text in the second: LINE \@5,0 @0,5 @-5,0 @0,-5 ^C The first part of the macro contains the first command to execute followed by a space which stands for ENTER; then there is a \ which means that the tool waits for an answer from the user (that is the first point of the line). Following, there is a list of the relative coordinates (preceded by @) that are necessary too draw the square. The last element of the macro is ^C that stops the command. Of course the macro can be extended by calling other commands etc. Now, by digitizing BOX command on command line you will see that the tool executes the macro asking the line start point and drawing automatically the square. Note. Aliases and macros are saved inside ProSt.PGP file in the tool directory. If you want to transfer macros into a tool installed on another computer, it is necessary to copy this file inside the second computer.

TANGO Commands

After you have created a TANGO program, it is necessary to create a command that executes it. The command can be digitized on the command line or recalled by a menu item created for it. In this tab it is possible to set for each TANGO program the command that will execute it; it is therefore possible to set the text of the menu item that will execute the program. Command. Command name; be careful not to set already existing command names. Description. Menu item text that will execute the TANGO program. The menu item, that will execute TANGO program, will be inserted in Tools menu under Tango item. 218

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File. Name of the file containing the TANGO program to be performed. With Sort button, it is possible to sort the commands according to the alphabetical order; in order to erase commands it is necessary to select the rows corresponding to the commands you want to erase and then press button Delete.

Setting up a digitizing tablet


A digitizing tablet, or digitizer, is a peripheral device that can be used to digitize, or trace, paper drawings into a tool drawing file. With the Wintab driver, the tablet pointer can also be used instead of a mouse as a system pointer to choose menu items and drawing objects in the CAD or to interact with the operating system. The tablet pointer can be a mouse or a stylus. The digitizing tablet must first be configured and then can optionally be calibrated. When the tablet is calibrated, it can be used to trace geometry from an existing paper drawing or photograph into a tool drawing. You can easily switch between using the tablet uncalibrated as a system pointer (Tablet mode off) or calibrated for digitizing a drawing (Tablet mode on).

Configuring the Wintab driver


The tool supports Wintab-compatible digitizing tablets. Wintab is a Windows specification that independent developers use so that the digitizing tablet can be used as both a system pointer and an tool pointing device. You can use a digitizing tablet with the tool only by configuring Windows for use with the Wintab driver. To configure Windows 95, 98, NT 4.0 or 2000 for the Wintab driver, follow the setup installation procedure supplied by the digitizing tablets manufacturer. Wintab drivers are not provided by the tool.

Calibrating the Tablet for Tracing


If you want to use a digitizing tablet for tracing, or digitizing, the tablet needs to be calibrated to the paper drawing, photograph, or other graphic material. The purpose of calibration is to align the paper drawing with the tablet and to establish a proportional relationship between point locations on the paper drawing and locations on the surface of the tablet. After the tablet is calibrated, you can enter commands such as Line, Polyline, Arc, and Circle to trace the existing drawing. If the paper drawing is too big to fit on the tablet, you can trace the drawing in portions, making sure to calibrate the tablet with each portion in turn. In the tool, using a digitizing tablet in this manner is called Tablet mode. You can turn Tablet mode on and off by using the Tablet option on the Tools menu or the TABLET command.

Using editing commands in tablet mode


Any command that requires you to select objects with the tablet pointer still works in Tablet mode. For example, to erase an object, start ERASE command and move the tablet pointer until the pickbox is over the object.

How to calibrate a tablet for tracing


1. 2. 3. Tape the paper drawing on the tablet. At the Command prompt, enter tablet. Then enter cal. Using the pick button on the puck or stylus, pick a point on the tablet for which you know the X,Y coordinate values. Note: It is recommended that you hold the puck in both hands and, looking down from the top, align the puck crosshairs as accurately as possible with the specified location in the drawing. An error or inaccuracy when picking the calibration points represents a residual error throughout your work. 4. 5. Enter the X,Y coordinate values for the point you specified. Repeat steps 3 and 4. 219

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6. 7.

Press ENTER to end the command, or repeat steps 3 and 4 to calibrate more points. After you have calibrated the tablet, the coordinates showing on your screen should be coincident with the coordinates in the paper drawing.

Turning Tablet mode on or off


1. From Tools menu, select Tablet. Choose On or Off.

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Using grids
Grids are largely used in the program because they return a global vision of an uniform group of data (for example: coordinates of survey points). Grids allow to manage easily (and more clearly than displaying each one of them) a great number of data.

As you know, a grid is made up of a set of rows and columns which, intersecting, define cells. Each row represents a set of data which is inside a column and is therefore a cell. The first row and column of a grid are fixed and specify the row datum (column) and order number. The upper side of the window shows a toolbar containing a list of the subprojects and the main commands. The table displays the data concerning the subproject currently selected in Subprojects list; to display the data concerning the other subprojects it is sufficient to modify the subproject selected. In the lower part of the window you will find the navigator bar. It is made up of a set of buttons, which allows to work easily inside the grid and activate quickly the most commonly used commands. Again in this bar, the grid current row and the number of total rows are indicated.

How to move inside the grids


You can move inside the grids using both the mouse and the board.

With key-board :

Pass to the cells next to the current cell: direction keys; Pass to the next page of rows : PAGE-DOWN; Pass to the previous page of rows : PAGE-UP; Go to the grid end : CTRL+END; Go to the grid start : CTRL+HOME; Use Scroll-bar; 221

With mouse :

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Use navigator bar.

How to insert a row in a grid


Insertion of a row at the bottom of the grid :
1. 2. Take active cell to the bottom of the grid; appears in the last row, you can start inserting data in the cells of the last If the symbol row; a new row will be generated automatically.

Insertion of a row among already existing rows :


1. 2. Take the active cell to the row that follows the row to be inserted ; It is possible to insert a row by one of the following methods : a. b. c. 3. Press on button of navigator bar ;

Press the right button of the mouse and select Insert row from menu; Press button INS

On the row thus appearing it is possible to insert data.

How to erase a row in a grid


1. 2. Take active cell to the row to be erased ; It is possible to erase a row through one of the following methods:

Press on button

of navigator bar ;

Press the right button of the mouse and select Delete row from menu; From keyboard press button Del.

To erase a group of rows it is necessary to select them and follow above mentioned point 2.

How to modify data in a grid


It is possible to modify data in a cell following two methods : replacing cell contents completely or changing cell contents.

Complete substitution of cell contents :


1. 2. 1. 2. 3. Select the cell to be modified; Digit new content; previous content disappears; Select the cell to be modified; Press RETURN or click on the cell with the cursor; Modify the content after text selection has disappeared;

Change in cell content :

During cell-edit phase, when you press the right button of the mouse, Windows standard menu for clipboard management appears.

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How to select rows in a grid


Selecting rows with mouse :
1. 2. Click and keep the left button pressed on the first row to be selected, on the first column (fixed column) and drag the mouse (upward or downward) to select the other rows. To select non-consecutive rows click on the row to be selected, corresponding to the first column, keeping button CTRL pressed. Go to the first row to be selected; Keeping SHIFT key pressed, move with direction keys (upward or downward), to select the other rows; Click on fixed cell on top-right of the table; or press CTRL+A.

Selecting rows with keyboard :


1. 2.

Select all rows:


1. 2.

