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21.12.

2009

Workflow Example
Horn Antenna
Purpose : Optimize the aperture of the horn antenna such that the gain is maximized at 10 GHz.

CST MWS - Standard Workflow


Choose a project template. Create your model.
parameters + geometry + materials

Define ports. Set the frequency range. Specify boundary and symmetry conditions. Define monitors. Check the mesh. Run the simulation.
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Cylindrical Horn Antenna 8 12 GHz


1 0.5 0.5 dia=2, rad=1 zlength=2 units: inch waveguide: 1.0 in x 0.5 in x 0.5 in aperture radius: 1.0 in, length: 0.25 in shell thickness: 0.01 in (outside) monitors: E-field, H-field & far field at 10 GHz

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Project Template
At the beginning choose File -> New to create a new project. For an existing project you may choose File -> Select Template.

The project templates customize the default settings for particular types of applications.
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Project Template
background material

Antennas should be modeled with vacuum as background material.

PEC is very practical for closed structures. (e.g. waveguides, connectors, filters)

The project templates customize the default settings for particular types of applications.
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Change the Units

Define units.

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Horn Antenna Construction (I)

Define a brick (1.0 x 0.5 x 0.5 in) made of PEC.

Pick face. Align the WCS with the face.

Define a cylinder (outer radius: 1.0 in, height: 0.25 in) made of PEC.
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Move the WCS by 2.0 inches.

Horn Antenna Construction (II)

Pick two opposite faces.

Perform a loft.

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Horn Antenna Construction (III)


Perform a Boolean add. Select multiple objects (ctrl or shift + left mouse button).

shell solid: 0.01 in (outside)

Pick two faces.

Port Definition
Pick point inside corner. Define a waveguide port.

Pick edge.

Define the port on the internal profile.


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Set the Frequency Range

Set the frequency range.

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Boundary Conditions and Symmetry Planes

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3D Monitors

Add field monitors for E-field, H-field, and far field at 10 GHz.

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Mesh View (I)


mesh properties

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Mesh View (II)

TST at work!

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Transient Solver: Start Simulation


The accuracy defines the steadystate monitor. The simulation is finished when the electromagnetic energy in the computational domain falls below this level.

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Analyze 1D Results
port signals

S-parameter

energy

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Analyze 2D/3D Results

port information:
cut-off frequency line impedance propagation constant
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Electric Field at 10 GHz

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Far Field at 10 GHz

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Polar Plot for Far Field at 10 GHz


phi=90 phi=0

Create a new folder Comparison to compare different 1D results.


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Parameterization Optimization

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Parameterization (I)

r1
outer radius r1 = variable goal: maximize gain

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Parameterization (II)

outer radius r1

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Result Processing Templates (Shift+P)


1D results Define gain(theta) at phi=0.

Postprocessing templates provide a convenient way to calculate derived quantities from simulation results. Each template is evaluated for each solver run.
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Result Processing Templates (Shift+P)


0D results

Define max of gain(theta).

Read the online help to learn more about the postprocessing in CST MWS.
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Result Processing Templates (Shift+P)


Alternative solution: The maximum gain can be computed using the Farfield template in 0D Results.

Define max of gain(theta).

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Parameter Sweep - Settings


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3
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Parameter Sweep - Settings


Add a S-parameter watch.

The results will be automatically listed in the Tables folder.


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Parameter Sweep Table Results


Right click on plot window and select Table Properties.

Choose the result curve for each parameter value with the slider.

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Parameter Sweep Table Results


parameter values

parameter values

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Automatic Optimization

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Automatic Optimization
Define the parameter space. Define the goal function.

Template based postprocessing 0D results can be used to define very complex goal functions.
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Automatic Optimization
Choose the Classic Powell optimizer. Follow the optimization.

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Automatic Optimization - Results


parameter values

1D results

goal: maximize gain

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Optimization - Summary

Define a variable.

Parameterize the structure.


Define the goal function. Set the parameter space. Run the optimizer.

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Far Field Postprocessing

terminology broadband far field analysis co-/cross-polarization phase center tips and tricks

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Broadband Far Field Analysis


How to plot the antenna gain for the complete frequency range?

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Broadband Far Field Monitors

Create a broadband far field monitor from the available monitors.

After monitor definition, start T-solver again!


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Result Processing Templates (Shift+P)


1D Results

Define maximum value of gain.

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Broadband Far Field Monitors


far field 3D pattern

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Broadband Far Field Monitors

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Tables -> 1D Results -> Broadband gain 3d

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Co- / Cross-Polarization

The co-polarized far field component has the same polarization as the excitation (y-oriented in our case). The cross-polarized far field component is orthogonal to the co-polarized component and main lobe direction. In order to use different polarizations for transmitting/receiving, an antenna design goal might be to maximize the co-polarized and minimize the cross-polarized component.
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Co- / Cross-Polarization
1. Select the tab Axes. 2. Click Main lobe/polarization alignment. 3. Choose the Ludwig 3 coordinate system.

polarization vector direction (arbitrary user input possible).

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If Main lobe ... is not selected, the user can enter arbitrary directions for: -polarization plane normal (z) (= theta axis) -cross-polarized component (x) (= phi axis).

Co- / Cross-Polarization

co-polarized = Ludwig 3 vertical

cross-polarized = Ludwig 3 horizontal

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Co & Cross Polarization


Result Templates for Parameter Sweep and Optimization
co-polarized= Ludwig 3 vertical

cross-pol. = Ludwig 3 horizontal

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Phase Center Calculation


Finding the best location to place the horn inside a parabolic antenna. The best position is to match the focal point of the dish with the phase center of the horn.

= yz plane = xz plane

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Check Phase Center


Check the phase center by plotting the Ludwig 3 vertical phase.

Plotting the phase of Ludwig 3 vertical (=dominant component of co-polarized fields) does not result in a 180 jump of the phase (=color jump) at theta=0.
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Check Phase Center


Check the phase center by moving the origin to the phase center.

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See also article (Phase Center comparison with measurements) on www.cst.com. -> application article ID=256

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