How to use copy and paste in grids


How to move a group of rows inside the same grid or to another grid :
1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Select rows to be copied (see how to select rows in a grid) ; Press key CTRL+X or select Cut row from local menu ;

Get to the row from where to start copying the rows selected ; Press CTRL+V key or select Paste row from local menu ;

How to copy a group of rows inside the same grid or in another grid :
Select rows to be copied (see how to select rows in a grid) ; Press key CTRL+C or select Copy row from local menu ;

Get to the row from where to start copying the rows selected ; Press CTRL+V key or select Paste row from local menu ;

How to activate local menu in a grid


A grid local menu includes a set of utility commands for the grid itself, besides those used to insert, erase, search rows. It is possible to activate a grid local menu as follows : 1. 2. pressing button from navigator bar ;

pressing the right button of the mouse.

It is then sufficient to select from menu the entry required.

How to use Drag & Drop in grids


It is possible to copy quickly the data from a grid to another by drag & drop : 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the two grids: source grid and destination grid; Select the rows to copy from source grid; Keeping the left mouse button pressed, move the cursor over the destination grid ; Release the mouse button ; 223

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Immediately the data will be copied to destination grid. Note. Drag & drop is possible only for grids that have the same type of data. For exemple, it is not possible to copy topographic coordinates on field book table (sights).

How to carry out a research in a grid


It is possible to find in the grid either all the recurrences of a given value at the same time or one recurrence at a time.

1.

Select the column where you want to carry out the research, if you do not want to carry out the research in all the columns. The research in a single column is faster than the research in the whole grid. Click on of navigator bar or select Find and replace... on the grid local menu or press CTRL+F key; the previous dialog box will appear. In Find edit box digit the value you want to find. Set any other option you want to use in Find and replace dialog box. To find the first recurrence of a value, click on button Find first. To find the value following recurrence, go on clicking on Find next button.

2. 3. 4. 5.

How to perform a find and replace in a table


It is possible to replace the recurrences of a value in the table either all at the same time or one by one.

1.

Position, by cursor, on the column cell where the research has to be performed, unless you want to carry out the research on all the columns. The research on one column is faster than the one in the whole table.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Click on navigation bar, or select the item Find and replace in the table local menu, or press CTRL+F button; the previous dialog box will appear. In Find box digit the value to be replaced. In Replace with box insert the new text. Set any other option to be used in Find and replace dialog box. To perform just one replacement click on Replace button. To replace all the texts found at the same time, click on Replace all button.

How to modify a group of cells in a grid


It is possible to modify automatically a group of cells belonging to a column of the grid. The change might consist in giving the same value to all the cells, in adding a value to all the cells, in deleting the content of all the cells, or in increasing cell values.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Select the rows whose cells will be modified ; Select Change rows... will appear. in the grid local menu or press CTRL+R key; the previous dialog box

Select the grid column where you want to make the changes from the list proposed. According to the kind of datum found in the column to be modified, modification window is displayed in a different way and the corresponding options are activated:

For standard, value type columns, the following window will appear:

In Value box enter an alphanumeric value and in Operation box choose the operation to carry out.

For non-standard, true/false type columns, the following window will appear: 225

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by Activate command, the corresponding option is activated or deactivated.

For non-standard Changetype columns, the following window will appear:

button appears, allowing to gain access to a window with a list of the In Value box options available.

In case of columns where it is possible to choose the content by a pull down menu, the dialog box looks like the following:

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5. 6.

In Value box the same pull down menu as in the column selected will appear, and the choice is made by selecting one of the items; in Operation box choose the operation to carry out. Select the kind of operation you want to perform on the column data: Add: sums the content of Value edit box to the contents of the cells ; Change: substitutes the cell content with Value edit box ; Reset: resets cell content ; Increasing: the numeric content of the cells is progressively increased. Line after line, the value to be added increases as much as the numeric value indicated in Value text box. Append to the beginning: adds the content of Value input field as prefix to cell content; Append to the end: adds the content of Value input field as suffix to cell content ;

7.

Press OK to apply the changes you have set.

How to apply a filter on columns


It is possible to apply a filter to one or more columns, so as to make visible only the lines whose content meets the conditions set. In this way you can, for example, insert a filter that shows only the measures performed by a station, or all the points with a certain code, or all the points whose description contain a certain word. In a table it is possible to activate different filters at the same time, one for each column. The command can be activated through the following methods:

1.

Select the item Filter...

in the table local menu; the following dialog box will appear.

2. 3.

Select the table column to apply view filter to. Choose the view option desired among the ones proposed in Rows to display check box. In the check box on the right all the values available in the column selected are displayed. the view options available are: All: all the rows are displayed; the filter is not activated. Equal to: all the rows whose content is exactly equal to the one desired are displayed. Different from: all the rows whose column content is different from what required. Greater than: all the rows whose column content exceeds the value set are displayed. Greater than or equal to: all the rows whose column content is greater than or equal to the value set are displayed. Lower than: all the rows whose column content is lower than the value set are displayed. Lower than or equal to: all the rows whose column content is lower than or equal to the value set are displayed.. Starting with: all the rows whose column content starts with the value set are displayed. Not starting with: all the rows whose column content does not start with the value set are displayed. 227

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Ending with:all the rows whose column content ends with the value set are displayed. Not ending with: all the rows whose column content does not end with the value set are displayed. Containing: all the rows whose column content contains the value set are displayed. Not containing: all the rows whose column content does not contain the value set are displayed.

4. 5.

Press the button Apply filter to apply the settings to the table. The column the filter is applied to can be recognized by its blue heading. To annul the filter on a column, set from Rows to display check list the value All. To annul all the filters on all the columns press the button Reset filter.

Sorting by columns
It is possible to apply a temporary sort on a table content. The sort is annulled on closing the table. The sort can be upward or downward. 1. To apply the sort to a column, just click on its heading; on the column where a sort has been applied, a symbol like the following will appear: 2. The first sort applied is an upward one; by clicking on the column heading again, a downward sort is applied. Then, by clicking a third time, the original situation with no sorting is restored.

How to modify column width


1. 2. 3. 4. To modify column width take the cursor to the edge of the heading cell of the column itself; The cursor changes its aspect to show that you can change the column width ; Click on the left button of the mouse and keep it pressed while you move towards a new position; Release mouse button;

How to modify column position


1. 2. 3. To modify the position of a column, click with the mouse left button on the column heading cell, while keeping Control button pressed; the whole column will be selected. Again press the left button of the mouse and keeping the button pressed, move towards the new position of the column ; Release mouse button ;

How to obtain a report


In order to have access to the procedure of table data report it is sufficient to press table toolbar. button in the

The report is carried out by keeping the display order currently set in the table; if some rows are selected, only the report of such rows will be carried out.

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How to zoom on tables


By button it is possible to zoom on the graphic window and bring to front the object corresponding to the row currently selected in the table.

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Print reports
The tool can provide the print reports of all the data contained in the work file, making it possible to have a print preview on screen, so that the user can check the results that will be obtained from the print without having to print on paper. The structure of the reports generated by the tool can be completely customized in form and content; a specific editor allows to create ones own report models and set all the features of content formatting and paging up. To obtain the reports of any of the data available it is necessary to select from File menu the item Print or enter PRINT command. Moreover, the report can be activated by tables and dialog boxes that provide for this opportunity. The following window will appear, listing the different reports available according to the main setting Report type, by which it is possible to choose whether to display the reports available for survey data or for axis data. The different reports are arranged according to the different kinds of data available; for each typology there can be different report models. Such models can be extended by models created by the user. The buttons on the right side allow to start the report by printer, as preview, as exportation to PDF, RTF, HTML or ASCII file. Options button allows to gain access to a window by which it is possible to set margins and other options

Select the kind of report to obtain and choose one of the generation modes reported on the right.

Reports can be obtained on: Paper: press Print button. The tool will show Windows standard dialog box, in which it will be possible to select printer, sheets to print, sheet format, etc; by entering OK, on this dialog box the report selected will be printed. Preview: the report will be displayed on screen. 230

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PDF: the report is saved in an Adobe PDF format file. The tool will ask to specify the name of the file to be created and the folder in which to save it. RTF: the report is saved in a RTF (Rich Text Format) file. The tool will ask to indicate the name of the file to be created and the folder in which to save it. HTML: the report is saved in a HTML format file. The tool will ask to indicate the name of the file to be created and the folder in which to save it. ASCII: the report is saved in a text format file. The tool will ask to indicate the name of the file to be created and the folder in which to save it. By Options button it is possible to gain access to such report parameters as margins and others..

Customize layout
Reports are customized starting from an existing layout: from the list of layouts select the base model desired, then press the button New model; the tool will ask to indicate the name to set to the new model to be created. The next step is the startup of SierraSoft Report Designer, an editor including all the tools for customizing the aspect of a report. The model created is added to the list of the models available and will then be used to generate a report in the format desired. The models are saved as files in the tool Reports folder; in order to use a customized layout in a different position, copy the corresponding file in the same folder.

Modify a layout
The layouts supplied along with the software cannot be modified; it is possible to modify the layouts created by the user. The icon by which a layout is indicated allows to understand whether it is a predefined, i.e. nonmodifiable, layout, or a model created by the user. Predefined Model Customized Model To modify a model, select it from the list and press the button Customize model; SierraSoft Report Designer, the editor including all the tools to modify a report, will be activated.

Rename layout
To rename the layouts created by the user select the model from the list and press the button Rename model. Set a new name to the layout selected.

Delete layout
A customized layout can be deleted by Delete model after selecting the model.

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Report preview
If in the report window you press Preview, the following window will appear, displaying the preview of the report selected:

Starts print on paper. Exports the file reports to different formats. Copies the current page as clipboard image. Activates the window that allows to modify the report; the report can be modified in all its contents, both of drawing (lines) and of text. The window works as the SierraSoft Report Designer. Activates the display of two pages at the same time. Displays the first page. Displays previous page. Displays next page. Displays last page. Displays the page real size. Displays full page. Displays page at maximum width. Searches text in the page. Closes preview window.

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Set margins and other parameters


It is possible to set some report margins so as to allow to position the report in the sheet. By pressing on Margins the following window will appear:

It is possible to set the value (in mm.) of the sheet four margins, obtaining at the same time the display of the settings selected in the preview image. In Preferences it is possible to set the following parameters:

Print current date on top-right corner. Activates the printing of the current date on every sheet. Print current time on top-right corner. Activates the printing of the current time on every sheet. Print project name: the project name is printed on the sheet left bottom. Print subproject name: the subproject name is printed on the sheet right bottom.. Text autosize: reduces automatically the size of the texts to allow complete display within a certain space.

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How to set the printer


To set the printer and its parameters, it is sufficient to select Printer setup from File menu.

SierraSoft Report Designer


SierraSoft Report Designer is the work environment allowing the total customization of every report contained in the software. By this tool it is possible to operate on every layout, so as to create a model that can meet any need, according to the layouts already set in the tool.

Work environment
SierraSoft Report Designer displays a simple and intuitive user interface.

The middle of the window displays the scheme of a page representing the area inside which to build a layout. The orientation of this page can be vertical or horizontal, according to the kind of layout, and its components can be completely different. Grey borders describe the work area inside which to position the different objects; the work environment displays a grid, to allow an easier positioning of the objects. The item Report option of File menu activates the window for the modification of some report settings; by this window it is possible to choose the printer to use and, from Document page, insert comments concerning the report being modified. The item Page options of File menu activates the settings window of the page in which the work is being performed, allowing to choose orientation, margins and page format.

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The item Options of Tools menu allows to gain access to the window for the modification of the work environment properties; from this window it is possible to choose the current measure unit, the grid size and the position of the page compared to the work environment.

The upper toolbar displays the commands for the management of texts: to change text style, font, characters size, colour and alignment, both horizontal and vertical, of every text.

The lower status bar displays current measure unit, coordinates, size and name of the object selected.

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On the left there is the objects toolbar, listing the buttons that allow the insertion of a new object, such as a mark or a line.

Objects
SierraSoft Report Designer allows to insert in a page different objects, which display very different features from each other.

Line
Line object can be positioned in any point of the report. This object is used to draw borders where it would be possible to draw them by other objects. It is completely modifiable both in type (continuous, dashed), and in weight and orientation; in fact, it can be positioned both vertically and horizontally as to the page.

Mark (text)
Marks are text objects which can contain a fixed value, i.e. an object that will not be modified when printed, or a text that will vary according to the variable it represents. A mark can contain a fixed text or a variable. A fixed text is so called because it does not vary when printed; on the contrary, the variables, when printed, will assume a certain value according to the datum they refer to. All the texts between square brackets are considered variables. Such object usually has a rectangular shape, but it is completely customizable, both in size and aspect, as well as in content and text properties.

Image
The object allows to load any image, which will then be displayed not only when printed, but also in the modification environment. The image loaded will take all the room available and will be reduced according to the changes made to the object that contains it, while keeping the ratio height/width. Image object allows to load files with*.bmp, *.jpg, *.ico, *.wmf, *.emf extension.

Band
A band represents the area inside which it is necessary to position marks, lines and images so that they are repeated on any report page; they are easily recognizable since they display a darker grey colour than the rest of the page.

Generally, any layout is formed by three bands: PageHeader: Corresponds to the page header and is repeated at the beginning of each page; its position coincides with the page upper margin.

PageFooter: Corresponds to the page bottom and is therefore printed at the end of each page; its position coincides with the page lower margin.

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MasterData: this band is repeated at every row, until the print has been completely carried out; its position can vary inside the page, since it is printed immediately after the pageHeader. This does not apply to the two bands analysed above; for this reason, it is recommendable not to vary the position of the bands. There are other kinds of bands, for example Pagina, which is printed only once on each page; for each of them it is possible to insert a single Pagina band. As in the PageHeader and in the PageFooter, the position inside the Designer will correspond to the position at the moment of printing.

Insert and modify lines


To insert a line press button, then, moving the cursor over the report modification area, it will change displaying a pen, which will indicate that the command for the insertion of a pen is active. After choosing an insertion point, press the mouse left button to start drawing a line; while keeping that button pressed, take the cursor to the position that will indicate the line second extreme; now it will be possible to release the mouse left button, which will bring about the actual insertion of the line. To stop that command press button or ESC button.

Once the insertion has been carried out, it will be possible to modify the line properties by the commands available in the top toolbar, in particular linetype and lineweight. When a line object is selected, two grips appear on its extremes, allowing to stretch the object; to move a line, just select it, then drag and drop it to the point desired. Such object is repeated if postioned inside a band. To cancel a line first select it, then press CANC button.

Insert and modify marks (texts)


To insert a mark, first press button, then, moving the cursor over the report modification area, it will change displaying a cross at the side of a rectangle, indicating that the command for the insertion of a mark is active. After choosing an insertion point, press the mouse left button to position the mark; when the button is released, a window will appear for the modification of the mark content; such window will display a pull down menu for the selection of the mark type; the list of variables available will vary according to the kind of mark selected. To insert a variable in a mark, select it from the list and press on the variable desired. , or click twice

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The following window will appear:

By Select mark type, four mark types are made available: Label texts: marks which are made available only on specific bands (generally in PageHeader and in particular in MasterData) and only for the report on which changes are being made; in fact, the list of the marks available varies according to the band and according to the report it belongs to.

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Fixed marks: Provides for information concerning the current project (NAME PROJECT, AUTHOR...).

Customized marks: Customized marks are those inserted by the window of Format > Marks.... menu

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Standard Marks: This type provides for information concerning the report being printed (page number, total number of pages).

In case a not recognized variable is inserted, a message will appear, indicating it; such warning allows to avoid mistakes at the moment of printing.

To modify the content of a mark, select it and press Enter, or click twice on the mark desired; the same window will appear, as the one displayed when a mark is inserted. The texts contained in a mark can be modified under every aspect, both in font, colour, text size, alignment and text orientation; in fact, it is also possible to report the values as parallel to the page margins. On each mark it is possible to set a border on each side, with the possibility to choose both the lineweight and the linetype according to which to draw it. Like the line, also this object is repeated if positioned over a band. To move a mark, select it and then drag and drop it to the point desired. To cancel a mark first select it, then press CANC button.

Insert and modify images


To insert an image object, first press button, then, moving the cursor over the report modification area, it will change displaying a cross at the side of a rectangle, indicating that the command for the insertion of an image is active. After choosing an insertion point, press the mouse left button to position the object; when the button is released, a window will appear for the loading of an image; such window displays two buttons: the first opens a dialog box allowing to select the file to load, while the second cancels the image loaded. By pressing the right button on an object of this kind, it is possible to choose whether to display the full image, centered, and whether to keep its proportions or not, by activating or deactivating the corresponding items. 240

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It is possible to associate to the image a background colour which is displayed inside the areas not covered by the image loaded; to select the colour press Such object is repeated if positioned over a band. To move an object, select it and then drag and drop it to the point desired. To cancel an image first select it, then press CANC button. button on upper toolbar.

Insert and modify bands


To insert a band first press button, then, moving the cursor over the modification area, it will change displaying a cross at the side of a rectangle as large as the page, indicating that the command for the insertion of a band is now active. After choosing the insertion point, press the mouse left button to position the object; the band inserted will be a Pagina. This command will appear disabled if a Overlay type band is already in the layout. The position of the band can be modified simply by selecting the object and moving it as far as the point selected; also the height can be modified by using the grips on the borders of the object when it is selected. To cancel a band it is necessary first to select it and then to press CANC button; only Overlay type band can be cancelled.

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Modify objects by Object Inspector

Object Inspector, which can be activated by button, provides for all the properties of the object selected, with no exception, from the most common, as alignment and text style in case of marks, to information concerning size, position of the object in the report, visibility, etc.; of course, the kind of information contained in the window varies according to the kind of object selected; the window top will display the name and the kind of the object selected; if no object has been selected, the information will refer only to the page. In case of multiple selection, only the properties that the different objects have in common will be displayed. The Object Inspector allows not only to display data but also to modify them. Such command can also be activated by pressing F11.

Display column limits


By button it is possible to enable/disable the automatic drawing of a line on the left of the mark selected. It must be used only for the marks that are positioned on the upper band (Page Header), and that identify a column of data; the command allows to activate, for these marks, the automatic drawing of a vertical line on the left limit of the mark. The purpose is to obtain a subdivision of the data columns by vertical lines that start from the top of the page (PageHeader) and finish before the bottom of the page (PageFooter). The line is made visible only at the moment of printing.

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Import and export


It is often necessary to import data from a work to another or to import data from a subproject to another inside the same work; the tool is provided with a specific command allowing to easily carry out the importation of data from a work to another. As far as the importation and exportation of the drawing from and on AutoCAD, some functions are available, allowing the transfer of data between the two tools without requiring the creation of interchange files. Besides, it is possible to get data from different kind of files as well as files created with other applications. It is also possible to create files with a specific format for other applications.

Entity Transformation
It often happens to have drawings, for example loaded from DWG/DXF files, containing different kinds of topographic information or concerning the design: survey points, break lines, triangle digital models, road axes, etc; Drawing entities are not topographic or road entities, so the drawing point is not interpreted by the tool as a topographic point, and the drawing line will not be used as a breakline; remember that a drawing point and a topographic point are not the same thing, since the first is a simple graphic entity identified by 3 coordinates (x, y, z), while the topographic point is a more complex entity associated to a name, a code, a description, a symbol, etc. It is possible to transform drawing entities into the corresponding topographic entities and vice versa. The command can be activated as follows:

Menu Edit > Entities transformation... Command line: ENTTRANSF

The following dialog box will appear:

Start Entity: choose the entity to transform Final Entity: choose the entity into which the start entity must be transformed. Remove Start Entity: by this option the start entity, after being transformed, is cancelled. 243

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Keep start layer: by this option the tool will not assign new layers to the transformed entities but will keep the original layers. The tool prompts the selection of the entities to be transformed; once the selection has been carried out, the elements selected are transformed into a new entity.

How to import data from a project or a subproject to another


It is often necessary to import data from a project to another or from a subproject to another. The tool provides for two importation modes: 1. Subprojects importation from a project to another: by this mode it is possible to transfer from a work to another different subprojects at a time; of course, all the entities belonging to the different subprojects are transferred as well. The tool also copies all the elements the entities refer to: layers, fonts, linetypes, hatching, blocks, etc. Both projects, source and destination, must be open. Entities importation from a subproject to another:by this mode it is possible to transfer single entities from a subproject to another; the two subprojects can belong either to the same project or to two different projects. The tool also copies all the elements the entities refer to: layers, fonts, linetypes, hatching, blocks, etc. Not available for Topko Express.

2.

Before starting, it is necessary to activate the CAD window of the project in which data will be imported; the command can be activated as follows: Menu File > Import/Export > ProSt/Topko WIN In Command line: TPWININ

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The following window will appear:

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Subprojects importation from a project to another (Not available for Topko Express)
By selecting Import subprojects option the following window will appear:

Choose, among the open subprojects, the project from which to copy the subprojects (source) and the project into which to import the subprojects (destination). Press Next.

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Transfer to the list on the right the subprojects belonging to the source project to be imported into the destination project. By Rename button it is possible to set a new name to the subprojects to be imported. Press Next.

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Select the source project general settings to be imported into destination project. Press Next.

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Press Import to continue importation process.

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Importation of entities from a subproject to another


By selecting the option Import entities the following window will appear:

Choose, among the open projects, the project from which to copy the entities (source) and the project into which to import the entities (destination). Press Next.

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Specify the subproject that contains the entities to import and the source subproject into which they must be imported. Choose the kind of subproject among Survey, Axis, Drawing, Enclosed drawings and Drawing sheets. If destination subproject is not available, it is possible to create it by New button. Press Next.

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According to the subproject selected in the window the list will appear, of all the entities it contains. Select the entities to import and press Next.

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Press Import to start the importation.

How to change the subproject a group of objects belongs to


Any graphic object belongs to a subproject; it is possible to copy and/or move the objects from a subproject to another only if the two subprojects (origin and destination) are of the same kind; it is not possible, for example, to move topographic points from a survey subproject to a drawing subproject.

Move objects from a subproject to another using subprojects toolbar


To move quickly the objects from a subproject to another it is sufficient to select them and then set the destination subproject from subprojects toolbar:

To perform the command in a correct way it is necessary to select entities belonging to the same subproject typology; it is not possible to perform the command by selecting at the same time drawing entities and topographic entities. On status bar the item is immediately activated, which refers to the kind of subproject the objects selected belong to, and it is therefore possible to set the new subproject the entities selected will have to belong to.

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Moving objects from a subproject to another using property window.


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Toolbar Object Menu Edit > Modify object Command line: DDMODIFY

Select objects: select objects to move to another subproject. Warning. Select only objects that belong to subprojects that can be different but must be subprojects of the same kind. A window like the following will appear:

From Subproject check list, select the subproject to assign the entities selected to. Press OK to confirm the changes.

How to copy or move the objects from a subproject to another


The command can be activated through one of the following methods: Menu Edit > Move/Copy on subproject Command line: CHGSUBPRJ

Select objects: select the objects to move or to copy on a different subproject. Warning. Select only objects that belong to subprojects that can be different but must be subprojects of the same kind.

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A window like the following will appear:

From Destination subproject check list, select the project to assign the entities selected to. Specify whether the objects must be moved or it is necessary to make a copy. Press OK to confirm the changes..

DWG/DXF
Dynamic connection to AutoCAD
Dynamic connection allows to export the whole drawing or part of it into AutoCAD current drawing (all versions). From AutoCAD it is then possible to transfer directly the entities selected into Geomatics CAD. Therefore, it is no longer necessary to create interchange DWG-DXF files. A tab groups together the commands allowing to transfer data into AutoCAD and from AutoCAD to Geomatics CAD.

Connection settings
For a correct working of the connection with AutoCAD it is necessary to set some parameters enabling the two parameters to exchange data. The command allowing to set the parameters can be activated in one of the following ways: Toolbar AutoCAD Menu Tools > Connection to AutoCAD > AutoCAD settings... Command line: ACADSET

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The following dialog box will appear:

Point export type


DWG/DXF topographic points can be exported in two ways: DWG/DXF for drawing: in this case the file is created by exporting all the entities in the way they are drawn. DWG/DXF for work: in this case, survey points are exported as blocks having as attributes all the data associated to the topographic point: name, code, description, station, etc. By this option it is possible to export the work into another CAD environment, perform some modifications and then import the modified file into the tool again, without loosing any information referred to survey points. From the check list it is possible to choose Standard to use a predefined block for representing points. It is however possible to customize the block by assigning, for example, to attributes the position and the style desired. A customized block must have the following features:

it must be saved as DWG file into the tool main folder; It must possess attributes with the same name as those supported by the tool; therefore, it is better to create a customized block starting from the standard block exported by the tool.

The check list lists all the DWG format files contained in the tool main folder. To create a file using a customized block for survey points, select the file containing block description.

Settings
Select objects: if this option is active, before creating a DXF file the tool asks to specify the objects to export; in this way, not the whole drawing will be exported, but only the part needed. DWG/DXF 3D: the objects exported can be 3D or 2D. Text point layers by code: by this option the points texts (name, elevation, etc) can be located not on a layer in common with all the points but on a layer whose name depends on the layer the point belongs to. For example, if the point is on layer AAA, the point texts name and elevation will be assigned respectively to layer AAA-POINTNAME and AAA-POINTELEVATION. Dimensions exploded: by this option dimensions are exported into AutoCAD as a set of lines and texts instead of as dimensioning entities.

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AutoCAD
AutoCAD version: set the AutoCAD version with which to set the connection. AutoCAD window title: set the first part of AutoCAD window title. Normally the title reports the label AutoCAD followed by the version; for example, AutoCAD 2004. If, for some reason, the title doesn not follow this rule, it is necessary to report the window exact title. AutoCAD application path: indicate the folder where CAD executable file is saved. This setting is necessary to activate AutoCAD directly from the tool.

Starting AutoCAD
AutoCAD can be activated automatically by using the following command: Toolbar AutoCAD Menu Tools > Connection to AutoCAD > Avvia AutoCAD Command line: ACAD

If AutoCAD has already been activated, then its window will be displayed in close-up.

Import from AutoCAD


To import the whole AutoCAD drawing, or part of it, into the tool graphic CAD it is necessary to follow these steps inside AutoCAD tool. 1. 2. Select all the entities to import from AutoCAD into the graphic CAD. Press Copy button of AutoCAD main toolbar or choose the item Copy of Modify menu.

To complete the importation activate the following command in the graphic CAD: Toolbar AutoCAD Menu Tools > Connection to AutoCAD > Import from AutoCAD Command line: ACADIN

The entities selected in AutoCAD will be imported automatically inside the graphic CAd.

Export drawing to AutoCAD


To export the whole current drawing, or part of it, into AutoCAD, activate the command in one of the following ways: Toolbar AutoCAD Menu Tools > Connection to AutoCAD > Export all to AutoCAD Menu Tools > Connection to AutoCAD > Export selection to AutoCAD Command line: ACADOUT

If the option of exporting only the objects selected has been chosen, on the command line the following prompt will appear: Select objects: select the objects to export to AutoCAD.

The drawing will be immediately available in AutoCAD current drawing.

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How to import DWG/DXF files


In order to import a DWG/DXF file it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then DWG/DXF In; you can also give DWGIN or DXFIN command.

Import DWG/DXF files from planimetry graphic window


The following dialog box will appear:

By Browse button it is possible to select the DWG/DXF file to import. The drawing to be imported can be saved in an existing drawing subproject. Otherwise, a new subproject can be created.

How to import cross sections from DWG/DXF files


The procedure of importation of DWG/DXF files in cross-sections is the same performed in the planimetry graphic window but with a little difference. This difference consists in importing DWG/DXF files containing sections directly on the sections themselves; in this way it is possible to avoid having to perform manually section by section the import command. Then, the purpose is to dispose of a method that allows to carry out the importation of DWG/DXF files in groups, each one to be imported in a specific section already set. It is then necessary that sections, where DWG/DXF files will be imported, have already been created. Then, it is necessary to create a DWG/DXF file for each section; to make the tool understand which section each DWG/DXF file refers to, it is necessary to follow the rules listed below: 1. 2. the name of all DWG/DXF files begins with the same prefix. (for example: Test). together with the prefix there must be a numeric value corresponding to the number of the section the DWG/DXF file refers to; (Example: Test5.DXF refers to section n.5)

To activate the command, it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then DWG/DXF In; you can also digit DWGIN or DXFIN directly on CAD command line. The tool asks to indicate the folder where DWG/DXF files to be imported are saved and their common prefix. Finally, you are asked to indicate the group of sections where DWG/DXF files have to be imported:

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Now, the tool will import in each section of the group the corresponding file DWG/DXF according to the rule explained before. For each polyline imported the tool verifies its layer; if the layer coincides with one of the layers assigned to one of the section elements then the tool transforms the drawing polyline into a section element having that layer. If the polylines are located in different layers it is however possible to go on with the transformation through Entities transformation command. The import command together with the export command allows, for example, to export sections on another CAD, modify them and then import them again inside the tool. See How to export cross-sections on DXF files.

Import DWG/DXF files from other graphic windows


You will be asked to indicate the folder where the DWG/DXF file to import was saved, and its name. Now, importation procedure will start. Once it has been carried out, the drawing loaded will appear.

Interpret the entities contained in DWG/DXF file


Since the tool uses particular entities (points, triangles, contour lines, etc.) which are not only drawing entities but also entities with a specific meaning in the elaborations made by the tool, importation must follow some rules to find out what entities, among the ones contained in the DXF file, are the relevant ones for the tool. It must have, therefore, a way to recognize, for example, that a POINT entity is a topographic point rather than a simple drawing entity; it must also recognize that a 3DFACE entity is a mathematical model triangle. In order to perform this kind of recognition the tool makes a check on the entity layers: in fact, since any entity can be assigned a layer, topographic points can have a layer called POINTS, triangles can have a layer called TRIANGLES and so on. When the tool reads the DWG/DXF and finds out that a POINT entity is located on POINTS layer, it will make this entity not a drawing point but a topographic point; and then, if the tool finds a 3DFACE entity on TRIANGLES layer, it will consider this entity as a triangle of the mathematical model. In other words, to let the tool interpret correctly the different entities there must be identity between the layers they belong to and the layers on which they will be saved by the tool.

How to export DWG/DXF files


In order to export a file in a DXF/DWG format it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then DXF/DWG out; you can also give DWGOUT or DXFOUT command. The tool asks you to indicate the folder where to save DXF file and the name to be assigned. Pressing button Options you can verify some parameters for the creation of DXF file:

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Export type: there are two methods for exporting DXF files: Dxf for drawing: in this case, a DXF file is created by exporting all the entities so as they are drawn. DWG/DXF for work: in this case, survey points are exported as blocks having as attributes all the data associated to the topographic point: name, code, description, station, etc. By this option it is possible to export the work to a different CAD environment, make some changes and then import again into the tool the modified file without loosing any information concerning survey points.. From the check list it is possible to choose Standard to use a predefined block for representing the points. It is however possible to customize the block by giving the attributes, for example, the position and the style desired.The customized block must have following features:

it must be memorized as DWG file in the tool main folder; it must have attributes with the same name as those supplied by the tool; so, it is better to create a customized block starting from the standard block exported from the tool.

In the check list all the DWG format files available in the tool main folder are listed. If you want to create a file by using a customized block for survey points, select the file containing the description of the block. Select objects: If this option is active, before creating the DXF you are asked to select the objects to be exported; in this way, it is possible to export only a part of the whole drawing. 3D Dwg/Dxf: all the objects exported can be 3D or 2D. Text point layers by code: by this option, point texts (name, elevation, etc.)can be placed not on a layer common to all the points but on a layer whose name depends on the layer the point belongs to. For example, if the point is situated on AAA layer, the point texts name and elevation are assigned respectively to layers AAA-POINTNAME and AAA-ELEVATION . Dimensions exploded: by this option dimensions are exported into AutoCAd as a set of lines and texts instead of as dimensioning entities.

How to export cross sections to DWG/DXF files


Cross-sections can be exported on DWG/DXF files by the following two methods: 1. 2. First carry out the sections plot preview and then perform the command to export DXF file of the sheet or sheets obtained. Perfom directly the command to export DWG/DXF file from one of the graphic windows containing one section.

In the last case, for each section a DWG/DXF file is created and besides, through this method, sections are exported in real coodinates and are not scaled on sheet as happens with the first method. Sections in real coordinates inside another CAD represent a great advantage; in fact, it is possible to work on them without having to make particular calculations to adapt commands to the scale and moreover it is not necessary to re-scale them.

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In order to export sections into DWG/DXF format it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then DWG/DXF Out; you can also digit DWGOUT or DXFOUT command directly on CAD command line. Remember to perform the command from one of the graphic windows of the sections. The tool asks to indicate the folder where to save the DWG/DXF file and the name to assign. Pressing button Options it is possible to check some parameters that regulate the creation of the DWG/DXF file. See How to export to DWG/DXF file. After having indicated the name of the DWG/DXF file to create the tool asks to indicate the group of sections to be exported:

It is necessary to indicate the number of the first and the last section of the group. Pressing on the button on the right you get into a window thast lists all the sections available. To select one section it is sufficient to click twice on the table row or press OK button. As the tool must create one DXF file for each section, it will use the name of the file set as prefix and the number of the section as suffix; so, for example, if you want to create a DXF file with the name Test, the tool will create as many DXF files as the sections to be exported are; so each file will be assigned with the name of Test1, Test2, ... , Test10, etc.

Export from drawing preview or from drawing sheets


In case a DWG/DXF file is created from the drawing preview graphic window or from the drawing sheets graphic window, it is necessary to specify what pages to export by the following window:

The window lists all the pages which make up the preview as well as all the drawing sheets available; select the pages to be exported and then press OK. The tool will create as many DXF/DWG files as the number of pages selected and they will have the name indicated followed, by a prefix reporting the number of the page they refer to.

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ASCII
How to import ASCII files
It is often necessary to import into the program some data contained in an ASCII format file. For this reason a specific procedure has been implemented, that allows to acquire data from any ASCII file. 1. 2. In order to activate the import procedure it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then ASCII In, you can also give ASCIIIN command. In the appearing standard dialog box of Windows, indicate the name of the ASCII file to be loaded. If you want to use one of the previously saved import schemes, select it from the list box File of type. Indicate the name of the ASCII file to create and press Open. From dialog box select the type of data to import through Type of data to import list box. The list of the elements on the left represents the elements that can be imported while the list on the right represents the elements imported and their order inside each line of the ASCII file. Select from the list on the left one element and press button > to transfer it in the list on the right. Button >> allows to import all the elements while buttons < and << allow to remove, respectively, one element or all the elements. Now press button Next.

3. 4.

5.

This dialog box allows to decide whether the fields of the ASCII file to import are separated by such a character as a comma, etc. (Delimited) or divided into columns (fixed width). Press button Next.

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Delimited fields
6. If the fields are delimited, it is necessary to indicate the delimiting character: tabulation, semicolon, comma, space or any other character to be inserted in Other cell. Press button Next.

Fixed width fields


7. In case of Fixed width fields, it is necessary to specify for each column the number of characters representing its width. Select one cell of the column and modify the edit field Column width. Press button Next.

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8.

When the last dialog box appears, the tool is ready to import data and asks whether they must be added to those already present or the previous data must be canceled. Finally, it is possible to decide whether to save the given settings in order to use them during the future import procedures without having to perform the parameter setting again. Digit the name of the import scheme and the file extension. The scheme name will be reported in the dialog box of step 2.

How to export ASCII files

It is often necessary to export the data contained in the program into an ASCII format file. For this reason a specific procedure has been implemented, that allows to export the data into an ASCII file in a completely customizable format. Moreover, it is possible to export directly from the tables, the main data in a very fast and easy way.

Export main data from tables


The tables of the main data (GPS points, measures, baselines, topographic points, profile/sections) allow table to activate the procedure of data exportation to ASCII file, by Export to ASCII file from the local menu. The procedure allows to export either all the table data or only those concerning the rows selected. Such function is available in the local menu of the following tables: 264

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Table of GPS coordinates (included in the Management of topographic survey) Table of GPS baselines (included in the Management of topographic survey) Table of total station measures (included in the Management of topographic survey) Table of coordinates (included in the Management of topographic survey) Profile/Sections Table When the exportation is being performed, if some lines have been selected, only those lines will be exported; if no line has been selected, the whole content of the table will be exported. Exportation from table possesses the peculiarity to export data while keeping any possible temporary sort setting assigned to a column.

Exportation from File menu


In order to activate the export procedure it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then ASCII Out, you can also give ASCIIOUT command. 1. In the appearing standard dialog box of Windows, indicate the name of the ASCII file to be created. If you want to use one of the previously saved export schemes, select it from the list box File of type. Indicate the name of the ASCII file to create and press Open. From dialog box select the type of data to export through Type of data to export list box. The list of the elements on the left represents the elements that can be exported while the list on the right represents the elements exported and their order inside each line. Select from the list on the left one element and press button > to transfer it in the list on the right. Button >> allows to export all the elements while buttons < and << allow to remove, respectively, one element or all the elements. Now press button Next.

2. 3.

4.

This dialog box allows to decide whether the fields must be separated by such a character as a comma, etc. (Delimited) or divided into columns (fixed width). Press button Next.

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Delimited fields
5. If the fields are delimited, it is necessary to indicate the delimiting character: tabulation, semicolon, comma, space or any other character to be inserted in Other cell. Press button Next.

Fixed width fields


6. In case of Fixed width fields, it is necessary to specify for each column the number of characters representing its width. Select one cell of the column and modify the edit field Column width. Press button Next.

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7.

It is possible to decide whether to save the given settings in order to use them during the future export procedures without having to perform the parameter setting again. Digit the name of the export scheme and the file extension. The scheme name will be reported in the dialog box of step 2.

Raster
How to import raster images
In order to import a raster image available on file it is necessary to operate in one of the following ways: Toolbar Raster Menu File > Import/Export, Raster image In... Command line: PICIN

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The following dialog box will appear for the selection of the images to be loaded:

The left side of the window is made up of the usual components offered by Windows to open a file. On the right side,on the contrary, you will find some tests concerning essentially the management of raster images. In fact, in the upper part there are two buttons which allow to choose if you want to visualize the preview of the image selected or to see some data characterizing the image such as format, width, height, number of bits per pixels, etc. In the lower part it is possible to indicate the scale according to which the image drawing was reproduced and the dpi (dots per inch) resolution according to which it was elaborated by the scanner. The tool uses these data to be able to give the correct size to the image that has to be loaded: they are useful expecially when the image represents a cartographic map. Anyway, you might also not insert these data, since some functions are available, which allow you to change the size of the image in a second time. After selecting the image desired and clicked on Open button, the following window will appear:

It is possible to select more images to load at the same time; in this case, for each image, the previous dialog box will appear, and for each of them it will be necessary to indicate insertion point and georeferencing parameters. If the image is associated to a World file or it is an image containing information about its positioning (GeoTIFF), the window displays the insertion point and the scale factor which will be used to insert the image. Insertion point can be modified by specifying the coordinates manually or by pressing button indicating the point on the graphic window. and

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If the image is the result of a previous georeferencing, the control points used and the deviations obtained will be reported in Georeferencing page.

Press OK to pass to the insertion of the image. If the option Georeference the image after the insertion has been activated, the tool will open the page allowing to georeference the image just loaded. If you have Rasta module too, it will be possible to perform also a Simple georeferencing.

Image georeferencing
After having selected the image to load and activated the option Georeference the image after the insertion, on the right side of the graphic window a panel will appear, from which it will be possible to control the whole georeferencing procedure, from the insertion of control points as far as the calculation of the georeferenced image.

From georeferencing control panel it is possible to choose the kind of georeferencing to apply by using Transformation check list. 269

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Without Rasta module it will be possible to perform only a barycentric georeferencing. In the middle of the panel there are the checks for the insertion and the modification of control points. The table at the bottom of the georeferencing control panel reports the data of all the control points. In particular: Use: indicates whether the control point must be used to calculate georeferencing parameters. E (Ima.): E (X) coordinate of control point on the image to georeference. N (Ima.): N (Y) coordinate of control point on the image to georeference. E: E (X) real coordinate of control point. N: N (Y) real coordinate of control point E deviation: difference between the E (X) coordinate set and the E (X) coordinate calculated by georeferencing procedure. N deviation: difference between the N (Y) coordinate set and the N (Y) coordinate calculated by georeferencing procedure.

Inserting a control point


A control point is the basic element of the georeferencing procedure. A control point defines two points in two different systems: the first point is the one on the image, while the second is the one that defines the new position of the first point after the georeferencing. Inserting a control point therefore means inserting two couples of X,Y coordinates; a couple inside the image and a couple anywhere in the Cartesian plane. These two couples of coordinates can be inserted analytically, by digitizing the numeric values, or by using the mouse and the CAD instruments to define the position inside the graphic area. If you do not possess Rasta module it is possible to insert up to three control points. After starting the georeferencing procedure, on the right side of the graphic window a panel is available, from which it is possible to insert the control points:

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Image coordinates: in these two edit fields you can set the starting coordinates of the control point on button it is possible to set the coordinates simply by clicking with the the image. By pressing graphic cursor on the point desired. Real coordinates: in these two edit fields it is possible to set the final coordinates of the control point. By pressing button it is possible to set the coordinates simply by clicking with the graphic cursor on the point desired. After defining the couple of coordinates, it is possible to press Add button. In this way, the control point will be added to the list of control points reported in the table. Inside the graphic window these points are represented by a symbol and a text at their side that specifies whether the point is the one representing the image coordinates or the one representing the real position. For example, a symbol with Bmp 1 text indicates that it is the first control point and, in particular, that it is the point on the image; a symbol with Cal 1 text indicates again the first control point, but it represents its real coordinates. If the option Display lines between control points is active, the tool will draw a line between the image coordinate point and the real coordinate point. The size of the symbols and the texts representing the control points can be set in Project properties.

Modifying a control point


A control point can be modified in three different ways:

from table from georeferencing control panel from graphic window

The table at the bottom of the georeferencing control panel reports the data of all the control points. In particular, it reports the following columns: Use: indicates whether the control point must be used for calculating georeferencing parameters. E (Ima.): E (X) coordinate of the control point on the image to georeference. N (Ima.): N (Y) coordinate of control point on the image to georeference. E: E (X) real coordinate of control point. N: N (Y) real coordinate of control point. Deviation E: difference between the E (X) coordinate set and the E (X) coordinate calculated by the georeferencing procedure. Deviation N: difference between the N (Y) coordinate set and the N (Y) coordinate calculated by the georeferencing procedure.

So, it is possible to modify manually the values of the image coordinates and of the real coordinates simply by working on table cells; in the graphic window the drawing of the control points will then be updated.

Modifying a control point from georeferencing control panel


When you are moving among the rows of the table reporting control point data, the tool reports the same coordinates also on the upper part of the panel. From here it is possible to repeat the same procedure used for inserting the control point, and then define image coordinates and real coordinates by inserting them manually as well as use the mouse or the CAD instruments to define the position inside the graphic area. To save the changes made, just press Update button; the tool will replace the previous coordinates with the new modified coordinates.

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Modifying a control point from the graphic window


A control point is defined through a couple of points, one on the image and the other representing the real position of the point. Inside the graphic window these points are represented by a symbol and a text on its side that specifies whether the point is the one representing the image coordinates or the one representing the real position. To modify the image coordinates or the real coordinates of a control point from the graphic window, just select the symbol representing the point; after selecting it, two grips appear, one on the point and one on the text. Click again on the grip on the point and then move it to the new position. Now the tool will update the corresponding coordinates inside the table that reports the control points.

Deleting a control point


A control point can be deleted in two ways:

from table from graphic window

Deleting a control point from table


To delete one or more points from the table that reports the control points, you just have to select the rows and then delete them by using CANC button or the item Cancel rows from the local menu.

Deleting a control point from the graphic window


To delete one or more control points from the graphic window, you just have to select cad cancel command and then select the control points to delete.

Zoom on a control point


By this operating mode the tool performs automatically a zoom on the image coordinates of the control point selected in the table. Every time you move from one point to another point in the table a zoom will be performed on the corresponding point. To activate this working mode press the mode press the same button again. button on georeferencing control panel. To deactivate this

Global image georeferencing


After inserting the control points by using the methods available, it is possible to start georeferencing procedure to obtain the image in the reference system desired. From Trasnformation check list it is possible to choose the georeferencing method to use.

Simple (Barycentric): needs at least two points and performs a rototranslation and a scale variation. 6 Parameters: needs at least three points and performs two translations, two rotations and two scale variations. It is a method used mostly for georeferencing cartographic maps. Homographic: needs at least four points and is used for transforming the perspective image of a building front, etc. into orthographic projection. If you do not possess Rasta module, the only georeferencing mode available is the Simple one and it is possible to use only two control points. For this kind of transformations, the tool calculates transformation parameters common to the whole image; so, if you have a number of control points above the minimum required, some deviations will be found between the real coordinates set and the coordinates calculated by the tool. These deviations are reported in the last two columns of the table that reports control point data.

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You can verify how the deviations change by choosing whether to use or not one or more control points without having to cancel them from the table; you just have to remove Use option from the control point you do not want to use for the calculation. The tool will automatically calculate the new deviations.

To start the georeferencing procedure press Apply button. The whole elaboration will need a certain time to be completed, according to the size of the image to georeference. Once the elaboration is finished, the image will appear transformed in the new position calculated and it will be in real scale. If the result of the georeferencing is not satisfactory, you can annul the operation and restore the previous situation by pressing Redo button.

To stop the process press Close button. The tool will ask whether to save the image georeferenced and it will ask for the name to set to the new image.

Save georeferencing data


The control points used for georeferencing are saved in a file associated to the original image. Should the same image be used again for a new georeferencing it will be possible for the tool to display again the control points used in the previous georeferencing. The georefenced image is associated to a file reporting the georeferencing mode it has been obtained with as well as the deviations. Such data are displayed when the image is inserted in the graphic CAD, therefore it will be possible for the user to test the quality of the georeferenced image being used. The file associated to the images, which contain the control points used and the deviations obtained from the georeferencing, is created in the same folder as the image it is referred to, has the same name but its extension is .GEO.

Supported formats
The raster formats the tool can manage are the following: Windows Bitmap (*.BMP) TIFF Format (*.TIF) TIFF uncomp (*.TIF) 273

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TIFF CCITT (*.TIF) TIFF JPEG (JTIF) (*.jtf) TIFF LZW (*.tif) GEOTIFF (*.tif) JPEG Format (*.jpg) ECW ErMapper (*.ecw) MrSID (*.sid) Lead Compressed (*.cmp) BMP OS2 (*.bmp) PCX Format (*.pcx) PhotoCD (*.pcd) FlashPix (*.fpx) Windows Metafile (*.wmf) PhotoShop 3.0 (*.psd) Portable NetWork Graphics (*.png) TrueVision TARGA (*.tga) Encapsulated PostScript (*.eps) SUN Raster (*.ras) WordPerfect (*.wpg) Macintosh PIC (*.pct) MacPaint (*.mac) GEM Image (*.img) Microsoft Paint (*.msp) CALS 1 (*.cal) IOCA (*.ica) The tool does not support LZW-compression TIF and GIF files since it is an owner format that needs a special license from Unisys Corporation.

How to export raster images


The images loaded in Rasta can also be exported into a file with a name and a format different from the original with which they have been loaded. For example, it is possible to load a BMP-format image and save it in a TIFF-format, modifying also the original number of colours. The image export function is activated in one of the following ways: Toolbar Raster Menu File > Import/Export > Raster image Out... Command line: PICOUT On command line the following prompt will appear: Select image to export: Indicate by the mouse the image to be exported. The selection of an image is performed by clicking on one of its four outer sides. Now the usual Windows box will appear, allowing to select the name of the image to be exported and also the format required (TIFF, BMP, JPG, etc). After pressing Save button another dialog box will appear:

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In this window you can also indicate the number of bits per pixel with which you want to save the image; the number of bits per pixels determines the number of colours with which the image is treated: Bits per pixels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 24 32 Colours 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 65536 16 milions 4 billions

If you choose an export format such as JPEG (JPG) or Lead Compressed (CMP) then you can verify the ratio between the quality of the image and its compression. In fact the two parameters are inversely proportional: more quality involves less compression while less quality means more compression and so smaller files. In order to indicate this ratio it is necessary to give a numeric value between 2 and 255.

How to import from ESRI SHP files


In order to import a ESRI SHP file it is necessary to select the item Import/Export from File menu and then ESRI Shape In; you can also give SHPIN command. The tool asks to indicate the name of the SHP file to be imported and the folder where the file is saved. Now importation process is starting; once it has been completed, the drawing loaded will appear.

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CAD

How to import NTF files


NTF file format (National Transfer Format) is the format used by the Italian Cadastre for the computerized management of map sheets. It is possible to import NTF files directly inside the tool; you have the total control on the import procedure as it is possible to choose which map sheets to import and have their complete information; it is possible to decide also which entities to import: lines, symbols, parcels, etc. As far as levels, it is possible associate each level to a layer of the drawing by setting also the color and the linetype associated to the layer. Finally, it is possible to associate to each symbol a block of the drawing. The tool is provided with a model inside which a number of settings allowing to import an NTF file have already been arranged; so, it is no more necessary to care about the creation of layers or the presence of blocks. This model can be found in the main folder of the program under the name Model NTF.pst. The command can be activated in one of the following methods: Menu File > Import/Export > CXF/NTF In Command line: CARTIN

From the appearing Windows dialog box, it is possible to select the NTF file to be imported: select the file and press button Open. A dialog box similar to the following one appears:

In this window you will find a list of all map sheets present inside the NTF file selected; in Sheet information section, for each sheet, it is possible to see all data associated to it. Select the sheets you want to import and press Next. 276

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In the above dialog box, it is possible to decide which of the entities available in the NTF file you want to import: Lines, Datum points, Toponyms, Symbols, Parcels. Besides, it is possible to decide whether to create lines or polylines and whether the colour and the linetype must depend on the layer or not. Press button Next.

In this window, it is possible to associate the layer of the drawing, the colour and the linetype to the corresponding level. Press button Next.

The last dialog box allows to associate a block of the drawing to each NTF file symbol. Press button Import to start the import procedure. All data imported from selected NTF files are now available inside the drawing.

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CAD

How to import CXF files


CXF files format (National Transfer Format) is the format adopted by the Italian cadastre for the computerized management of map sheets. It is possible to import CXF files into the tool and also choose what entities to import. The tool associates automatically to any entity the corresponding layer. The tool is already equipped with a model where different settings have been set, by which you can import a CXF file without having to worry about layers and blocks. The model is in the tool folder and it is called NTF.pst. Model. The command is activated through one of the following methods: Menu File > Import/Export > CXF/NTF In Command line: VCARTIN

The Windows box appears, by which to select the CXF file to import: select the file and press Open button. A dialog box like the following will appear:

The window reports the data of the sheet to import and allows to choose what kind of entity to import. Besides, it is possible to decide whether the elements must be represented as lines or polylines. Press Import button to start the importation.

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Import from other formats


Besides the standard formats ASCII, DWG, DXF, other formats exist from which the tool can import information. The importation of such formats can be started in one of the following ways: Menu File > Import/Export > Other data formats In... Command line: OTHERIN

A window similar to the following will appear:

Select the data format desired and press OK. Then follow the indications in the following dialog boxes.

How to import DOS files


For all those having a DOS version of the tool or DOS files in general, it is possible to import all data inside the release for Windows. To carry out the operation it is necessary to select the item Import/Export form File menu and then Prost/Topko DOS In; you can also give TPDOSIN command. A window appears with check boxes that allow to decide which are the data to be imported and which are not; you are also asked to indicate the name of the DOS file to be imported and the folder where it is saved.

Export ESRI SHP files


Topographic points and drawing lines can be exported in Shape ESRI format. For each survey subproject a Shape format file is created, containing the position of the point and its database with information about the point itself. For each drawing subproject a Shape format file is created, containing the graphic information about all the lines and polylines in the drawing and the corresponding database containing information about the objects themselves. Select the item Import/Export from File menu and then ESRI Shape Out; it is also possible to give command SHPOUT. The tool asks to indicate the folder where to save the SHP files to export and the main name to which to add the name of the different subprojects exported.

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CAD

Export to other formats


Besides the standard formats ASCII, DWG, DXF, other formats exist, to which the tool can export information. Exportation to such formats can be activated as follows: Menu File > Inport/Export > Other data formats Out... Command line: OTHEROUT

A window similar to the following will appear:

Select the data format desired and press OK. Then follow the instructions in the following dialog boxes.

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